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tv   DW News  PBS  April 2, 2018 6:00pm-6:31pm PDT

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brent: this is dw news, live from berlin. south africa mourning the loss of an anti-apartment -- anti-apartheid icon. winnie mandela has died. for many, she was the mother of the nation. she leaves a mixed legacy. tonight, crowds of well-wishers have gathered outside her home in so i told -- in soweto. a gay-rights triumph ann kuster. a candidate storms to victory in the presidential elections,
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bowing to legalize same-sex marriage. and the escalating trade spat between china and the u.s. beijing imposes duties on a range of u.s. food imports and response to u.s. tariffs, stoking fears of a trade war. plus, life as an immigrant in saudi arabia. reports on how reforms in the kingdom are making things difficult for some foreign workers. i'm brent goff. it is good to have you with us. many across south africa are in mourning tonight, following the death of winnie mandela, the ex-wife of former president nelson mandela. she was a towering figure in the fight against apartheid, but also embroiled in a number of controversies in more recent years. she died peacefully at a
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hospital in johannesburg, at the age of 81. >> winnie mandela was first known as the wife of nelson mandela, that after just six years of marriage, her husband was given a life sentence on charges of sabotage and plotting to overthrow the government. he spent the 27 years behind bars before being released in 1990. when he supported him and the anti-apartheid cause, eventually also serving time in prison. winnie: i has been fighting for the liberation of the african people, for the working harmoniously of all the groups in this country. reporter: in the 1990's, when he was implicated in the kidnapping and killing of a teenager infused -- accused of being an informer. she was also convicted of fraud. when her husband was released from prison, she was there to greet him, although she later described the marriage as a sham.
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the mandelas divorced shortly after he became president. nelson mandela died in 2013. today, his ex-wife, winnie mandela, is mainly remembered for her unwavering commitment to the end of apartheid. >> for many years, she bore the brunt of the senseless brutality of the apartheid state with stoicism and fortitude, despite the hardships she faced she never doubted that the struggle for freedom and democracy would triumph and succeed. reporter: after a lengthy illness, winnie mandela died in hospital, surrounded by her family. however, for many, her image as a fighter lives on. brent: i am joined here in the studio by anli serfontein, a
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south african journalist and familiar face on dw. she is an author and documentary filmmaker and has reported extensively on the country. it is good to see you again. i dare ask the question, because i know the answer is a huge 1 -- who was winnie mandela? anli: i think she is known as the ex-wife of nelson mandela, that she was a very strong leader in her own right. she was a social worker in the 1950's who could have gone to study in america, but married nelson mandela. during the time he was in prison, she kept his legacy alive. i often think without her, he would have not become the icon for the anti-apartheid struggle that he later became. brent: would you say she is the one person who made nelson mandela possible? anli: while he was in prison, certainly. nelson mandela in his own right is a very strong leader, that he was locked away. the anc was in exile. there was no opposition.
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many -- winnie was fearless, not scared of the white apartheid government. they kept banning her so she could not be outspoken. they kept trying to break her. in the end, it may be did breaker. brent: we got into the period that shows her speaking about this epiphany she had concerning the white man's hate toward the black man in south africa. take a look. winnie: when i was in solitary confinement for those 18 months, i would regard that as really my turning point in my political outlook. i must confess, after that stage, i was not aware the extent to which the africaaner hated the black man in this country. brent: that stayed with her to
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the end of her life, didn't it? anli: she was making that statement to a white man, to my father, who was in afrikaner. she was treated very badly. at the time, she had children who were 10, 11, very young children, who did not know where their father -- the father was in prison, their mother in solitary confinement. and she was treated very badly. brent: she had many struggles, personal struggles, and nelson mandela was released. their marriage ended. you and i were talking earlier. there was some point where people say that she lost the plot. what happened in her later years? anli: i think she actually lost it a bit earlier, when she was banished in the late 1970's, and stayed for nine years in an area where she did not speak the language, very isolated. i think in that time, she just started to lose the plot.
