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tv   Global 3000  PBS  August 12, 2015 12:30am-1:01am PDT

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host: worldwide, we waste about one third of the food we produce. i am not just talking about rich nations. hello, and welcome to "global 3000." we're about to explore why it's so difficult to stop the global waste of food, and here's what we have coming up. how proper storage and transport chains help cut down on food waste in rwanda. how a new app stops sell-by-dates from turning food into garbage. and why five countries open their borders to make more space for elephants.
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right now we could still feed the whole world with the amount of food we produce. also in india, one of the world's largest producers of fruit and vegetables. there, yields have been growing continuously in recent years. and yet more than a third of india's children are still underweight, something india's former prime minister manmohan singh called a "national shame." so of course only few indian's can afford to just throw food away, but as long as millions can't afford to store food properly, that's exactly what they are forced to do. reporter: the azadpur market in new delhi is one of asia's largest fruit and vegetable outlets. customers include local retailers, distributors, restaurant owners, and private customers. the goods sold here have often been on the road for days, travelling right across india.
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but now it's the monsoon season, so the produce is saturated when it arrives. rajpal kumar has been working here since he was a child and tells us little has changed in that time. everything that is not sold the same day just rots, he says. rajpal: it's been raining so the vegetables have gone bad. i'll have to throw them away. these vegetables arrived yesterday. reporter: nearly half of all the foodstuffs produced in india end up being scrapped before they even reach the consumer. here at the market, temperatures of over 30 degrees celsius pose another problem for the traders. rajpal: there are some cold storage rooms at this market. but they cost 500 rupees a day. where could we get that kind of money from? that's just for one day. reporter: we get permission to
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film inside one of the cold store rooms. no one wants to talk about why so much food is wasted here at the market. we discover that the fruits stored here are all imported from new zealand, italy or the united states. biraj patnaik has worked for years as an adviser to india's supreme court on issues of food safety. he says one of the biggest problems is that the government relies only on private investors to build new cold storage facilities. in the end, he says everyone loses out. biraj: insofar as the consumers are concerned the two big issues due to lack of good storage are, a, the cost of food going up even for them because significant amount of food is wasted and that leads to food inflation, and second, the deterioration in the quality of food. reporter: one reason for the lack of cold-storage facilities is that there are no major
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supermarket chains that could finance that kind of infrastructure. india is still dominated largely by small local shops. nearly every quarter has its own stores with every retailer being responsible for cooling their own goods. few cities have any major supermarkets. that's partly because the government promotes and supports local retail. much of the food wastage is actually a direct result of state intervention. this is a state-owned warehouse for cereal crops, right on the edge of the indian capital. the wheat and millet stored here are supposed to be reserved for india's poor. over 30% of the population live under the poverty line. but exposed to the weathers the produce goes bad before it reaches those in need. or the food is already saturated when it arrives. day laborers plough through the grain to dry it out.
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biraj: we don't have modernization in our storage. when you stack, as we do, one sack of grain over the other, the sack of grain which has come first is at the bottom of the heap. but you will use the sack which has come las,t which is at top of the heap first. so it is the first in last out principle. reporter: it would cost billions to set up a functioning cold chain that would preserve foodstuffs across india. the new government says it recognizes the problem. but after more than a year in office, there's still no sign of major change. host: and in rwanda, the struggle for every grain starts on the field, especially so since climate change has wrought havoc on weather patterns. that's why often up to 40% of harvests are lost. here, too, major investment in infrastructure is part of the answer. but the bottom line is that
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farmers have to completely re-think the way they plan their day, week, and season. reporter: it's been weeks since it rained here. the unreliable weather is wreaking havoc with rwanda's harvest, hitting the country where it is most vulnerable. odette: because of climate change, our yields are lower, and even when it rains the maize doesn't grow well. reporter: in the past, farmers planted their seed according to the calendar. but now the rain has become so irregular that traditional methods of farming no long odette: we used to dry the maize in the field, but now it often rains. if we have a good harvest but can't dry it, it spoils after a month. reporter: rwandan farmers are now losing more than a third of their harvest because of the unpredictable weather.
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in a country where 80% of the population works in agriculture, the impact is huge. working with the government of rwanda, the international fund for agricultural development has begun building storage halls. these are connected to plants where the grain is washed and sorted. instructors are also on hand to give farmers tips on how they can increase the yield and the quality of their harvest. dairy farmers are also having to adapt to the changing climate. alfred: when it rains and we have fodder, we get about 13 liters of milk a day. but we get much less when we have long dry spells. reporter: rising temperatures are another problem. if the milk is not refrigerated, it goes sour within two hours. so the farmers now take their milk every morning to a collection point, where it is kept in cool and hygienic conditions. everything is organized by a
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cooperative, which pays the farmers a regular wage, and also grants loans during difficult times. the farmers are now better adapted to the unpredictable weather conditions, and that's paying dividends. odette: by growing maize and having access to markets, i've more income, so i could afford to buy metal sheets for the roof of my house. reporter: the program is to be extended to another 150,000 farmers over the next five years, rescuing livelihoods and improving food security. host: wasting food kills in two ways -- by depriving those who go hungry, but also because what lost makes up around 10% of global greenhouse gases. in money terms, this has been calculated to amount to throwing away a trillion euros every year. europe and north america alone make up for around 60% of food waste by consumers.
