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tv   Global 3000  PBS  December 1, 2015 7:30pm-8:01pm PST

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host: tired, hungry, and traumatized. every day, more and more syrian refugees cross into neighboring turkey. some still harbor dreams of reaching europe, but increasing numbers are deciding to stay put. journey's end, or endless limbo? we'll be finding out, here on "global 3000." here a quick look at the other stories we have coming up. poisoned earth -- soy plantations in argentina are damaging the health of the locals. vegan cuisine -- cooking without animal products in our global snack from germany. and paradise islands -- off the coast of africa, the seychelles face challenges to retain their natural beauty.
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"a moonscape of destruction," that's how one journalist described what he'd witnessed in syria. for four years now, civil war has raged across the country, leaving death and destruction in its wake. those who can, flee. to date, it's thought that over four million syrians have left their homeland in search of safety elsewhere. their first port of call is often neighboring turkey. for some, turkey is just a stop on their journey into europe. others, however, have no choice but to stay - and their numbers are fast approaching two million. reporter: intissar and her family fled from a town near aleppo across the border into turkey. they are now living here in kilis. she is nine-years-old and has a congenital liver disease. her uncle mohammed hamadeh is a pharmacist; he tries to alleviate her symptoms as best
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he can. because she is a refugee, she can't get the treatment she needs in turkey. mohammed: when she was little, the doctors said she was unlikely to reach the age of three. but she is still alive, she has eluded bombs and missiles, she has witnessed war and death, but she simply does not want to die. she loves life. reporter: this is recent footage from aleppo. the war has devastated huge swathes of the city. people still live among the ruins, but their numbers are dwindling. since russia joined the war on the side of the assad regime, it has become even more dangerous. every night syrians try to cross the border to turkey. people on the turkish side tell us they have seen turkish soldiers detain refugees, beat them up and then send them back into syria. this group, however, has made it into turkey.
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>> it was terrible in aleppo. every day, bombs all the time, barrel bombs too. take us with you to germany! we are one family, seven people. reporter: ahmad hilal has a degree in economics and had a good job in aleppo. then he fled for his life. he is writing a book about how being a refugee changes you. your life crumbles into small pieces, and that is how you feel -- broken, fragmented, and worthless. ahmad: i have been trying to deal with it. we have been living as refugees here in turkey for three years. i am not even a quarter of the person i once was in syria. reporter: ahmad, his wife, and their son would like to start a
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new life in europe. but only if it is legal. they would be frightened of a dangerous clandestine journey. >> i am scared of the sea. and i would not want to risk our son's life. if there is no legal and safe way to get to europe, i shall not put his life at risk. reporter: syrian refugees in turkey are not allowed to work legally. still, some do find jobs. but they are paid less than turks. hussein was a lawyer in aleppo. he could never afford the apartment he and ahmad are working on. they earn the equivalent of about 250 euros a month. the rent would be at least twice that.
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hussein has given up any hope he may have had of starting a new life in germany. hussein: i know that many syrians have gone to germany, and it is causing a lot of problems. given how many are there already, my prospects are not good. reporter: mohammed hamadeh has a new patient. ahmad was shot in the head by syrian soldiers three years ago. since then, he's had difficulty moving the left side of his body. mohammed has hardly any meds for those he tries to help. there is not much he can do for ahmad, beyond giving him pain killers for his frequent headaches. ahmad doesn't dream of a new life in germany, but of a well-equipped hospital there. ahmad: i just want proper medical treatment. i would not stay in germany.
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as soon as i were better, i would go home, straight from the hospital. don't worry, i would not stay! reporter: the syrian refugees here in southeast turkey have already heard that others who make it to germany are not all received with open arms. few say they hold out any hope for a safe and pleasant life there. host: soy beans may not look like much but their nutritional value is impressive. they contain three times as much protein as eggs, and even twelve times more than milk. for people who don't eat milk, eggs or meat, soy is a great alternative but most of the soy produced across the globe doesn't end up as soy milk or soy sausage. three-quarters of soy production goes into feeding cattle, pigs and poultry. and because meat consumption is on the rise, demand for soy for fodder is increasing, too. and to keep crop yields high, more pesticides and
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genetically-modified soy plants are being used, too. one country that has become a major producer of genetically-modified soy is argentina. it's certainly created a lot of jobs, but at what price for the locals? such endless fields of soy are a source of wealth for some, but mean hell for others. reporter: the soy grown for the export market is genetically modified and bathed in a cocktail of chemicals -- to protect it from insects and other pests. these tractors spray the fields with a mix of pesticides, herbicides and fungicides. eduardo bagnis has expanded production of soy on his farm, and cut back on cattle. he says it has to do with the surging world population and global hunger. soy is in huge demand. it is already argentina's biggest export.
