tv 60 Minutes CBS March 10, 2013 7:00pm-8:00pm PDT
gaudí, had it been seen in all its glory. >> i mean, he wanted to write the history of the whole of the catholic faith in one building. i mean, how crazy and how extraordinary and how ambitious that idea is. >> i'm steve kroft. >> i'm leslie stahl. >> i'm morley safer. >> i'm lara logan. >> i'm norah o'donnell. >> i'm scott pelley. those stories tonight on "60 minutes."
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states. the drug had to be sterile because patients would have it injected into their joints or their spines to relieve chronic pain. what happened next is the worst pharmaceutical disaster in decades. the steroid was contaminated with fungus. 48 people have been killed, 720 are being treated for persistent fungal infections. the tragedy has exposed a failure in drug safety. and, in a moment, you will hear the commissioner of the f.d.a. acknowledge that she can no longer guarantee the safety of many high-risk drugs. the steroid was produced by new england compounding center, and in the six months since the first deaths, no one at new england compounding has revealed what happened. but tonight, they will. as for the victims, this has been an unrelenting horror after just one injection of lethal medicine.
>> julie otto: i've been in the hospital seven times, total of 75 days. i've missed thanksgiving and christmas and my son's birthday. >> pelley: julie otto is one of 13 injured patients who met us at st. joseph mercy hospital outside detroit. >> willard mazure: i'm on 60 milligrams of morphine a day with no cure in sight. there is no cure in sight for me. >> pelley: willard mazure's morphine is to kill the pain from the fungal infection. we asked the patients to sit down in the first two rows, and many of them brought family to the auditorium. michigan is a hotspot for the toxic steroid, one of 23 states that received the drug from massachusetts. st. joseph mercy has treated 189 patients, all of whom endure brutal anti-fungal drugs. >> mazure: the medicine is just unbearable. you know, they talk about cancer
treatments, and i'm sure they're unbearable, too. but this is some unbearable stuff. >> pelley: this is the fungus. it is a sample that has been grown from the spinal fluid of a patient. the fungus is a form of mold that attacks bone and nerves. the patients who had it injected in the spine have an infection called meningitis, which can also reach the brain. have the doctors told any of you that the fungus is gone and you never have to worry about it again? >> no. >> absolutely not. no. >> pelley: the steroid, methylprednisolone acetate, made by new england compounding center, known as n.e.c.c., came from this industrial park near boston, which houses the pharmacy and an outfit that recycles construction debris, both owned by the family of barry cadden, a pharmacist and president of n.e.c.c. cadden's new england compounding center was what's known as a compounding pharmacy. by law, compounding pharmacies
are not allowed to manufacture pharmaceuticals for the mass market. that would require the oversight of the f.d.a. instead, states license compounding pharmacies to make drugs for individuals. for example, a doctor might order a liquid form of a medication for a patient who can't swallow a pill. compounding pharmacies are bound by one rule: they must have a prescription for each individual patient. but n.e.c.c. was shipping tens of thousands of vials from its lab called "clean room one." investigators shot video inside n.e.c.c. this is the first time the public has seen it. and this is the first interview with a technician from clean room one. >> joe connolly: the underlying factor is that the company got greedy and overextended, and we got sloppy and something happened.
>> pelley: joe connolly started in clean room one in 2009. he remembers, in 2011, a salesman came by with a boast and a warning. >> connolly: he was walking through and says, "oh, i got... i got a bunch of stuff coming for you guys. you guys are going to be busy. you're going to... i'm going to keep you guys moving." and that just meant "compound it, process it, get it out the door." >> pelley: connolly says, over months, the lab was overwhelmed with orders. output of drugs that he made increased by a factor of 1,000. >> connolly: we became a manufacturer overnight. so we were basically trying to have the best of both worlds-- it was trying to manufacture without the oversight of a manufacturer. and it was just... we all got over-taxed and everything. >> pelley: which made it harder, he says, to follow the strict procedures that kept drug preparation sterile. they would occasionally find mold in the clean room? >> connolly: occasionally, yes. >> pelley: how often? >> connolly: i would say maybe a dozen times in three years we would find it.
