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tv   Global 3000  PBS  December 29, 2015 7:30pm-8:01pm PST

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>> hello and welcome to "global 3000." around the world, there is treasure just waiting to be found it can be precious metals... and also cash crops. in this edition of the program we'll be looking at the resources different countries hope will bring them prosperity and how they're trying to avoid exploitation. a curse or a blessing -- south sudan's global coffee industry booms while the country starves. new hope -- miners in bolivia turn to lithium to keep the industry alive. and nature without borders -- benin and togo join forces to protect the environment.
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a nice cup of coffee to start the day. in europe, it's the finns who drink the most coffee. people drink some 1.6 billion cups of coffee every day around the world some 80% of the world's coffee is produced by around 25 million smallholders. and, international coffee sales totaled over $70 billion u.s. in 2011 so there's plenty of money to be made for big firms exporting coffee but small-scale farmers receive only a fraction of the retail price. still, for many in the world's youngest nation, this may be a pretty good deal. >> the coffee harvest season has begun in south sudan. these farmers near the border with the democratic republic of congo are the first generation of south sudanese coffee exporters. until now, they produced coffee for the local market. many welcome the opportunity to sell abroad.
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>> it's much better to harvest the coffee for export. here we just take it to the wet mill and get our receipt, that's it. it's much easier than drying the coffee on your own and then having to look for a market here in south sudan. >> south sudan is the world's youngest nation. but it has already been torn apart by nearly two years of conflict in the north. central equatoria state, located in the south and known to be the country's agricultural heartland, has remained relatively peaceful. the company investing in the region is none other than coffee giant nespresso, a subsidiary of nestle, the world's largest food corporation.
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the firm was drawn by the unique taste of south sudan's coffee beans. nespresso is working with an ngo to set up this cooperative and provide much-needed infrastructure, including this wet mill. nespresso is marketing coffee production in south sudan as a unique opportunity for job creation and sustainable development. but although farmers welcome the extra cash, the two euros they currently earn per kilogram of exported coffee are not enough to buy food for their families. >> i'm busy harvesting the coffee, but then i also have to go and take care of my subsistence farm to grow food for my family. because of the rising cost of food in the market, i can only afford to buy essential items like cooking oil and salt.
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focusing more on cash crops, such as coffee, means that farmers spend less time and resources on growing food to feed themselves, and the nation as a whole. over 90% of south sudan's farmland is said to be fertile. >> but most of the food consumed in south sudan is imported at high cost, leaving the population at the mercy of exchange rate fluctuations. around 35% of the population are severely food insecure and many rely on food aid. even here, in the state of central equatoria, one of the most fertile patches of land in south sudan, farmers lack sufficient machinery and labour. it means they cannot produce enough food for the local population and growing influx of people fleeing conflict areas. >> the major problem is that we have no access to tractors. we have enough land, and we could hire a tractor, we could
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easily expand. >> the yei agricultural training center, a norwegian-funded local ngo, is trying to increase agricultural productivity by teaching farmers new techniques. for the centre's principal, coffee farming is an unnecessary distraction. >> the priority of the private sector is to fulfill the needs of the local market. that means that the next step is to go for cash crops to be imported to the outside countries or international, for example crops like coffee, crops like tobacco, but otherwise the priority is enough food for the local population. >> but with the onset of the conflict, private investments have dried up. ngos are focused on humanitarian rather than development projects. and the government is busy financing the war rather than building critical infrastructure such as roads.
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still, the minister of agriculture promises that with the recent signing of a peace deal, the government will spend more on agriculture. >> we shall give them ox ploughs, tractors, we shall give them walking tractors, so they can produce the food where they are. and then we open the feeder roads to the markets. >> just how much budget has been allocated to these activities remains unclear. despite repeated questions, the minister avoided providing details. how much budget have you allocated for feeder roads? >> this is what is in the planit is in the planit is in the budget...and also development partners are working, especially the world food programme and other organisations who are working in food security. >> the minister expects investors to start pouring in. yet for now nespresso's 2.2. million euro investment in coffee farms is the exception rather than rule.