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eduardo: the whole world needs food. we have a sense of responsibility: it is our job to make that food. in our view, we need biotechnology to eventually solve the problem of global hunger. reporter: eduardo's farm is in the province of cordoba, but there are farms like his all over the country: by now, more than 60% of land under cultivation in argentina is devoted to soy production. 60 million tons were harvested last year. most of it is exported. argentina has been transformed. vast tracts of cattle pasture, fields of cereals and also ancient forests have been turned over to soy production. it is a huge business. and it involves genetic modification and lots of chemicals. environmentalists say it is an unmitigated disaster. raul montenegro is a biologist and environmental activist --
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who has won the alternative nobel prize. raul: what we are seeing is a three-fold tragedy: the variety of crops has been reduced. traditional meat production has declined. the soil is being depleted. lots of water is wasted. reporter: the country might be beautiful but the problems are massive. montenegro says ecosystems have been destroyed, toxins are devastating the soil and water, people are becoming ill. he sees the soy industry as a prime example of short-sighted short-term business thinking, aiming for quick gains. raul: it's all about saying: look, the economy is growing, the country is getting rich. but it all comes at the expense of nature and of people's
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health. both are being destroyed. we had a balanced agriculture, but now argentina has become a gigantic monoculture. it is terrible. reporter: the soy industry is huge and it is also powerful. raul says it influences government decisions. the u.s. agrochemical company monsanto, the world leader in gmo seeds, wanted to build a huge production plant here in malvinas on the outskirts of the provincial capital cordoba. it had the approval of the government, despite protests by people living in the area. raul: this plant would further endanger people's health. we are exposed to so many toxins here already... endless amounts of pesticides. reporter: construction of the plant began, but local opposition was intense. they demonstrated in cordoba and
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elsewhere. they said they did not want any genetically-modified organisms or widespread spraying of pesticides in their backyard. a band sang about the issue. one of its raps is entitled "fuera monsanto" -- or "go away, monsanto!" state authorities eventually halted work on the plant. but fear and insecurity and a rash of diseases remain. raul takes us to meet the mothers of ituzaingo, a village surrounded by fields of gmo soy subjected to intensive spraying. these women have documented carefully the many problems they say have been caused by all the chemicals. in 2011 they won a court case. marcela: in our neighborhood there are many, many cases of cancer. people die young. but they continue to demand more proof that it is because of what is going on here.
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reporter: the soy industry and the agrochemical companies insist there is no connection. despite all the evidence that has been gathered. and they are extremely powerful lobbies, say the women. norma's daughter has been suffering from cancer for many years. norma: this is a photo of her from 2002. she was diagnosed with leukemia. i don't have the money to pay for good treatment. i bake and sell bread. that is all. it is hard to make ends meet. i am not doing as well as the soy farmers. reporter: a court ruled that the various chemicals may no longer be sprayed near the village, but the toxins are still there. almost every family has been hit by serious illnesses, miscarriages, or birth defects. marcela: it was horrible. my baby died at birth. it was very deformed. several years have passed, but
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it still upsets me. reporter: the mothers of ituzaingo campaign tirelessly against the agro-industry they say is destroying the people who live here. scientists say there is strong evidence to back up their claims. dr. delia aiassa is a geneticist. delia: the incidence of cancer in our province is way above the national average. there are problems with infertility and birth defects. and these problems are growing. many of the cases occur in areas where there is lots of spraying. i think there is clear medical evidence that the long-term use of pesticides causes genetic damage. reporter: soy production is continuing to expand in argentina, and with it, the use of agrochemicals.
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it is estimated that more than 300 million liters of pesticide were sprayed last year. the soy industry is also a major source of revenue for the state. it taxes profits at a rate of 35%. host: as it happens, soya is on the menu of this week's "global snack" establishment. don't worry, however, all the ingredients here are 100% organic and, where possible, locally sourced. which is good news for me since, this week's snack comes from just down the road in cologne, germany! >> cologne is a center of the german media industry. ehrenfeld is one of the hippest neighborhoods, a colorful mix of immigrants and young people.
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bunte burger is germany's first entirely vegan burger joint! you will find no meat, milk, or cheese on the premises. it's also entirely organic and the produce is locally sourced. its owners are ulrich glemnitz and mario binder. for them, a dream has come true. ulrich: it is something that is close to my heart. and mario's as well. so we decided to open a completely vegan restaurant. but without focusing too much on the term vegan. we have a different focus. it has to taste good! reporter: to check out whether or not they have succeeded, we go exploring. lettuce is being washed and sweet-potato wedges are frying. john campana is manning the griddle. john: this is a big slice of breaded seitan. we make the seitan fresh every few days.
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reporter: seitan is wheat protein, and appears to have been developed in china and japan, where it is popular among buddhists as an alternative to meat. john: this is pesto, made with fresh parsley, sweet mustard and sunflower seeds. then fresh lettuce. all sourced nearby. reporter: plus slices of gherkin and beetroot. john: people wander in here almost every day who are looking forward to a big juicy beef burger. well, they certainly don't get it here. we always offer them this kind of burger because in the mouth it feels most like meat. so far we haven't seen any committed carnivores walk out on us. reporter: the red onions are
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sauteed with a little sugar. john: fried onions for the crunch. reporter: and the other half of the bun, nice and warm from the th voluptuous confection is called the king dwiglpine burger. it appears to go down well. >> the ingredients are fresh, organic and locally sourced. the owners are incredibly nice, so we want to support them and enjoy some sustainable food. reporter: even demanding food critics seem to be convinced. host: it's not just rock stars who buy up islands in the indian ocean. not so long ago, a conservation organization did just that in the seychelles. no, this isn't an expose of corruption, it's a tale of how a
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little bird was saved from extinction. just as well, since conservation is crucial to the seychelles' elite tourism economy. reporter: it is easy to fall in love with a place like this. european seafarers four centuries ago were enchanted; nowadays, hollywood stars like to chill here. north island is a small granite island in the seychelles that boasts one of the world's most exclusive and expensive resorts: a night costs more than 2000 euros. prince william and his bride kate middleton spent their honeymoon here. the island used to be plagued by rats and wild cats, but not any more.
