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tv   Global 3000  PBS  March 9, 2016 12:30am-1:01am PST

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king coal. who's still financing it? many major investment funds are pulling their money out. in kenya, we engage with elephants and find out why they need special protection. but first we report from north africa, where people in tunisia are growing increasingly frustrated. reporter: the people of tunisia are taking to the streets again. five years ago, this was the birthplace of the arab spring, with mass civil unrest directed at the government for its mishandling of the economy. there was so much hope that things would change after the fall of the regime. but today, there are still too few jobs and investments, while
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terrorist attacks are a growing problem this empty beach is the site of horrible memories for many people, including whalid rini and karim bouafio. they both worked in a hotel in the tunisian resort of sousse and witnessed 38 tourists being gunned down in cold blood. whalid: the terrorist had hidden a kalashnikov in a beach umbrella. then he fired randomly at the people as he came running from back there. reporter: videos taking with smartphones show the attacker. it was later reported that he was trained in a terrorist camp in libya. whalid: it's incomprehensible. how could he just murder all those people out here on the beach?
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reporter: the terrorist attack in sousse had dramatic consequences. large hotels were closed. the number of tourists in tunisia dropped by more than a million in 2015, and revenues have fallen by thirty percent. it's a disaster for those who earned their living from tourism. karim no longer knows how he'll be able to pay for medications for his ailing wife. karim: what are we supposed to do? either flee to lampedusa or join islamic state? somehow we have to find a way to feed our families. reporter: the mood at union meetings is heated. many have lost their jobs, but receive hardly any state benefits. it's this despair that plays into the hands of islamists.
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6000 young tunisians are said to be fighting with the jihadists in syria or libya. union leader houcine abassi is well aware of danger. he won the 2015 nobel peace prize for his contribution to building democracy in tunisia. houcine: we have to create jobs. only then can we keep our young people from emigrating or falling prey to extremists. we need factories, employment, they're the only hope for our small country. reporter: tunisia remains a country under threat. we sense that in sousse. in the hotels that are still operating, security hasn't really been stepped up. a few holidaymakers are scattered around the restaurant. most are retired germans who want to spend the winter here, now more than ever. is it a way of showing solidarity with tunisians? >> yes, definitely!
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>> of course, because we know families here and what the people are going through because of the attacks, and know how sorry they are about it. reporter: at the other end of town, whalid and karim take us to meet a family living in a basement. wafa ramdani and her husband worked in a hotel until this past summer. then they both lost their jobs. they don't know how they're going to feed their children. they've collected together clothes, which they're selling off piece by piece. but how long can they keep it up? you can see on this video how desperate their situation is. it shows wafa ramdani in sousse in front of the tourist authority. she'd poured gasoline over herself and planned to set herself alight. at the last minute she was prevented from doing so.
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wafa: i wanted to kill myself, because i was at my wits' end. no one helped us. so i poured petrol over myself. we no longer have a future. reporter: while wafa's husband is grateful she is still with him, but their desperation remains. tunisia was hit by three serious attacks in the past year. whalid's and karim's prospects are not positive. that's the terrorists' perverse logic, with only a few targeted attacks, they can inflict maximum damage on an entire country. whalid: why on earth did this terrorist come to destroy our lives? we can no longer pay our rent , or send our children to school. he's made our lives miserable.
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reporter: socio-economic problems create fertile ground for terrorist recruitment. youth unemployment in tunisia is at forty percent, and the figures are similar in egypt and jordan. europe, too, is seeing high unemployment especially in the southern countries where millions of young people are looking for jobs. europe is being put to a major test, yet there are some people who are convinced the problems can be overcome. ♪ marietje: europe has always been a dynamic project in movement in growth and in development. and it is up to us to create the europe that we want for the future.
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my name is marietje schaake. i'm a member of the european parliament, from the netherlands. and i represent a progressive liberal political party called d66. marietje: the most serious challenges and threats can be found in the countries around the european union. we see a middle east that is in a more explosive, fragile and conflict situation that we've seen in a very long time. of course we are the main provider of humanitarian aid as the european union. but it shouldn't end there. we have to look at solutions for the terrible wars in syria, the terrorist threats that is spreading across the world.
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confronted very directly with these people who seek freedom and safety by coming to europe. but we also have to think about what future these young people will find. and how we can make sure that they have economic opportunities. in the ict-sector there are actually jobs. and there are around 1 million unfilled vacancies in europe still. we can not have such high youth unemployment on the one hand and then vacancies unfilled because of the mismatch in skills. so we have to really focus on developing the digital single market in europe. making it easier for businesses to do what they do best.