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to attract more investors that can unleash the agricultural potential and stop hunger, south sudan needs better policies, and above all, it needs lasting peace. >> once upon a time in what is today bolivia, spanish colonists made a fortune from silver mining. that's why the mountain in the andes where the silver can be found, is called "cerro rico," the "rich mountain". in later years, people also mined zinc and iron ore there. but over the past five years iron ore prices have dropped by 76 percent which has left miners struggling to survive . now, people in the region are pinning their hopes on another resource: lithium. but for the moment, for those eeking out a living at cerro rico, life is hard. >> a bag of coca leaves and cigarettes at 10 a.m. that's how the miners in cerro rico start their day at the little shop at the mine.
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the shop offers everything that warms a miner's heart. gustavo mendez always stops off here on his way to work. work has already begun here at the mine run by the "caracoles" cooperative. but why are two lamas calmly waiting at the entrance? inside the mine, the air burns your throat. the shafts are humid, warm, and full of poisonous dust. today is friday, a day for sacrificial offerings. the first offering is for jesus on the cross. >> god, protect us from all evil. you have accompanied us to this point, lord. from here on, only tio the devil can protect us. nobody knows our fate.
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cheers, men! >> pure alcohol and cigarettes are the offerings with which the miners seek the favor of their gods. deep down in the mountain, 10,000 miners are at work. every day they dig new tunnels in the porous stone. all of these miners are members of a cooperative. and they keep most of the profits. they pay hardly any taxes, and are considered to be rebels. ultimately, the miners' good or bad fortune is decided by the infernal tio, the patron of the cerro rico miners. >> sometimes the prices for metals rise. then they fall again. right now, the price is very low.
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so it's not enough for us. sometimes not even for the family's daily bread. >> these days the miners find very little silver in cerro rico, just tin and iron ore. and their prices have been falling for years. the spanish conquistadores began mining in the cerro rico almost 500 years ago. they sent the silver from here to europe, exploiting bolivia's natural resources. bolivia wants to prevent that from happening again. the uyuni salt flats are four times the size of germany's state of saarland. the liquid under the salt crust contains an important material used to make batteries.
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in this facility, salt water evaporates, leaving behind lithium. bolivia wants to fuel its industrialization with the light metal. >> we think we have the right plan: we will process our bolivian natural resources ourselves, for the benefit of the bolivian people. we want to develop technologies to extract potassium and, especially, lithium more effectively. we have the world's largest lithium reserves but unlike at cerro rico in the past, we now want to use this to improve the living conditions of the bolivian people. >> bolivia is still in the early stages of industrialization and lacks the modern technology for extracting lithium.
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foreign investors and know-how are needed -- also in bolivia's only battery factory. here a pilot project has been launched with aid from china. the lithium mixture is poured onto copper foil, heated, then rolled up. that's the basis for lithium batteries. >> if we continue developing our batteries alone, we will need 30 years to industrialize. that's why we want fair industrial cooperation with europe or china, so that this process moves faster and our country develops. >> bolivia's future could lie in the progress of electric mobility, while cerro rico languishes as a monument to the past. today the caracoles coop turns 34.
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to celebrate, the two lamas we saw this morning are sacrificed. their blood is expected to bring the miners luck. the entrance to the shaft shows that the miners often ask for good fortune. before the lamas' organs are buried in the evening, the miners bless them with beer. this is a centuries-old sacrificial ritual for pacha mama, mother nature. lama blood is sacrificed to save the blood of miners. >> we'll become even bigger in the future. someday our dreams will come true. >> all the miners have dreams. but they also know that the mine could be exhausted of all its valuable minerals any day now. >> here at "global 3000," we like to take a broad look at everything that is happening around the world.
