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tv   European Journal  PBS  July 29, 2013 12:30pm-1:01pm PDT

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>> hello from brussels and a very warm welcome to "european journal." very good to have you with us. here's what we have today -- the wave of drug tests as bulgarians demand an end to corruption. rotten conditions -- how seasonal workers are being exploited in italy. and portugal offers incentives. book area has been -- bulgaria has been a member of the eu for five years, but it is still the poorest country in the bloc. the political class is mired in
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criminal activities that are so blatant that a few days ago, the ambassadors of germany and france wrote an open letter, calling on politicians to distance themselves from corrupt oligarchs. people in bulgaria are also angry at the government and the high cost of living. >> it has become an early morning ritual. for weeks now, she has been making noise on the way to work. while bulgaria's parliament is in session, outside, the crowd's anger is growing. >> it is unbelievable. a bunch of people who cannot understand anything, cannot do anything, and do not want to do anything. >> these are the bunch of people -- the new prime minister, a socialist governing with the aid of right wing extremists. the demonstrators outside say the politicians are only in it for themselves.
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bulgaria is one of the most corrupt countries in the european union. today, a new candidate is being presented for the head of bulgaria's to intelligence agency. it is the prime minister's second try. on june 14, opposition took to the streets to protest his first candidate. the old governing party had to give into the pressure on the the streets. now it is boycotting parliament, but the demonstrators also blame it for bulgaria's problems. >> they did not really do anything. they just pretend to do their job. >> she meansb borizov on the right, the former prime minister, seen here talking with his interior minister, is now under investigation. the conservatives, long deemed discussion partners for the you, are also accused of corruption.
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>> i cannot confirm a single case of such practices. that's why i say where we govern, i can guarantee that they do their work perfectly. >> some say this is a lie. boris often self is accused of dirty business. that why she and her husband come to demonstrate everyday. >> bulgaria is the only country where the mafia has a state. >> its own state. >> and that shows how the country is governed. >> like most of the demonstrators, they are well educated middle-class people with jobs. they are concerned about the state of democracy in their country. >> things cannot get any worse than they are right now. >> she agrees. >> they cannot. something has to change.
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>> the protests began without liters six weeks ago. it was a grassroots movement, and there are plenty of activists in bulgaria. >> come in, please. >> for example, this man and his wife. for weeks, the teachers have been juggling work him in demonstrations, and social networking. >> we cannot afford to remain apathetic in times like these. >> it is reminiscent of the end of communism in 1989, but one thing is different today. >> i do not think anyone would have held out for 36 days on the street back then. >> he said his -- he says it is time for a new democratic revolution, but this time, there is the internet and professionals who know how to organize protests. they are bloggers and took part in the protests from the beginning.
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>> i think the time has come for bulgarian society to free itself from the burdens of the post-communist era. >> he means by that the oligarchs and the political mafia. it is evening, and once again, they set off. >> it is day 36. let's go. >> every evening, demonstrations for a democratic european bulgaria. people come from all walks of life. families from every social strata meet here in front of the parliament building. they meet each other for the first time today. >> we know each other. >> now they meet in person. tist satirize the politicians, and the demonstrations draw ever more
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people until the crowd numbered 10,000 again. that is the slogan, every evening since june 14. back then, it was against the conservatives. now the socialist government, a political class, and the wheeler dealers behind them. >> studies say that almost everybody has an intuitive feeling of how much physical distance other people should keep from them. the distance itself varies depending on the region and culture where people have grown up, but one thing is the same everywhere -- most people feel they have a right to decide just how close strangers can get physically andn every other way. victims of stalking experience a violation of that right as every aspect of their personal space is threatened. >> sometimes, she still feels uneasy whe she goes to her mailbox. for years, a man harassed her by mail, telephone, and e-mail.
