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tv   Global 3000  PBS  April 6, 2018 7:30pm-8:01pm PDT

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♪ anchor: this week on "global 3000," we head to a paradise island which is also a popular destination for cruise ships. how does that work? in kenya, the outlook is bleak for many young people. but now some comic book heroes are coming to the rescue! and new technologies are making us question one of our most important senses. can we still trust our eyes? we all have pictures in our heads. and they can be extremely powerful. we process images 60,000 times more quickly than we do text. they arouse our emotions. they can move us, make us laugh, feel happy or sad.
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but images can also be deceptive -- and they can be manipulated. now, even moving images can be altered -- making it possible to create extremely authentic-looking "fake news" videos. fake trump: i've decided to resign from the office of the president. i've decided to resign from the office of the president. reporter: the next generation of fake news. on the left, trump's face, but his facial expression and words are actually being generated by an actor. leading animation software developers like hao li are busy perfecting the technology behind such high-resolution facial mapping. this customized photo booth utilizes 14,000 l.e.d. lights to create these hyper-realistic images. hao: here you can see cookie's screwed-up face that we just
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photographed. and you can see here, it's all rendered in 3-d. and what's really effective about this device is that it even shows the pores. we can zoom in here and see all the lines on his face. reporter: hao li's team of developers aren't interested in creating fake news. they're focused on creating new communication tools. their aim is to make it possible for anyone to create three-dimensional avatars for use in various applications. for instance, in the film industry. hao: i could generate a new video where my features are mapped onto someone else's. and of course i could also morph my face onto theirs, so i would actually look like them. reporter: specialized software creates a template, which captures facial expressions in 3-d. this mask can then be manipulated as needed. it's even possible to use regular photos. however, there's no way to
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control how people may use it. hao: luckily, it hasn't been abused much to create fake news, but i have no doubt that will happen. there's already a lot of software that people are uploading to the internet, which people can use to map the face of one person onto someone else's. so the possibility already exists to generate videos of people doing things that haven't happened in reality. reporter: scientists in germany are also scrutinizing the face. a group of researchers from the fraunhofer institute for integrated circuits are teaching computers to read human emotions. while technology advances open up possibilities, they also give rise to unintended developments. jens-uwe: of course, first and foremost, you have to ask how these technologies are going to be applied. you have to set clear boundaries
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and establish rules that address what is permissible ethically and legally. so yes, we give a lot of consideration to the ethical, legal and social impact of our research. reporter: jens-uwe garbas and his team are working with programs similar to those in california. they hope to develop intelligent systems, which can detect, for example, when nursing home residents who can't speak are in pain. but other researchers demonstrate how this technology can be used for less benign purposes. by lip-syncing and superimposing their own facial expressions in real time, they're able to turn famous politicians into their puppets. with additional voice mimicking software, you could make it seem as if vladimir putin or donald trump were declaring world war iii. since people tend to trust videos, that could lead to horrific consequences. if we can doctor them at will,
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it'll be harder to tell what's real and what's not. jens-uwe: it's important for us to research these subjects, in particular here in germany and europe, so we can better understand how such technologies work. this will allow us to predict what might be possible in the future. if we don't, it'll be left in the hands of major corporations, like google and facebook. reporter: the potential dangers are already being acted upon. developers are devising software to detect whether videos are fake or not. hao: if videos go viral in the internet, you have to be very careful. the most important thing is that people understand what is possible now. reporter: for better or worse, experts say that these technologies will be a part of everyday life over the next decade. in the near future we won't be able to say that "seeing is believing."
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fake trump: nobody told me it would be this difficult to be president. anchor: manipulated videos spread like wildfire on social media networks. authenticity is the currency of our time. so trust us -- and follow us -- on dw global society! many children under 18 lose one or more parents due to war, disease, or natural disasters. according to unicef, in 2015 there were almost 140 million orphans worldwide. countless iraqi children witnessed horrific events during the bitter fighting and siege of the city of mosul. many have been left physically and emotionally traumatized. they've lost their parents and are now completely dependent on aid.
