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tv   Global 3000  PBS  May 6, 2016 7:30pm-8:01pm PDT

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anchor: "global 3000" this week goes to colombia, where people are feeling the effects of climate change. how can they tackle this? we head to ghana to meet some activists who want to deter their rural compatriots from heading for europe. and in afghanistan we find artists who are processing the everyday terror in public through painting. after the attacks in paris and brussels, artists around the world responded with a message of defiance -- we are against terrorism and all the terrorists in the world will not silence us. graffiti is stronger than violence. that's a belief shared by artists in kabul.
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reporter: life in kabul is a bit brighter when these artists brandish their own weapons--paintbrushes against terror and fear today they are painting pictures of football players from the national team. it's an attempt to conjure images of peace -- in a city still shaken by war. omaid sharifi: these guys are giving hope. like football at this moment of time. hope is gone, people are leaving this country, they're giving hope. reporter: sharifi and his friends want to inspire courage in their compatriots. and they need courage to do it. this wall is actually part of a government ministry. it's supposed to act as a shield against terrorists. it's not wise to linger here. attacks occur in this city almost daily. only hours earlier, a friend of sharifi's was killed. omaid sharifi: i really don't know how to react to this anymore. the last time when i was painting in the street, i didn't
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care about this. but today i'm really afraid, i'm really afraid that it's coming closer to us, every single day. this is the only way i can say no to these barbaric terrorists. this is the only way that i can tell them that i will continue my work and there is so many other people that will continue. and if i stop, they will win, and i really don't want them to win. reporter: many residents of kabul have hunkered down, with good reason. but not omaid sharifi. when tv cameras are allowed, it's only for brief intervals. filming these walls is prohibited, so it has to be done on the sly. the subversive painting all started with this pair of eyes. their gaze is intended for corrupt officials who drive by every day, and it has a glaring message -- we see you. we're vigilant. the street artists couldn't bear to see the rest of the wall blank, so they kept painting.
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omaid sharifi: my city looks like a prison. it was a beautiful city, with beautiful mountains. now when i see all these big walls, these ugly walls, it reminds me that explosions happen, suicide attacks happen, people get killed. reporter: but they can't just paint anywhere they want. it often takes weeks to get their permits approved. any non-government employee in this area is viewed with suspicion. video surveillance cameras are everywhere. security forces must be prepared for anything. but they weren't prepared for a street artist's portrait of gandhi, a universal symbol of non-violence. omaid sharifi: it's enough of violence, it's enough guns, so let's come over and let's just start something new. and that only be possible to non-violence. reporter: the artists have gradually drawn a number of fans. and a life of danger for local police has become a bit more colorful, too. >> i think the pictures are very good. the artists really want to change something.
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they want to improve life in our country. reporter: these artists want nothing less than to see kabul become the graffiti capital of the world. they want to laugh, even though they have every reason to cry. they want to stay in afghanistan, even though tens of thousands of afghans have fled. omaid sharifi: when i was a kid i saw two people beheaded in front of me, during the taliban regime. whenever i come from my home, every day in my car, i really feel that there will be an explosion and i will not return back to my family. these are real challenges, real threats. but at the back of my mind, i still feel that i can bring so many changes here. reporter: basir, a friend of sharifi's, lived in germany for many years. his family had fled afghanistan in the 1990s. he returned in 2007, at first because he'd fallen in love. after that, he fell in love with his country.
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basir hamidy: i don't want to sound like i'm moralizing against the people who have left. but who's going to solve the problems here if everyone leaves? who got germany back on its feet after world war ii? the germans, especially the young people in germany. so we need afghans to stay and rebuild afghanistan. reporter: but for that, they need peace. if it ever comes, these protective walls will be torn down, and with them, these pictures. no matter, the artists say. as long as that day comes, that's all that matters. omaid sharifi: the future doesn't belong to those cowardly terrorists, that they kill people. they're done. they're the clouds and they will be removed soon. so this is a statement that we are making today. reporter: the artists say they'll keep on painting until they can claim victory. there are more than enough walls in kabul to fill with their images. anchor: staying put, even if everything is in scarce supply.