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she surrounded herself just before mandela was released with people who were very dodgy characters, who worked for the security police, and got into a lot of trouble. she was a bad judge of character often. yes, she was very controversial. people either love her or hate her. there is no sort of in between with winnie. brent: we're going to pick up on that later in the day and talk more extensively about winnie mandela. anli serfontein, always good to have you on the show. costa rica's presidential election resulted in a resounding victory for the governing party. the win is being seen as a victory for gay rights. carlos of the ruling citizen action party has vowed to legalize same-sex marriage. his opponent, and evangelical pastor, campaigned against gay marriage. polls predicted the runoff would be tight, but in the end, it was not even close.
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reporter: the crowd went wild when carlosalva --carlos alvar ado was announced the winner. carlos: my responsibility is to unite the country, move it forward, and enable it to become a leading nation in the 21st century. brent: the candidate of the ruling citizen action party had come in second in the first round of voting, behind the national restoration party. the men are not related. fabrizio alvarado ran on a position of opposition to same-sex marriage, which became the main issue in the runoff which carlos alvarado won easily. >> we are delighted because costa rica has shown it is a country that wants to be there for all its citizens. this has released a lot of emotions, because costa rica has shown it is a democracy. this is the day of the third republic.
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every one of us has not contributed together to create a new lifestyle in costa rica. tomorrow, the fight starts. today, we celebrate winning, but the battle continues. reporter: one battle is getting the country's economy back on track, and that could force carlos alvarado to make some compromises. carlos alvarado has promised to release the deficit to the half, something that is affecting the economics in costa rica. how he is going to do it is quite difficult, because he has no majority in parliament, and he might have to look for some support from more conservative parties. he certainly has experience in government, having been a former cabinet minister. and now at least he has the support of the majority of voters. brent: here are some of the other stories making headlines around the world. egypt's election authority says
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abdel fattah el-sisi has won a second term in office after taking 97% of the vote last week. turnout was around 41%. opposition groups have called for a boycott, declaring the vote a sham. russia's foreign minister, sergey lavrov, said russia is not responsible for any escalation in the row over the poisoning of a former spy in the u.k. he has accused britain and the u.s. of "playing children's games." russia has denied responsibility for last month's attack on the x y and his daughter. -- ex-spy and his daughter. you are watching "dw news." still to come, a look inside syria's eastern ghouta. we follow a resident of the enclave as he prepares to flee to safety. and are the refugees or intruders? a deal offers new hope to
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thousands of african asylum-seekers that israel wants to expel. the world's largest economies are going head to head, helena. helena: i don't want to say it will get worse before it gets better, but things do not look right now. the trade dispute between the u.s. and china is ramping up. beijing's tit-for-tat tariffs are kicking in. the government says the move is an effort to safeguard china's interests and balance losses caused by the american tariffs. reporter: these american avocados are destined for the chinese market, but they migh not sell so well anymore, now that china has imposed tariffs on fruit, meat, wine, steel pipes, and other things from the usa. the rates are 15% on 20 items and 25% on eight others. the chinese government says people support the move, but some in china regret the ensuing
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rise in prices. >> it is definitely going to have an impact. many fruits that kids love only grow in foreign countries. we do not have them in china. that is a direct impact. >> it is absolutely right to impose tariffs, because i have seen the news about the u.s. scrapping trade deals with us. it is right to fight back. reporter: the new tariffs are china's initial response to the u.s. moved to slap tariffs on steel and aluminum imports. the u.s. is also threatening to impose further tariffs on $60 billion worth of other chinese terms the theft of intellectual property. china, by contrast, is raising tariffs on about $3 billion worth of u.s. imports. beijing says it will never submit if the u.s. launches a trade war, and says that tariff increases are in line with wto rules to protect its interests. still, the scale of china's new tariffs is modest.
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the move looks more like a warning shot than a major counterattack. the u.s. is china's largest single market. a full-blown trade war is the last thing china would want. helena: shares in amazon fell sharply monday after u.s. president for new his attack on its relationship with the united states postal service. trump claims that usps is losing money on delivering for amazon, and taxpayers are financing the losses. analysts point out that the online retailing giant's payments actually support the postal service's money-losing businesses and pension obligations. they say amazon is helping u.s. stay afloat. estimates say amazon pays the usps roughly half of what rival parcel services would be charging. it is back over to brent's now, at a critical moment in syria.