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but sometimes, it's also great to narrow the focus right down to people's living rooms. after all, living rooms reveal a lot about our culture and customs, and who we are. one of our viewers, gomati devi dohara invited us into her living room in nepal. >> namaste. please come inside. welcome to my home. when we are together we often talk about her education.
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i never went to school, but i tell her to study well, and get good marks. i ask her what she has learnt and what she hasn't learnt this is my small shop. the children from the school up there come and buy things here. this is all for the schoolchildren. the children like this one the best because it's salty and has a little bit of chili in it too. these are my son's books and notebooks. this is how he keeps his books at home.
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this poster talks about the impact of violence against women. women here are often exposed to violence in many different areas. and so this gives information about that, as it's a subject that often affects women in the villages. ok, thank you, have a good journey. and come again! ok. bye bye. >> the african continent is incredibly rich in rare species and spectacular scenery. but on the west coast, there are two countries that are not really on the radar of nature lovers: benin and togo. the river monno forms the border between benin and togo and its
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river delta is rich in fauna and flora. mangroves grow there, endangered sea turtles live there and its wetlands are a refuge for rare species. conservationists from both countries are now working hard to protect this environment. >> they've been fishing for seven hours. they pull up a dragnet out of the sea. it's over one kilometer long. the fish are simply too small, and in many places the altantic is overfished sylvain daavo works for an environmental organization. he'd like to see fishing in this part of the river delta banned, so the fish have a chance to spawn. >> we're proposing a ban on
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fishing for one kilometer around the river delta, so the fish will be able to pass back and forth between the mono river and the sea. we're seeking a consensus among the fishermen. >> the beach and the dunes beyond it are a natural paradise and home to sea turtles. they've been successfully protected in both benin and togo for years. this is where the biosphere reserve is due to begin in the future. we want to see how the mono delta biosphere reserve is progressing. benin and togo are two narrow countries. together they are over one hundred kilometers wide. they're separated by the mono river. the biosphere reserve consists of nine separate settlements. we're going to have a look at three of them. we set out from the large city
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of coutounou in benin. everywhere settlements are spreading, right on the coast. the coastal protection area begins right behind the beach. it's a unique biotope. here, where the mono river meets the sea, the mangroves begin. at the mouth of the river environmentalist sylvain daavo shows us the inland waterways behind it. his organization is helping to protect the mangrove forests. they've planted 45 new hectares and marked off spawning grounds for the fish with local residents. together they have built a tourist facility. the women do the cooking and the tourists can get close to nature. >> this is a form of tourism that respects the environment and doesn't degrade it.
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the hostel was built with local materials. we also want to show the wealth and uniqueness of the mangrove region by offering hiking tours. >> tourists are already booking the apartment. their stay includes visits to local fishermen and a boat trip through the mangroves. we continue inland to lake toho. here, patrice bada is supporting the future reserve. he's already won the fishermen and hunters over , so they'll respect the areas where fishing and hunting are prohibited.
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>> the hunting association supports what we're doing and is helping us with our work. the members act as guards in the park and make all the decisions regarding the area. >> it's a natural paradise, with protected marsh areas, rare species of plants and wildlife. how important is it to the hunters here to preserve their environment? patrice bada meets some guards on patrol. they used to hunt monkeys and antelope. now they earn a living by guarding the area against poachers. >> we used to sell the game or eat it ourselves. but we've stopped doing that. we want our children to see the
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wild animals in the future with their own eyes. >> patrice bada stays in close touch with the local hunting associations. he visits the villages, he encourages the hunters to act out their traditional rituals rather than going after real animals. suddenly they spy a monkey in the tree. but it's all just acting. this way they can preserve their beliefs in hunting-gods and in nature. the population of benin and togo is growing rapidly. and more and more land is being urbanized. local residents are burning down trees to clear land for farming. we fly to our last stop, the forest of godjime in togo. to the people in this area, the
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forest is sacrosanct. they head out into the woods, following their priests in a procession. they believe the gods of the forest can heal them from sickness and protect them from evil. the priests have always kept a close watch on the forest. but now they have the support of a local environmental group. they hope to reforest some areas and set up a patrol. >> the greatest threats to the forest are clearing and farming. >> they are working together to fight poaching, forest burning and timber thieves. environmental organizations are helping local people to protect key areas in both benin and togo, preserving both longstanding human traditions
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and the environment. >> are you familiar with our "millennium teens"? that is our regular feature where teenagers around the world tell us about their lives; lives which began fifteen years ago, at the start of this millennium. >> fifteen years since the start of the millennium. fifteen years of life "global" is visiting young people around the world who were born in the year 2000. >> "i love dancing" >> why not enter our millennium teens competition? all the details are online. what's important to angel in the seychelles? and what does simon love about life in buenos aires? find out in the coming weeks on "global 3000!"
