tv Tomorrow Today Deutsche Welle December 9, 2019 5:30am-6:01am CET
with the most risky yes. sir. i. am incredibly. welcome tonight. good week w. . hello and welcome to tomorrow to day with the focus on the nobel prize science awards coming up. we look at some groundbreaking discoveries about the evolution of our universe and the earth's place within it. check out some more earthbound discoveries and new medical treatments that draw on. that. and
we ponder what it takes to come up with such revolutionary insights could mazing around be the key to inspiration. since $901.00 each year's nobel prizes have been presented at ceremonies undescended 10. it's an event full of pomp and circumstance a formal affair with a dress code to match. that means of white tie and tails. love the women are dressed in evening gowns. but most of the women at the ceremony are in the audience. as of 616 nobel prize winners in the sciences only 19 have been women just 3 percent in all. this city
i that most of they would have gone to europe to delist to south america change is slow in coming but the discoveries made by this year's physics laureates have transformed our understanding of the universe. it all began when the universe exploded out of a hot dense state nearly 14000000000 years later half of the nobel prize in physics was awarded for innovative ideas about what happened next the royal we dish academy of sciences has today decided to award the 2019 a belt prize in physics with one half to james peebles for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology back in the 1960 s. cosmology was something of a speculative science but since then we've learned a huge amount about the evolution of the universe and james peebles was a key figure in that process his seminal work has helped scientists interpret
traces from the seconds after the big bang and it's help to show why the universe is expanding faster due to dark matter and dark energy. to other researchers in astronomy were also honored. and the other half jointly to michelle and. for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar types thought. back in the early 1990 s. it was still impossible to take the incredibly detailed measurements of a distant star that could show whether it was ordered by a planet. michelle my your and d.d.a. kelo developed new cutting edge methods to do so and sparked a revolution in astronomy more than 4000 so-called exoplanets have been identified since their 1st pioneering efforts a number that's steadily growing the list now includes planets that could feel radically support life circling distant stars the discoveries made by this year's
physics laureate have fundamentally changed our perception of the universe around us. hats off to the 2 astronomers are nobel laureates. the exoplanet they spotted is located in the pegasus constellation it was named $51.00 pegasi be. the discovery i should in a new era of astronomical research but we still don't know all that much about these distant worlds vicki of this mission is not taking a closer look at exoplanets. ideas about planet formation used to be based on what we knew about our solar system but that all changed with the discovery of planets orbiting other sun like stars the 1st exoplanet to be identified was 51 pegasi be it's a gas giant like jupiter. but unlike jupiter it's so close to its sun that its
orbit takes just 4 days. it's now been established that there are even planets that orbit 2 stars. nasa maintains a list of confirmed exoplanets they already number well over 4000. enter key ops the space telescope will study exoplanets in the earth to neptune size range and will use a method called ultra high precision transit for tom. 3 to measure their size. is a follow up mission it's not a discovery mission so capps is not looking at $100000.00 of styles with the idea to decide that more planets europe's is looking at one step at a time. as an exoplanet passes in front of its host star caps will record tiny changes in its brightness in order to catch such so-called transit events the
telescope needs a very clear view which is not available from earth where the atmosphere reflects or absorbs much of the starlight and blurs the signals that do reach the ground. so key ops will be carried into space on a so use rocket and go into orbit at an altitude of 700 kilometers. and the telescope will always be examining the night sky. away from our sun. and can look at stars in almost any direction. data from key ops can help to determine the size of exoplanets. based on the precise measurement of the dimming of the light from a star as the planet passes in front of it the exoplanets volume can be calculated
. this is then combined with other observations. cups is a very gifted mission to follow up so there's a lot of target we have more than 100 stargate that we going to observe this target these to be carefully selected so most of the work is done what. ops will build and data are already gathered via telescopes on earth and in space. this enormous telescope array in the outcome a desert in chile has been scanning the heavens for x. supply. for 5 years. other telescopes have been focusing on the movement of the associated stars. they use what is known as the radial velocity technique it's based on the fact that the gravity of an orbiting planet also exhilarates its star this causes frequency
shifts in the starlight it emits bluer as the star approaches us redder as it moves away. or you can go by the 2 together and for some system having a transiting planet then you do also have the over the city in this case to give the mass of the size and then you can compute the density or the both density that tells you about the nature of the planet. the density is key to determining what the exoplanets might be made of mainly gas like jupiter or rock like earth and mars do they have surface water oceans are they lumps of ice might some qualify as potentially habitable. caps will also check for atmospheres on the planets it monitors it will track the exoplanets paths around their stars and how the star light is reflected from their surface. and it will gather information on the planets day night temperature differences.
we know from our own solar system that some planets did not form at the position where they are found today. the standard theory says a planet emerges as a cloud of gas and dust clumps together. first forming a proto planetary disk spinning around a young star. gas giants such as jupiter form in the outer reaches of a solar system but it's something slows them down they move closer to their star. in a tighter orbit dust may coalesce to rocky planets. in the course of their development planets can travel long distances. should collect plenty of data to make it possible to determine the routes exoplanets have taken.