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in poorer countries food is often lost before it can reach those who need it. unbearable really, and particularly in richer nations the sell-by date on the package dictates whether what is inside is still food or already waste -- a mostly legal criteria that has nothing to do with the condition of what is inside the package. that's where an app wants to make a difference. and here's how it works. reporter: meet bernd sauer, 28 years old and a student in the city of cologne. today, he's trying out the new foodloop app. his cell phone shows him which supermarkets in the vicinity have signed up for foodloop. he finds an organic supermarket right round the corner. it has a number of things on offer that catch his eye. the products listed on foodloop are approaching their sell-by date.
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many of the foods can still be eaten even weeks after that date, but retailers aren't allowed to sell them anymore. first, bernd spies a jar of sundried tomatoes. when he scans the barcode, the app shows him the price and the ingredients. it has 25% off. he's also seen a dairy product that is on special offer. products nearing its sell-by date are marked in the morning with a label. the director of the supermarket lutz größel hates being forced to throw away food. lutz: the best-before date does not mean the food is no longer edible. and yet the foods are just thrown away. we as retailers are forced to adhere to legal requirements where sometimes you think, this is crazy. like a best-before date on a bag of sugar?
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reporter: foodloop founder christoph müller-dechent got the idea for the app while studying in the u.s. christoph: i was working at starbucks and each night we had to dump products that were fresh. it came to over 1000 euros a month. so i started taking the products and selling them to local stores. reporter: today he employs 9 people. by next year he plans to have covered his outlay costs. it's all possible thanks to sponsorship money and awards from five different continents. right now he's looking to expand his customer base. christoph: plusfresque is a spanish supermarket chain. we're working with them through an eu sponsorship program to get foodloop working in all 70 of their stores. reporter: and what do the potential customers think of it all? >> yeah, i'd find it helpful, and it saves money, too.
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>> i used to throw food away, but now i'm careful to only buy as much as i can eat. >> no, i'm very picky when it comes to the best-before date. if it's even one day over, i wouldn't eat it. reporter: bernd sauer has now made it to the checkout. thanks to the foodloop discount, he's saved 2 euros on an overall bill of just under 9 euros. so, could he imagine using an app like this in future? bernd: yes. it's a good way of saving money and helping to ensure things don't get thrown away. reporter: but he'll have to wait a while. the app is still only a pilot project in germany. the major supermarket chains have yet to sign up. host: here in germany, several initiatives are trying to prevent the waste of food. the idea behind one of them is
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so simple that it sounds like something my seven-year-old daughter could have come up with. just stick what some have left spare into a big fridge and everyone can come and take what they need. of course it's slightly more complex than that, but not much. one of the places this has put into practice is berlin. there more than a dozen public food sharing fridges are located. in the whole of germany, the number of these food savers has risen to more than 120. they are filled by some 8000 individuals and supermarkets taking part in the initiative. whoever wants to donate puts up a note on the internet, saying when it will be available in which fridge. and with a bit of luck, you'll find the right ingredients in one of those communal fridges to cook up a pupusa. my latin american college says -- colleague says he can't live without then, but is still struggling to find a place that does them here in berlin. until he manages that, he'll
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just have to watch and learn. so, listen up, thomas. reporter: when evening comes in san salvador, hoards of hungry people head out here. 25 kilometers from the city center, directly off the freeway this is the place to get el salvador's most famous snack, the "pupusa." inside the pupusería la ocuilteña, claudia rodriguez is hard at work. if she looks practiced, it's because she is. she's been doing this for 13 years. claudia: for the "pupusa revuelta," or the "mixed pupusa," you take deep-fried pork rind and cheese and then add refried beans. this one's particularly popular. and then we have one with cheese and another one with "loroco."
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loroco is an edible flower which gives it a very individual taste. lots of customers order this pupusa, too. it's totally delicious, a real bestseller. so, there you go! three different types of pupusas. reporter: what's special about these pupusas is that they're made with rice flour, not corn flour. prices start at $.50 u.s. for one pupusa. locals say it's far more than just a delicious snack. >> we salvadoreños really identify with this food. when we travel or leave the country for a while, we really miss them. and we can hardly wait to finally dig our teeth into a pupusa again. >> i could eat them morning, noon, and night. i don't care what time it is. reporter: claudia now turns to prepare a very special pupusa.
