tv 60 Minutes CBS May 5, 2019 7:00pm-8:00pm PDT
and ford. we go further, so you can. >> pelley: more than a quarter of cities and counties across america say they have fended off an attack on their essential computer networks. hospitals, city halls and transit hubs have all been crippled by sophisticated ransomware attacks. >> christman: cyber-crime has really become a way of life, and connected to everything we do, and really every crime we see. >> pelley: at what point does this ransomware come to our phones? >> christman: i think it's already on the doorstep for that. ( ticking ) >> whitaker: this is a story about the cruelest disease you have never heard of. it's called frontotemporal dementia, or f.t.d. f.t.d. is the number-one form of dementia in americans under the age of 60.
>> tracey lind: i was washing my hands, and i looked in the mirror, and i did not recognize my own face. >> whitaker: didn't recognize yourself. >> lind: no. i looked in the mirror, and i kept looking, and i remember i kept looking at this woman, wondering, "who was she?" ( ticking ) >> wertheim: and now for something completely different. ♪ ♪ tanya tagaq is a pop star who happens to be an inuit throat singer. ♪ ♪ modernizing an ancient art form born high above the arctic circle. do you like it? >> carson tagaq: um, yeah, it's... it's okay. >> wertheim: ( laughs ) you waited too long there. >> carson tagaq: yeah, well, it's not van morrison, that's for sure. ( ticking ) >> i'm steve kroft. >> i'm lesley stahl. >> i'm scott pelley. >> i'm anderson cooper. >> i'm jon wertheim. >> i'm bill whitaker. those stories, tonight, on "60 minutes."
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right here. right now. humira. >> pelley: this past week, cleveland's airport began to recover from a computer attack that took down its flight information, baggage displays, and its email. the f.b.i. says it was another ransomware attack on a sensitive government network. ransomware locks up a victim's files until a ransom is paid. more and more, critical public service networks are the targets. before cleveland, the city governments of newark, atlanta and sarasota were hit, and san francisco's transit authority,
the colorado department of transportation, and the port of san diego. today, 26% of cities and counties say they fend off an attack on their networks every hour. perhaps even worse, dozens of hospitals have been held hostage across the country. in january 2018, the night shift at hancock regional hospital watched its computers crash with deepest apologies. the 100-bed facility in the suburbs of indianapolis got its c.e.o., steve long, out of bed. >> steve long: we had never been through this before. and it's something that i read in the journals. and i say, "oh, those poor folks. i'm glad that's never going to happen to us." but when you come in and you see that the files on your computer have been renamed-- and all of the files were renamed, either "we apologize for files" or "we're sorry." and there was a moment when i thought, "well, maybe they're not so bad-- they said they were sorry."
but, in fact, they had encrypted every file that we had on our computers and on the network. >> pelley: long told 911 to divert emergency patients to a hospital 20 miles away. his staff turned to pen and paper. nothing electronic could be trusted. >> long: this is a ransomware. so, this is a virus that has gotten into the computer system. "would it have the ability to jump to a piece of clinical equipment? could it jump to an i.v. pump? could it jump to a ventilator? we needed a little time just to make sure about that." >> pelley: but time was a luxury not offered in the ransom demand. >> long: "your network has been encrypted. if you would like to purchase the decryption keys, you have seven days to do so, or your network files will be permanently deleted." and then it gave us the amount that we would need to pay to get that back. >> pelley: and that came to? >> long: about $55,000. >> pelley: that was the same price demanded of the city of leeds, alabama, three weeks after hancock hospital. mayor david miller was surprised
his town of 12,000 would be a target-- not much to notice in leeds, at least not since charles barkley graduated from the high school. >> david miller: i didn't know that this malware attack was actually a ransomware attack. as soon as we found that out, that took it to a little different level. >> pelley: how do you mean? >> miller: well, it was going to cost us some money. >> pelley: like the hospital, the city of leeds was cast back into the age of paper: no email, no access to its personnel files or financial systems. can all companies and local governments expect to be attacked? >> mike christman: i think everyone should expect to be attacked. >> pelley: the f.b.i.'s mike christman says cyber-crooks know governments and hospitals are likely to pay because they can't afford not to. until his recent promotion, christman was in charge of the f.b.i.'s cyber-crime unit. you're waiting for the day that somebody says, "we have the 911 system held hostage in a major
city, and we need $10 million today"? >> christman: i hope that day never comes, but i think we should prepare for that possibility. >> pelley: christman says in 2017, 1,700 successful ransomware attacks were reported, but he figures that's less than half. most businesses, he says, would rather pay than admit they were hacked. >> christman: i'm aware of one ransomware variant that affected all 50 states, that had some $30 million in losses, and over $6 million in ransom payments. i would tell you that the losses are very significant, and easily approach $100 million or more, just in the united states. >> pelley: that ransomware variant he's talking about is the one that held hancock hospital hostage. it's called "samsam" after one of its file names. experts told steve long, "samsam" is unbreakable.