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when the crops are meager, there are too little access to education and jobs. people in this situation with a bit of savings can easily fall prey to people smugglers, and untimely death. but how can people be deterred from going down this route? we went to ghana to find some answers. reporter: there are thousands of women and girls known as kayayƩ working in the markets of ghana's capital accra, transporting wares on their head. they carry up to 40 kilos at a time. they come from rural families in the north of the country, effectively migrants in their own land. zenaibu tells us she's 17 years old and has three children. she comes from wale wale in the north. she earns 20 cedis a day, around 5 euros, for herself and her children. we travel to the north of the country. this is where the sahelian zone begins, a belt between the sahara desert and the savanna to
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the south. there is some farming, but very little rain. in the village of savelugu, a theatre group is about to perform. many people from this region would love to go to europe. the theatre group has taken up the issue. aminu munkaila was once a refugee himself. he tells of his experiences in the desert and trying to cross the mediterranean. "believe me, few make it across the desert," he says. then the story begins. one family has a son who's earning well abroad. his father can buy a tractor. then another man comes on, the father of another family. he's envious and wants a tractor, too. so he sends his daughter and two sons to europe. preparations for the journey begin. they pay a so-called "connecting
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man" who promises safe passage to libya. the journey begins. one of their friends dies of thirst on the way and they bury him in the sahara. aminu munkaila founded the african development organization for migration, or afdom for short. the group tours the villages and produces radio clips. they also teach in schools on the dangers of trying to get to europe. the play continues. the sister gets raped by a trafficker and dies. the brothers feel guilty for not protecting her. the oldest son eventually returns home -- his sister is dead, his brother drowned in the mediterranean. the parents are shocked and grieved. the son cannot bear to live with the guilt and sense of failure. the regional capital tamale has become a hub for migration. aminu munkaila meets refugees here all the time.
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aminu munkaila: many of those people migrating from the rural places, they come to tamale as a transit point, arrange themselves, and then they go. reporter: afdom has an office in tamale. many of the workers are former refugees. ibrahim wumpini broke off his journey in the desert in mali. he knows many similar cases. ibrahim wumpini: uncountable. there are more than number, those i know. >> 10 or 20? ibrahim: even more than 100. and i even know some who are now in europe and they are not finding it easy. some of them they want just to get fare and come back home, but that's a problem to them. reporter: aminu munkaila has written an account of his own story. he says crossing the desert was the worst. the traffickers charged 140 euros per person, taking 28,000
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euros in all. aminu munkaila: more than 200 people in the car. so at a point in time people suffocate to death. people suffocated, they overloaded the vehicle. people suffocate to death, that's one thing. and some time when you are going and your car breaks up on the way, that's another serious problem. people end up dying on the route. there were some few women in our car, they were about six, some from nigeria and some from ghana. this is a point and a place where they were just calling them, send them to their house and raping them whilst we were waiting for them to go. at that point if you try to misbehave they ask you to lie down and face the sun. imagine on the desert. reporter: aminu munkaila tried three times to cross to italy. twice the boat capsized and he ended up back in libya. on his third attempt he was rescued by a ship from the german charity cap anamur and taken to italy, together with other refugees from ghana. but they were immediately deported.
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aminu munkaila comes from a farming family. his father was unable to support him. he takes us to the village of gbulahigu. thanks to a new irrigation system, local residents are escaping subsistence farming. now they can even harvest crops twice a year. afa tunusah nindoo: now i harvest 35 sacks of rice per hectare. i used to get just five. but we need tractors if we want to expand the area we farm. then we wouldn't have so many people leaving, like our girls who go to accra to carry market wares. some of my family have already gone. reporter: a reservoir dam has turned the savanna into an oasis. the rice and vegetable plantations here, sponsored by european aid, are exemplary. aminu and afdom want to initiate more projects like this. aminu munkaila: so we want to
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see a harvest. as much we are campaigning and vigorously campaigning against, or convincing them not to go, we should also have an alternative for them to stay in ghana here. reporter: maybe initiatives like those organized by afdom will encourage more people to stay. providing a decent future for them here in their homeland so they don't attempt the dangerous journey to europe. anchor: millions of people worldwide are fleeing war and poverty. many have their hopes set on europe. migratory flows are affecting switzerland, too. but not everyone is willing to welcome these newcomers. sometimes there are protests. we explore what's behind them. maria widmer: my name is maria. i come from switzerland. hello. what's your name? mohammed: hello. my name is mohammed. karin sallmann: where are you from? mohamed abdrahman: i come from
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syria. reporter: they are trying really hard to learn german. refugees from places like syria, tibet, iran, somalia, and eritrea, they have little in common, but are making new lives far from home, a new country with the new culture and a new language. they are here, small village near bern. population 125. it is the stuff of fermented dreams, but it is also traditional and very conservative. almost half of voters here support the right-wing populist svp party. regional authorities decided to host refugees here in a former schoolhouse on the edge of the village.