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and there are still a lot of boundaries in the way, differences in rules. when it comes to copyright, consumer protection, value added taxes that are different across europe or different for digital products or non digital products. environment where access to capital is easier for companies. so that they can invest and grow or innovate. and then i think we have to address the global challenges. where we have to make a choice in what kind of europe we want to be. we have emerging economies that are growing and this is a great opportunity. but it also presents us with different positions on the
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global stage. some of the emerging economies are realizing growth and development at any cost. without any regard for people or planet. and that is not how we would like to do business in europe. we are very much focussed on high standards when it comes to the environments, to labor circumstances, to fundamental rights and privacy, animal welfare, food safety. >> we have to work on a global system where rules guide trade and that we have respect for people and planet baked into economic development. i think that this is an area where europe can and should lead. let us not be paralyzed in the face of many challenges that the world presents but really take them on as a we say in netherlands we should role up our sleeves and get to work.
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reporter: there could be as many as 14 million species on our planet, but they are thought to be vanishing at a rate of 100 a day. in our global ideas series we meet people who are committed to preserving biodiversity. today we are in kenya on the trail of elephants. in and around the amboseli national park, there is a route that's been used by the majestic mammals for thousands of years. over time, settlements grew along its path, and that has led to conflicts. global 3000 reporter wiebke feuersenger learns about a clever approach to the problem.
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wiebke: we're with an officer from the international fund for animal welfare, tracking one of twelve elephants fitted with gps transmitters. evan: there you are, so the guy who is looking away from the rest of them is the kimana male. wiebke: the young bull elephant is wearing a six-kilo transmitter around his neck. but since he himself weighs about five tons, the animal scarcely notices it. evan: they tend, elephants tend to actually the big boys and even the younger boys, because the families stick together - the matriarch, and the ladies and the babies, they stick together.but the boys tend to hang out in small groups or big groups. so now he is in a kind of bachelor herd. so he is hanging out with the boys and you could see the big boys. he is in the middle of them and then there are the younger boys like the small one, who is running behind. a little guy who has just joined the herd and is learning the tricks of being a big bull in a herd of elephants. wiebke: the elephant's migration
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patterns show that when he leaves the national park, he never goes farther than the border to tanzania. then he turns back, as if he knew elephant hunting is allowed there. at just 390 square kilometres, the park is relatively small, but the ecosystem in which the animals from amboseli move about is twenty times larger. about 1,400 elephants live in the amboseli basin. in the evening they leave the park to find food. in the morning they return to the watering holes. the same goes for the cattle of the maasai people. evan: elephants and livestock tended to go together. they are both grazers. they walk together and i've seen, personally, i've seen livestock grazing together very
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harmoniously without a problem. the lives of the maasai revolve around their cattle. -- wiebke: the lives of the maasai revolve around their cattle. a family's wealth is measured by the size of its herd. even their houses are made of cow dung mixed with clay. after heavy rainfalls, the roofs have to be resealed. times are hard. gideon is 16 and would like to continue going to school, but there's not enough money. gideon: in this village, we have many families. we live together in harmony, in peace and we kept our livestock. but there is a crisis in this country. 2008/2009, it actually caused many of livestock to die. but earlier, before the crisis,
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we find a maasai having more than 1000 cattle. but now it has been reduced to ten cattles. wiebke: the men tend the livestock. everything else is women's work. gideon's mother provides for her eight children by selling jewellery to safari tourists. with poverty come new problems. some of the maasai communities in amboseli have partitioned and sold their land. investors from nairobi are now cultivating maize where elephants and other wild animals used to forage for food. more and more bush and grazing land is vanishing. bernard tulito, a massai himself, has been observing that development with trepidation. bernard: this is madness, because the moment you sell your land, and you don't have any place where you can live, where
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you can go, where you can put your livestock, it is the end of you. and after having all this chunk of money, huge amount of money. and spent it on ways that are not economically viable, it leads you to more problems. i've seen a scenario whereby one of the culprits of elephant poaching, we're realized it was one of the guys who have sold his land. wiebke: that's why bernard tulito is out visiting the villages every day. he knows the animals will only have a chance if the lives of the people improve. that means providing grants for education and creating jobs. the international fund for animal welfare has trained 30 maasai to be community wildlife rangers.