>> long: there was nothing that we could do to unlock those files. our only choice was to wipe the system and hope that we had backups, or to purchase the decryption keys. >> pelley: to pay the ransom. >> long: indeed. that is exactly what that means. >> pelley: but "samsam" had infected the hospital's backup files. the f.b.i. advised long not to pay, but after two days, after his staff filled out 10,000 pieces of paper, he paid the ransom. the crooks demanded digital money, known as bitcoin. ransomware is possible only because bitcoin is so difficult to trace. mayor miller held out two weeks before he paid his bitcoin ransom-- after a little bargaining. >> miller: i just had to grit my teeth and realize that this was a business decision, and that was the way to do it. >> pelley: so they asked for $60,000, and you paid $8,000. how did you get there? >> miller: well, i've got a degree in finance. ( laughs )
actually, our city inspector, and our city clerk let them know that, hey, you're dealing with a very small town, here. that's a lot of money to us. and, we think we can scrape together $8,000. >> pelley: the thieves were honorable. in leeds, at hancock hospital, and in many cases, the ransom buys decryption keys that actually work. the crooks need credibility to keep the ransoms flowing. did you ever find out? >> miller: never. >> pelley: who they were, or where they were? >> miller: no. >> pelley: wouldn't you just love to know? >> miller: wouldn't i love to know. >> pelley: leeds may have been hit by one of the many ransomware variations that simply scan the internet, blindly, looking for vulnerable networks, wherever they may be. how many targets do they attack at a time? >> tom pace: you could conservatively say in the thousands, to tens of thousands. >> pelley: tom pace is vice president of blackberry-cylance, a leading security firm.
so this isn't a crook sitting in front of a desktop, breaking a sweat, trying to break into somebody's system. this is something they unleash that's automated, and they sit back and drink coffee until they get the results? >> pace: that certainly appears to be the rule, not the exception. >> pelley: making the coffee may be the hard part. pace showed us a website that offers ransomware for rent. an attacker can use one of many illicit products here, and the website takes a cut if ransom is paid. >> pace: and something else that's interesting here is, they actually provide you with basically a chat room, where you can ask questions to the people who maintain this architecture for you. >> pelley: frequently asked questions for criminals. >> pace: exactly. >> pelley: tom pace logged onto the site and used it to encrypt a network of his own. >> pace: so, all of the files that are on this system have now been successfully encrypted. >> pelley: so, this took you just slightly over five minutes, and you didn't write a single line of code?
