combat roles. >> on the chopping block, germany's second-largest bank plans to fire up to 10% of its work force. the european union is at a crossroads, and the british prime minister, david cameron, says if the blockheads towards the centralized political union, then it is not for him and not for britain. >> german chancellor angela merkel has chosen her words very carefully, responding at the world economic forum in davos by voicing conditional optimism as far as europe's future goes. she says that patience is needed for structural reforms to take effect. >> she has also called for more regulation of the finance industry to avoid more turbulence, a point of contention with britain. both agree that competitiveness is the key, but how to go about that is the big question.
>> david cameron brought his message with him to the swiss alps. in his address to the world leaders in doubles, he repeated his demands for big changes to the u.s. and britain's relationship to it -- in his address to world leaders in davos. >> i'm not just proposing change for britain. i'm proposing change for europe. we are falling behind in the world, over regulating businesses, adding to much to their costs, and leaving our citizens behind. >> after cameron, all eyes turned to the german chancellor. angela merkel reacted cautiously. she avoided confrontation and focused instead on what the two agree on -- namely the importance of making europe more competitive. >> we, from a european perspective, aspired to become competitive enough to maintain and continue our standard of
living. in the past years and coming years, the issue has been that we have not reached the point where we are in the clear. still, a lot has been done in europe. >> merkel went on to lay out her own plans for europe, which include doing more to fight unemployment, and she said she will be working together with cameron 2 stock corporations avoiding taxes. >> two very different approaches, but which went down better at davos? our correspondent has more. >> angela merkel can be joyful and comical. today, she was not. she was serious while cameron was casual, full of british humor, selling himself and his country, he even got applause during his speech, and although most people here criticized sharply his plans for a referendum, he did not say a lot about this topic today.
he sold it as his duty to deliver the referendum to the british citizens. in contrast, angela merkel did not try to be entertaining. she emphasized the common interests of britain and the european union, like structural reforms, free trade agreement with the united states, and make europe more competitive, obviously trying to deal with a new conflict as coolly as possible, a strategy that has brought her a lot of success in the last years. thursday was the day of cameron and merkel. now everybody is heading to one of the numerous parties if they have enough energy, and tomorrow, we will continue the discussion over the role of the central bank's -- banks now and in future among others, such as the head of the european central
bank, mario draghi. >> to our parliamentary study is in berlin for our political correspondent. is it not surprising how similar the speeches were, both calling for improvements as far as competitiveness goes? >> it is ironic, isn't it? in the key demands, more efficiency, or competitiveness -- in fact, he is echoing what many northern europeans also feel, notably germany, the netherlands, the scandinavian countries. they all want this kind of reforms -- more efficiency, more competitiveness. the difficulty is that only yesterday, he linked those to an exit threat. that was extremely dangerous for him because his own business community sees that as a threat to investment, the insecurity that that means for the business community in britain, and it also means, of course, that he alienates with all sorts of
threats -- he alienates his natural allies in europe. >> why the contradiction, if you could call it that? >> cameron himself is, i really, genuinely interested in britain remaining part of a reform european union. the problem is, of course, that he has euro skeptics breathing down his neck in britain in his own party, and i think he is banking on germany and france in particular wanting very much to keep britain in the club, which, of course, they do, but i think he may be puckering too high. the german business community reacted in a very still a way to the threat of but leaving, saying that the german economy would be able to cope with that, though it would of course regret it. even more important, perhaps, the united states reacted very negatively. the relationship between britain and the united states has been
the mainstay of british foreign policy for more than a century. yesterday, a member of the state department said that if britain were to leave the european union, that would seriously damage the special relationship between washington and london. >> thank you very much. >> to washington now where u.s. senator john kerry is president obama's choice for the next secretary of state. he has been quizzed by senators ahead of his recommendation. >> the issues like climate change and fighting disease are also priorities. he's expected to easily win approval for the job from the senate. to syria where authorities have called for a million-man prayer at mosques on friday in an effort to stem anti-regime demonstrations. >> the embattled president was also shown on state television praying with syria's spiritual leader to mark the birthday of the prophet mohammad.
the fighting around damascus and other cities continues. a french woman who faced 60 years in a mexican jail on kidnapping charges is back in france. >> the 38-year-old was welcomed in paris by relatives and supporters. a mexican supreme court ruling on wednesday found that local police violated her human rights during their original investigation seven years ago when she was convicted and jailed for helping her husband run a kidnapping ring. the rhetoric from north korea is getting uglier. the country's military bowling to carry out more rocket launches, including another military test -- the country's military vowing to carry out more rocket launches. >> this after the detonation security council widen sanctions for a rocket launch last month. >> these images of a north korean rocket test put countries around the pacific rim on high
alert. now p'yongyang is stepping up its rhetoric. the national defense council has announced it plans to continue rocket tests and even detonate a nuclear bomb. a spokesman said the tests are designed to send a clear message to the country's so-called arch enemy, the united states. u.s. diplomats were quick to denounce north korea's plans, saying they would hinder talks. >> further provocations are not going to help the process forward. they would only retard it, make it more difficult for us to engage. >> open hostility is nothing ne in relations between north korea and the united states. the regime in p'yongyang regularly threatens the u.s. because it continues to support the south korean army. but this latest round of jabs comes as north korea is becoming increasingly isolated. the united nations security council, including north korea's ally china, recently voted to condemn the rocket launch.
