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tv   Journal  PBS  October 7, 2010 5:00pm-5:30pm PST

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>> welcome to the journal. coming up on our program -- >> mario vargas riosa was the noble prize winner for literature. -- toxic sludge has reached the danube river. and the day before a journey takes on turkey, young soccer players shows how the game has already helped the integration of migrants.
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this year's nobel prize for literature has gone to mario vargas use of. the nobel applieprize is a grean for peru. >> he was sure listed for more than a decade, but his win was nevertheless a surprise. the peruvian writer received the news from princeton university where he teaches latin american studies. >> i received a call from stockholm, from a gentleman who told me he was the secretary general of the studies academy and he wanted to inform me that i had received the nobel prize of literature and that, in 40 minutes, it would be public.
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i still have not recovered from a surprise. >> at the frankfurt book fair in germany, they were delighted by the news. they were already displaying his most recent book to be translated from spanish to german, "the bad girl." right now, in our times, it is important to honor latin america again. literature from latin america is some of the most important work we have in the world. >> the choice was welcomed by german experts, including the country's most eminent literary critic. >> he is a good, serious writer, not difficult to read. it is good news. readers enjoy his work. >> most of his stories take place in his country of birth, peru, and explore things such as corruption, revolution, and injustice across latin american. he ran as a reform-minded
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center-right candidate for the presidency in 1990. he won spain's 7 disprized -- spain's seventh thicervantes pr. >> red sludge has reached the danube. the hungarian prime minister visited the area and called it an unprecedented ecological disaster. it is now likely that some areas will have to be abandoned and residents resettled. >> read my force far as the eye can see. it is unclear whether anyone will be able to -- red mud for as far as the eye can see. it is unclear whether anyone will be able to live here again. there are reports that the toxins killed all of the fish in
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the river. the spill has raised the danube's ph level and could endanger the plankton animal life. -- the plant and animal life. the hungarian producer says his country was overwhelmed by the catastrophe. he has called on the international community for help. >> what we need is some reach. this is the first time ever in hungary. we need experience and expertise from other countries that have already suffered this kind of tragedy. >> they are already working on a massive resettlement project. >> there are 200 houses, five of which that have already collapsed. most of them are mud brick. >> even if the houses are rebuilt and the red slick dries out, this region will be badly affected by a heavy metal dust, which experts say will remain behind long after the cleanup is over.
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>> in pakistan, police say at least eight people have been killed in a double-suicide bombing in karachi. the twin blast hit a sufi shrine in the city where hundreds of people gathered for prayers. the taliban have claimed responsibility. the mosque has been targeted by militant groups. and attacked -- germany has the third largest contingent of foreign troops in afghanistan. they are based in the north, which is seen in recent upsurge in attacks. >> it was just this past april that the german army lost for troops in northern afghanistan. now the biggest fear is warning -- now the bundesfier is morning
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another loss. they traveled to the provincial capital. the german defense minister confirmed the attack. >> one soldier has been killed and several others wounded during operations aimed at ensuring our security and which were passed by this house. i think it is appropriate to share this information. our thoughts and prayers are with the families and the soldiers. >> some 4700 soldiers are currently in action in afghanistan, making germany the third largest contributor of foreign troops in the country after the u.s. and britain. the u.s. led nato forces have been fighting the taliban in afghanistan for nine years. >> let's check in with peter.
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you have interest rates and currency rates. >> yes. it is playing its way on to the process of the currency markets, strengthening the euro. the european central bank held its key interest rate at 1% today, at the regular policy meeting. the decision bucks the trend favored by other leading central banks. many have lower their interest rates even further to prevent their currencies from rising in value. the euro, however, is going from strength-to-strength. >> the european central bank is in a quandary. on the one hand, it favors a stable euro. on the other hand, politicians and business leaders are calling for a weaker regulaeuro to kickt the economy and make exports cheaper abroad. they wanted ecb to amulets central banks in japan and the u.s. and let the common currency weaken. the strong euro is hurting the
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eurozone's export-based economy. but the ecb is not impressed. >> i think that exchange rates should reflect economic fundamentals and disorderly movements. they have never supplications for the economy. >> last year alone, the euro climbed 10% alone against the u.s. dollar. >> let's assume the euro continues to surge and eventually reaches $1.50 or even $1.60. then they will have to change. they will have to print more money to keep the euro from going through the where found choking -- from going through the roof and choking exports. >> inflation is still the central bank's biggest fear. >> they ecb decision to leave interest rates on hold has little effect on european stock
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trading today. share prices rose slightly in cautious trading. we have more on the day's trading on the frankfurt stock exchange. >> it was not a big surprise that the bank of england and also the ecb kept interest rates unchanged on a record low level. but, here at the stock market, investors listened carefully to what ecb director jean- claude to shea had to say about the economy. he does not see any sign of inflation. but he thinks that the u.s. economy is interested in a strong dollar. while he said so, the euro jumped above $1.40. but investors took a positive out of the words of patricia j o trichet.