>> pace: correct. >> pelley: off the shelf. >> pace: off the shelf. ready to go. >> pelley: pace told us ransoms are typically modest, like at hancock hospital or leeds, alabama-- $50,000 or so. >> pace: if you're asking for millions from everybody, that's just, everybody doesn't have millions to pay, right? so, finding that sweet spot and sticking to it has worked well. >> pelley: and that's why the same ransom was asked of little leeds, alabama and great big atlanta? >> pace: correct. >> richard cox: the city of atlanta has experienced a ransomware cyber-attack. >> pelley: three weeks after leeds, "samsam" slipped into atlanta's city hall. howard shook is a councilman and chair of the finance committee. >> howard shook: 911 was up and running, but, for a while, the police did not have the ability to do computer checks on license plates, and, you know, cars they were pulling up on, and that kind of thing, which was a concern. >> pelley: what else crashed? >> shook: the court system went down, which was a major
inconvenience for the thousands of people cycling through municipal court. >> pelley: "samsam" demanded $50,000, but atlanta refused to pay. instead, the city spent $20 million to recover on its own. it took months, and seven years of police dashcam video was never recovered. why did you think paying was a bad idea? >> shook: at first, it was just instinctive. i mean, if you're being violated, i don't know why you should reward somebody for having done that. >> pelley: it must gall the hell out of some of your clients to pay the bad guys. >> pace: absolutely. i mean, we have lots of clients who are incredibly angry. i mean, you have to imagine, this is, for many of them, the worst day of their professional career, and sometimes their life. >> pelley: a day made even worse by the occasional high-end ransom. pace told us one of his clients paid almost a million dollars. another paid up after receiving
this threat: >> pace: "would it not be a shame if we leaked all of your internal data about your clients and customers? sounds to us like a large lawsuit waiting to happen." so, they're extorting them in two ways. they're extorting them by actually encrypting all the files, and then they're extorting them by threatening to also release the data. >> pelley: once this transaction is completed and the client gets his files back, how does he know he's not going to be attacked again? >> pace: there's no way to really prove that he will not be. we try and do a really good job of making sure we reduce all the vulnerabilities and entry points, but there is no guarantee that they won't come back to the same organization that they just successfully impacted, though we haven't seen that happen very often. though it has happened. >> pelley: last year, the justice department said it unmasked "samsam." a grand jury indicted two iranians, neither named sam. the f.b.i. says the two iranian suspects were in it for the they collected $6 million before
they went quiet after the indictment. prosecutors say the suspects are in iran, where they can't be extradited. the most threatening ransomware tends to come from countries, including russia, that the f.b.i. can't reach. is cyber-crime becoming to the f.b.i. what banks were in the 1930s? >> christman: i think it is. cyber-crime has really become a way of life, and connected to everything we do, and really, every... every crime we see. and i know that by 2020, we expect to see 50 billion devices worldwide connected to the internet. >> pelley: so the question becomes, at what point does this ransomware come to our phones, where some crook says, "i've got your phone, send me 50 bucks"? >> christman: i think it's already on the doorstep for that. i think some of those devices that connect to the internet can not only be compromised, but they can be used to facilitate other attacks, under the command
and control of bad actors. >> pelley: this can be, "i have your phone, i have your car, i have your house"? anything that's connected to the internet? >> christman: absolutely. ( ticking ) >> cbs money watch sponsored by lincoln financial, helping you create a secure financial future. >> good evening. it's a busy week on wall street with about 50 companies reporting earn, including disney and viacom. investors get a read on inflation when the consumer price index is released, and uber makes a public debut, seeking to sell $9 billion in shares. i'm elaine quijano, cbs news. to look at me now,
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>> whitaker: this is a story about the cruelest disease you have never heard of. it's called frontotemporal dementia, or f.t.d., and given the devastating toll it takes on its victims and their families, it ought to be much better known than it is. f.t.d. is the number-one form of dementia in americans under the age of 60. what causes it is unclear, but it attacks the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain, which control personality and speech, and it's always fatal. it is not alzheimer's disease, which degrades the part of the brain responsible for memory. with f.t.d., people either display such bizarre behavior that their loved ones can hardly recognize them, or they lose the ability to recognize themselves. that's what happened to tracey lind one day, a few years ago, as she was standing in a public restroom.
>> tracey lind: i was washing my hands, and i looked in the mirror, and i did not recognize my own face. >> whitaker: didn't recognize yourself. >> lind: no. i looked in the mirror, and i kept looking, and i remember i kept looking at this woman, wondering, "who was she?" >> whitaker: this is who she was: the very reverend tracey lind, dean of the episcopal cathedral in cleveland, ohio, one of the city's most prominent preachers and civic leaders. she was 61 years old when both she and her spouse emily ingalls began to notice trouble with things tracey had always done very well; like finding the right word, recognizing congregants and friends' faces, and, of course, her own. >> lind: that's when i said, "oh, man. i've got to go see a doctor." >> whitaker: when that happened, were you-- were you scared? >> lind: oh, i was scared to death. >> whitaker: emily, what did you think was happening? >> emily ingalls: i thought, there's something not right with her brain. >> whitaker: on election day 2016, tracey lind got the
diagnosis: frontotemporal dementia. she has what's called the "speech variant" of the disease, which, among other things, attacks the part of the brain where language lives. >> lind: sometimes you just-- you're fine and you're on. and then there are other times that the words just don't come out. i mean, it-- even if i know what the word is, somet-- sometimes i feel like i'm playing bingo. and when i find the word, it's-- i... i shout it. i-- like, i feel like an imbecile, you know. "apple." oh, yeah! "apple," that's it. and i get all excited. >> whitaker: this is acutely painful for tracey, because being a powerful, effective speaker has always been at the core of her identity. one of the first things you did once you got this diagnosis was to resign from your job as dean at trinity cathedral. >> lind: right. >> whitaker: why'd you take that action so quickly? >> lind: mainly, it was, i knew
i was starting to fail, even though i was faking it pretty well. >> whitaker: since stepping down, tracey and emily have traveled around the country and the world, speaking and preaching about her f.t.d.-- or as tracey puts it, "telling the story of dementia from the inside out." >> lind: i was determined to live what i had been preaching for over 30 years; that out of pain comes joy. i'm going to face this disease called f.t.d. that i'd never heard of before, and i'm going to see what i can do with it. >> whitaker: i don't know if you are aware of how unique this situation is, that you are in the middle of this decline from dementia and yet, you're so able to articulate what that's like. >> lind: i am aware of that.