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reporter: mornings are the highlight of sukina mohammed's day. the children greet her with huge hugs. they're playful and happy now, but they share a sad past. these children were orphaned during the islamic state militant group's reign of terror. iraqi special forces recovered them from the rubble in mosul. this orphanage is now their home. here, they're safe and can express their hopes. sabah: i want to work at a company. amwai: school principal. amnih: i want to study at a university. i.s. wouldn't allow education for girls. reporter: sukina mohammed wants to give these children a chance to flourish. but the head of the orphanage says money and resources are a constant issue. sukina: i am so sad that i can't really help them. i go to the government again and again and ask them for books and
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helpers. i beg them to make improvements and decisions. but nothing happens. reporter: this leaves children like adem in the lurch. the toddler was conceived when his father, an i.s. militant, raped his mother, a yazidi. women from the kurdish religious minority were systematically subjected to kidnapping and sexual assault under i.s. adem's mother has since returned to her husband and their three children, leaving adem here. sukina: his mother is yazidi. her religion forbids her to raise the children of muslims. that's why she gave her son to the orphanage -- and saved his life. reporter: the militants tore apart families in mosul. shi'ite muslim children like ramira and ali were taken from their parents and given to i.s. supporters. after the city was freed, their uncle found them here at the orphanage.
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now he wants to raise them. but years of brainwashing have left their mark. faisal: they were taught what i.s. believes. now ali hates iraqi police and soldiers. he sings i.s. songs. its ideology has shaped his thoughts. reporter: islamic state didn't just leave behind destruction in mosul. they sowed hatred in people's hearts. i.s. snipers even used children as bait. when iraqi soldiers came to rescue the children, they were ambushed. hamudi was used this way. he was dragged out of a firefight by a dog as iraqi special forces closed in. the baby survived, but lost his arm. he's just eight months old, and no one knows what happened to his parents. sukina: most children can hold
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milk bottles at eight months. but he can't because he's missing an arm. he's often ill, and needs a lot of care. reporter: there are many such sad stories here at the orphanage. but at least now the children can laugh, sing -- and dream of a better future. anchor: many children and young adults around the world share that hope of a better future. in sub-saharan africa, more than 60% of the population is under 25. many of them long to have fulfilling work. yet, more often than not, that dream remains a dream. kenya has particularly high levels of youth unemployment -- around 20%, says the world bank. many young people move from
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rural areas to the cities, where they end up living in slums. elke: kibera is the largest slum in kenya's capital, nairobi. for several years, locals have learned important life lessons from an unlikely source -- a free comic book. it addresses issues relevant to people's everyday lives, like widespread joblessness and unplanned pregnancies, especially among younger women. derrick: it's about governance and involving the youth. it's about sexual reproduction. that is, not just sex, but sexual reproduction as a whole. and also these issues about being a young entrepreneur, entrepreneurship. so it actually tackles the major issues that affect youth most of the time. >> welcome to whujaaz! elke: "shujaaz" means "heroes"
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in sheng slang -- a mixture of swahili and english spoken by millions of young kenyans. the creators say they want to entertain and inform. they're goal is to educate by providing tips and positive role models. lucy: i was just a careless person, a person who cares nothing about her life. when i went to know the magazine, i decided for a change, because i got challenged. if other youth are doing it, why not me? elke: placing a big emphasis on community involvement, the "shujazz" team asks their readers to suggest topics for their stories. the characters in the comic books also have a strong presence on social media. farida: at this age, i'm thinking, every young people in kenya, it's quite essential for them to be on social media. they want to be informed. they want to understand what the trends are. they want to feel like a part of a group. and that's where "shujaaz" comes in -- to create that partnership with their friends and just make sure that whatever is happening from the offline media, at least it is something that's happening on the online media. elke: readers can also contact
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the editorial team via text messages. this is an especially popular form of communication in kenya. for those who don't have internet access, there's also the option of listening to a daily radio show that's broadcast over more than 20 stations. the man behind "shujazz" -- and the multi-media "well told story" platform -- is rob bernet, a brit who's lived in kenya for more than 20 years. the idea for the project came in response to the violence that erupted in 2007 following the country's contested presidential election. he saw a younger generation that felt manipulated by politicians and overlooked by the mainstream media. bernet wanted to help young people improve their prospects. rob: it was a very serious study on a big scale done by a leading academic institution in the u.s. it was a very robust study, and it said that young women aged 19 or less who follow "shujazz" are
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three times less likely to be married at the age of 19 than young women who do not follow "shujazz." we deal with much more, sort of, mechanical problems. so the outcome of us dealing with mechanical problems -- which in this case was, how do you make some money, how do you make a plan for the future, how do you stay healthy -- the result was young people, young women not getting married early. and it turns out that not being married at 19 probably means you are in school, or it means you got a business, it means you're making money, it means your life is progressing, means you don't have a child. there is a bunch of good things that come with not being married. elke: they now reach well over six million people. this includes a growing audience in neighboring tanzania too. their longer-term goal is to increase their online presence across the african continent.