while the country's leader can still count on the support of his own massive military, it is becoming harder to find a friendly face beyond his country's borders. >> five men accused of the gang rape and murder that shocked india have appeared in court. >> the men were taken by bus to a special fast-track court in the capital. the site was cordoned off by police. the defendants are charged with raping the student on a public bus in december. the victim later died of her severe injuries. >> the right to fight -- for the first time, women in the u.s. military will soon be allowed to serve in front-line combat. the u.s. defense secretary has formally announced the decision, ending a policy that held back women's careers and have little to do with today's battlefields. for soldiers like her, front- line positions could soon get a lot more dangerous. the pentagon plans to change its policy and allow women to take part in direct combat. until now, they have been banned
from thousands of jobs and front-line positions. >> i am absolutely thrilled about the lifting of the combat exclusion policy. in the civilian world, we refer to the glass ceiling where women cannot get beyond a point in the progression. in the military, we call it the brass ceiling. >> reactions have been overwhelmingly positive. congress has welcomed it, and so has the american public. >> if women were willing to put themselves on the lines, they should have every right to be there. >> every family has a win in general, and the military should also. >> the decision could open up 230,000 -- [no audio] until 2016 to rule on positions it thinks should remain closed to women. >> there were reports from mali that an islamist group has split off from the group that seized large parts of the north and is ready to enter talks to end the
fighting. >> the splinter groups as it does not include foreign fighters and it renounces terrorism. as more french troops arrive in the country, the group has called on france and the malian government to end their offensive to open the way for talks. the conflict has been going on for a year now. the situation is complex with a tuareg rebellion, an army coup, and an islamist uprising. and many are hoping that the french-led intervention will end the crisis. we met members of the community living here in berlin. and she goes to work, just another winter day in berlin, but her thoughts are with her relatives some 4,000 kilometers away. her family had to flee the north of the country. she talks to them on the phone almost every day.
>> i think that if it was not for french intervention, the islamists would be in the capital. i could sense the relief when i spoke to my family on the phone. they were living in incredible fear until the french arrived. it was really bad. >> marcel experienced this terror on the ground. he was visiting timbuktu in early 2012 with the islamists arrived. >> these four or five days that i spent there after the coup -- that was the worst time. also in terms of my personal experiences with people. and then, there's what relatives told me about the rapes, desecrations, people being stoned to death, limbs being cut off. it was just like the middle ages.
>> but on the way to visit a friend from timbuktu, he says that hopes for a better future are slowly returning. he's bringing his fans -- friend some information from home. a secretly filmed video shows the horror of daily life in timbuktu, including vandalism by islamists, who intentionally target holy sites. >> the holy grave sites that they have destroyed by the soul of the people of timbuktu. this was only possible because mali's army was weak, and past governments have done very little to build up the armed forces. the north was always the neglected region. >> but things appear to be changing now. for the first time in months, the military intervention is raising hopes among many malians
that there might be a brighter future ahead. >> just briefly, some sports news with the australian open under way, and a close to complete the first hat trick of titles in melvin since the 1960's. he made short work of spain and will find out tomorrow if his -- his opponent is. the women's final is already set. >> more news in a minute.
>> welcome back. germany's second-biggest bank is wielding that acts. commerzbank says it will cut up to 6000 jobs over the next few years. >> it had to be billed out during the financial crisis, and it has struggled ever since. it is still partly owned by the german taxpayer. >> commerzbank employees are worried. as many as one in nine are set
to lose their jobs. those most at risk our employees in the retail branches, which management say are overstaffed. the german trade union says it will fight the plans. >> they've put forward some numbers. now, the national and local work councils need to agree on a strategy for how to save as many jobs as possible. >> the cuts are part of a huge restructuring program announced by the ceo last november. the program also calls for jobs to be outsourced to lower-cost areas. it said the plan will save the bank billions, money which could be invested in more profitable activities like online banking. >> the world's biggest steel maker says it is closing seven plants in belgium, which means the loss of 1300 jobs. >> workers gathered in front of the company's offices in protest. the company says the closures
are because of the economic situation continuing to deteriorate. it says european demand for steel is 30% below where it was before the financial crisis. the amazing growth run at apple may be over. the company jolted investors by reporting christmas sales were lower than expected. >> we will get this into perspective -- in the last quarter, apple shipped more than 47 million iphones, which was a record, but analysts had forecast 50 million, so not enough. it was the third quarter in a row that apple fail to meet analysts' expectations. that's the problem. apple shares fell 10% as a result. >> let's get a check on how european markets reacted to all of that news. our correspondent has more from frankfurt. >> apple because investors fear that the this is over. shares in frankfurt have been in free fall, but some traders warned of the crying apple too