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the stalker wanted a relationship with her, bringing turmoil to her life in this tranquil village. >> at some point, you just yearning for peace again, and whenever something new begins, you are wary about it because you never know -- is he behind it again, or is that odd call or e-mail just a coincidence? >> the stalker had been her student in an english course she gives to adults. when she did not respond to his advances, he secretly photographed her and posted the picture on the internet along with defamatory comments. an estimated 800,000 people in germany are systematically stalked. among them of this woman and the members of her self-help group. most of them are women arassed by former partners. the victims suffered damage to
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their reputation among family and friends. most find it difficult to defend themselves. >> at some point, you enter a phase where you become extremely lonely because you put yourself into this solitude. you are imprisoned in yourself. you want to scream. >> bringing in the police does not always solve the problem. stalkers often know how to operate just within the law. >> i think it scared him a bit that i informed the police. but he did a lot of things that he cannot be stopped from doing. he can park in any public arcing spot. he can go for a stroll where i work. >> for the police, dealing with stalkers means treading a fine line. the victims often have high expectations, and they hope for
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a restraining order, but the law sets limits to what the police may do. >> we cannot issue a restraining order in every case. we have to be careful about where behavior crosses the line into crime. to be a crime, it has to be perstent. it has to be constant harassment . >> in the age of twitter and facebook tom it is often hard to prove the identity of the by creating ever new profiles, stalkers can hide their identities much more easily nowadays, according to this former secret agent and stalking specialist. >> with the internet, a stalker can come into your living room, onto your desk, the laptop next to your bed. he could be in the cell phone in your pants pocket around the clock, and that's why stalking is a growing problem. >> in 2007, germany passed a law
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against stalking, but very few stalkers can really be stopped. victims' associations say more and more people are calling for help. >> us and as i decide i's no o you are stalking me. i should not try to persuade the stalker with arguments. most people fall into this trap, but that is just what the peetrar wants -- ur attention. >> she has managed to turn the bles. she publicized her stalker's name. she told all her relatives and acquaintances she was being defamed. >> at first, i was absolutely shocked that someone could do this. i could either do nothing and
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suffer forever, or i could defend myself, and defending myself gave me confidence. >> most doctors in germany -- most stalkers in germany suffer no legal consequences, but she silenced hers. she is not going to let a stalker ruin her life any longer . >> if you want to know how europe works, a visit to brussels is a must. it is here where many decisions are taken that influence the lives of some 500 million eu citizens, but if you want to know what really makes europeans take, then you have to go far beyond brussels. for our summer series, we sent reporters to explore some of the distance hidden corners of europe. from the arctic circle to the caribbean islands.
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we start in turkey. >> this cemetery is located in turkey but has only christian graves. the names are polish. among those buried here outside istanbul are the ancestors of this man. many poles fled what was then sars to russia and were welcomed by the sultan ruling the ottoman empire. >> these are the graves of my forefathers. i'm fourth-generation. my great-grandfather was born in poland in 1820, and came here as a prisoner during the crimean war in 1848. but our village was founded earlier in 1842. that is his wife's grade. >> some graves document the historical legacy of ethnic
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poles who rose through the ranks fighting for the turkish sultan's armed forces. the 170-year polish heritage is alive and well here. there is a church, half timbered houses, orchards, not so long ago, people also used to keep pigs here. the villages located 20 kilometers east of istanbul istanbul on the asian side of the city. while expanding istanbul threatens to engulf the village at some point, for the time being, it remains a popular escape from the hubbub of the city. countless restaurants and guesthouses to great business. he runs a restaurant with his wife. when they were younger, the two attended a french boarding school in istanbul.
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today, some of their school friends from back and are visiting. we ask if anna would have considered marrying a turkish man. >> that is difficult. that would require both sides being very tolerant. >> we are well integrated here, but not assimilated. we have our own church, our own cemetery, and our own customs. >> those traditions include polish cuisine. next door is a café that serves pancakes with blueberries from poland. agnes now lives in warsaw, but she spends her summers in her home village in turkey. >> i miss my friends in warsaw when i'm here, but that is not where i'm from. i was born and raised here. it is here that my parents and
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many relatives still live. >> the residence are turkish nationals. their children go to turkish schools. many ethnic holes here have set up writing businesses, and between them now employ 700 of their muslim compatriots. they now also have their own mosque. >> it is ramadan now, and the christians come to celebrate the breaking of the fast with us, and we go to the polish festivities. our two cultures get along well. >> 177-year-old and tony was a young boy, the poles had little contact with turks. they were largely isolated here. a local history museum addresses the hardships faced in the old days. they spent their winters cut off
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from the outside world, but there was never a dull moment, as senior residents recall. >> that room used to be my father's library. when we were young, we would read looks there in the evening. >> the church holds catholic services for the local community. the polish-speaking priest comes here once a month from istanbul. in the summer when a lot of residents fly to poland to visit family, the congregation shrinks to a handful. the polish consul general also attends sermons here regularly. his government in warsaw provides financial support. the younger generation do not speak fluent polish, however, and many end up leaving the small community. it remains to be seen whether the next four generations will remain loyal to this polish home away from home.