i think my curiosity is what's getting me through it. because otherwise, bill, i-- i-- i'm-- i'm just going to lay down and-- and-- and-- and roll up in a ball. >> whitaker: tracey says she has good days and bad days. just in our interview, there were moments when she was completely in control-- and moments when she wasn't. >> lind: ...and i'm doing some-- you know, i'm-- i'm-- i'm-- i'm... i know there's no-- >> ingalls: do you want help? >> lind: can you help, please? >> ingalls: okay. >> bruce miller: this is the way this very sad illness presents. >> wr:r.ce mr ma texpe on frontoteal heuns b at theve of california-san francisco that's doing cutting-edge research on the two main forms of f.t.d.-- the speech variant that tracey lind has, and a behavioral variant that attacks
personality, judgement and empathy. >> dr. miller: pleasure to see you both again. >> whitaker: on the day we visited dr. miller's clinic, he and his team met with f.t.d. patient thomas cox and his wife lori. at first glance, thomas seems fine-- but he's not. >> thomas cox: i've got f.t.d. >> dr. miller: okay, and has that affected you so far? >> thomas cox: no. >> whitaker: in fact, lori cox says that, starting a few years ago, thomas lost interest in her, in their son, and in his work-- so much that he was fired from his job. by now, he's pretty much reduced to looking at photos on his phone. >> thomas cox: that's bugatti. >> lori cox: that's our dog. ( laughs ) >> dr. miller: ah. your dog. >> lori cox: i can blame the disease. i can say that the disease stole my-- my husband. >> dr. miller: yes. when a family sees someone with this illness, they don't recognize them. this is not the person i married, that i love.
this is not my father, or my mother. >> whitaker: you have said that f.t.d. attacks people at the very soul of their humanity. >> dr. miller: this is profound as anything that can happen to a human being. it robs us of our very essence of our humanity, of who we are. >> whitaker: bruce miller says because so many cases are first misdiagnosed as mental illness, it takes an average of three years and several expensive brain scans to get a correct diagnosis of f.t.d. >> dr. miller: so whether it's 20,000 new cases every year, 100,000, 200,000, we still don't know. but in young people with neuro degeneration, frontotemporal dementia is a big one. >> whitaker: so if you see someone who is suffering dementia at a younger age... >> dr. miller: very strong likelihood that it's f.t.d. >> whitaker: dr. miller showed us this composite image of two of the major degenerative brain diseases.