>> pelley: he told us they would clean up and keep moving. but a month before the first steroid death, he says he warned his supervisor. >> connolly: "something's going to happen, something's going to get missed, and we're going to get shut down." >> pelley: what did you mean by that? >> connolly: we were going to hurt a patient-- we were just thinking "hurt a patient." we weren't compounding anymore, we were manufacturing. >> pelley: when you went to your supervisor and told him that, he said what? >> connolly: that's verbatim. he shrugged. that was his response for a lot of our questions or comments or concerns was a shrug. >> pelley: meaning? >> connolly: "just do it." he'd... either he didn't care or he was powerless to change it. >> pelley: n.e.c.c. was growing explosively, and so was the compounding industry. it started in 1998, when congress exempted compounding pharmacies from the oversight of the food and drug
administration. the theory was, mixing drugs one prescription at a time shouldn't require federal inspection. the law passed, over the strong objections of then-f.d.a. commissioner david kessler. you, as f.d.a. commissioner testified before them and you said, "don't do this." >> david kessler: if you're not going to have oversight, one day, people are going to die. >> pelley: that day's arrived. >> kessler: this should not happen in 2013-- maybe at the turn of the previous century, where we didn't have institutions like the f.d.a. there is no reason why people had to die. >> pelley: without f.d.a. supervision, compounding took off. state health departments are responsible for regulating what is now nearly a $2 billion industry. dr. margaret hamburg is f.d.a. commissioner now, and she told us, because of the 1998 law, she
doesn't know how many compounders there are or what they're making. you know, i can just hear the folks at home saying, "wait a minute. i thought every pharmaceutical drug in this country was approved by the f.d.a." and you seem to be telling me in this interview that that's not the case? >> dr. margaret hamburg: well, compounded drugs are not f.d.a. approved. >> pelley: so if a patient goes into a clinic, and the doctor or the nurse pulls out a vial of something, that patient has no way to know whether that drug has been approved by the f.d.a. or not? >> hamburg: well, i think that's right under the current system. and what i think emerged in the meningitis outbreak was that many patients and their health care providers didn't realize that they, in fact, were using a compounded product. >> pelley: as commissioner of the f.d.a. then, you can't tell us sitting here now that every drug being used in the united states is safe and effective? >> hamburg: no, i really cannot.
>> pelley: it was up to the massachusetts board of pharmacy to inspect n.e.c.c. records show occasional problems with sterility. but the pharmacy passed a board inspection in 2011. still, there is no indication that the state fully realized how big and dangerous n.e.c.c. had become. this is an n.e.c.c. salesman, speaking for the first time. and we were surprised when he told us how many hospitals and clinics were clients. >> close to 3,000, i'd say. >> pelley: 3,000 clients, all across the country? >> yeah. >> pelley: the salesman asked us to disguise him and not use his name. he fears the connection to n.e.c.c. will ruin his career. he left n.e.c.c. a year before the steroid disaster. he says he was replaced by a competing salesman. he told us that many of n.e.c.c.'s clients were in on the fraud at the heart of the company's growth. the law required n.e.c.c. to
have a name on a prescription, so clinics provided names-- any names. >> "bart simpson," "homer simpson" that we... those ones did raise red flags, and we told to call our client back, and say, "hey, give us different names." the follow-up names would be like a john doe, jane doe, bill doe, you know, jane smith, bill smith, et cetera. >> pelley: these weren't real people? >> as far as i know. i mean, how many jane does and john does do you know? i mean... >> pelley: and when you got the prescriptions with bart simpson's name and homer simpson's name, you went back to that client and said what? >> can you please, you know, give us legitimate names or people that you know? sometimes, they'd take a phone directory within their office, and scribble out their extensions and fax it over to us. >> pelley: it's obvious what was going on, and it was obvious to them...? >> yeah. >> pelley: ...that this wasn't above board? >> right, i mean, if you're in your position, if you're a buyer, and your job is to save money, and you're going to get a brand name for $40, and we offer you a $20 vial for the same drug, same size, same everything, what are you going to do?
