tv Tomorrow Today Deutsche Welle December 6, 2019 9:30am-10:00am CET
[000:00:00;00] live . listen. live. welcome to to morrow to day the science show on t w. bus. the 25th un climate change conference kicks off this week so for this special edition 2 of our to morrow today reporters paid a visit to the clean my house in half in germany. because of the thing the house or climate house is a museum that allows visitors
a unique opportunity to experience the world's climate zones it has exhibitions that feature a number of places on a total of 5 continents along the 8 meridian east in just a few hours our reporters will feel the heat of the tropics and the chill of polar winds. but before they set off here's a look at what's coming up. we'll learn about research being done in africa's 1st climate monitoring station. here how geo engineering could be used to curtail climate change. see what happens when permafrost is lost along coastlines and we talk to climate experts suzanne enough that. this is be with us through our trip we have with the climate zones the season 2 physicists and the scientific director of this exhibition never thank you for being with. us and do we need such
a climate. where you know climate and climate change is talked about everywhere. but tell years ago. it wasn't in the media markets and we wanted to raise awareness for this important topic. now we've been talking about climate change for the last 30 years there's just something we can learn you know for example here. we so people in the from climate zones how they have adapted so they are reaching their climate else how they are affected by climate saying it's ok thank you for now you see in just a bit. the 1st stop on their excursion is nice air in africa. you really want any thing around 35 degrees or something but you know what in summer in niger it can get until 48 degrees in the shade i know actually the temperatures here are rising want to know how times faster than the global average researchers
actually assumed that in about 102 years people won't be able to lift any more purely physically the question asked what would happen if temperatures keep on rising. the earth has already warmed one degree celsius since the 19th century our goal was to cap warming at well below 2 degrees right now we're on track for at least 3 degrees what would that mean. even today we're seeing more heat waves and droughts including more severe storms and flooding. as temperatures rise all that will increase. i mean rise of 1.5 degree celsius would threaten the existence of many things citic island countries as sea levels rise some of them will vanish beneath the waves and as coral reefs die many people will lose their livelihood a rise of 2 degrees or more climate scientists say could be the tipping point.
polar ice reflect sunlight which until now has helped to put a brake on global warming as this ice melts the oceans will capture more of the sun's heat this vicious circle will cause even more ice to melt. cascade effects like these all over the world would further accelerate global warming. beyond 3 degrees more and more glaciers will vanish rivers will run dry and arid regions will become even more parched. and even the world's great rain forests like the amazon would disappear bit by bit . an increase of more than 4 degrees would bring a near constant drought to southern europe heat would make parts of the us and the middle east virtually uninhabitable. and much of the world's population would suffer from
a scarcity of water countless people would die of heat and disease. even more would die of hunger as crop failure and famine become more widespread. other places will have to cope with too much water rising water levels will pose a global threats including 2 major cities such as hamburg mumbai shanghai and do your work. each additional degree of warming will force more and more people to flee their homes. some to seek food and water others to escape floods and storms. and storms will grow even more devastating. at a rise of 4 degrees or more the impact becomes difficult to predict but what seems clear is that all living species would gradually die out even human civilization
would face extinction. the pictures were just so what quite drastic is it really going to be that bad well if we don't laugh against it can we do that bad we saw this way example someone to help provoke our 18 that we had extreme conditions in europe and. i don't think many scientists have expected this at that point already and i would be a mother soon so now i'm really worried if it was such a wise decision to put a child in this world what do you think i know climate scientists who have truly rooms or are still don't vary but actually have the i.p.c.c. published a report in october 2018 where they showed that we can stay below 1.5 think we use warming and that this world war is the worst consequences so what do
you think what's the most pressing issue what should we tackle 1st. we were well beyond the beyond the point where we can choose where to start we have to take every measure we can to avoid climate change thank you for now we'll talk later now i'm going to see what we are doing. cameroon is stop number 2. now leon come to ruin in the only virgin forest suffering countries like these blow the least carbon emissions into the atmosphere though they're among those suffering the most from climate change but there are not really much measurements so it's a big huge data gap but now there's a new up there a tree in ronda just south was from here. the antennae of the
rwanda climate observatory rise 50 meters into the air above the mountain gogo. this is africa's 1st climate monitoring station. rwanda has been badly hit by climate change average temperatures here have already risen by 1.4 degrees celsius in the last 50 years it proves that droughts and flash floods are becoming more common that's catastrophic for farmers on the slopes of mount mugabo. when they were not the weather is crazy in rwanda the rainy season always used to be in march april and may these days it even rains in september we never know what to expect rwanda needs reliable data so that it can better adapt to climate change . that's why a team of scientists here are monitoring ozone depleting c.f.c.'s and other greenhouse gases for the 1st time for the entire african continent climate change
is just so all of that it below both scale and on that there always never see a difference is causing war and who is going to commit to what so is normally african countries doing it going in $200.00 without a doubt that without evidence so this kind of research supports then it was the difference to. the wonder climate observatory is part of the most important global climate research network the advanced global atmospheric gases experiment. the scientists check the black carbon levels on a daily basis. much of this evolution they discover is not due to traffic in rwanda or to cooking over open fires i'm in fact many of the soot particles stem from devastating forest fires thousands of kilometers away i'm
