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tv   Global 3000  PBS  January 6, 2017 7:30pm-8:01pm PST

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>> this week, global 3000 heads to senegal, where winning a wrestling match can mean a ticket out of poverty. in jordan, it's hard enough to find a job as it is, let alone for syrian refugees. what's the solution? but first, we go to argentina, where violence and discrimination against women are part of daily life. but the tide is turning. life for females can be a risky business. for that reason, in recent months, women have been taking to the streets in chile, in peru, in mexico, to protest against repression and violence, against a culture where they are denied the same rights as men. every year, around 60,000 women are murdered in latin america, often by their own husbands or
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boyfriends, and the crimes are becoming increasingly brutal. now, in argentina, too, more and more women are starting to speak out. their protests are drawing international attention, and their movement is growing bigger all the time. because even though there have been some social and political changes, discrimination against women, and gender violence that targets them, is still far too common in argentina. enough of the much ismo, -- the machismo says co-founder of the , movement 'ni una menos' which means 'not one less.' >> we women have to start a revolution. otherwise, the murders of women in the violence we experience in every aspect of life will never
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stop. the most important thing is to pull this topic out into the light, onto the street. we can no longer remain silent. >> women have taken to the streets of buenos aires and other cities in recent months to demonstrate. it's a wake-up call to the community, one in which domestic violence against women is actually on the rise. it's a topic that can no longer be ignored. >> this friend of ours was killed by her ex-husband right in front of their son. >> 286 women were murdered last year alone, usually by their husbands, exes or current boyfriends. on average, one woman dies at the hand of a man every 30 hours in argentina. monica cuñarro is fighting within the justice system to change this trend. the district attorney just successfully prosecuted a case where the defendant was sentenced to life in prison for stabbing his partner to death in front of their children. a rare success. most perpetrators in similar circumstances get off with
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a lighter sentence. >> femicide is more than just murder. it's murder with the specific intention of killing a woman after a long period of belittling, humiliating, beating and abusing her. the perpetrator has usually been in control of the woman's life for years, and he feels he has the right to end her life if he chooses. >> since 2012, 'femicide' has been legally defined in argentina's criminal code. but not much has changed in real terms. cuñarro says that's because the justice system is dominated by men. less than 10% of the country's judges are women. >> the judicial system gives the appearance of operating correctly, at least in formal terms. but you also find machismo there. men occupy almost all of the key
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posts, even though the women who have applied for the positions are often better qualified than they are. >> the activists from "ni una menos" are now raising their banners in front of the palace of justice in buenos aires. founded a year and a half ago, the movement doesn't only want just punishment for perpetrators. it's also demanding change in a culture where women have less status than men. that's a goal for monica cuñarro , as well as mariana carbajal from "ni una menos". the journalist and author has dedicated her life to preventing violence against women. the motherange not just society, but also the way people view things. >> machismo is a fundamental evil in a culture where women still don't have the same rights as men. that's the essential point at the heart of this whole problem. if men can do things to women with impunity, and women aren't given adequate protection, then
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that just makes the problem worse. we at 'ni una menos' we say that women have to stand up and take action, not only in protest against femicide, but also against discrimination of women in society. >> carbajal thinks it's important to raise awareness, and not just with demonstrations. she says a sober, no-nonsense public dialogue on the topic is needed. so she regularly appears on talk shows to discuss it. >> a lot of media attention is devoted to how a man killed a woman, whether he cut her throat, stabbed her, or burned her. but that does nothing to help change the situation. reports should focus more on what can be done to end the murder of more women in argentina. >> the cycle of violence in machismo societies mostly begins
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when a woman tries to free herself from the confines of a traditional relationship, and develop self-confidence or realize dreams that don't suit her partner. like elena bonini did. she was emotionally humiliated and abused. >> you think things like that only happen in the lower classes. you have an education, you are middle class. so it can't happen to you! but then it does, and somehow you feel it's your fault. escaping that stigma is incredibly difficult. >> argentina's women want to break down antiquated machismo social structures. and more and more often, they're giving voice to their demands. >> our protest marches are directed at all violence against women. women have to have the same rights.