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>> squad, fall out. wiebke: on patrol, they look for evidence of wounded animals and signs of poaching. someone has stretched thick steel wires between these trees, a lethal trap for giraffes, whose meat and hides are highly valued beyond the border. >> there is a snare for a giraffe. we got it here, early in the morning. wiebke: a local has had a run-in with an elephant. a wildlife ranger asks whether his state compensation has arrived. the man had climbed a tree to escape a young bull elephant. the elephant rammed the tree and buried him under it. nachukul: our job is so much more interesting than working in a safari lodge. during our training we get to
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know other parts of the country. we get around and see new things all the time. wiebke: at the foot of mount kilimanjaro the international fund for animal welfare has leased an additional 6500 hectares from the maasai. that provides them a regular income and protects the land from further settlement. the elephants come here to feed or use the kitenden corridor as a transit route to reach other grazing land. in this way, even the smallest of these elephants can live to a ripe old age of sixty in safety here. reporter: we're going to stop global warming."
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that was the resolve of last year's international climate conference. to achieve that, co2 emissions and fossil fuel use have to be reduced. oil, gas and coal have been reliable sources of profit. until now, that is. prices have been plunging for quite some time and investors are taking vast amounts of their money out of the sector. reporter: painful pictures, at the 2015 paris climate conference, the world's nations agreed to end the carbon-based economy, but smokestacks are still spewing out greenhouse gases. for how much longer? 10 years? perhaps 50? model cities such as rhizao in the chinese province of shandong demonstrate that the transition to solar and wind energy has begun. there are examples like these all around the world. despite that, phasing out coal, oil and natural gas won't happen
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overnight. but hasn't the fossil fuel industry long been playing for time? divest now, for years a worldwide movement has been urging people to stop investing in fossil fuels. its initiator bill mckibben gives the coal industry 15 more years at the most. otherwise, the climate expert tells large crowds at events, preventing global temperatures from rising more than 2 degrees celsius above pre-industrial levels cannot be achieved. is mckibben a radical? bill: i think we know what we need to do. i think we've peeled away the layers of the onion. we've got to the very heart of things. as of tonight, we're taking on the fossil fuel industry directly.
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[applause] the moment has come that we have to make real stands. we're reaching limits. the biggest limit that we're running into may be that we're running out of atmosphere into which to put the waste products of our society, particularly the carbon dioxide that's the ubiquitous by-product of burning fossil fuel. reporter: london. this is the source of the data mckibben relies on. carbon trackers, an ngo, has determined that the enormous sums invested in fossil fuel companies, funds and insurance policies, are at risk. anthony: the main assets are the oil, gas and coal in the ground and the extent to which the future business of these companies is based on those assets, and particularly if they start pouring significant amounts of money into developing those. i mean for example we've seen a recent example, shell poured around 8 billion dollars into
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drilling in the arctic and has now pulled out of the arctic, so of course that 8 billion is now lost. you could describe that as value destruction. reporter: a "carbon bubble" is said to threaten those funding shell and other fossil fuel companies. a disastrous devaluation of their investments is looming. what greenpeace activists have long been claiming is now considered the scientific consensus. we can only allow ourselves to use a fifth of the world's reserves. at the same time, more and more people understand that the fossil fuel industry works by using everyone's savings, invested in funds and insurance policies. bill: these companies are a rogue force. they're outlaws. they're not outlaws against the laws of the state, they get to write those for the most part, but they're outlaws against the laws of physics. if they carry out their business plans, the planet tanks. reporter: more than 500 institutions around the world have by now pledged themselves
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to divest more than $3.4 trillion from the coal and oil sectors. they include cities such as oslo, institutions like the rockefeller brothers fund, and insurers such as allianz. anthony: it's great, it is putting pressure, but we need also to create a hard place to divestments rock. we need to map out the transition for the fossil fuel industry, around which mainstream financial institiutions can engage. reporter: are alarm bells also ringing in the financial world? the city of london, the bank of montreal's global asset management is one of the world's top funds managers. the institution was worried about its portfolios before the paris summit. where might it find new investment opportunities outside the coal and gas industries? matthias: it's most important for the markets to have this energy transition take place with as few surprises as possible. that was one of our demands to
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the g7 and g20 members. on the part of investors, we actively promoted having the 2 degree target implemented in a way that the markets can adjust to. reporter: the transition from coal and oil won't be enforced with a big bang, but gradually, via limits on emissions. the paris conference, cop-21, produced a situation big money can work with. matthias: if we sit down with funds managers and say we can predict everything, we can calculate our carbon footprint and what it says about investment risk, that's the point where things get going. it's important that the cop-21 framework gives us political guidelines so we as investors can say okay, we can move within these parameters. now we can decide where to divest and where to invest.
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>> so, that's our job, to rewrite the story. reporter: for the divestment movement, the most recent climate conference was a success. but its opponents from the coal and oil sector are also pleased with the paris agreement. the big money will be able to rely on its old sources of profit for quite a while yet. is there still a future for oil, gas and coal? what do you think? share your opinion with us on facebook. join us again next week, on global 3000. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] x0
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