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the decision in autumn 2014 was not a popular one. the villagers marched in protest each night. they try to force a referendum on the matter. rolf kohler: it's a peaceful village. but you don't have that impression anymore. if you go to the station and board the train to bern, it's like being a stranger. 20 or 25 asylum-seekers will get on, too, and you're pretty much the only swiss person there. silvia roth: our biggest concern was the fact that we have two adolescent daughters. that was a big issue for us, with so many new people streaming into our village. reporter: the fears that seems so deep-seated have not been justified. there has been no increase in crime or violence.
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perhaps in the!!!!!! at least in because alongside the young men, there are women and children and families in the schoolhouse. and they are busy. residents have to take care of chores. this gives them independence and counts towards integration. katharin shalaby: people here focus very much on the future of course. they know they don't want to live like this, collectively, forever. they want their lives to move on and take shape. and learning the language, working, building friendships and having a clear structure to their days -- they need all of that. it feels good and gives them confidence. reporter: the refugees do the shopping and cooking themselves, and often share meals, swapping recipes and ideas. they are responsible for looking
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after themselves and their new, albeit temporary home. most people here welcome the opportunity to be involved. mohamed abdrahman: i'm so happy that i can do things here -- clean, work. it's never boring, which is great. roben youssef: i see how others talking, how like live, make food. you can learn everything. omer omer: when i first got here, i was afraid. but now everything is good. i talk to my friends in my room, i hear their stories. reporter: some of found work outside, too. much of it is pretty basic, but it is work. the pay is 5 swiss francs an hour. peter zubrist helps to organize the jobs, and gets involved himself, too. he never had reservations about
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the newcomers, and regularly goes jogging and swimming with them. peter zubrist: from my point of -- as far as i'm concerned, they are welcome to stay. i think it's great that they're here. meeting them has enriched my life. reporter: that is a view shared by many. in the first swiss referendum about a home for migrants, nearly 80% of this small community voted in favor of the new residents. a sensational shift in attitudes. >> this is the reality of the world at the moment and you have to do something to help. >> so far i only have good things to say. >> everything's great. really good. you're hardly aware of them at all. reporter: it is a combination of the open-mindedness of people like peter and a smart integration concept. now this conservative swiss village is giving traditional welcome to untraditional new arrivals. anchor: and now to our "global
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ideas" series. this is where we meet people working to preserve biodiversity. today we look at the variety of species still found in colombia. what can be done to help farmers in the andes deal with the effects of climate change? and what role can microcredits play in this? our reporter holger trzeczak went along to find out more. reporter: this farmer had to take out a small loan to be able to plant his sugar cane. but it's still not clear whether he can cover those costs. everything looks lush and green to the untrained eye. surely the 1000-euro loan shouldn't be a problem. but the farmer says it's far from a bumper harvest.
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jesus chicaisa castillo: whether we sow beans or corn, we lose a lot of our crop. the sugar cane up there has basically dried out. and the stuff back there looks a lot better than it is. reporter: we've come to the province of narino, in southern colombia. this area is in the andes, at an altitude of 2,500 meters. much of it is farmland. climate change has made the harvest increasingly unpredictable. so farmers are relying more than ever on extra help. chemical pesticides and fertilizers may keep pests away, but they also strip the soil of nutrients. the concept of environmentally sustainable farming is not yet widespread in colombia. but in the regional capital pasto, a start is being made.
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banks specializing in microcredits advise farmers how they can adapt to the new conditions brought about by climate change. here, microloans are not only awarded to those just starting out, but also to encourage existing farmers to change to more sustainable methods. these include in particular techniques designed to save water. and so a steady trickle can be heard in many areas, as water is directed specifically to the roots of the plants, where it's needed. the equipment for this costs a !1000 euros, but it apparently pays for itself within a year. bank consultant ana cristina says farmers here urgently need to change their methods. she studied conservation and takes us to see valleys where the natural vegetation is gradually disappearing. ana cristina zamora: here much of the area has turned to
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desert. there's hardly any green left. there are still people living here, but there's hardly anything growing. a family can grow a bit of grain to make bread for their own consumption but that's it. reporter: the young banking consultants are also environmental advisers. they're part of a u.n. program developed in germany for the whole of the andes. sometimes the consultants learn things themselves while on the job. we visit gabriel chicaiza. he has no problems with rain shortages. he has left the forest surrounding his land intact. and he tells us that he's always managed his water using the age-old methods of colombia's indigenous peoples. the arid conditions suffered by most farmers in the andes are not an issue here.