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rob: what else can the internet do to create energy and possibilities for our millions of followers? so, we have some ideas, we are developing fast. to say, can we take the promise of the "shujaaz" effect and deliver it bigger, faster, better, quicker, cheaper, on the internet? that's what we working on. elke: more and more people are getting online in kibera too -- but for the moment, the old-fashioned comic book continues to inspire people to share their stories and embrace new ideas. anchor: today in global ideas, we visit a small island off the coast of mexico. every year, cruise ships take millions of passengers to cozumel. but what does that mean for local wildlife?
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our reporter christian roman but what does that mean for travelled to cozumel to find our more about how people there are protecting their island paradise. jose: this island is my home. i'm very grateful that i get to meet so many people here -- tourists, ships' crews, people from around the world. christopher: cozumel is a great place to work as a biologist, because it has so much nature, so many species, and they have to be protected. raymundo: i discovered this beauty area and the amazing world of scuba diving. i decided to do it as my job.
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perla: for me, cozumel is a thousand years of history and a world heritage. christian: cozumel lies on mexico's east coast. the caribbean island is a favorite tourist destination. five million visitors come here every year. the harbor is large enough to handle seven cruise ships at any given time. when a ship's passengers disembark, it's like an invasion. jose nieto is in charge of harbor security. he's been on the island for 20 years, and witnessed how the harbor has been expanded to accommodate the giant cruise liners. jose: tourism is essential for the whole island. it's a source of income for everyone working here. we depend on the tourists.
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christian: but the tourist hordes rarely head into the rainforest canopy covering the island's interior, half of which is a protected nature reserve. biologist christopher gonzalez wants to see the integrity of the rainforest maintained. but he's concerned the island is at a crossroads. christopher: i think this is the way cozumel used to be several years ago. but by now the truth is that the real cozumel is everything, and the tourists are part of the real cozumel now. what we have to do now is to manage that reality, and the protected areas are part of that. christian: he'd like to see more visitors enjoying the natural
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wonders here -- for instance, on trekking tours, as long as they follow strict guidelines. however, most tourists usually want to see the island's main attraction -- its unique coral reefs. but just how long they'll remain intact is a concern. cozumel is home to the world's second largest coral reef. more than 500 species of fish live here, some threatened by extinction. it's a fragile paradise and a valuable treasure. according to a study by the german corporation for attraction -- its unique coral reefs. international cooperation, the deterioration of cozumel's coral reefs could cost the island around 70 million euros in income annually. christopher: if we lose water quality, if we lose the clear of the water and we lose species, 12% of the people that come to cozumel won't come back. so we are working hard to make
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the people more conscious about that. and when i say people, i mean tourists. but also the guides that go with the tourists. they're like our ambassadors. what the guides show, what is correct, the tourists will do that. christian: diving instructor raymundo ramirez is well aware of that relationship. the conservation authorities know he's sticking to the rules, because he has to renew his tour guide license every year. -- two years. raymundo: el cielo nowadays is one of the most popular places in cozumel, because the water is turquoise, beautiful blue, only one and a half meters deep. and it's full of starfish. and usually the people arrive in this place and take the starfish out of the water, take the selfie, and put it back. maybe the starfish is going to
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be dead the next day. that is the lack of education. you cannot touch anything. christian: this ignorance is upsetting to raymundo. that's why he only takes small groups down at a time and gives them strict instructions. raymundo: if you don't control your buoyancy while diving, and you get close to the reef, you're going to hit the reef -- maybe with your hands, but maybe with the tank. and if you hit the coral formation or the sponges or something with your tank, it's going to be a big damage. christian: they will break off and die. most tourists from the ships spend only half a day on the island. it's not much time to experience the culture. cozumel was a center of mayan religious culture. the mayor herself is of mayan decent. she wishes the tourists would take more interest in the island's culture and history.