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brent: exactly right, helena. reports are coming in that rebel fighters are leaving their last stronghold in eastern ghouta. syrian media showed vessels said to be carrying militants and their families leaving the area. pro-regime forces say they have cut a deal with the largest rebel group, the army of islam, but some members of the group tonight that. hundreds of fighters from a different group have been bused out of the area. now, an antigovernment activist and citizen journalist, nor adam -- nour adam, has sent a video diary showing the final days of rebel control in the besieged area. nour: more buses into eastern ghouta. [wind blowing] nour: they forced us to leave.
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that is our home. that is where we are -- we all grow up. they have destroyed our school, our home. you can see the destruction. until now, there are families, whole families, under the rubble. no one can help them, help them. right now, we are leaving. and we do not know the day after that what we will do. for seven years, i was fighting, and taking videos and photos. i was being arrested for one year, in the jail. that is gone. we have russia, iran, and a sod.
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-- and assad. the power of all the world countries of the world fight us, iran and russia and assad. my message to the world -- yourself instead of us. yesterday, my friend was killed in a clash in duma city. i have been lost like more than 25 or 26 friends. and right now, all of them is gone, and for nothing. i risked my life a lot to stop what happened for civilians and to save them.
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and all of that is going for nothing. brent: today marks the 50th anniversary of the beginning of a traumatic chapter in germany's postwar history. on april 2, 1968, bombs went off in two frank for department stores. one of the perpetrators went on to found the left-wing terror group known in germany as the red army faction. it is also known as the bigger mind half -- the bader meinhoff gang. in -- although the gang broke up, the police suspect three former members are still active. >> police are searching for this trio, in hiding for two decades, last seen by surveillance cameras during a robbery in northern germany and 2016. they are thought to be the
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remaining members of the so-called red army faction. they belong to the faction's third-generation. their predecessor sparked a national crisis in the 1970's, with attacks, government blackmail, murders, and kidnappings. their terrorist activities peaked in 1977, with murders of germany's butter a prosecutor, a bank manager, and the kidnapping of the president of the german employers association. the terrorists shot him dead. germans clearly remember that wave of terror. >> it used to be the main topic on tv and in the newspapers. it was as distressing as the islamic state activities are now. it was a shock. you just did not think they would become as radicalized as they did. reporter: the student protests of 1960 eight defined germany's political climate at the time.
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extreme left-wing violence also took shape that year. two department stores in frankfurt were set ablaze, symbolic acts to protest capitalism. andrea's -- andreas baader would later found and later the red army faction. hans christian steubler was part of the movement. >> the nongovernmental opposition students movement was not just a movement for change in germany. i also wanted that. it was an international movement. the left at the time saw itself in that context. but some people, him and knew percentage, said we should not simply accept things, that we had to take up arms. reporter: the baader-meinhof group officially disbanded 20 years ago. it is believed the trio's recent
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robberies were more likely carried out for the money than for political reasons. discussions about the factions still divide germany today. a former conservative parliamentarian worries they may still hold a fascination for some. >> no one can seriously claim that the end of the red army faction would also be the end of all left-wing extremism, of leftist extremists prepared to be violent. you should never say that chapter is closed forever. reporter: streobler please for a more open discussion. >> it would help us work through this history. the discussion about it today, if people debated these incidents more common -- more calmly, without blinders and without prejudice -- reporter: the red army faction's wave of terror shocked germany. during that era, the country was on edge and ideologically divided herein even now, the
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group's actions are the subject of passionate debate throughout the country. brent: saudi arabia is known as one of the world's most conservative societies, but the inevitability of peak oil and falling food prices have hit the kingdom hard. that is triggering change. crown prince mohammad bin salman has an ambitious program of reform known as vision 2030. our reporter traveled to saudi arabia to find out what this vision really means. reporter: riyadh is an international city. a third of the population comes from abroad. any of the manual workers. they helped build the saudi capital, but the welcome they once enjoyed is starting to fade. saudis first is the government plan to reduce unemployment among native saudis. employers who hire not saudis will have to pay higher fees,
