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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  January 2, 2015 3:00pm-4:00pm PST

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captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions >> sreenivasan: european authorities rescue hundreds of migrants drifting off the coast of italy. why more smugglers abandon ship before delivering their human cargo to shore. good evening, i'm hari sreenivasan. judy woodruff is away. also ahead. in the u.s., teaching unaccompanied child migrants. how special schools in california adapt the classroom for undocumented students who wait for their day in immigration court. >> we don't have desks, we have tables, and we have very purposeful groupings. a student from asia and a student from central america at the same table. so english becomes the common
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language of that group discussion. >> sreenivasan: and it's friday. mark shields and michael gerson are here, to analyze the week's news and look ahead to the year in politics. those are some of the stories we're covering on tonight's pbs newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: ♪ ♪ ♪ moving our economy for 160 years. bnsf, the engine that connects us. >> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your life and become you're own chief life officer.
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>> and with the ongoing support of these institutions >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> sreenivasan: president obama announced fresh sanctions on north korea today, in response to its cyber attack against sony pictures entertainment. the executive order names three companies plus 10 north korean government officials, some who work in iran, syria, china, russia and namibia. the u.s. has had sanctions on north korea since the 1950's, most recently for its nuclear programs. these mark the first sanctions punishing the regime for its alleged hacking of sony executives' emails. 21 more bodies from the air-asia plane disaster were recovered from the java sea today. at least 30 victims have been found so far, and some were
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still strapped to their seats. their remains were flown to surabaya, indonesia for identification. aircraft and ships painstakingly searched the waters off borneo for more bodies. they're also still looking for the plane's fuselage and black box flight recorders to help determine exactly what caused the crash. >> ( translated ): it's about a 30-mile area that we are searching. the first priority is to evacuate survivors if any are found or to recover bodies and second, to find debris or objects that can help the national commission of safety transportation. >> sreenivasan: four of the victims have now been identified, including a flight attendant and an 11-year-old boy. their remains have been returned to their families. u.s. and coalition warplanes went after the islamic state group's de facto capital in syria today, hitting them with more than a dozen air strikes. the air raids on raqqa, in northeastern syria, were the heaviest since the militants captured a jordanian pilot last week. meanwhile, iraqi troops took back ground from islamic state fighters in iraq's anbar province. they targeted a complex known to be used for bomb-making.
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a record number of rhinos were killed in south africa last year, where over 90% of the world's rhinos live. south african government figures showed at least 1,020 of the animals were illegally slaughtered in 2014. that amounts to more than three rhinos poached each day. the animals are killed to meet a growing demand for horn and ivory in asia. particularly ahead of the chinese new year in february. stocks on wall street began the year on a flat note, with very little movement. the dow jones industrial average gained 10 points to close at 17,833. the nasdaq fell 9 points to close above 4,726. the s&p 500 dropped less than a point to close at 2,058. for the week, the dow, nasdaq and s&p each lost more than one percent. still to come on the newshour: violence and war push migrants from africa and the middle east to make the perilous trip across the mediterranean sea. tackling the education needs of unaccompanied minors in the u.s. researchers blame random
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mutations, not lifestyle or genes, as the primary cause of most cancer. remembering former new york governor mario cuomo. and, mark shields and michael gerson on what's in store for politics in 2015. >> sreenivasan: it's one of the deadliest migration routes in the world. refugees fleeing war and poverty in north africa and the middle east, board rickety, over- crowded boats, crossing the mediterranean to europe. thousands have died on this journey. increasingly, human smugglers are abandoning vessels jammed with migrants before they even reach european shores. it's the second such incident this week alone. a ship carrying hundreds of migrants, stranded in the rough waters of the mediterranean. shortly before dawn today, italian officials took control of the sierra-leone-flagged "ezadeen."
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>> ( translated ): the coast guard is working to avoid another tragedy. we called on board immediately when the plane detected the ship. there were no crew and one migrant, a woman, took the call. she said: "we are alone. please help us, we are in danger." >> sreenivasan: as many as 450 people, including children and some pregnant women, were onboard. most were believed to be syrian. though its exact route is unclear, officials said the cargo ship left from a turkish port, before it was abandoned by its crew of smugglers, ending up drifting off italy's southern coast. the rescue comes just days after italian authorities took control of another cargo ship after its crew disappeared. the moldovan-flagged "blue sky m" was close to crashing into italy's coast with hundreds of migrants aboard. the italian navy, coast guard, and air force patrols last year rescued or intercepted more than 170,000 migrants, many fleeing crises in syria and libya. the efforts of rescuers are made more complicated when crews abandon the ships.