you're going to go and get two for the price of one, using us. so, they... most of them knew that. i mean, some of them wouldn't do business with us. the ones that we didn't have as clients are the ones that knew, "hey, you guys can't be doing this. you're not doing it right." and we'd run into that a lot. but we'd move on to the next one. there's more big fish out there. >> pelley: big fish kept a big sales team busy. but the salesman told us barry cadden, the president, hid that fact during state inspections. >> so, barry would notify the managers of the sales team, "hey, don't let the sales team either come in today, or if they're already in the building, don't let them leave." if the f.d.a. went upstairs, or the board of pharmacy went up there and saw 30 sales reps making phone calls, 100 calls a day, they'd wonder what was going on, and why are you so big when you're supposed to be a mom and pop specialty pharmacy, and you're not? >> pelley: that sales force sold methylprednisolone to a pain clinic in michigan, which treated george cary's wife and anita baxter's mother. lillian cary and karina baxter were among the first to die.
we've pulled together pictures of about half of the 48 dead. the most recent fatality was last month. death often comes when the fungus reaches the brain. >> george cary: by the time the hospital determined that she had suffered a stroke, it was too late. >> anita baxter: same here. >> cary: she died five days later. >> pelley: lillian cary died before doctors figured out what was happening. so, while she was in the hospital, her husband george decided to do something about a nagging pain in his back. he went to the same clinic she had, and now the fungus is in him, too. what has the treatment been like? >> cary: you're not able to function. you're not able to concentrate. you... you... the staff called us the walking zombies. >> pelley: on september 26, after patients started dying, state officials came to inspect n.e.c.c. what happened that day?
>> connolly: we were told that we're being inspected, so, "everybody stop what you're doing, start cleaning." >> pelley: so you started cleaning the clean room? >> connolly: yeah. >> pelley: now, at this point, there is a federal investigation under way. >> connolly: i did... we didn't know that. >> pelley: you didn't know that, but the company knew that. >> connolly: i would assume, yeah. >> pelley: a prosecutor investigating this case might consider that to be obstruction of justice. >> connolly: i would very much agree. >> pelley: the evidence was getting cleaned up. >> connolly: it seemed like it. >> pelley: despite the clean-up, the f.d.a. tested 50 leftover vials of methylprednisolone, and all were contaminated. they noted that the intake for n.e.c.c.'s ventilation was 100 feet from the recycling plant. barry cadden, new england compounding's founder, was subpoenaed by congress. >> barry cadden: i respectfully decline to answer on the basis of my constitutional rights and privileges, including the fifth amendment to the united states constitution.
>> pelley: i wonder what you would say to him today. >> i'd hope it'd be through bars. whatever i said to him, i hope it'd be through bars. >> pelley: after this interview, willard mazure lost feeling in both legs. he's back in the hospital, and so is george cary. margaret hamburg, commissioner of the f.d.a., now wants congress to return authority over compounding pharmacies to her agency. >> hamburg: we need clear, strong, consistent federal standards that will be applied across the board, all 50 states. we need to be able to go in and inspect these facilities and get access to all of the information that we need. >> pelley: what are the chances of this happening again? >> hamburg: i'm sad to say that if we do not put in place the comprehensive legislation that really defines roles and responsibilities, we will have other similar problems. >> pelley: barry cadden and others are targets of a criminal investigation.
cadden declined to be interviewed. his lawyer told us that cadden is saddened by all of this, but does not know how the drug was contaminated. n.e.c.c. has gone into bankruptcy, and we noticed in the court papers that cadden and his partners withdrew $16 million from the company over the last year, some of it as people were beginning to die. >> cbs money watch update sponszered by: cliewb. >> good evening. the dow opens tomorrow at a record high, up 120% since bottoming out in march 2009. the fed says americans have regained the $16 trillion in wealth wiped out during the great recession. and gas averages $3.70 a dwhroon after dipping 5 cents last week. i'm jeff glor, cbs news.