>> dr. miller: frontal temporal dementia, shown in blue; alzheimer's disease, shown in red. so, very different geography, very different clinical manifestations. >> whitaker: what does the blue indicate? >> dr. miller: the blue indicates is that there's loss of tissue. when we see loss of tissue in that brain region, we know people have lost their interest in life, their drive. they do less, they care less about other people. >> whitaker: that loss of empathy, miller says, can produce dangerous, impulsive, even criminal behavior, and those with behavioral f.t.d. are rarely aware that anything has changed. >> amy johnson: he went from being a caring, doting father and husband, and it just seemed like he flipped a switch off. and he had no idea that he had changed. he had no idea. >> whitaker: amy johnson and her husband mark married in 2006, settled in the small minnesota town of windom, and now have
four young children, three boys and a girl. three years ago, amy says mark suddenly seemed to stop caring about her and the kids. >> amy johnson: that's the first time that i really remember thinking to myself, "what happened? where did you go?" >> whitaker: amy recalls a day when she left mark in charge of their sons, then three and two, only to come home and find the boys playing outside, alone, by a busy street, while mark sat inside watching tv, oblivious. on other days, he began to display compulsive behavior she had never seen before. >> amy johnson: he couldn't stop eating. i started locking the food up. he would walk down to the grocery store and buy more. i took his credit card. he'd walk down to the grocery store and steal food. >> whitaker: and these changes that you saw, did you ask him, "what's going on?" >> amy johnson: yeah. and he just said, "oh, i don't think anything's different, is it?" >> whitaker: it was. mark began making inappropriate remarks to a female co-worker at
the company where he worked as a manufacturing engineer. he was fired? >> amy johnson: uh-huh. and his reaction was, "oh, well, i guess, okay. so what's for supper tonight?" >> whitaker: what was your reaction? >> amy johnson: i was just devastated. i was seven months pregnant at the time, with our daughter. >> whitaker: with your fourth child. >> amy johnson: with my fourth child. >> whitaker: so as this progresses, what's the eventual outcome? >> dr. miller: outcome of this is always death. they-- >> whitaker: always death. >> dr. miller: always death. we have no way of intervening yet, to slow the progression. >> whitaker: as f.t.d. corrodes the brain, it also eventually causes bodily functions to shut down.ths eath. but bruce miller is optimistic, pointing to promising research both in his lab and funded by n.i.h. grants to scientists around the country. >> dr. miller: suddenly we have
interventions and research that are going on, that give me great hope. >> whitaker: when might you expect a breakthrough? >> dr. miller: i'm hoping in the next five years, that we will have very powerful therapies in certain variants of frontotemporal dementia that may stop it cold. >> whitaker: tracey lind and emily ingalls have no idea whether any breakthrough will come in time to help them. if not, tracey will eventually lose the ability to speak at all, and then, the ability to swallow. >> lind: the not being able to swallow part; that's what's really frightening. so i try to live in the present moment. >> ingalls: i'm not very good at living in the moment, so i worry a lot about the future. >> lind: do you worry about taking care of me? >> ingalls: yeah. i worry about taking care of you. sure. >> lind: what's going to be the hardest part? >> ingalls: i think the hardest part is going to be the loss of the relationship.
>> whitaker: has emily told you this before? >> lind: no. i don't think so. >> whitaker: as you can see, caregivers suffer as much as patients. for months, amy johnson kept mark at home, even as she mothered four small children and held a full-time job. but his symptoms got worse and worse. when did it become clear to you that you-- you had to put him in a facility? >> amy johnson: i went to an appointment with a psychiatric nurse practitioner. and she said, "i think it's time for you to look for a different place. because now, when he thinks of something, the part of his brain that tells him 'that's a bad idea' doesn't work anymore." >> whitaker: mark johnson now lives in a facility about an hour away from home. he's gained nearly 100 pounds due to compulsive eating; even walking into elderly residents' rooms and taking their food. amy says his care now costs her
nearly $7,000 a month. out of pocket? >> amy johnson: out of pocket. he would be devastated to know that that's where his retirement savings are going, and that they're not going to his family. >> whitaker: crippling costs are common for f.t.d. families, and it's often tough to find a facility to care for patients like mark johnson. the assisted living industry is not set up for six-foot-three 40-year-olds. hello, mark. >> amy johnson: how's it going? this is bill. >> mark johnson: hi. >> whitaker: how are you? very nice to meet you. amy visits mark as often as she can, and invited us to come along one afternoon. he told us he'd just like to go home. do you think you need help? >> mark johnson: no. >> whitaker: so you unders-- you understand why you're here? >> mark johnson: no. >> whitaker: think you'd be okay at home? >> mark johnson: yeah. ( laughs )
>> whitaker: i think amy thinks... i don't want to put words in her mouth, but i think she thinks this is the best place for you right now. >> mark johnson: okay. ( laughs ) >> whitaker: after another minute, mark said, "all right, see ya," and we left him. >> amy johnson: big hug. >> mark johnson: okay. >> whitaker: it's clearly painful for amy to see what f.t.d. has done to her husband, and to know what it will do. >> amy johnson: and they gave him two to five years to live. and-- >> whitaker: two to five years? >> amy johnson: two to five years. >> whitaker: so how are you doing now? >> amy johnson: it depends on the day. i miss him a lot. ( ticking ) >> reporting on f.t.d. >> to see somebody in the throes of it... >> at 60minutesovertime.com ♪
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( ticking ) >> wertheim: chances are, you won't be hearing tanya tagaq's music at your next dinner party or wafting over the speakers at the mall. she is technically a pop star, but not in the same vein as, say, her fellow canadians drake or arcade fire-- both of whom tagaq recently beat out to win the country's most prestigious music prize. hailing from nunavut, a circleq y above the arctic singer, keeper of an ancient art form that stretches the limits of the human larynx. she has brought this traditional sound screeching onto the modern scene by layering it with elements of punk rock, heavy metal and electronica.