the equipment needs frequent maintenance because of high humidity. to understand global climate change weather phenomena have to be taken into consideration. that's why the climate research team is working together closely with meteorologists. the climate change project comes with the greenhouse gases so it comes off the majority but i mean does not know what i mean does have a to be focused on so it is like now we have a ford but the draw for mythological conditions like elaine's the zone like they are like a climate change their remaining think is to do things to did up into harvard equipment to report. it to us in rwanda's capital kigali scientists are testing a new system custom built at the massachusetts institute of technology. called medusa the instrument is capable of filtering minute amounts of gas out of the air
. depleting substances like c.f.c.'s are not just very small they're also present in much smaller quantities than oxygen and nitrogen for example. medusa removes the biggest components of air making it possible to measure c f c's under the greenhouse gases the instrument will soon be moving elsewhere. in the future you want to more of this summit of mt cindy you can see. that this summit is hidden in the clouds but it's 4500 meters high so it's a very nice place to being. wrong. and to be ready for that people. from not lofty height medusa will continue to trace and measure more than 50 greenhouse gases. time for our reporters to add
a few extra layers of clothing. minus 6 degrees celsius my fingers are freezing it would say you could only survive a few minutes without protective clothing. what are you doing exactly here they're not even people living here just research as well but it's really important region for the climate i'll go on these ice sheets to see if. these ice covers can be over 4 kilometers thick it really is perpetual ice hundreds of thousands of years old but because they are so stable they're really important for our planet and the climate but even perpetual ice a sensitive western actually because melting faster than 1st seemed so some researchers had an idea what if we covered west antarctica in artificial snow would that save the planet.
imagine if you took water out of the oceans lots of water several trillion times and you froze it into trillions of tons of snow and spread that across the west antarctic ice sheet covering it with a blanket of artificial snow. a team from the potsdam institute for climate impact research pick thinks this could save the ice sheet and stop coastal cities such as shanghai and new york from becoming submerged if and arctic as giant ice sheet melts pic researchers estimate that sea levels would rise by more than 3 meters. and that always a picker doing what scientists do best the dokken experiment and it's what we call the. so that's all just hypothetical a thought experiment just like most of the ideas on how to intervene in the earth's climate system it's called geo engineering and there are 2 main approaches. first
extract carbon dioxide from the atmosphere known as carbon dioxide removal and 2nd reflect solar energy to prevent further heating called solar radiation management let's start with number one. a whole range of measures are being discussed on the one hand things like reforestation. trees absorb c o 2 from the atmosphere as they live and grow and when for 3rd preserved they can act as a carbon sink. and then there's the high tech version of that technology that would suck the o 2 out of the air like an artificial tree that c o 2 would need to be stored somewhere and for that we'd use geological storage. that's the big problem where to put the c o 21 idea is to store it underground. small test facilities already exist but there are concerns this precinct would have posted the risk or what people might worry about is that this. c
o 2 might escape not necessarily in huge amounts but enough to negate the mitigating effect an effect recent studies suggest that this is a fairly small risk. when it comes to solar geo engineering there are also various ideas under discussion the most common one involves spraying some blocking particles for example sulfur into the stratosphere which would reflect the sun's heat back into space. if there were enough particles put into the stratosphere to really substantially affect temperatures and change the temperature by say 2 degrees that would start to change the color of the atmosphere and we've seen this after volcanoes that we get really funky colored sunsets of magenta those and weird oranges and so on and you can also change the color towards making the sky in general more white and blue when we look at it so these kinds of effects we might be able to see it worth to know to that these kinds of effects might have
a much larger impact on some other animals besides us especially on insects which orient very much the frequency of light. solar radiation management presumably would lower temperatures on earth but some regions would suffer more drought and it wouldn't help reduce c o 2 levels in the atmosphere in any case these geo engineering ideas are still just hypothetical proposals no significant real life tests have been carried out so what role is geo engineering likely to play could the benefits outweigh the risks. becoming. even delayed for so long that we probably won't be able to manage without removing theo too from that atmosphere. but the most important thing by far still is reducing c o 2 emissions your quality every time a c o 2 that we don't emit as a tonne that we won't have to remove later and great effort and expense but if we.
want 0 emissions will need to offset the residual emissions we can't avoid. that will entail capturing c o 2 and. covering antarctica with artificial snow is a crazy idea as even the pasta researchers admit it would take enormous amounts of energy and tens of thousands of giant turbines. this kind of a get on can experiment gives us an idea of how much energy and resources would be needed to make something like that happen and we realize this is something that we can't count on as a solution just like all of the other climate geo engineering techniques that are being discussed so far. a lot of research is needed to understand the consequences of geo engineering but perhaps one day it will become a tool in our struggle against the climate crisis.