>> o'donnell sheryl sandberg is the chief operating officer of the social networking giant facebook, but that's not what's putting her in the headlines. she's decided to jump headfirst into one of most hotly debated and intensely personal issues out there, women in the workplace. in a new book that has already touched a nerve, sandberg proposes a reason for why there are so few women at the top-- the problem, she says, might just be women themselves. despite the fact that women have been getting more college degrees than men for 30 years, they still account for only 4% of c.e.o.s in america's fortune 500 companies, and sheryl sandberg says that number needs to change. >> sheryl sandberg: the very blunt truth is that men still run the world. >> o'donnell: but what about the women's revolution? >> sandberg: i think we're stalled. i think we're stalled.
and i think we need to acknowledge that we're stalled so that we can change it. >> o'donnell: are you trying to re-ignite the revolution? >> sandberg: i think so. oh, wow. that's awesome. how are you? >> o'donnell: sheryl sandberg is an unlikely revolutionary. at 43, she is one of the few women at the top of corporate america, yet she's surprisingly uncomfortable with her own power and influence, something she has fought since her days at north miami beach senior high, where her classmates voted her "most likely to succeed." >> sandberg: and my friend was on the yearbook staff. and i went to find her and i said, "i do not want to be 'most likely to succeed'." >> o'donnell: what? >> sandberg: "most likely to succeed" is not the girl who gets a date to the prom, and i was worried enough about that. >> o'donnell: you were embarrassed? >> sandberg: i was embarrassed. my entire life, i have been told, you know, or i have felt that i should hold back on being too successful, too smart, too... you know, lots of things. oh, that's cool. >> o'donnell: she says that kind of self-doubt isn't unique to her; it resides deep inside most
women, who learn to downplay their accomplishments at a young age. in her 20 years in the workplace, she says she has noticed a stark difference in the way men and women view their success. >> sandberg: women attribute their success to working hard, luck, and help from other people. men will attribute that... whatever success they have, that same success, to their own core skills. >> o'donnell: so what do you attribute your success to? >> sandberg: i think, you know, my success, if i want to honestly want to attribute it, it's attributed to a lot of things, some of which really are luck, working hard, and help from others, like, i've had... >> o'donnell: what about your core skills? >> sandberg: and my core skills. and my core skills. but it is both. >> o'donnell: but sheryl, you are... you're one of the most powerful women in the world, and you still can't attribute your success to your own core skills? >> sandberg: no, i can s... i can more. >> o'donnell: it's that mindset that led sheryl sandberg to reach the conclusion that's at the heart of her book: it's not
just men who hold women back; women do it to themselves. they play it too safe at work, worry too much about being liked, and turn down opportunities in anticipation of having a family one day. >> sandberg: they start leaning back. they say, "oh, i'm busy. i want to have a child one day. i couldn't possibly, you know, take on any more," or "i'm still learning on my current job." i've never had a man say that stuff to me. >> o'donnell: you're suggesting women aren't ambitious. >> sandberg: i'm not suggesting women aren't ambitious. plenty of women are as ambitious as men. what i am saying, and i want to say it unequivocally and unapologetically, that the data is clear that, when it comes to ambition to lead, to be the leader of whatever you're doing, men, boys outnumber girls and women. >> o'donnell: but some women will hear that and say, "wow, she's telling me i'm not working hard enough, i'm not trying hard enough? she's blaming women." >> sandberg: yeah. i'm not blaming women. my message is not one of blaming women. there's an awful lot we don't control. i am saying that there's an awful lot we can control and we
can do for ourselves to sit at more tables, raise more hands. put your foot on that gas pedal and keep it there. >> o'donnell: if there's one message she wants women to hear, it's to aim high, seek challenges and take risks, and fight the instinct to hold back. >> sandberg: do not lean back, lean in. >> o'donnell: it's territory she staked out in this 2011 commencement address that got a lot of attention. is it personal for you? >> sandberg: this is deeply personal for me. i want every little girl who someone says they're bossy to be told instead, "you have leadership skills." >> o'donnell: because you were told you were bossy? >> sandberg: because i was told that, and because every woman i know who was in a leadership position was told that. >> o'donnell: she's the oldest of three children, a born leader who seemed destined for success. at harvard, her economics professor, larry summers, handpicked her to follow him to the world bank, and then to become his chief of staff when
he was treasury secretary, all before the age of 30. by 2001, she was headed to silicon valley, where she almost turned down a job offer from eric schmidt, the c.e.o. of a little-known start-up called google. >> sandberg: i was supposed to be the first business unit general manager. but there were no business units. there was nothing to generally manage. and he kind of put his hand on my paper and he was like, "if you're offered a seat on a rocket ship, you don't ask 'what seat?' get on the rocket ship." and i did. >> o'donnell: the rocket ship took off into the stratosphere, and sheryl sandberg had a key role building google into the more than $250 billion business it is today. in 2008, facebook founder mark zuckerberg needed someone to help him run his social network, and he offered her the job. what happened next is an example of where sandberg says women often go wrong-- she almost accepted the offer without any negotiating. her husband, dave goldberg, stepped in. >> sandberg: and my husband is, like, "are you kidding?