it also has the potential to find small planets orbiting close to their star that may have been missed in previous observations. the hope is that key ops will find rocky planets with a thin atmosphere like earth. over the next decade ever more powerful telescopes will study exoplanets in greater detail. they might help answer the enduring the fascinating question is there life out there in space. so what combination of curiosity and cleverness goes into making an award winning scientist intelligence is certainly a big part of the equation and intelligence gets a boost from a good education and wide ranging interests but intelligence alone doesn't always
lead to inspiration for that some say you might just need to kick back and relax every once in a while no way of head of mexico had a question about that. why are people lazy. doing nothing relaxing taking it easy what counts as lazy is hard to define but historically people seen as lazy were frowned upon in europe at least as it should stems from the protestant work ethic that took root in the 18th century. in the ancient world in contrast exertion was scorned philosophizing was seen as a noble craft to be pursued at leisure a perfect excuse to be lazy in other words. extreme laziness can be harmful even to your health. but now and then it's good to kick
back. it gives us time to regenerate and have a think in fact scientists. igs research suggests that lazy people are more intelligent. they enjoy spending time moms going for. other people get bored quickly anything stimulation of activity. innovation has often been driven by a desire to avoid efforts. can so was invented the world's 1st programmable computer because by his own admission he was too lazy for of arithmetic. our ancestors didn't always feel like hunting and gathering been put off until the next day and spend their time developing new tools and strategies instead this improve their chances of survival.
according to researchers there's a genetic predisposition to progress a nation and laziness it's to do with a gene that helps regulate the production of dopamine which plays a role in brain processes such as attention memory and motivation steaua laziness seems to be an ace and not just in humans. we asked our viewers what do you think about laziness are you ever lazy yourself. carlow replied they're taking a 15 minute nap isn't laziness giving your mind and body a break is a good way to regain energy and strength then you can finish your work with a smile on your face. plate pointed out they're taking unnecessary breaks even when you're not tired is definitely just laziness. frank says
laziness is the incessant need to avoid all responsibility or to take shortcuts instead of finishing your work. and that will always. problem for the people around you. pointed out laziness might not be the right word because we all need time for leisure. and yana says that people work hard so that they have time to relax that's real intelligence. thanks for your comments. we have no way of knowing whether these next 3 scientists believe in the power of laziness . but we do know that they've been honored with the nobel prize in chemistry for they research on lithium ion batteries. wireless digital devices are everywhere nowadays and lithium ion batteries make them possible the
scientists behind the innovation were honored with the nobel prize in chemistry the royal swedish academy of sciences has today decided to award the 1900 nobel prize in chemistry jointly to john be good enough and sadly with him and. for the development of lithium ion batteries back in the 1970 s. and eighty's stanley whittingham and john b. good enough laid the foundations for the 1st batteries made from the light metal but to truly take off the technology had to be refined by acura yoshino in the mid eighty's he began experimenting with lithium ion making batteries that were light nearly endlessly rechargeable and safe for everyday use the impact on industry and society was massive from smartphones to scooters and automobiles today lithium ion
batteries are used in everything and because the energy used to recharge them can come from renewable sources they're helping us usher in a more sustainable world even off the grid for years scientists have been looking at new ways of storing energy but nothing is managed to beat the lithium ion battery for capacity and reliability. it was a development that indeed changed the world. we get a lot of thanks to the brief the oxygen in. the bloodstream to be transported to each of us cells they adapt to changing oxygen levels and the way that works was discovered by adam next. nobel prize in physiology or medicine jointly to where caylee sir peter rock cliff and great
samantha the $2900.00 winners of one of the world's highest profile awards worked for the most part independently of each other the announcement caught them unawares at that point i think it was a so surreal and i sort of had this out of body feeling of just great appreciation and i got to start so thrilled to share this with all the people who have met many . much to me in my life well. on a little bit surprised at this morning yeah i have a deep sleep 1st. i could wake up eventually but by the time i got to the phone it was too late and so i said to myself i wonder if this is somebodies idea of a bad joke in the main the 3 scientists were chosen for their work on how cells sense and adapt to oxygen the gas is a key part of converting food to energy but oxygen levels can fluctuate
dramatically in the body for example when you exercise flying to high elevations or are pregnant oxygen levels that are available for metabolism go up and down to keep functioning the body's cells have to be able to adapt to these changing levels the work done by killen summons and radcliffe covers details of the mechanism that regulates that adaptive process but i would say the benefit is understanding these fundamental mechanisms but the practical applications are yet to come and that's actually what's pension is a great discovery that it opens up so many possibilities and it creates new new research areas for example in healing or in treating patients who suffer from severe anemia or even cancer with their discovery kaylin samantha and rock that have laid the groundwork for a whole new era of drug development one that is now starting to address conditions
that modern medicine seeks to heal. which nobel prize winning research has brought about the most significant advances added einstein is one of the best known nobel laureates his theories pave the way for the g.p.s. which is now part of our daily lives. marie curie discovered radioactivity and finding used to diagnose and treat cancer. alexander fleming discovered penicillin while experimenting with the influenza virus and other prize winning research has helped launch a new era of tissue engineering. for 10 long years 5 gun quarter could hardly go out for a walk he was suffering from cardiac insufficiency which is also known as heart failure and was in mortal danger. my heart was so badly damaged that i couldn't even go for a stroll without stopping all the fish and. his condition kept deteriorating
eventually any it's actually lead to severe shortness of breath and a tightness in the chest he needed a new heart finally a donor organ was found. i've been given a new lease on life. it's an incredible feeling. he's had his new heart for 5 years now he was very lucky and he knows that many others wait in vain. professor is working on healing broken hearts before a transplant becomes necessary with the help of bioengineered new heart cells. she's part of a multidisciplinary team at hanover medical school. they've managed to grow cardiac tissue out of millions of lab grown cardiac muscle cells.