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claudia: these are the ingredients for our pupusa loca, or the "crazy pupusa." first we have to mix up the filling thoroughly. reporter: the ingredients of the "crazy pupusa" certainly feel a little crazy. there's 14 of them in all, including shrimps, mushrooms, ham, chicken, cheese, herbs, and refried beans. it's hard to imagine just how big this giant pupusa is going to be. when the edges start to brown, it's time to flip it. the end result is larger than a pizza and costs $5. claudia: some people eat a whole one. others have one between two, or even four. we serve them however the customer wants them. reporter: claudia and her team
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have even made it into the guinness book of records with the world's largest ever pupusa. host: and here's a small selection of the snacks that you have already sent us, including dim sum from thailand or greek salad. if you have a recipe we absolutely should know about, just post it in on our facebook page or send us an email. we'll tell the world about it and send you a "global 3000" apron as a small thank you. now, elephants, for obvious reasons, need lots of space. they often cross borders and populated areas during their long migrations. but often this essential instinct is reigned in by fences, roads, and settlements that block their way. that's why a couple of years ago, five african states established one of world's largest conservation areas. our team travelled to northeastern namibia to the caprivi strip to join the rangers there. their aim is to restore the original migration routes of the
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elephants. the only way to make that work is to also help the locals benefit from this conservation effort. reporter: elephants head for the river at the first light of day. they're driven by thirst. here along the kwando river in north-eastern namibia, there's never any shortage of water. that's one reason why so many elephants gather here during the dry season. but they're having to share the land with more and more people. farmers, like raymond kitumbeka, who are dependent on the harvest from their fields. he's constantly having to protect his corn field from the hungry elephants.
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raymond: there were seven elephants. as soon as we heard them we ran out to drive them away. but often the elephants aren't afraid of us and so they just stay put. then they destroy the fields and suddenly our livelihood is gone. we fear for our lives. reporter: but help is now at hand for raymond kitumbeka and his family. bennety likukela works for a namibian conservation group. his job is to resolve these kind of conflicts between elephants and farmers. using simple but effective methods, he shows the farmers how they can better protect their fields. bennety: we are mixing the chili
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with elephant dung. the main purpose why we're doing this is to help our farmers who are suffering the losses of crop raiding from elephants. we use this chili to deter elephants because chili smells more to an elephant because an elephant smells a hundred times than a person. reporter: the smoke from this homemade chili bomb is acrid and has a similar effect to tear gas. bennety likukela's goal is to ensure that the elephants can continue to live here, despite sharing the space with so many people. he works to keep the elephants' age-old migratory routes open, so that they are able to survive and even flourish.
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gamekeepers employed by the local authorities regularly patrol these routes, keeping an eye on the elephants' movements and seeking to preempt possible problems, such as elephants crossing busy roads. bennety: we are standing on the migratory route that is coming from botswana to zambia and angola. unfortunately it passes the trans-zambezi highway where it could be danger to wildlife such as elephant and also people. reporter: the elephant trails crossing international borders is another challenge. the kavango-zambezi conservation area, dubbed kaza, is almost the size of france and crosses five countries. setting it up involved overcoming both political and physical obstacles. james: there was a fence here. this fence used to start from here up to divundu almost 200 kilometers. so the fence was removed 70 km.
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reporter: the kaza area is now home to over 200,000 elephants according to estimates. during the course of a year, they roam hundreds of kilometers, often straying outside the national park. but even then, their safety is now largely guaranteed. many local authorities are now profiting from the wild animals, so they've set up their own conservation areas to protect them. bennety likukela stays in contact with the local community leaders. it's only thanks to their involvement that the elephants' long migratory routes can stay open. chief mayuni: protecting the elephants has created jobs for the young people in our community. we also get a good income from tourism, from lodges and camp sites.
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then we also have trophy hunting in our area. hunting firms get licenses, which also bring us a lot of money. reporter: hunting is an important part of the conservation project. the shooting quotas for each area are laid down by the state and are closely monitored. people like falko schwarz who organize hunts pay several thousand euros for every animal killed by one of their customers. thanks to the money, local authorities can easily afford to pay for their conservation areas, and for gamekeepers. falko: we have a contract with the local community, directly with the conservancy, where we basically buy our entire shooting quota. when we kill the animals, the conservancy receives the full income from us plus all the meat. reporter: apart from hunting, tourism is the other big money spinner in the conservation areas.
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the local authorities allow tour operators to bring tourists here and to run hotels. in return, they get money, jobs and training opportunities for young people. juan: now that the private sector has invested onto a property like this, wildlife is actually providing a financial benefit through tourism. so that already has now an economic value and the community is protecting that economic value because over a long period of time they can receive financial benefit from the animals instead of poaching them. reporter: what people value, they protect. that is the simple principle that explains the success of this huge conservation project in north-eastern namibia. as a result, the elephants are free to roam almost as they please, even if that does mean crossing the odd road or other man-made obstacles. host: and if you would like to know more about how these elephants migrate, you can find more information on our website.
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there you can also watch all of today's reports again or join our global discussions via facebook or twitter. and don't forget to send us that recipe for your favorite global snack. our newsroom is full of fans of those no-fuss foods from around the globe. we will be back for you right here same time same place in exactly one week from now. do join us for that. until then, thanks for watching and bye-bye. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit] óóññ
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