you can't take the first offer." i'm like, "well, it's a generous offer and i really want this job." and finally, with dave there, my brother-in-law looked at me and goes, you know, "god dammit, sheryl, don't make less than any man would make doing this job. there is no man taking this job who would take the first offer." >> o'donnell: and dave, what did you think when she said, "i'm going to just go ahead and accept it?" >> david goldberg: oh, i was apoplectic, apoplectic. "you're going to be running all the negotiations and deals. like, you can't... you can't just take the first offer. it'll look bad." not because it... the money mattered so much, but it was the principle. i wanted mark to really feel he stretched to get sheryl, because she was worth it. let's get the things for the board ready... >> o'donnell: dave goldberg knows a thing or two about closing a deal. he's already sold one internet company to yahoo, and is now running what looks like another big success. he embodies one more piece of advice his wife has for women who want to succeed, but it has less to do with the boardroom than the bedroom.
>> sandberg: everyone knows marriage is the biggest personal decision you make. but it's the biggest career decision you make-- if you're going to have a life partner who that partner's going to be. >> o'donnell: well, that just puts more pressure on women. ( laughter ) >> sandberg: it's more pressure on women to... if they marry or partner with someone, to partner with the right person, because you cannot have a full career and a full life at home with your children if you are also doing all of the housework and child care. >> o'donnell: doesn't that kind of take the romance out of everything? >> sandberg: you know what? it turns out that a husband who does the laundry, it's very romantic when you're older. and it's hard to believe when you're younger, but it's absolutely true. actually, the studies show this. husbands who do more housework have more sex with their wives. >> o'donnell: there are studies that show this? >> sandberg: studies that show this. >> goldberg: i can hear the men running off to the laundry machine right now. many kids are coming? >> o'donnell: it's hard to imagine that these two are spending a lot of time doing laundry; they are among the richest couples in silicon
valley. but they insist they split their parenting responsibilities equally, trying to make sure at least one of them is home in time for dinner with their two young children. do you ever feel guilty about not being around for your children enough? >> sandberg: i mean, i feel guilty a lot. i compare myself to the women who are, you know, at-home mothers with their kids. i think i'm a little intimidated, to be totally honest. and then i think... because we all feel a little bit insecure about our own choices, we get pitted against each other. >> o'donnell: you think most women feel guilty about the choices that they've made? >> sandberg: every woman i know feels guilty about the choices they are making, including myself. in fact, i feel so guilty i wrote a whole book about it. >> o'donnell: "lean in" is more than a book for sheryl sandberg; she's hoping to spark a movement... >> sandberg: women do a better job negotiating... >> o'donnell: ...online, and in living rooms around the country, where women talk about ways to implement her advice. sandberg also hosts parties in her own home to counteract what's been called a boys club
in silicon valley. >> sandberg: watch out, world. >> o'donnell: but some of the very women she hopes will sign on to her movement have been turned off by her message, saying it's aimed at elite women and places unrealistic expectations on working moms who can't possibly afford all the household help sheryl sandberg can. >> sandberg: i am not saying that everyone has the resources or opportunities i have. i'm not saying that everyone's husband is going to wake up tomorrow, read a book, and start doing his share. like, that's not what i'm saying. but i am saying that we need to help women own the power they have, learn how to negotiate for raises, get the pay they deserve. >> o'donnell: you know, sheryl, people are going to say, "oh she's got a charmed life, she went to harvard, she's a billionaire." >> sandberg: yep. >> o'donnell: "and she's telling me what i should do?" do they have a point? >> sandberg: i'm not trying to say that everything i can do, everyone can do. but i do believe that these messages are completely