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>> and if you happen to have been born in the year 2000, and would like to tell us about your life, your hopes, or what kind of music you like do take a moment and check out our website. there, you'll find everything you need to know in order to become one of our millennium teens and see yourself here on our programme. and with that, we come to the end of this edition of "global 3000." thanks very much for watching and do join us again next week. until then, from me and the entire "global" team, all the best, bye-bye and tschuss.
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steves: we're in rothenburg, germany's ultimate walled city. in the middle ages, when frankfurt and munich were just wide spots on the road, rothenburg was one of germany's largest cities,
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with a whopping population of 6,000. today, even with its crowds and overpriced souvenirs, i love this place. during rothenburg's heyday -- that was about 1200 to 1400 -- it was the intersection of two great trading routes -- prague to paris and hamburg to venice. but today, the great trade is tourism. rothenburg is a huge hit with shoppers. true, this is a great place to buy cuckoo clocks, steins, and dirndls, but see the town first. most of the buildings were built by 1400. like many medieval towns, the finest and biggest houses were built along herrengasse, named for the herren, or the wealthy class. the commoners built higgledy-piggledy ls. hanging shop signs advertise what they sold -- knives, armor, bread, whatever. rothenburg's wall,
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with its beefy fortifications and intimidating gates, is about a mile around and provides great views and a good orientation. rodertor is the only tower you can actually climb. it's worth the hike for the commanding city view and the fascinating display on the bombing of rothenburg in the last weeks of world war ii, when much of the city was destroyed. but rothenburg's most devastating days were 400 years ago, during the thirty years' war. in the 1600s, the catholic and protestant armies were fighting all across europe. the catholic army took the protestant town of rothenburg, and as was customary, they planned to execute the town leaders and pillage and plunder the place. but the catholic general had an idea. he said, "hey, if someone in this town can drink "a three-liter tankard filled with wine in one gulp, i'll spare the city." according to legend, rothenburg's retired mayor nusch said, "i can do that." mayor nusch drank the whole thing, the town was saved, and the mayor slept for three days.
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and today, tourists gather on the town square several times daily for a less-than-thrilling reenactment of that legendary chug. nice story, but in actuality, the town was occupied and ransacked several times during that 30 years of war, and when peace finally came, rothenburg was never again a major player. it slumbered peacefully until rediscovered in the 19th century by those same romantics who put the rhine on the grand tour map. they came here to paint and write about the best-preserved medieval town in germany. shops are filled with etchings and prints inspired by this 19th century romantic take on the town.
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♪ >> memphis, tennessee, it has been written if music were religion, an then memphis woulde jerusalem, and sun studio its most sacred shrine. and you are here, with deering and down! ♪ i think it's you when you swing me this way ♪ ♪ and when i hold >> hello, my name is lahna deering. >> and this is rev neil down. no period, and no predicate. >> and we are deering and down. and tonight on base, we have adrian mini from juneau, alaska. and on drums. >> james cunningham. >> right here from memphis. >> right here from

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