tv Global 3000 PBS April 28, 2018 12:30am-1:01am PDT
♪ africa, where people have been facing record levels of drought. it's a real challenge for daily life. in south korea, work is the top priority for many young people. so how are they supposed to find a partner? and in iraq, people have suffered hugely at the hands of the i.s. terror group. but there's no question of giving up. three years ago, large areas of iraq were taken over by islamic state extremists, including three key cities -- mosul, tikrit and ramadi. after extensive fighting, the iraqi army and coalition forces managed to drive the islamists
out. in december last year, iraq declared the i.s.-occupied parts of the country officially freed. around 70,000 homes were destroyed during the occupation and subsequent fighting. 2.5 million displaced people are still in camps and other temporary housing. at a global donor conference in february, participating states agreed to pledge $30 billion towards rebuilding iraq. but experts warn that's just a third of what's really needed. meanwhile, life is starting to return to the demolished cities. slowly, but surely. reporter: when ali rides his bike through western mosul, it's a trip through a dark and painful past. the wasteland reminds the 36-year-old of the worst trauma he has ever experienced -- living under i.s. rule. centuries-old buildings, palaces, churches, and the world famous al-nuri mosque, now lie in ruins.
with his camera, the university lecturer wants to document the destruction and rebirth of his hometown. ali: at first instance, i couldn't recognize it. this is, by the way, the ancient part of mosul, is the busiest ever. and now, it's a ghost town. it's a risky place. it's hazardous. and it's empty. the soul of the place is no longer here. reporter: ali is rediscovering his city by bike, following three years of war and terror. every bit of fresh paint he sees gives him hope. and color is indeed coming back to mosul. the black flags of i.s., the murderous propaganda on the bridges and walls, are all history. now, street artists are covering it up with declarations of love to their city, in spite of everything that has happened.
hassan: i love my city, it has great charisma. we are now giving back to it what it has given to us. we went to school here, to university. and now, the city needs us. reporter: these types of positive messages are what ali wants to send out to the world with his photographs. the era of hate and fear is over, for once and for all. mosul lives again. ali: da'esh murals used to attract young people to join them, attract people to kill, to purge the city of the minorities, to impose their point-of-view, their dark point-of-view. so, it is very important to paint that dark era with beautiful colors, yeah. reporter: but the wounds of the past are still far from being healed. ali also feels a deep sense of mistrust, wondering who may have
sympathized or collaborated with i.s. he makes a statement on social media with his photos and his blog. he believes that mosul is better than its image. ali: mosul is not isis. mosul has always been living in a co-existential way. i have christian, kurds, kurdish students. i have yezidi students. and nobody thought to put a finger on a hair of them. what happened was something exceptional, was something brutal. and it was something that happened by the tiniest portion of muslims, of iraqis. reporter: photos from that dark era. ali took them secretly, and in doing so, he risked his life. the university, abandoned. most departments were closed. ali also lost his job as a lecturer.
his father, who had always shaved, was forced by i.s. to grow a beard. the book forum cafe. it's a place that breathes freedom. a year ago, the building was still burnt out. now, schoolchildren, students, and artists meet here to do all the things that had been forbidden for years. to read, to play music, to smoke, to have fun. a few of ali's pictures also grace the walls. he's a regular customer, and a friend of the owner. fahed sabah invested all his savings into the cafe. during the i.s. period, he read countless books in secret. sie then, he is convinced that every change begins with literature. fahed: this place will succeed if the young people decided to change our minds, to change our -- to delete all the black panorama from our memories.
reporter: there are some indications that they might succeed. music can once again be heard in the streets of mosul. for three years, hakam and muhammad hid their instruments from i.s. religious police. now, they play music once again, for themselves, and for others. scenes like this give ali hope for a better future for his beloved, long-suffering city. host: when war and terror dominate, human rights abuses are rarely far behind, which makes a mockery of the un's charter and declaration of human rights. this list of rights is long. from freedom from torture, to protection from imprisonment. but it's nowhere near as long as the list of human rights offences in the world. myanmar's army, for example, uses brute force against the nation's rohingya minority. many observers call it genocide.
hundreds of thousands of rohingya have fled to neighboring bangladesh. in china, freedom of speech remains little more than a nominal right. anyone daring to criticize government policy faces imprisonment, or worse. when human rights are under threat, those who fight for them are needed more than ever. reporter: september, 2014. it was a night of terror in iguala, mexico. armed men attacked several buses, killing six people and abducting 43 students who were on board. the case shocked mexico. and to this day, what happened to the young men remains a mystery. omar garcia was there. many of his friends were injured, killed, or disappeared. omar: i can still remember how scared i was that night, and the terror. and the outrage at not knowing what happened. reporter: the official
investigation has been bogged down in conflicting theories and misinformation. whether authorities are unwilling or unable to solve the case is not clear. there are plenty of suspects, but no convictions. that's why human rights organizations are scrutinizing the case independently. they've commissioned forensic architecture, a team of scientists, journalists, and artists, to evaluate and visualize public sources. like omar's witness account, for example. the night's events are reconstructed on interactive maps. omar helped in the reconstruction. irving: where were you when they opened fire? omar: i ran that way. reporter: it's a complex case. the military, police units, as well as criminal gangs, are all likely involved. irving: the reconstruction is meant to allow us to visualize
the crime scenes, to understand the extent of the violence and how it was coordinated. it's hard to understand that if you've just got a file with 500 or 600 pages. reporter: the scene of the crime in 3d. the reconstruction aims to show what happened when, based on geodata, photos, and videos. there is an exhibition, but the information is online as well. amnesty international is one organization using digital investigations more and more to protect human rights. for the past year, it's been teaching students, like these here in britain, how to scrutinize pictures and videos from social media. olivia iannelli is one of the first members of the digital verification corps. olivia: so it's given back the power to the citizens on the ground and it's kind of now a means of defense.