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>> looking at several market indices in more did thdid -- in more detail, we see it closed a few points higher. the euro stock 50 index closed up 0.25%. the dow industrials closed down about 0.17%. finally, the euro is trading for $1.39. prosecutors in germany have searched the home and the offices of thomas misheloff. -- of thomas middlehoff. this is part of a wider investigation of the company's former executive. over 100 officials searched nine locations throughout germany. prosecutors launched an investigation against him about possible breach of trust.
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argentina's president cristina fernandez pledged to pay off her country's debt to germany in a meeting in berlin this week. she indicated as you want to resolve argentina's debt problem after defaulting on bonds back in 2001. many german companies are eager to do business in argentina where gdp growth is about 9.5%. businesses in both countries are now cooperating on a wide front. >> this is argentina's largest known export. but it would like to become more than just an agricultural exporter. an argentinian delegation is in germany seeking opportunities for cooperation in the technology and science sectors. >> so much was invented in europe, and in germany, switzerland, and the netherlands. we have a lot of catching up to do, but we are learning. this is like a teacher-student
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relationship. germany is a teacher and we are the students. but sometimes you can learn something from the students. >> all of the participants agreed that the south american interest in technological cooperation could be advantageous for german businesses as well. >> south american countries have so far provided little funding for research and development, less than 1% of gdp. but they have been acknowledged that that cannot continue. they have been increasing their funding every year, even more strongly than their gdp growth. >> many german companies and research institutes are hoping for contracts with this increase in r&d funding. in addition, germany and argentina have founded a joint operation for science technology in when osiris -- in buenos aires.
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>> in berlin, excitement is mounting ahead of friday's 0 qualifier. -- friday's euro qualifier. the match comes amid a political debate about how to better integrate the country's immigrants. but on the soccer field, there is already progress. >> in german and turkish kids placed side-by-side on this soccer field in northern berlin every day. almost every second player here is from immigrant background, similar to the german national team. >> soccer offers a chance to these kids. they love the game. that is obvious. you do not need to look hard to see that. and the game is so international these days. both in the bundesleague and on
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the german side. >> everyone is looking for to the game on friday night. there is much excitement. it is clearly the highlight of the german championship qualifiers. this family is from turkey, but they will be rooting for germany. >> i was a big fan of a german player. germany played turkey in the 1980's and i had a bet with my father. when germany scored a goal, i celebrated. my father sent me out of the house pierre >> but he will must suffer the same treatment on friday night if germany's horst. >> what would you like to be when you are older? >> if footballea footballer. >> one of the leading figures in south africa as anti-apartheid movement has retired from public
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life. the former archbishop of cape town -- he played a key role in healing the country. >> we will be free! >> desmond tutu has never been far from the front line. now he says it is time for a new generation of leaders. he was one of the most vocal critics of apartheid, a racist government policy of discrimination against non- whites. it earned him the nobel peace prize in 1984. he then became the first black archbishop of cape town. the leader of the anglican church in southern africa. fearless and tireless in his fight against injustice, archbishop tutu dismissed those who said the church should not
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interfere in politics. he argued that apartheid was evil and deeply unchristian. after the end of apartheid, he headed off the troops in reconciliation commissions. nelson mandela called him the voice of the voice-less. desmond tutu has never been silenced. he may not be now, even in retirement. >> with a giant panda on the verge of extinction, the birth of cubs at the zoo is exciting. they hope to move them into the pan the house where they will be
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reunited with their father in four weeks. [laughter] >> he announced his name. did you see that?