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perla: due to cozumel's unique geographical location, we'll never be able to avoid all these cruise ships. but we shouldn't be afraid to set down rules for the tourists. if you're going to destroy the environment, then you can't come. if you don't patronize our restaurants and shops, then you can't come. and if you don't enrich our society, then you're not welcome here. christian: in the evenings, when the harbor empties, cozumel becomes tranquil -- but only for a few hours. the next cruise ships will soon be docking here again. anchor: we love tasting food from around the world.
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today's global snack comes from greece. it's a view that's been enjoyed by many, including alexander the great. thessaloniki, the second largest city in greece, was founded in the year 315 bc. it was named after alexander's sister. to this day, it remains a cultural melting pot. the city's most famous landmark is the white tower. just around the corner is a culinary landmark, named "psizou." >> a very good friend of mine suggested me to cooperate and open this store. anchor: here, the focus is on gyros. >> psizou is the greek verb for
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saying cook! or grill! anchor: "gyros" literally means "to turn." here, there are many varieties to choose from. >> there are several kind of breads that goes with gyros, but the most common is pita. anchor: at psizou, customers can choose between tzatziki, mustard, herb, and garlic sauce, as well as four different kinds of bread. gyros is traditionally made from pork. it's typically seasoned with oregano, thyme, salt, pepper, and garlic, and served with tomatoes, onions, and fried potatoes. the staff serve between 200 and 400 portions of gyros a day. the restaurant attracts tourists and locals alike.
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it's also frequented by students from around the country. andrea: i've been here when i came to thessaloniki and tasted the gyros and other food, and it was delicious, so i came again with my friends. anchor: and how does she like her gyros best? andrea: in a traditional way, with potato, tomatoes, and ketchup -- and tzatziki, of course. >> they all want to taste the traditional greek gyros! anchor: alexander the great surely would have approved. and that's all from "global 3000" this week. but as you know, we love hearing from you. so do drop us a line to, or post on facebook -- dw global society. see youthen, take care!d until
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[captioning performed by the national captioning institute, which is resteves:le for its caon the mediterranean sea, basking between the french and italian rivieras, the principality of monaco barely fits on its one square mile of territory. of its 30,000 residents, less than 10,000
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are true monegasques, as locals are called. many of the rest call monaco home because there's no income tax. despite overdevelopment, high prices, and mobs of tourists, a visit here is a riviera must. and monaco is a work in progress. the district of fontvieille was reclaimed from the sea. it bristles with luxury high-rise condos. the breakwater -- constructed elsewhere and towed in -- enables cruise ships to dock. and cars still race, as they have since 1929, around the principality in one of the world's most famous auto races -- the grand prix of monaco. the miniscule principality has always been tiny, but it used to be less tiny. in the 1860s, it lost most of its territory to france. but the prince built a casino and managed to connect his domain to the rest of the riviera with a new road and a train line. humble monaco was suddenly on the grand tour map --
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the place for the vacationing aristocracy to play. today, the people of monaco have one of the world's highest per-capita incomes, with plush apartments to match. its famous casino allows the wealthy tooy losing money inxtre comfort. if monaco is a business, the prince is its ceo. while the casino generates only a small part of the state's revenue, its many bks, which provide an attractive way to protect your money from the tax man, earn much more. there is no income tax here, but the prince collects plenty of money in value-added taxes, real estate taxes, and corporate taxes. nearly all of monaco's sights are packed in a cinderella neighborhood atop its fortified hill. its impressive aquarium, which proudly crowns the cliff like a palace, was directed by jacques cousteau for 17 years. a medieval castle sat where monaco's palace sits today.
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the palace square features a statue of françois grimaldi, a renegade italian who captured monaco disguised as a monk in 1297. this first ruler of monaco established the dynasty that still rules the principality. today, over 700 years later, the current prince is his direct descendant. palace guards protect the ruling grimaldi family 24/7. and they change with the pageantry of an important nation. every day at about noon, tourists pack the square to witness the spectacle in this improbable little princedom. [ band playing march ]
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- [female voice over]: this program is made possible in part by the town of marion, home of the wayne henderson school of appalachian arts, celebrating 21 years as a certified virginia main street community. the historic general francis marion hotel and the speak easy restaurant and lounge, providing accommodations and casual fine dining. in downtown marion, virginia. the bank of marion. technology powered, service driven. wbrf 98.1 fm. and bryant label, a proud supporter of our region's musical heritage. ("cherokee shuffle" by gerald anderson) ♪


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