so many people can now turn to their mobile phones, start recording, and gather evidence. reporter: the goal is to verify this evidence, where and when it was recorded. the digital detectives look at all sorts of information, like the weather and position of the sun. these pictures from the internet could verify or debunk a story. olivia: digital images can actually give us evidence to hold states to account, so we can hold these people to account just through a youtube video. reporter: like this video, for example, of an alleged libyan war criminal. it's with the help of such recordings that the international criminal court in the hague has issued an arrest warrant against the man. the court uses technology to investigate remotely. madeleine: it's a great opportunity for us, because suddenly there's this wealth of information out there. not all of it's going to be relevant, but there's this
information that we suddenly can have access to in a pretty efficient manner, possibly from a spot that we can't access. reporter: the international criminal court now even has its own cyber-investigators. they examine data, check for manipulation, or proof of authenticity. but the digital evidence is never the sole source of evidence. madeleine: but we're also sort of then going off and looking for other sources to corroborate the information that's contained in a video or a photograph, so that could be witnesses again, it could be documentation, so there's a number of different other sources that we're looking at. reporter: using technology to document war crimes and human rights violations is particularly useful when public authorities fail. in the case of the mexican students who were kidnapped, one government agency destroyed recordings of a cctv camera.
the forensic architecture team digitally reconstructed the footage to show what was ignored by the official probe. irving: our project cannot answer the main question of where the students are, but it can trigger further inspections. reporter: that's certainly what omar is hoping for. that night in iguala still haunts him. omar: even if we get justice one day, this will continue to shape our lives. this terrible crime scarred us. we are fighting to make sure this never happens again. reporter: forensic architecture is a way to remember, and maybe to even help find the truth. host: around the world, new technologies have become almost essential in many areas of our lives. even the searcfor a partner has become a digital affair.
in 2015, more than one in four young adults in the u.s. used an online dating platform. and last year in asia, 133 million people used internet dating services. does that mean that the good old-fashioned way of meeting people without the internet is now totally out? not when it comes to south korea. there, blind dates organized by friends are in great demand. this is dating analogue-style. reporter: young-ju is used to being the center of attention. as a model, she regularly jets around the world, earning good money. very good, in fact. her parents are proud of her. except for one thing -- she's still single. time for a blind date. cheon-yong: so who's the date with? young-ju: i have no idea who i'm meeting.
reporter: and here he is. seung-woo. his gregarious best friend has arranged the date. seung-woo is more reserved. he has two jobs, and like many south koreans of his age, earns a high salary. he barely has time for anything outside work, but he'd still like to be in a relationship. blind dates are standard procedure in south korea. friends arrange them for their friends. it's old-fashioned stuff. not online, no algorithms deciding likely matches. just friends of friends of friends. jae-hyung: blind dates are not always successful. but the more you do them, the more likely that they'll work out. they're just another part of our quick results society. reporter: young-ju ended her last relationship because her boyfriend wanted to marry her. she wasn't ready. settling down, having a family -- she's not there yet, and her
parents are worried. like many young south koreans, young-ju still lives at home. so there's plenty of pressure. young-ju: my parents talk about getting married all the time. "when are you getting married," they ask. i'm 28. two of my friends have just got married. so i'm supposed to. but i don't want to yet. reporter: her hairdresser is single, too, and also lives with his parents. he's 38 and often goes on blind dates. cheon-yongin south korea, blind dates make connections. because everyone is always working, there's no time to meet anyone. so they go on blind dates to check out a potential relationship. they hope they'll be able to make a quick decision and save themselves the preliminaries, basically because the date comes recommended by a friend. reporter: in south korea, people say once you're over 30, you're over the hill. especially women.