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>> ( translated ): we are watching this new phenomenon with great attention. we are looking at it, we are studying it, and we are trying to give a correct response. but for sure this is very dangerous, because one ship that navigates with nobody at the helm is like a bomb launched against the coastline. >> sreenivasan: in a statement today, the u.n.'s refugee agency said the growing trend of migrants undertaking dangerous sea journeys to europe "can no longer be ignored." for more on this, i'm joined by daryl grisgraber of refugees international, she has interviewed migrants who have made this dangerous journey. why is it that they're abandoning these migrants in the ships on the middle of these dangerous routes? >> it's an easy way to make money frankly. people can be charged the smuggling rates, get them on the ship, take them out into the water and instead of risking getting them all the way to shore being caught by the coast guard or being prosecuted, you can just leave the ship there.
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they have the idea these people are civilians and maybe things won't be so bad for them. >> sreenivasan: what were people paying? >> $2,000 to $5,000 u.s. dollars. >> sreenivasan: quite a lot money in that world. >> yes. >> sreenivasan: what are the key drivers forcing these people to find a better life? >> yeah, originally, in the country that they're coming from, take syria for example there's a conflict right? people are leaving there. many syrians have gone to egypt as another good example, this is where i spoke to a lot of people. in egypt they don't get adequate services can't find jobs and don't see a future for themselves. the only hope is to move on and this is the place where everyone wants to go. so it's desperation driving people. >> sreenivasan: what do we know about the smugglers? who's behind this? >> it depends. there are large international networks of smugglers all across the northern coast of africa and
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well-connected internationally and between the countries on the north african coast as well. those involve a lot of local people. sometimes local fishermen are involved. they help load the boats. there are people on the ground who collect the migrants take them from a bus in the big city to the coast. so there's a huge number of people involved and extremely well organized. >> sreenivasan: there's an infrastructure here. it seems shocking there's that much of a profit to be made that you could abandon an entire ship. ships are worth something. >> that's true, but lately they're using much larger ships so you can put a lot more people on it, more bang for your buck, and a lot of the ships are used and not particularly seaworthy so you can get them quite cheap. it's apparently cheaper or someone could make a profit by selling it or sending it to southeast asia for scrap so
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people can take people andç ush them off. >> sreenivasan: they're seeing one flood of migrants after another. >> the maritime laws are different than when people are on land but italy suspended its search and rescue program a couple of months ago because of finances, they could don't it anymore. a bit about manpower as well. so there needs to be a much larger regional cooperation helping rescue people. the vessels are deterring a lot of boats leaving in the first place. >> sreenivasan: what about the e.u. overall? >> they need to be put into this because it's their border as a whole. recently support and rescue operations in the mediterranean as well because they're afraid it encourages people to come to europe if they've been rescued at sea. internationally, there needs to be cooperation. >> sreenivasan: daryl grisgraber, thanks for joining us. >> thank you.
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>> sreenivasan: officials in this country have also been dealing with a surge in illegal immigration this past year. most dramatically, when a wave of unaccompanied children and young adults flooded north across the u.s.-mexican border last spring and summer, many were detained and face possible deportation back to their home countries. but as special correspondent spencer michels reports, those who made it to american cities face other challenges in their new lives. >> reporter: nearly 100 miners who came to the u.s. without their parents make up about a quarter of the student body at oakland international high school in california. altogether, nearly 60,000 unaccompanied minors were caught at the border this year. most are from honduras, quat mall leand el salvador. protests both for and against the obama administration immigration policies great their
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arrival. when apprehended many claimed fear of gang violence and persecution in their home countries. so they were allowed into the u.s. pending a hearing in immigration court. but in oakland and in some other california cities, there was little debate over whether to welcome them. karmalyta reyes is co-principal of international high. >> these are children, period. what their legal status is immaterial. they're students, they deserve an education so i'm part of that system that is the safety net for these children. >> reporter: both the network of schools like oakland international high and several american cities, but the politics of the immigration debate are largely ignored in the schools where the emphasis is on teaching english and other subjects and taking care of the kids.
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17-year-old blanco is new at the school, just starting to learn english. he grew up in guatemala where he says violence and danger were commonplace. >> it's a violence that emerges from the communities and it keeps getting bigger and bigger, and sometimes people are killed because of this problem. p>> reporter: today he takes a full load of classes topics like history and math are taught in english and the students who speak 35 different languages learn from each other. >> we don't have desks, we have tables, and we have very purposeful groupings so that there's some language diversity at tl table. a student from asia and a student from central america at the same table. so english becomes the common language of that project or that group discussion.