"rolling stone" called her music "transfixing." we'd never heard anything quite like it before, and so it is we say-- now, for something completely different. ♪ ♪ tanya tagaq begins every performance by closing her eyes; as she puts it, shutting out the visual and plugging into the sound. ♪ ♪ her voice flickers, then builds to a rhythmic panting. ♪ ♪ then comes the inevitable moment when the mounting tension uncoils, and she unleashes a sonic storm. ♪ ♪ if this is not what you were expecting inuit throat singing to look or sound like, stick with us here. her music is improvised. there is no set plan, no set list. often, there are no shoes.
at five-one, tagaq generates a mighty sound, especially for a diminutive person, and she'll be the first to tell you, it's not easy listening. you give people a warning sometimes? >> tanya tagaq: yeah. because i feel like it should be consensual. ( laughs ) like, you shouldn't have to sit there and suffer through it if you don't like it, because it's not for everybody. >> wertheim: you tell people "if you don't like it, hey?" >> tanya tagaq: i'll point out the exits, like on an airplane. >> wertheim: you're like a flight attendant. >> tanya tagaq: there are four exits. and then i tell them, it's okay to leave. like, i'm not going to be insulted. >> wertheim: those who stay in their seats are bathed in a mash-up of inuit tradition and contemporary experiment. and, as tagaq told us over lunch before a concert in new york, no two shows are alike. a good show means what to you? >> tanya tagaq: when it's effortless, in the fact that i feel like i'm a fish on the end of a hook.
i'm just being reeled in. >> wertheim: what's reeling you in? >> tanya tagaq: the music. i get, like, kind of hypnotized by it. and it just becomes its own creature. ( howl ) >> wertheim: to make sense of all this sound, to understand tanya tagaq and her music, you have to go to the source. so we headed north. four flights and 2,300 miles from new york, we landed on a gravel runway in nunavut, canada's northernmost and largest territory, ancestral home of the inuit, indigenous people of the north. nunavut, literally "our land" in the native inuktitut language, is made up of 800,000 square miles of canadian arctic, roughly three times the size of texas. the landscape calls to mind the setting for an extraterrestrial sci-fi movie. and then there is the lighting. it might not look like it, but it's now midnight here inside the perimeter of the arctic circle. in summer, months go by without
a sunset. of course, that means that in winter, months can elapse in total darkness. by then, it's often so cold that fahrenheit and celsius converge at minus 40 degrees. which is why we visited in july. tagaq's touring schedule keeps her based in toronto, but every summer, she comes back to the family cabin in her hometown of cambridge bay, population 1,700. tagaq and her older brother carson took us out on the tundra... more of a lunar scene than a polar one, though we did manage to find a patch of ice. we rode for hours along the shores of the arctic ocean, to a favorite fishing spot. >> tanya tagaq: come on! it never gets old. you're free. you're living with the land. you're living with the animals. >> wertheim: the land, the sea, the animals, they all take turns playing tagaq's muse. and in summer, the rhythm of her life here is set by runs of
arctic char. >> tanya tagaq: my heart's beating fast. i want to eat one. darn, where'd they go? come on. i can't believe we don't have a fish. because once you have fresh arctic char, you're addicted. >> wertheim: back at the family cabin, tagaq's father and her daughter had more success with nets. >> yay! >> wertheim: you got dinner. >> tanya tagaq: yeah. are you going to try it? you don't have to. >> wertheim: i'll do it. >> tanya tagaq: cheers! mmm. >> wertheim: that's fresh fish. >> tanya tagaq: mmmmmmm. >> wertheim: nunavut is home to 40,000 inuit, or inuk people. they have lived off the land and the sea here since migrating east from across the bering strait, 1,000 years ago. (♪ throat singing ♪) >> wertheim: inuit throat singing- that sound we came all this way to hear-- can be traced back just as far. ♪ ♪ >> wertheim: tanya and her friend donna lyall demonstrated