universal. the things that hold women back from sitting at the boardroom table, and they hold women back from speaking up at the pta meeting. >> o'donnell: you think it's universal? not just for elite women? i mean, what's a single mom going to be able to do with this message? >> sandberg: knowing how to ask for a raise successfully, it's probably more important to her, but certainly just as important to her as it is for a woman in the executive suite. >> o'donnell: and for those who say, "easy for you to say?" >> sandberg: it is easier for me to say this, and that's why i'm saying it. >> o'donnell: how sheryl sandberg finds the time to say it is a wonder, considering her day job at facebook... >> sandberg: so, this is the campus. >> o'donnell: ...which, on her watch, has grown from 500 employees to nearly 5,000, and now has more than one billion users worldwide. >> back up, guys, back up! >> o'donnell: but the company is still under intense scrutiny after it went public last year. high expectations came crashing down along with the stock, which, at one point, lost half
its value amid concerns the company could not maintain its rapid growth. by most accounts, the initial public offering of the stock was a disaster. was it embarrassing? >> sandberg: i don't know if it was embarrassing. it wasn't fun, and it wasn't what we would've enjoyed having. >> o'donnell: but you're second in command at this company. do you feel at all any personal responsibility for how it went? >> sandberg: i think we all feel personal responsibility for how everything goes here. and i feel my job and my commitment to anyone who bought stock, whether they bought it at the i.p.o. or they bought it since, it's my job to make this company as valuable as i possibly can. >> o'donnell: the stock has started to rebound. and while mark zuckerberg is the creative force behind facebook, it's sheryl sandberg's job to figure out how to tap its vast advertising potential. she says she is confident about facebook's future, but her high profile has fueled speculation about her own. she says she's not leaving any time soon, but has been vocal
about how few women hold elective office. does it bother you that there hasn't been a woman president of the united states? >> sandberg: yes, it does. >> o'donnell: why wouldn't you lean in and run? >> sandberg: i mean, for me, i feel like i'm doing all the leaning in that i can do right now. >> go to 60minutesovertime.com to hear sheryl sandberg and norah o'donnell talk about mentors in their careers. sponsored by pfizer. [ phil ] when you have joint pain and stiffness... accomplishing even little things can become major victories. i'm phil mickelson, pro golfer. when i was diagnosed with psoriatic arthritis, my rheumatologist prescribed enbrel for my pain and stiffness, and to help stop joint damage. [ male announcer ] enbrel may lower your ability to fight infections. serious, sometimes fatal events including infections, tuberculosis, lymphoma, other cancers, nervous system and blood disorders, and allergic reactions have occurred. before starting enbrel, your doctor should test you for tuberculosis and discuss whether you've been to a region
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good for the world. built in america. now, leaf's an easier choice than ever. ♪ shop at choosenissan.com. ♪ >> logan: during his eight years as pope, benedict xvi carried out thousands of official duties. but only once did he travel outside rome to bestow the vatican's highest honor on a church, transforming it into a basilica, a sacred place forever. tonight, we're going to take you to that extraordinary church. it's called the sagrada família, and if you've ever been to barcelona, spain, you couldn't have missed it. it may be one of the most spectacular buildings ever constructed by man, the vision of genius spanish architect
antoni gaudí, known as "god's architect," who died almost a century ago. it's been under construction for 130 years, and it's still not finished. why would a church take so long to build? because gaudí's design was as complicated as it was advanced. today, the sagrada família has become the longest running architectural project on earth. when pope benedict came to the sagrada família two years ago, it was the first time mass had ever been held here. in an ancient tradition as old as the catholic church, he consecrated the sagrada família as a basilica. not since 1883, when it was envisioned by antoni gaudí, had