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because so many of us, my friends, my sisters, i myself, suffer every single day. >> most of the men here don't want to hear anything about gender equality. i think that men attack, beat and murder women because they're afraid of them, and would rather continue to dominate them. >> these women have had enough. and the voices of young women are loudest. they're protesting more and more frequently, and they have no intention of giving up. >> the middle east is another region in crisis. the countries bordering syria are predicted to see significant population increases over the next few years, particularly turkey and iraq. and unemployment poses a huge challenge throughout the region, especially amongst youth. in jordan, the numbers of job seekers now also include many syrians. because without work, life in
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the refugee camps - like zaatari - can feel pretty hopeless. >> the zaatari refugee camp has become the last stop for many syrian refugees in jordan. more than 80,000 people live here in cramped quarters. food supplies are barely sufficient to feed the population. many are desperate to find small jobs to improve their circumstances. >> we don't have official work permits. i may go back to syria. i'd rather die in the war there than continue like this. >> the situation is not much better for the more than one million syrian refugees believed to be living in jordanian cities. many women are on their own, or with their children. their husbands are dead or still in syria or on their way to europe. >> i'm two months behind in the rent. we're stuck here. i can't work. i'm thinking of going back to syria with the children to live
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with relatives. i can't support us here. >> no work, no money, no future. that's how most syrian arrivals describe their life in jordan. authorities give work permits to only a fraction of refugees. it's a sensitive issue, since unemployment in jordan is high and the economy is weak. ahmad el assaf is one of the lucky few. the 58 year old refugee from homs got a job as a street cleaner. he lives in mafraq in northern jordan, and each morning, he and his colleagues set off under the hot sun with brooms and carts. >> the kind of work doesn't matter to me. the important thing is that that i feel at peace. i can pay our rent and we can live our lives. >> ahmad earns 300 dinars a month, the equivalent of 370
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euros, an average wage in jordan. but the money he earns comes from germany. the government in berlin has given jordan fourteen million euros to provide and finance work for syrian refugees. it's an aid project based on a simple calculation. helping people in the middle east is cheaper than housing and supporting them in germany. ahmad says he doesn't feel the german government is taking the easy way out. >> the aid germany provides here in jordan is wonderful. when i consider how difficult and expensive it is to get to germany, i am happy to be here. >> most syrian refugees here would probably agree. those with work in jordan aren't keen to risk the dangerous trip to europe. in the capital amman, a few restaurants employ syrian workers. >> i am happy to finally have a legal job.
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now there's less pressure to , consider taking that dangerous journey. >> many of the refugees here don't want to get to germany. word's gotten out that migrants are facing difficulties in europe. here in jordan, ahmad says, they speak the same language and share a religion. but the refugees still experience discrimination in jordanian society. >> the syrians are our brothers, but they are also a burden. they take our jobs here. they are refugees, so they should stay in the refugee camp and not come to the city. >> at mafraq's town hall , authorities pay heed to those sentiments. the mayor says he shares the concerns of the residents. >> we're overrun by refugees. we have lots of unemployed and the syrians take low-paying jobs.
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and prices and rents are rising, so i am worried that there will be serious conflicts. >> mafraq is just 15 kilometers from the syrian border. before the civil war in syria, it had a population of 80,000. when the refugees arrived, that figure doubled. the town was completely unprepared. basic services like waste collection are overwhelmed. mafraq was suddenly strewn with trash, and people blamed the newcomers. that's one reason the job initiative has focused on garbage disposal. but the jordanian government insisted that the german-financed project also employ locals. so now, half of ahmad's colleagues are jordanians. >> i applied for this job three times but was rejected because they only took syrians. thank god, someone began to think of us. >> jordan is struggling to accomodate 1.4 million refugees from syria. the jordanian king, the
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government, and aid organizations alike insist that more funding from abroad is desperately needed. many of the aid projects here are not designed for the long term. nonetheless, ahmad hopes he can keep cleaning the streets of mafraq. once, he had ambitious plans for his sons, who studied in syria. but for now, they will also apply to work here as street cleaners. >> over half the population of senegal is under 20. and that figure stands to rise. right now, the total population is about 15 million, but if it increases at the current rate, by 2100 it will be 75 million. which makes providing young senegalese with future employment all the more challenging. for some, wrestling seems like an appealing prospect, a potential road to riches. it is one of the world's oldest sports, even featuring in
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mongolian cave paintings. and it was one of the first disciplines in the ancient olympic games. since 2004, women have been allowed to wrestle professionally. senegalese wrestling is the country's national soap -- national sport. even the beaches are popular training grounds. >> they're crazy about it, and the men are doing it, everywhere! the beaches of senegal's capital dakar double as open fitness centers. the big sport here is wrestling. calanda and his friend come here every day to train. get your opponent off balance, get their shoulder or head on the ground, and you've won. wrestling is hugely popular in senegal, so much so that an entire newspaper is dedicated
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to the sport. for days now, a single topic has graced the headlines: the upcoming battle between two of the sport's superstars. one of them is sa thies, calanda's hero. >> i have known sa thies ever since i was small. he also trained on this beach. we come from the same area. he was poor, like i am, and has worked his way to the top. now he lives in a big blue house. >> tonight is the big night, the fight of fights. the city is in a fever pitch. the star's big blue house has become a place of pilgrimage. fans have to wait for hours in front of a heavily guarded door to catch a glimpse of their star. others track their hero's every move. they are practicing his most
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famous moves. >> calanda says he wants to use the time leading up to the big fight constructively, and really serve his idol. to do so, he visits a marabou, a mystic who claims he can strengthen sa thies and weaken his opponent. >> this cloth here is sa thies' opponent. i put knots here to immobilize him. >> the marabou then consecrates the water that sa thies will later use to wash himself over 90 percent of senegalese are muslim. but traditional mystical beliefs remain deeply ingrained. >> both of the rustlers have trained hard for the fight. now, just beforehand it's about other things. that's why we have come to a marabou. so he can curse the opponent.