the traditional form for us. conceived in an igloo while the men were out hunting, it's really a friendly competition between two women, akin to a musical staring contest. >> tanya tagaq: there's a leader and a follower. and you have to be able to mimic the sound a split-second after the first person does it. >> wertheim: both partners make short inhalations and exhalations that vibrate over the top of their wind pipes. >> tanya tagaq: you're basically trying to mess up the other person. ( laughs ) i lost. i lost that round! isn't this awesome? >> wertheim: all the more awesome when you consider that throat singing was all but banned here in recent decades, along with many inuit traditions and the native language. >> tanya tagaq: it was part of the colonial process. children were forbidden from speaking their language, or exercising their culture in any way whatsoever. and they told us our belief system was wrong.
>> wertheim: canada has a long history of mistreating indigenous people. in one of the worst chapters, from the mid-19th century until the mid-'90s, the government separated thousands of inuit children from their parents and placed them in church-run schools, as a way to assimilate them. tanya herself went to a residential school 500 miles from home, 25 years ago. >> wertheim: what was that experience like? >> tanya tagaq: it was a bit like jail, where every single one of our minutes were accounted for. you know, so we were very tightly controlled. it was like a boarding school by the time i went, but previous generations had it much, much harder. most of them were sexually abused, beaten. >> wertheim: this is a really shameful stain in canadian history, isn't it? >> tanya tagaq: it's absolutely horrific. ♪ ♪ >> wertheim: this anger, this despair, this is what i'm hearing in some of your songs.
>> tanya tagaq: absolutely. i live with a broken heart, thinking about our history. >> and for this, we are sorry. >> wertheim: the canadian government apologized ten years ago for its policy of forced assimilation, but the country is still reckoning with generational trauma. ♪ ♪ >> wertheim: tagaq's concerts serve as acts of resistance against the canadian government, and also celebrations of inuit culture. and the music has found global appeal. she's on perpetual tour of the world's concert halls. her albums earn the kind of critical acclaim that would make most mainstream pop acts, well, scream. (♪ screams ♪) >> wertheim: but tagaq told us, she discovered throat singing quite by accident. because the music was taboo for so long, her introduction came when she was away at college and feeling homesick. tagaq's mother, born and raised in an igloo, found some tape
recordings of the traditional sound, and mailed them to her. what are you hearing on these tapes that resonated with you? >> tanya tagaq: i could hear the land. it was incredible for me, to be able to taste my home again in my ears. >> wertheim: well, you didn't just taste it in your ears, you tried to practice yourself. >> tanya tagaq: for years, i was just throat singing in the shower. i was trying to do both of the voices. >> wertheim: the call and response. >> tanya tagaq: uh-huh. >> wertheim: then, one night, she found herself casually throat singing for a few friends around a campfire at an arts festival in nunavut. the festival director heard hern stage. ♪ ♪ >> tanya tagaq: so i put on my slinky dress and a headband and got up on stage, and i was like, "i'm me," like, it just made total sense. i was like, okay, this is my thing. >> wertheim: her particular thing, combining throat singing
with rock, punk and pop, found a niche audience. and if the music resists classification and labels, so does tagaq herself. we asked about one label she rejects outright. >> wertheim: your twitter bio says "don't call me eskimo." what do you mean by that? >> tanya tagaq: i have heard too many times as an insult to me personally, i've had that used against me. like, a "raw meat eater." they meant it like, "you can't even cook your food. you're too savage." >> wertheim: when you talk to southerners, which is basically everyone, what are the stereotypes you encounter? >> tanya tagaq: there's a kind of a tokenization of our culture, like, cute little happy eskimos up there in the cold, in their igloos. and not looking at the hard and cold facts, that there's a lot of poverty and people are going through a lot of grief. >> wertheim: communities in nunavut face far higher poverty levels than the rest of canada, and one main cause is food insecurity.