early. commerzbank bought, in contrast, applause for its sharp job cutting program. this is the first step in the right direction. the bank must save money and has to improve the private banking to get back on track. the stock market moved slightly forward with the help of positive economic data. in the eurozone, the recession seems to be reaching a bottom. in the u.s., the job market is recovering. >> let's get a closer look at those numbers for you. we stick in frankfurt where the dax making gains on the day. investors were encouraged by some positive economic data from china, the eurozone, and the united states. euro stoxx 50 also higher. the dow jones industrial average also continuing the positive trend. the euro-dollar also trending positive, trading for $1.3370. >> a lot of optimism, despite
all the optimism that seems to be brewing in davos in switzerland. it is a different story in spain, though. things just keep getting worse. unemployment is at its highest level ever recorded. 26% of the work force were registered as out of work in the last quarter of 2012. that's nearly 6 million people. >> the eurozone [applause] fourth largest economy is stuck in recession. the conservative government has pushed ahead with a tough austerity program to lower the country's deficit. critics say those spending cuts are directly to blame for the rise in unemployment. but there's a bit of bright news in the eurozone -- portugal has made an early debut back on the financial market, successfully raising 2.5 billion euros in a debt auction this week. >> the government had to pay only 4.9% in interest, signaling investors are more confident about the country's finances. portugal was forced to accept an international bailout in 2011, the first time the country issue long-term bonds on the open
market since then. then at a positive step for portugal [applause] finances, but the picture is still grim for many ordinary people. >> portugal faces another year of recession this year, and one in six people are out of work. that is a record. many people are giving up hope altogether and trying their luck abroad, not just in europe, but further afield as well. >> we met some who are turning to their former colony angola, going through an economic boom. >> the fishermen use to get a bigger catch. fish stocks are declining, in a country experiencing its worst decline in decades. for this 20-year-old, portugals problems have made to think hard about her future. she's decided to leave and had
far away to angola. >> angola is what i want. i thought about it, and i want to leave to build a better life. >> a life that portugal cannot seem to offer. she takes us to her last workplace, where she was employed as a part-time chef. at the rate of four years an hour, she earned about 500 euros a month, but a few years ago -- a few weeks ago, the restaurant closed. -- at the rate of four euros an hour. >> we did not have enough customers. there were three or four days were no one came for dinner and all, so it is closed for the low season. >> in the past, workers travel to portugal from a former colony of angola. now it is the other way around. helena is not the only one who is making a move.
>> i'm on my way. my husband is already there. >> i need to pick up my visa. >> for the portugals -- for the portuguese people, and goal and now represents what it used to. chance to find work and earn a living. family came to portugal as immigrants. many portuguese people are immigrating to angola. they are pleased to be there, just like we are pleased to be here. >> and golan is a sovereign independent country and wants to understand how to reach its full potential -- angola. >> on lisbon's most expensive shopping street, business would be much slower if it were not for rich customers. many trendy shops are targeting this new consumer group.
we ask this woman what she does -- what she is doing. >> taking in an endless holiday. i am having a look to see if i want to buy anything. >> taking a holiday, traveling, shopping, that part of life. >> and then his portuguese chauffeur drives him and his companions to the next shop. helena is convinced she is doing the right thing. she cannot see any prospects for herself in portugal. >> i am word because i cannot see things improving in this country. i can only see things getting worse. young people leaving, and the ony people saying are those who are tooled and not have any opportunities abroad. -- are too old and do not have any opportunities abroad. >> it is very difficult. it takes courage.
after all, this is my home. >> she wants to earn money for a few years and then return to memo we all love a trip to the movies, and german cinema has a rich history of its own. the german film archive in berlin has been celebrating film for 50 years. let's take a look at the museum that is dedicated to keeping films alive. >> 50 years ago, he combined his passion for films with his love of collecting by opening the film archives in berlin. emma on the camera, you can see it is fitted with all sorts of mechanisms for cross fading and performing visual tricks. >> the collection documents the history of german films going all the way back to the rate of kaiser wilhelm the second.
one of the first-ever oscars is part of the collection, awarded in 1928. the film casts and mitropoulos" was restored here in 2010. the centerpiece of the museum is an extensive collection of items that once belonged to marlena dietrich. >> we should preserve them because they are worth preserving. we grew up with them, and they stay with us through our entire lives. such treasures are protected here. >> those treasures include profits from the film "perfume" and the script from one of the most successful german films ever made. >> very good film. >> it was indeed. and we are going to talk about followers of fashion because they have their eyes on paris this week as the world's top designers presented their spring 2013 collections.
>> more than 25 fashion houses showed there could toward the lines for -- designs for market estimated to be worth $27 million. paris fashion week draws to a close today, unfortunately. >> i will take one of everything. >> just giving you a quick recap of our main news story -- the world economic forum in davos where british prime minister david cameron has defended his speech from yesterday in which he announced that eu membership for britain would be put to a referendum. >> german chancellor angela merkel, on the other hand, chose her words very carefully by voicing conditional optimism as far as your's future goes. >> she says patients is what is needed. thanks for joining us here on the "journal." >> we'll see you next time.