for men, it's more like 40. but that only applies to love. a man's career has to be in full swing by 30. otherwise something's amiss. south korea has one of the world's highest percentage of single people and one of the lowest birth rates. but now it's time to take time out for a blind date. in keeping with tradition, jae-hyung introduces the two. and being the matchmaker, he hands out compliments, saying how beautiful she looks and how smart he is. and then he's off, and they're on their own, with only their nerves to keep them company. young-ju: this is my first-ever blind date. i don't know what i'm supposed to do. reporter: through all the giggling and the pregnant pauses, there's definitely a spark, too. they're attracted to each other, both like a sense a humor, and a nice smile. and then they talk about blood
groups. like star signs in the west, in south korea, a person's blood group is thought to reveal a lot about their character. young-ju: what is your blood group? seung-woo: i'm type a. young-ju: really? seung-woo: so do you believe in blood groups? young-ju: sure. seung-woo: so, what's your blood group? young-ju: i'm type b. seung-woo: do you like type a? young-ju: i do like type a guys. seung-woo: really? that's a relief. they say type a's are shy. reporter: it's a promising stt. and there's hope these two may be one step further towards finding the one, and escaping from all the pressure of being single. host: and now it's time for global ideas. this week, we head to south africa, a nation that's been suffering one of the worst droughts in its history. 2017 was the driest year on record for the area around cape town. what can people do to cope under
such merciless conditions? reporter: this reservoir supplies cape town with most of its water. but after four years of drought, there's very little of it left. the theewaterskloof dam is only 10% full. these trees were once fully submerged. louise stafford is director of water funds at nature conservancy south africa. as a local, she's acutely aware of the water shortage in the region. louise: normally where we stand would be water. and these are desperate times, and it's a result of climate change, population growth, and it's a reality that we will see in africa and in sou africa more and more. and the big question is, when you look at this, you think how
is this possible, and will it ever rain again, and if it rains, will it ever fill up this dam again? reporter: even the water withdrawal points have been left high and dry. they need to be filled with the help of pumps. otherwise, the pipes would remain empty. cape town is around 100 kilometers south of the reservoir. water scarcity is a fact of life for the city's four million residents. restrictions on water consumption have been in place for months. residents are limited to 50 liters of water per person per day. in the inner city, many people get their supply from natural sources of water. but hundreds of thousands of people also live on the outskirts of the city. gailine johannes isn't well-off, and has always been economical about water consumption. there's no swimming pool in the yard and just one tap in the kitchen. her family takes care not to waste a drop of water.
gailine: the people here in our house, they are very precisely because of the water that is being wasted. like children playing with the water, throwing everyone wet in the street. and i also learn my child to never waste water because of the water restriction that is here very highly. reporter: but thanks to the water shortage, gailine has found a job. a water conservation project was recently set up close to her home. she and a few other local women now go to work every morning. johneline: it's a good opportunity for us. there is high unemployment in the community and this is an opportunity for us to generate an income for our families.
reporter: the women clear shrubs from this huge wasteland. rainwater and treated domestic wastewater seep into the atlantis aquifer. after filtering through the sand for three years, the groundwater is returned to the city's water supply system. but there's a problem -- non-native plants, like invasive australian acacias. louise: if you look at the structure of the plant, it's much bigger than the local feinbos and the root structures, or the root systems are quite big in relation with the plant, so lots of water gets sucked up through the roots and evaporation takes place through the leaves. and the other way that we're losing water is, when it rains and the plants are this densely packed together, the water doesn't reach the aquifer floor and it doesn't replenish the aquifer. reporter: experts say that in
the cape region alone, invasive plants consume around 38 billion liters of water a year, enough to supply cape town for two whole months. gailine: we have to cut a lot. the lowest to the ground. we have to make it a little bit, so that you can see. so that's why we use this poison so that it won't grow again. reporter: weedkiller destroys the invasive plants and stops them from spreading and consuming valuable groundwater. it will take 30 years to kill off the acacias for good. the project is financed by the water fund for cape town. louise stafford hopes it hasn't come too late. and all the hard work is pointless if it doesn't rain. louise: we need to change our relationship with water. we need to change the way we see these water supply areas and then we need to change the way that we work with nature. and we need to do everything possible to work with nature to make nature more resistant,
resistant in these circumstances. otherwise, we're facing a total collapse. host: from south africa to west africa. what do people eat in ivory coast? we take a look. reporter: abidjan is the commercial capital of ivory coast, a city of 4.5 million people. on the fringe of marcory market is the snack stall that paco monatine runs together with her family. someone's always hungry, so it's open from 6:00 in the morning till 10:00 in the evening. the kbine bleu's been in business for 28 years -- a local legend. paco, who is 22, runs the snack bar together with her mother and
other female relatives. paco: i like it here a lot. it feeds our family, and my mama also works here. i like it a lot. it's hard, but work is work. and i wouldn't give it up for anything else. reporter: the plantains are cut up and then fried in sunflower oil for eight to ten minutes, until they're nice and greasy. they're eaten mostly with meat or fish. almost everyone can afford it here. children love to eat the alocos from the stall without any
trimmings. alocos remind everyone here of home cooking. >> when i've got time, i normally i make them myself. i don't come from around here, but when i'm in town, me and my daughter come by. >> i love it. it's my favorite meal. it's sweet. i don't leave the slightest bit. reporter: a portion costs the equivalent of 45 eurocents. see you next time, and till then, take care. ♪ [captioning performed by the national captioning institute,
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