it been seen in all its glory. 800 voices filled the air, one of the largest choirs in the world, and close to 7,000 people gathered, celebrating a moment that had taken 128 years to arrive. while the inside is mostly finished, outside, there's still much to be done. you can see the spires and construction cranes for miles. watch as this picture moves in from above-- those tiny figures below are people dwarfed by the massive façade rising from the main entrance of the church. antoni gaudí was profoundly devout, and this was his way to make amends to god for the sins of the modern world. >> gijs van hensbergen: i mean, he wanted to write the history
of the whole of the catholic faith in one building. i mean, how crazy and how extraordinary and how ambitious and how, in a sense, megalomaniac that idea is. >> logan: gijs van hensbergen immersed himself in antoni gaudí's life for ten years and wrote what's considered the definitive biography. he took us to see the nativity façade, the only part built while gaudí was alive. >> van hensbergen: it's the bible written in stone. >> logan: so, every single little thing that you look at there, every detail symbolizes something real? >> van hensbergen: yeah, and that was the idea, that we together would spend days here-- me teaching you, if i was a priest, what the story was, and what the symbolism was. and once you get inside is a wonderful, kind of spiritual boost. ♪ ♪ >> logan: the ceiling is a
striking display of gaudí's engineering genius. he wanted the interior of his church to have the feel of a forest, because that's where he believed man could feel closest to god. and when you look upwards, you can see gaudí's columns branching out like trees. >> van hensbergen: trees are actually buildings, he said. it knows where to throw out a branch. and if you look at the sagrada família today, that's exactly what happens with those bizarre, eccentric... they look bizarre and eccentric, but the engineering beneath it is absolutely exceptional. >> logan: van hensbergen pointed out that, as you move towards the altar, the columns are made from stronger and stronger stone. gaudí chose red porphery from iran for the ones that bear the heaviest load, because it's among the strongest in the world. if you had to define, sort of, the one thing that distinguished gaudí as an architect, what would it be? >> van hensbergen: the capacity to see space in a totally
different way, to make space explode, to see a building as a sculpture rather than just as a place to live in or a roof over your head. he's someone who reinvented the language of architecture, which no other architect has ever managed to do. >> logan: how many years ahead of his time was he? >> van hensbergen: oh, he was a century ahead, he was a century ahead. >> logan: gaudí knew the sagrada família would not be completed in his lifetime, so he spent years building these elaborate plaster models. this one is of the church's ceiling. they would have to act as a guide for future generations of architects to follow his complicated design, and he knew that, without them, it would never be finished the way he intended. >> jordi bonet: i am very old, but... >> logan: you're very old? >> bonet: this next month, yes. >> logan: but? >> bonet: 87. >> logan: gaudí's legacy has been in the hands of this man's family for more than 80 years. jordi bonet came here for the first time in 1932, when he was
just seven years old. do you remember what this was like when you first came here? >> bonet: yes. >> logan: was it nothing like this? >> bonet: nothing of this-- only this façade, the walls. and the other façade. this was nothing. >> logan: for years, the sagrada família was little more than a ruin, a pile of rubble and open sky. and it may have stayed that way were it not for this one family. this is jordi bonet's father, who was one of the lead architects here for more than 40 years. jordi followed him as chief architect for almost three decades, and his daughter mariona is an architect here today. together, they've spent more time working on this church than gaudí himself. >> bonet: it is one way to give something to the world. >> logan: this is your way to give something to the world. >> bonet: yes, yes.