because so little grows on the northern tundra, food is imported and wildly expensive. we paid $15 for a jar of peanut butter here. this is caribu? hunting and fishing-- caribou, muskox, seal and char-- are not just an inuit tradition, but means of survival, something tagaq says she constantly has to defend. >> tanya tagaq: we'll have people from california telling us not to fish, or eat meat. it's like, what are you going to do here? show me, where's the tofu? show me. show me the ( bleep ) tofu. >> wertheim: this is your whole foods, right behind us. >> tanya tagaq: yeah, our whole foods is right here. >> wertheim: she is especially protective of the seal hunt, using her spotlight to promote one of the inuit's only renewable resources. >> tanya tagaq: wearing seal and eating it, it's delicious. >> wertheim: tagaq has taken on animal rights groups who portray seal hunting as inhumane.
she once tweeted this photo of her baby daughter next to a harvested seal, her way of normalizing the hunt. resps, laying ba some of the ugliest assumptions about life in nunavut. >> tanya tagaq: like, people think we club seals on the head. >> wertheim: just to be clear... >> tanya tagaq: i don't know anyone who's ever clubbed a seal. >> wertheim: you don't like outsiders saying what you can and can't eat, and what you can and can't harvest. >> tanya tagaq: i hate it. and you know what else makes me really mad? i'm telling you everything that pisses me off. >> wertheim: she keeps a sense of humor as she sounds off both in conversation and in performance. back up north, her brother carson has never seen her play live, but says he's proud ofki ? >> carson tagaq: yeah, it's... it's okay. >> wertheim: ( laughs ) you waited too long there. >> carson tagaq: yeah, well, it's not van morrison, that's for sure. but i think it takes a lot of guts to put yourself out there
the way that she has, and to take nunavut and the north to the global stage is a good thing. >> wertheim: other throat singing acts are following her, breathing new life into an old art form. and for tanya, this might be the most gratifying note in her unlikely success. >> tanya tagaq: oh, it makes me so happy. i'm like "be free." ♪ ♪ >> wertheim: say this about tanya tagaq: go to the north pole and back, and you won't come across an artist any freer. ( cheers and applause ) >> tanya tagaq: thank you. thank you so much. ( ticking ) >> sshes sports hq is presented by progressive insurance. in baseball today, the phillies and bryce harper defeated his old team the nationals 7-the reigning m.v.p. got his is
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i've slain your dreaded dragon. for saving the kingdom what doth thou desire? my lord? hey good knight. where are you going? ♪ ♪ climbing up on solsbury hill ♪ grab your things, salutations. coffee that is a cup above is always worth the quest. nespresso. tis all i desire. did thou bring enough for the whole kingdom? george: nespresso, what else? >> whitaker: in the mail this week: comments on this past sunday's story "on the border." sharyn alfonsi reported from mcallen, texas on what we saw with the u.s. border patrol, among central american immigrant families seeking asylum, and with the new acting secretary of homeland security, kevin mcaleenan.
not surprisingly, the story prompted conflicting opinions from viewers. "as a texan, it was high time that the border problem was reported accurately and fairly." "one can only wonder if the president's re-election campaign paid cbs for creating its campaign ad-- which is what your horribly one-sided report on asylum constituted." and there was this from an iowa viewer: "not a one-sided left vs. right opinion, but facts. i felt compassion for the immigrants coming to the u.s., but also felt the need for improving our current system." the day after our report aired, president trump ordered new conditions for migrants applying for asylum. they include charging application fees, setting new rules withholding work permits while asylum cases are in the judicial system, and finding a solution to clear the years-long
backlog in jammed immigration courts. the government has also announced a pilot program to match the d.n.a. of asylum seekers with the d.n.a. of the children travelling with them at the border. it may begin as early as this week. ( ticking ) i'm bill whitaker. we'll be back next week, with another edition of "60 minutes." as a small business owner, the one thing you learn pretty quickly, is that there's a lot to learn. grow with google is here to help you with turning ideas into action. putting your business on the map, connecting with customers, and getting the skills to use new tools. so, in case you're looking, free training, tools, and small business resources are now available at google.com/grow you might or joints.hing for your heart...
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