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>> kyrgystan is preparing for elections. russia and the united states have military bases there. but the polls are being overshadowed by renewed battles. security is tight for fears that the election could plunge the country into a new round of violence. >> scenes like this put this
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country in the headlines when houses were torched. hundreds were killed, ripples widespread, people were driven from their homes by armed gangs. the city is ethnically diverse. most of the victims of violence were uzbeks. russian dictator joseph stalin carved it up during the soviet republics. his arbitrary borders so to the seas for today's second violence. the dispute between uzbeks and triggers are about land, money, and political power. the uzbeks are more economically successful in the south, but have little political influence. they years -- for years, they have been demanding a greater say. since the end of soviet rule, kyrgysrtan has been ruled by
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several presidents. the first one started with a reform course only to become increasingly autocratic. he was toppled in 2005. his successor suffered a similar fate this april. driven out of office, accused of corruption, and nepotism. since then, rosa has been the interim leader. in a referendum, voters have already approved her plan. leaders hope this sunday's vote will help unite the country, but the explosive tensions simmer onkyrgystan is it economically dependent on other countries. >> sunday's elections will be a critical test for the central-
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asian country. the scars from the violence of this past summer have yet to heal. many are for that the elections will further polarize the country. one of the party is contesting his loyal to former president bakiev. >> they ring and the old bell by hand to signal the start of morning lessons. in the uzbek quarter, this is the class teacher. she saw her old school board to the ground and witnessed the violence. children here are learning again. but they cannot forget what happened. >> we told the children to paint flowers, but they said there are
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none outside on the streets. now they paint their plans, bonds, and machine guns. >> they both accused each other of starting the troubles, but it is mainly uzbek houses that went up in flames and they are worried about the future. she has other things on her mind. eight agencies have given her money to build a new place to build them. >> there are nine of us in the family, mother-in-law, daughter- in-law, we all live together. how on earth are we supposed to fit into a small two-room house? >> in the afternoon, they return home, children and adults alike. during the ethnic unrest, politicians left them to fend
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for themselves. now party campaigners are here promising they will help. >> sure, they promise a lot, but then they do nothing. there will not show their faces around here after the election. >> of course we do not trust them. we have no hope left either. >> the residents are out on the street, but few ethnic uzbeks are. tensions have abated, but they do now expect to find any findings until after the polls. >> ordinary residents are not to blame for what happened. rich people are to blame and they are all far away now. but we will bring them to justice. >> these are photographs of ethnickyrgens who went missing after the violence. >> i am not interested, as long
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as i cannot find my son. i have no faith in any party. >> 20 kilometers outside of the town, this is a campaign event. it is the main opposition to the interim administration and it is attracting strong support in the south with promises of stability and security along with anti-government rhetoric. both uzbeks and cukyrgers feel left down. >> has anybody been brought to task after the violence? it is a tragedy. >> the next leg of the journey takes us back north, to the capital of this divided and unstable country. kyrgystan has seen plenty of unrest and violence in recent years.
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there is plenty of evidence of the election campaign. under the new constitution, this election will bring it transfer power to the parliament away from an all-powerful president. this man was an architect of the reform. he hopes it will turn the country into a model for democracy in central asia. that would be a first in a region constantly under authoritarian government. >> i am certain that our parliamentary democracy will inspire the political leadership in neighboring countries. perhaps they, too, will follow the path to parliamentary democracy in the future. >> but can a parliamentary democracy work in a country where most politicians have been considered correct until now. there is widespread doubt among -- considered corrupt until now. there is widespread doubt.
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>> we need one good person. a strict president. that is what we ought to have. >> he has put his trust in parliamentary democracy. he is standing as a candidate for the green party and says this campaign has been free of pressure from the secret police. >> the parties need to retain the to be reelected. they will only do that if they live up to their election promises. that means that, in the future, they will have to respect citizens and their human rights. >> he believes this election can benefit the country, but only if it is free and fair. otherwise, there could be addressed. -- there could be under arrest. if this experiment in democracy does go awry, the country could return to its old or authoritarian ways. >> that wraps up our in death
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story on the upcoming elections. thank you for joining us.
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