>> logan: the devotion to gaudí runs deep here. japanese sculptor etsuro sotoo has spent 35 years in this church, and this is where he expects to be for the rest of his life, sculpting the figures that adorn gaudí's final masterpiece, consumed by the man and his vision. >> etsuro sotoo ( translated ): gaudí teaches me and helps me solve problems in my work. for me, he's not dead. >> logan: why did you convert to catholicism? you became a catholic. >> sotoo: i was a buddhist, but after working here, i realized i couldn't do my job without knowing gaudí. and to know him, you have to be in the place he was, and that was a world of faith. >> logan: gaudí's deep faith is the reason he became known as "god's architect." this is one of the few photographs ever taken of him. he was 31 when he started working on the sagrada família.
and over the next 43 years, it became an obsession. >> van hensbergen: he looked like a homeless person. his trousers were held up with string. his clothes were kind of frayed, and... because all he was interested in was the sagrada família. i mean, that was every waking hour, to the point, at the end of his life, actually, where he was sleeping on the site. >> logan: gaudí died suddenly at this intersection, in 1926, when he was hit by a tram. the driver pushed him aside, mistaking the beloved architect for a tramp. >> van hensbergen: the photos show you these people kind of bereft of their builder, the builder of god. >> logan: after his death, the builder of god's plaster models continued to guide construction for the next ten years, until 1936, when the spanish civil war broke out. anarchists attacked the sagrada família.
this photo captures smoke billowing from its side. all those models gaudí had spent years building were smashed to pieces. wow, these are all the original pieces that were picked up from his studio. >> mark burry: yup, and they've been sort of painstakingly identified. >> logan: these shattered fragments were rescued from the rubble and ashes by jordi bonet's father and a team of architects. there are thousands of them locked away inside this room in the sagrada família. they are the structural d.n.a. of gaudí's church. >> burry: they are absolutely the link; not a vague link, not a source of evidence-- it's the source of evidence. >> logan: new zealander mark burry was studying architecture at cambridge university in england when he first came to the sagrada família on a backpacking trip in 1977. he'd come at just the right moment. the architects were stuck. the second façade had just been
completed, and they were ready to take on the main body of the church, but no one could figure out how to build it as gaudí intended. >> burry: they just showed me boxes and boxes and boxes of broken models, and explained that these models had the secrets. >> logan: what were you going to do that they couldn't do? >> burry: my task was to actually reverse-engineer the models, if you like. >> logan: reverse-engineer them so he could understand how gaudí's models were supposed to fit together... >> burry: this is the model maker's workshop. >> logan: ...almost like the pieces of a complex puzzle. he told us gaudí's design was so advanced, there was nothing like it in the language of architecture at the time. in the end, he turned to the most sophisticated aeronautical design software available. >> burry: we had to look to other professions who've actually tackled the complexities of the sagrada família, which are basically complex shapes and surfaces, so
that's the vehicle industry-- the car designers the ship designers, the plane designers. they've been grappling for decades with the very same issues that gaudí was putting up as architectural challenges. >> logan: so you are using the most up-to-date aeronautical engineering software to complete something that he conceived of in the late 1800s. >> burry: absolutely. >> logan: after 34 years, mark burry is now one of the lead architects. he took us up to their construction site in the sky, way above the city. from up here, you can see all the way to the mediterranean. how did they build these towers 130 years ago? >> burry: they built them by hand. >> logan: every piece? >> burry: no cranes, just hard labor. wooden scaffolding, and the men would have to sort of climb 200 or 300 feet up each day to do the work. and then they'd have to pull all the materials up. >> logan: today, massive cranes
swing heavy equipment and materials across the sky, constructing the sagrada família precisely as gaudí envisioned. burry says they still rely on gaudí's models to guide them, nearly a hundred years later. >> burry: what's extraordinary is, because of the system that gaudí put in place using these particular geometries, it all fits within fractions of an inch. >> logan: the spot where we're standing is where they're building gaudí's central tower. at 566 feet, it will make this the tallest church on earth. gaudí designed it to be three feet shorter than the tallest surrounding mountain, in deference to god. when you finish this tower, it's going to be double where we are right now? >> burry: we're going to get this view amplified by two. >> logan: mark burry says it will take at least another 13 years to finish the sagrada família, which is paid for entirely by donations to the church.
during the pope's visit, jordi bonet was called on to represent the three generations of architects, engineers and sculptors who have brought gaudí's vision this far. do you think you will see this complete? >> bonet: this is very difficult to answer. my age is a big age. but it is possible. >> logan: do you have any doubt in your mind that this will be finished one day? >> bonet: oh, yes, i... i believe. >> ♪ alleluia, alleluia... ( bell tolls )
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