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in 1997, a foreign travel company bought the island and turned it into a luxury retreat -- and nature reserve. carl: everything run on north island is done with the environment in the background. the main reason the island was bought was to rehabilitate the island to what it looked like before humans settled on the island. there is great potential for this island to be a key biodiversity hotspot in the seychelles. reporter: there is a high level of biodiversity in the seychelles and a large number of endemic or unique native species, such as the blue pigeon, the white eye, and the white-tailed tropicbird. for ornithologists, the seychelles are a treasure trove.
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lindsay chong seng is a biologist and expert on the animals and plants of the archipelago. lindsay: it's the main thing for me. i like to see the endemics. i think before you can appreciate what you have you need to know about it. a lot of these things are so cryptic, and only the specialist knows about it. i'm trying to get them into mainstream. reporter: lindsay chong seng teaches at the university of seychelles in victoria, the capital, on the main island of mahe. most of the country's 90,000 people live there. the seychelles gained independence from britain in 1976. its colonial heritage is still very present.
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you can see it in the architecture; cars drive on the left; and the name of the capital is a dead giveaway. the people involved in biodiversity management here meet regularly at a hotel in victoria. among them is a team from the united nations' biodiversity finance initiative, biofin. it takes considerable amounts of money and other resources to maintain and protect nature. david: what does it cost to really do biodiversity conservation effectively? how many consultants do you need? how many vehicles do you need? what is the cost if you're going to expand the protected area network? how do you implement sustainable fisheries? what actions do you need? every detail of that is mapped out and costed, like you do a budget. reporter: that may all sound a little dry, but what biofin does is crucial. public and private sector players have to be identified
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and have to get involved. one project is about achieving financial autonomy for the national parks authority. the idea is to redirect revenue from tourism and visits to the marine parks towards biodiversity. didier: biodiversity is very much what we sell. it's the beauty of the island, it's the fish in the ocean, the coral reefs, in the mountains the birds, the plants. without biodiversity, without a healthy marine and terrestrial environment, the economy of seychelles has no chance. this country will not be a viable country. reporter: the beauty and diversity of nature is what draws foreign visitors -- more than 200,000 a year. tourism is the country's main source of income. but not mass-market holidaymakers. there are no huge hotels or resort complexes. the focus is on rich people and discreet luxury retreats.
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at one expensive hotel on the island of praslin that describes itself as eco-friendly, rare hawksbill and green turtles breed on the unspoiled beach. but right nearby is an 18-hole golf course. environmentalists protested when it was laid out, but to no avail. commercial interests can collide with concern for nature. the vallee de mai nature reserve nearby is not under threat. it is a unesco world heritage site. it is a large and well-preserved palm forest, with endemic species such as the coco de mer. its fruits are huge. they can weigh up to 25 kilograms and contain the largest seeds of any plant in the world.
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lindsay: i get very proud when i think of the coco de mer. it's the thing that really epitomizes the seychelles. there is an added responsibility. it doesn't belong to us, is -- it belongs to the rest of the world. and only because it has been found here, you are the guardian for the rest of the world. so you have to make sure it doesn't get distinct. -- doesn't become extinct. reporter: this sense of guardianship and respect of nature are widespread among the people of the seychelles. it was the first state to enshrine nature conservation in its constitution. that includes its territorial waters and the seafloor. its coral-reefs have experienced major die-offs, but efforts have been undertaken to revive them: special glue is used to attach coral to the rocks. david: if you lose the diversity of life on those coral reefs or in the water, seychelles becomes just another beach. and there are plenty of beaches
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in the world. didier: as we know more and have more resources, we should be able to turn this place in one of the greatest paradises you can find on earth. reporter: many might say the seychelles are already a paradise. but either way, it will take work and money to make sure the islands remain beautiful and the environment healthy for a long time to come. host: and the sun is setting on this edition of the program, too! do join us again next week for a new edition of the show but until then, thanks for watching, all the best, and goodbye for now. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org]
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♪ >> memphis, tennessee. it has been written, if music were religion, then memphis would be jerusalem and sun studio its most sacred shrine. and you are here! with flea market hustlers. ♪ all i can tell you is i'll be all right ♪ ♪ i'm the last man standing tonight ♪ >> i'm david preston. i'm in the flea market hustlers. i play acoustic guitar and lead vocals. i'm joined by mike sharp. >> i play the mandolin. >> i play the lead drum set. >> and we had joey fletcher on the

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