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gabriel chicaiza: we're not so affected because the water here is what comes from up there, just like it always was. we collect it, and then through the plants it can vaporize again. sometimes i even have enough water to give to people back there. other farmers really need to understand this principle to protect themselves from climate change. reporter: bank consultants have a good reputation in this part of colombia, as we discover the next day. the contactor staff often travel long distances to visit their clients and potential clients. they offer training sessions to farmers that are clearly well attended. today they're discussing the advantages of organic fertilizers over chemical ones. but not everyone is open to taking a loan, even a microloan. this farmer for example financed his first cow simply by scrimping and saving.
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jose de la cruz: if you take out a loan, they've got you just where they want you. if i pay 2 million pesos for a cow, why should i also pay 50,000 extra in interest? reporter: loans here are indeed expensive by european standards. but buying an oven for one !!!1000 euros, which requires one quarter of the wood that a conventional oven would use, means less work and helps preserve the forest. for farmer juan and his family, the investment makes sense. but they are already known to be reliable in paying back loans, so they get an interest rate of less than 5%. they used their last loan to buy chickens. they now use the chicken droppings to produce organic fertilizer.
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juan jesus acosta: we use this when it's hot. and it's good for the soil. it makes our work worthwhile. reporter: farming vegetables is their main line of work, but should things deteriorate on that front, they now have a second source of income. gloria lucia bustos: this is just one of 10 methods that we're using to help the farmers. we give microcredits for ecologically efficient wood ovens, biogas plants, solar-powered coffee roasters, water tanks, a whole range of things, plus we provide training on how to adapt to climate change. reporter: these people are the future of colombian farming. they're studying agricultural science at the university of narino.
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they're learning about sustainable farming methods. how to take care of the soil is just one of many new skills that they're learning at a model finca. the idea is that farmers would also be able to come here in the future to watch how sustainable farming methods can be combined with modern, small-scale technology. and so we find ourselves standing on the edge of a valley that shows what the future could hold for colombia. where areas that were once almost barren could be transformed into green oases like this one. anchor: and that's all from "global 3000" for today. we'll be back again next week with more interesting topics. we love hearing from you, so do write on our facebook page or send us an email to
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steves: while dedicating a month of your life to walk the camino may be admirable, it doesn't work for everyone. but any traveler can use this route as a sightseeing spine and as an opportunity to appreciate some of the joys and lessons that come with being a pilgrim. just 5 miles before the spanish border stands the french basque town of st. jean-pied-de-port. traditionally, santiago-bound pilgrims would gather here to cross the pyrenees and continue their march through spain. visitors to this popular town are a mix of tourists and pilgrims. at the camino office, pilgrims check in before their long journey to santiago. they pick up a kind of pilgrim's passport.
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they'll get it stamped at each stop to prove they walked the whole way and earned their compostela certificate. walking the entire 500-mile-long route takes about five weeks. that's about 15 miles a day, with an occasional day of rest. the route is well-marked with yellow arrows and scallop shells. the scallop shell is the symbol of both st. james and the camino. common on the galician coast, the shells were worn by medieval pilgrims as a badge of honor to prove they made it. the traditional gear has barely changed -- a gourd for drinking water, just the right walking stick, and a scallop shell dangling from each backpack. the slow pace and need for frequent rest breaks provide plenty of opportunity for reflection, religious and otherwise. for some, leaving behind a stone
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symbolizes unloading a personal burden. the first person to make this journey was st. james himself. after the death and resurrection of christ, the apostles traveled far and wide to spread the christian message. supposedly, st. james went on a missionary trip from the holy land all the way to this remote corner of northwest spain. according to legend, in the year 813, st. james' remains were discovered in the town that would soon bear his name. people began walking there to pay homage to his relics. after a 12th-century pope decreed that the pilgrimage could earn forgiveness for your sins, the popularity of the camino de santiago soared. the camino also served a political purpose. it's no coincidence that the discovery of st. james' remains happened when muslim moors controlled most of spain. the whole phenomenon of the camino helped fuel the european passion to retake spain and push the moors back into africa. but by about 1500,
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with the dawn of the renaissance and the reformation, interest in the camino died almost completely. then, in the 1960s, a handful of priests re-established the tradition. the route has since enjoyed a huge resurgence, with 100,000 pilgrims trekking the santiago each year.
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- this program is made possible in part by historic marion, virginia, home of the wayne henderson school of appalacian arts. celebrating 20 years as a certified virginia main street community. the ellis family foundation general francis marion hotel. this historic general francis marion hotel and black rooster restaurant and lounge, providing luxurious accommodations and casual fine dining. the bank of marion. your vision, your community, your bank. emory & henry college, since 1836. solving problems through creative and collaborative results-based education. wbrf 98.1 fm.


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