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>> one of the favorite vegetables in europe is around and read. germans alone eat some 21 kilos of tomatoes a year on average. italy is a big tomato producer, but seasonal workers there get as little as one cent per kilo for their backbreaking work in the fields. that's because european consumers want their tomatoes to be cheap. >> we are outside this town in southern italy with a group of trade unionists. they look after the day laborers working on the tomato fields here. the chairman of the local trade union branch set up the aid project. >> they have nothing, basically. no contract, no decent wage. they are dependent on the overseers. >> things we reached the first workers harvesting tomatoes. in temperatures of 30 degrees, the italian workers are weeding
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the fields, a job that pays less and less -- 40 euros a day. according to one of the trade unionists, many farmers even consider this rate too high. they prefer hiring cheaper day laborers from africa or eastern europe. >> the foreigners here are treated like slaves. it is terrible, and somebody has to intervene. if the italian government does not, then the upper -- the other governments will have to. i mean, we are in the european union. >> daniella studied agricultural science, but soon, human rights issues became more important. he found the situation the workers faced on the fields unbearable. >> we are driving to a place that you will not find on a map. the camp was constructed illegally.
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every time i go there, i feel like we live in a sick society, a society that is indifferent to the value of human life. >> this is where the seasonal workers live -- at the end of the dirt road. many of them are illegal immigrants, but the police do not seem to care. for weeks, the unionists have been trying to build up some sort of communication, but many of the day laborers are scared says this man from senegal. they are afraid of the overseers who recruit and exploit them. after a short discussion, we are allowed to film inside. 100 young men are said to live
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here. we ask the africans again and again in disbelief, but they insist this is where they live. these men are young. they have learned italian, and they want to work. that is why they came here. >> we don't have to work every day. they show up and say there is work again for a day or two, but it is never steady. >> they came here to find a better life. now he and his friends are stuck here. they cannot afford to go back to africa without any money. >> i came to europe and to italy because the situation back home is even worse, but now, i'm not so sure anymore. i have not had worked in over a month, and my friends and i are ashamed to ask someone for money to buy food.
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>> tomatoes are cheaper in germany than in other wester european countries, but this is the price some people have to pay. >> this is one of the most popular tourist destinations in europe, with its ages and all your warm temperatures. for pensioners, it is likely to become more attractive. the portuguese government is offering incentives to lure foreign pensioners. if you buy a house and reside in portugal for more than 183 days a year, you do not have to pay tax on your foreign income. german pensioners are already taken with the idea. >> clouse is a happy man.
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the visit of his granddaughter has brightened up an already sunny day. he had his wife spend several months a year here. they spent their honeymoon in portugal and have kept coming back ever since. >> when i think of winter and fall and the bad spring weather in berlin, there is simply no comparison. >> and he may soon be able to save money on top of that. to and passed in january exempts recent immigrants from paying income tax on their pensions if they settle permanently in portugal. the ridges are considering staying here for good -- the victors -- the richters are considering staying here for good. >> home is where i feel comfortable. we have a great group of friends here. >> portugal is struggling financially, and no amount of sunshine can dispel the country's woes. high unemployment, a government in complete disarray, and the
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enormous state deficit -- a fateful combination. so where is the desperately needed money to come from? eager to find new solutions to revive the economy, lisbon wants to attract foreign pensioners with cash to spend. >> we do not tend to compare ourselves with other countries, but in recent years, we have not had the kind of real estate crisis that spain or greece have . our coasts are not built like theirs are, and we have done a lot for senior citizens here. >> this family has been in the holiday complex business for generations. he says the traditional market is exhausted. as he sees things, the future lies with wealthy retirees from northern europe. this vacation complex was designed to cater to a pensioner clientele.
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there are elevators in the buildings, a heated pool, and there is also a hospital nearby. >> i would not collect a retirement home home because there are cultural and social activities available. people can feel entertained without feeling old, but they tt there is excellent medical treatment. >> the trend for northern europeans to spend their final years in northern portugal is nothing new. the permanent german community here already numbers at least 10,000 retirees. these pensioners moved here years ago. too long for the new law to apply to them. their pensions will remain taxable and at a rate far higher than in germany. >> it is unfair to us and to the portuguese tax payers here. >> a german retiree on a pension of 2000 euros could save 20% thanks to the new law. at this early stage, however, the exact dividends for their
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host country are not clear. our new -- our new elderly immigrants now profiteers? they can invest here allegedly risk free and have the option of going home if the going gets tough. >> it is good if german pensioners come here. portugal is a great place to live. why shouldn't other people be able to enjoy it, too? >> we have to stick together in times of crisis. the only way is together. >> he had to work things out down to the last penny, but the offer is likely to pay off for people like him. good news, too, for his granddaughter. >> that report wraps up this edition of "european journal." thanks for watching. auf wiedersehen and bye for now.
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captioned by the national captioning institute --www.ncicap.org-- 
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hello, and welcome back to "newsline." i'm raja pradhan in tokyo. here's a look at the top stories we're following. a wave of car bombings in iraq kills at least 48 people and injuries more than 200. torrential rains have lashed wide areas of japan. the record deluge has killed one person and left three others missing.

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