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then, before he knows what hit him, he will be beaten. >> there are just two ways out poverty here, wrestle, or flee. thousands of wrestlers in senegal share the same dream. like calanda, they come from areas in dakar ruled by poverty. calanda had to leave school at 12. he says he loved going, but had to quit so he could work to support his family. two years ago, his sister fled the country. she now lives in a refugee home in munich. she's a hairdresser, but couldn't find a job. now, she cuts the hair for other refugees in munich, and sends some of the money home to help the family. >> the problem is the unemployment. that's why the young people here train like crazy. by wrestling, you can become a millionaire fast. >> the big matches here draw big
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crowds. around 15,000 spectators fit into the demba diop stadium. calanda got his ticket weeks ago. the fight has long since been sold out. there are still five hours to go before the big fight. finally, the pre-show begins. sa thies enters the arena first. he's carrying a holy mask to protect himself from evil. his opponent has a magic band that he gnaws on, and performs a mystical dance. the spectators are electrified. >> he can dance and jump around all he wants. sa thies is much stronger. he'll beat him. >> every wrestler performs his own rituals before a fight. with a little help from strengthening potions and amulets, they hope to secure
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victory. sa thies is counting on the magic potion that the marabou has prepared for him. it's tipped over his body and he , bottle after bottle of it. the shaman won't reveal what goes into the mix. but whatever it is, it stinks. a lot. wrestling bouts in senegal are a combination of deep faith and big show, with a big dash of carnival. and there's a lot of money behind the spectacle. sponsors help turn successful wrestlers into national media stars. wealthy ones. the two opponents have now entertained the crowd for four hours.
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it's finally time to fight. the gladiators stand eye to eye. sa thies pins his opponent in seconds, earning around 150,000 euros, and in the process, fulfills the dreams of thousands of men like calanda. and the wrestler can heave a sigh of relief that he hasn't let fans down. after the fight, calanda is more motivated than ever. he's convinced that if you give a dream all you've got, you can achieve anything. >> i don't want to go the same way that my sister went. i want to stay here and do
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everything i can to spare my siblings what i had to go through. they should keep going to school and not have to start work at the age of 12. that's why i'm doing all this. >> calanda's giving his all and training hard in pursuit of a better life. and fortunately, having some fun along the way. ♪ >> good food can also be a lot of fun! today's global snack comes from sri lanka. >> on the southwestern tip of the island of sri lanka, there's a fort in the town of galle which was built in the sixteenth century. from its ramparts you can see the town's bus stand, where there's another famous landmark. this old food stand is also part of galle's history.
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but while the fort was built to keep people away, the snacks here are cooked to make them come. >> we've been making dhal vadai , rolls, cutlets, for about forty years. >> anula and her husband leelananda have been married for 25 of those years. the success of their relationship, and there snacks, is based on teamwork. >> is there enough salt? >> it's important to get the recipe for dahl vadais just right, because this is the couple's most popular snack of the day. >> two or three hundred people come. >> and to avoid disappointing these hungry customers, the couple has to make twenty kilos of this stuff a day. it's a mixture of lentils, which
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in sri lanka is called dahl. >> we get to work at 7:00 and open at 10:00. >> the dahl has to have soaked in water, before the grinding can begin. >> it's hard work. >> sunil is one of the staff. he's mashing up enough dahl for the vadais the food stand makes 500 every day. then it's over to leelananda and anula, who add the taste. >> onion, green chili, salt. >> man and wife then do a dance together, with their hands. after that, the vadai balls are fried for ten minutes.
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what you end up with is a bit like a falafel. >> we are good at this. otherwise we wouldn't still be , in business after forty years. >> and it's true the vadais are sold almost a soon as they're out of the pan. >> hot, hot, very fresh. outside layer like a crispy. >> and the inside? >> inside here a little bit smooth. normal shops, one vadai is rupees. 25 here is ten rupees. >> that's six euro cents, the kind of low price that might get first-time buyers thinking, there must be a catch. but regular customers know better. >> it's clean and the food is absolutely delicious.
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>> i have four more to take house, for my children. they are waiting to eat. >> and when those children turn into adults, there's a good chance this food stand will still be around. >> next week we go to the west coast of africa, to sao tome and principe. these idyllic islands have tropical rain forests, gorgeous trees and flowers, secluded beaches and volcanic mountains. but there's work to be done if all this beauty is to stay intact. and that's all from global 3000 this time. we'll be back next week. do write to us anytime, and don't forget to visit our facebook page, dwglobalsociety. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org]
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- [narrator] this program is made possible in part by, the town of marion, historic marion, virginia. home of the wayne henderson school of appalachian arts. celebrating 21 years as a certified virginia main street community. the ellis family foundation, general francis marion hotel. the historic general francis marion hotel and black rooster restaurant & lounge, providing luxurious accommodations and casual fine dining. the bank of marion. the bank of marion, your vision, your community, your bank. wbrf, 98.1fm. bryant label, a proud supporter of our region's musical heritage. ("cherokee shuffle" by gerald anderson)

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