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and jobs in shops like this one, selling electronics, book be -- would be restricted for saudis only. foreigners would be banned from some jobs. this music store selling instruments has already put up a sign for saudis only, a salesperson male or female. >> saudization is a good idea. there are more job opportunities here for saudis than for foreigners. a lot of saudis return from the u.s. and germany with degrees, only to find many jobs already filled by foreigners. their own countries should benefit from them as saudi arabia should benefit from saudis. fannie: we are in a neighborhood in the south of the city. it is a tough area. most of the people here are foreign workers. one is from bangladesh. he arrived a month ago to work in this shop, learning how to assemble picture frames. >> everything is getting more
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expensive, and it is not enough for everyone. it is hard to survive. fanny: life for manual workers was never easy in saudi arabia, just as in many parts of the world, but falling oil prices have made it more difficult, energy prices doubled in a year, pushing up prices. recently, new taxes on basic goods added an extra boom. it is evening. he has just finished his shift. how many hours did you work today? >> i worked 16 hours. fanny: that is a lot. >> maybe it is a lot, but i had to do that for the salary. fanny: he makes 1300 saudi riel a month, about 350 u.s. dollars. on the way home, he tells me he used to have a good life, until his father got very sick. >> almost all of our money went to his treatment. i thought i should come here to keep him alive. fanny: being the oldest in the
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family, he had a responsibility. he dropped out of engineering studies and came to saudi arabia to earn money, but it was not as easy as he expected. life is becoming more difficult for foreigners. >> most of the people of other countries are losing their job, and even a few colleagues are leaving saudi arabia because they ran out of jobs. they cannot live like that. maybe my boss gave me a place to live, but often bosses are not like that. some people do not have a job. sometimes they sleep near the road. they do not have money to buy food. fanny: he chooses not to show me the room he lives in with three others. he does not want to get into trouble and be sent home. he wants to stay as long as he can, to make money for his family. he is just one of millions of foreign workers in saudi arabia. they are realizing that a future
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here belongs to the saudis. brent: the bavarian city of possible -- passa in the southeastern corner of germany is experiencing the world's first museum to the docks and -- dachhund, better known as the sausage dog. >> excitement has been growing ahead of the museum's opening. mess best friend has already been having a sniff around the premises, which is filled with objects inspired by the sausage dog. museum founder and director, a prod bavarian, can hardly believe no one came up with the idea before him. >> the world needs a sausage dog museum. dachshunds capture the essence
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of bavaria. no other dog in the world enjoys the same recognition or popularity here as the sausage dog. reporter: some of the pieces on display might be considered kitsch by most people, but probably not for dachshund lovers. one of the more serious exhibits pays tributes to famous sausage dog lovers, among them nobel physicist albert einstein and actor leonard nimoy, better known as spock from star trek. there is even a drawing of the sausage dog sketched by public also. -- by pablo picasso. visitors searching for the perfect souvenir for themselves or others can purchase a gift box that is sure to bring a smile to any sausage dog lover. brent: here is a reminder of the top story we're following for you. south african anti-apartheid leader winnie mandela has died
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at the age of 81. the ex-wife of the late president nelson mandela was seen by many as the mother of the nation, that in later years, her legacy was tarnished by a number of controversies. she died peacefully in the hospital after a long period of illness. after a short break, i will be back to take you through the day. stay with us. [captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is responsible for its caption content and accuracy. visit ncicap.org] ♪
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reyes: former fighters from colombia's armed conflict return to civilian life, but transitioning back into society could take years. i'm elaine reyes in washington, d.c., and this is "americas now." first up, as 50 years of fighting end in colombia, farc rebels are trying to resume a normal life, but while they may be laying down their arms, many are not giving up the fight. then a tribe in panama with strong roots in the rain forest seeks a land title to secure their territory, and they're protecting their borders with a surprising form of surveillance... [beeping] [motor revs] drones.

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