the tissue grown in a petri dish is fully function. no it contracts rhythmically and autonomously. the next stage would be to attach it to a failing heart. our goal is to repair human hearts for example after a heart attack in which heart tissue dies we want to replace that tissue or in young children with congenital heart defects. tissue grown from a patient's own stem cells won't be rejected and that's a great advantage to prevent the rejection of organs received from donors immunosuppression therapy is needed. the technique being developed here is based on a discovery that was honored with the nobel prize in medicine in 2012. namely that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluri potent specialisation is reversible mature cells can be reprogrammed to become immature stem cells and then
reengineer to become cells of a different kind say blood or heart muscle cells. in america who is working on developing a technique to repair hearts with lab grown heart muscle cells delivered directly to where they're needed via a catheter without open heart surgery. she estimates it will take another 5 to 8 years of work. to transplant as in the case of gun quarter could then become unnecessary and the mortality rate among heart patients could be reduced. cardiac insufficiency is often the result of a problem with one of the hearts valves. substitute valves are being developed at dusseldorf university hospital. part of the research involves
taking valves from animal hearts and testing them in an artificial heart. professor pio he heads the research laboratory for experimental surgery and the department of cardiovascular surgery. he wants to develop replacement valves that are better than the ones currently available. and biological valves often come from pigs or cattle the problem is that they often wear out over time so their lifespan is limited or. the aim is to make valves that are less susceptible to wear and tear. he replicates the strain placed on heart valves in the body in healthy people and people with high
blood pressure diabetes and kidney disease many heart patients suffer from such diseases and in such cases the strain on the heart is even greater. dr carey observes what effect they have on the heart valves and is looking for substances within the body that might make them more robust as it's being even if it's to have a stock of perfect valves ready to implant that will do their job for many years without degenerating. they're going to. use it he thinks it might take another 10 to 15 years to develop such valves they would be a major boon to many heart patients and a further way to reduce the need for heart transplants. vosh gun quarter still finds it astounding how fit and active he is now with his new heart he's even hiked across the alps. part of the
mines with him darkhawk when you're climbing a mountain you just keep thinking oh i've had a heart transplant and you feel endless gratitude to all those made it possible. but it's good i think it's really important for people to think about being organ donors. nothing. he'd like to see more patients have the chance of a new life. the problem is right right right only thing you need to. do you have a science question that you've always wanted onset we're happy to help out send it to us as a video text over a smell if we answer it on the show we'll send you a little surprise as a thank you can i just ask. did you find as i did have you dot com slash science or drop us a line at d w underscore site tech on facebook d w dot science. that's it from us this week on tomorrow today thanks for
a look inside the government in germany diminishing a coalition 15 minutes on g.w. . created today's world from. 97. to his slogan coming out in politics business leaders odd drawn up people of the islamic r.m.r. of. the bombs are making its initial flirtation was a strong sense of emergency but. sinks into chaos. joined the 2nd disappointment to the people driven steel told her. mum targeted carson. the start of an era that defined so much today.
19 similar to a big clue to small steps december 23rd w. i'm not laughing at the gym i just sometimes i am but i stand up and wake up and the germans think sneak into the german culture of looking at the stereotypes a question that is think the future of the country that i'm not blaming. need it seems perfect for this drama. it's all about. nothing i might show to join me for meet the gentleman from d.w. post. was the speech of his life perhaps his best certainly his most difficult chancellor helmut kohl and addresses the people of east germany shortly after the fall of the wall. climbers for terminology journalist peter lim borg was the seeming. 30 years later he looks back on the title.
storage december 19th w. plane . this is day to be news live from bend pro-democracy rallies in hong kong troll the largest crowds in months organizers say some 800. 1000 people took part to show the city's probation government it had a last chance to meet their demands our correspondent has the details also coming up. a major fire engulfed a factory in india's capital delhi the early morning blaze leave more than 40