that is 2 miles or climbs in some. of. this island nation in the middle of the pacific ocean consists of 2 main islands and has a total of 403 kilometers of coastline. island on a stick that the climate is tropical. temperatures tend to be around 30 degrees celsius. once again i'm always yes this is going to be my favorite place and it came out how it's humid to warm climates sandy beaches the ocean wonderful you know you know what i think i once they a paradise like this for so long anymore it's true the rising sea levels and perry cans and euros would become more and more of a problem in states like this. you might think that most are really happy about rising sea levels right but actually there are so bad oh. yeah that's true but you know pretty fish in chorus they're good for tourism which
a lot of locals depend on but they're actually true there you we eat is alive in their function breakwaters they help to avoid erosion and flooding experts actually estimate that if the reefs are gone the coast would be destroyed twice this far down. coral reefs host the rich diversity of species under often called the tropical rainforest of the sea but global warming is making the oceans more acidic confirmation has come from a special report by the intergovernmental panel on climate change more than half of all coral reefs worldwide are under serious threat. many are dying as a result of mass coral bleaching. without trace the oceans will be empty places. and in addition to the impact on aquatic life humans will be affected today. more
than 500000000 people live in low lying coastal areas places that are threatened by a roshon and rising ocean levels coastlines and coral reefs could still be saved provided we take action immediately. next stop the u.s. state of alaska. nice look at something with this amount well on trampolines like this the you pick people from alaska they threw the hunters in the air and then from up there they look for any minds. that was possible in a place like alaska where much of the land mass is composed of tundra the type of bio characterized by low growing plants the ground is frozen and covered in snow much of the year. sounds pretty rough it is rough i think but it's the basis for life because when those souls melts actually whole villages collapse and
this happens now all around the arctic circle. this is siberia and russia's far north instead of icy tundra reveal lots of melt water. the region is warming twice as fast as the rest of the globe arctic permafrost is thawing. with deadly consequences subsidence has led to the collapse of homes roads and bridges. it's become an everyday problem in many arctic cities and melting permafrost also has consequences for the climate. organic matter trapped in the ground since woolly mammoths roamed the earth is being exposed. and with that microbes that devour these plants remains releasing c o 2 and methane into the air. greenhouse gases that warm up the atmosphere even more than one thing to invite a vicious circle. yeah the more the permafrost thaws and the more carbon is
released on them and convinced of its field. landing considerable quantities it's estimated that almost twice as much carbon is stored in permafrost as is found in the earth's atmosphere. in summer 29000 there are wildfires in the arctic places themselves are not unusual but they lasted longer and were on a far bigger scale than ever before many of them burnt through the pete layer that protects the permafrost against heat in summer. when there's a fire in this layer of pete disappears that increases the temperature of the permafrost which in some cases could cause it to disappear. in the north of canada the permafrost on kick it tarlac also known as hershel island is also towing and it's changing the coastline in record time mudslides are turning the sea here a gray brown color. up to 20 metres of land disappear every summer. also of
course that has extreme consequences for human settlements but it also has an impact on the climate on this carbon that i've previously mentioned is trapped in permafrost stored there and when erosion takes place this carbon is released. it enters the ocean and up until now we've assumed that it was deposited there. but now we know that a lot of this carbon is immediately released before it enters the water microorganisms become active and immediately turn the permafrost into greenhouse gases. that reinforces the process of global warming but new research indicates that eroding permafrost could release carbon dioxide not yet included in existing climate model calculations. this is what we always talk about carbon dioxide emissions c
o 2 which is the most important greenhouse gas can we make use of it i mean plans use it for their photosynthesis i'm fortunately it's very different could to take our c o 2 off the atmosphere and from the atmosphere once we've brought it in my burning fossil fuels like coal and oil. plants do this very efficiently but we have no technical solution to do it in this way so why don't we just plan and a lot of forest solar of the world trees are filed it's a very good plan for us it's even better to keep existing forests but it would be a part as could be part of the solution but not the whole solution. couldn't we couldn't plant enough trees to get enough c o 2 out of the atmosphere so what about geo engineering we heard about this before for example reflecting the sunlight or making algae grow in the sea what do you think about this would this be
a solution i personally i don't like this idea because it could have side effects that we don't know yet and i also think it might even be more expensive than. trying to avoid bringing suit in the atmosphere in the 1st place can everyone really make a change like can i do can i make a change where everyone can do something for example buying electricity from renewable sources sold or more of it will be produce but we are at the point where we need bigger solutions so we need political decisions. to protect the climate thank you very much that you had us on this trip for this climate zones thing for them. and finally and later are back in germany where they started. it's pretty crazy how easily we can upset the system which is so sensitive system or it's true but you know it
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