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>> reporter: but for this population, oakland schools can't concentrate solely on education. almost all get free or low-cost meals paid for by the federal government. and the district has hired an unaccompanied minor specialist and others to concentrate on the psychological, social and immigration problems facing the new arrivals. >> let's go. where do you have to go? >> reporter: lauren markham is community schools manager who spends her days solving kids' problems. >> because these students aren't with their family members and because they've faced a tremendous amount of trauma, there's huge mental health needs. so needing to see a counselor, a mentor and after school programs. >> reporter: among her charges is carlos, a senior at
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international who i made his way to the u.s. from el salvador with just his younger sister. >> they were recruiting young kids to join the gangs, and i was, like, i don't want to be a part of that because when they put you in it, there's no way for you to get out. you go every day or they will kill you. >> reporter: after being caught near the border, he and his sister were sent to live with parents in oakland while waiting for an immigration hearing. carlos' father and then mother had come to america without documents years earlier leaving carlos and sister tonya with a grandmother. they live with young7ñ siblings born here in a few crowded rooms in east oakland a neighborhood where gangs flourish just as in el salvador. carlos, sr. who works as an
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unlicensed barber would like to get a work permit. he was encouraged by president obama's recent announcement on immigration. >> i think it is going to help us. god willing we'll be able to work legally. i think i will be able to get my license to work as a barber and start my own business. >> reporter: for his son, it's been worth the fear and the struggle. he wants to be an accountant. >> i start college next year from high school. get a career, help my family. >> reporter: at the u.c. berkeley law school allison davenport studies and handles family immigration cases in the international human rights law clinic. she says the immigration challenges faced by the sura family are complex and uncertain but not unusual. >> that's a common scenario.
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the parents are undocumented. the children born in the u.s. are by law u.s. citizens. then the recently-arrived children are likely have cases pending in immigration court. now, the parents, because they do have the u.s. citizen children, may be eligible under this new deferred action for parents program announced by president obama on november 20th. >> reporter: as for unaccompanied minors like those at international high davenport was disappointed president obama did not directly address that issue. >> the claims are difficult to win. you have to show not just that you have a fear of return to your home country but it's connected to one of the five protected grounds unser asylum law -- race, religion political opinion membership in a particular social group or your nash nationality. >> reporter: consequently all unaccompanied minorspá international high need legal
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representation. >> a ton of my work has been trying to find lawyers for the students. when an unaccompanied minor is caught they are put into proceedings and will be deported unless they can show a reason they have legal grounds to stay. >> reporter: that's the way it should be argues rick an environmentalist and active member of californians for population stabilization. he says cities and schools providing services for illegal immigrants just encourages others to come. >> when you provide innocentist, you're going to increase the flow and put more people onto this perilous journey. it's just wrong. we have a very generation immigration policy but we can't be open to just anyone walk across the border. eventually most should be returned. >> reporter: the u.s. deports 400,000 people a year. so far none of the unaccompanied minors at oakland's
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international high has been removed. >> is this a predator? yes. >> reporter: meanwhile the school is not answer pating -- is not anticipating another surge of students but will figure out a way to take care of them should they materialize. spencer michels in oakland for the pbs "newshour". >> sreenivasan: next, the role of chance, what we might call bad luck, in who gets cancer. jeffrey brown has our look. >> brown: according to a new study from the johns hopkins university school of medicine published today in the journal, "science," more cases of cancer than have commonly been thought, can be primarily explained by random d.n.a. mutations that occur during cell division, rather than by heredity, lifestyle choices, or environmental influences. the study looked at 31 types of cancer, including leukemia, bone, testicular, ovarian and
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pancreatic cancers. breast and prostate cancers were not included in the study. cristian tomasetti is one of the authors of the report and a bio- mathematician at johns hopkins. he joins me now from baltimore. thank you for joining us. it seems important, first, perhaps, to explain what you were looking at. what does bad luck or chance mean when it comes to getting cancer? >> yes, what it means is that every time a cell in particular a stem cell every timeit divides, a mutation can occur and can hit the dna of this cell. if that mutation happens to be in a gene that is the key regulator known to be associated with cancer -- so let's say a bad mutation that may lead us to cancer. so that's what we meant for bad luck.
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>> reporter: so were you and and other researchers surprised to find that bad luck in a sense played such a large role in so many cancers? >> yes. i would say that i think it's been known that luck together with environmental factors like smoking or sun exposure as well as inherited factors are three of the components and i think what was surprising and expected, in a sense, was how large, how important this component of the bad luck turned out to be. >> reporter: so you mention the other causes for cancer. you are not saying we -- we should be clear right -- you're not suggesting people should change their behavior and do things that we know do cause cancer? >> right, thank you for mentioning that. that's actually very important.
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i really hope no one takes, you know, this work as saying that because that would be completely wrong. >> brown: it's also important to say, i think, that different types of cancer are different, right? that some tissues seem to be more prone to this random mutation and some more tied to environmental or hereditary traits? >> yes. in fact, the next thing i was going to say is, when we talk about the two-thirds due to bad luck, this is an analysis done across many, many tissues, but there are very important differences. for example, it's undeniable the huge impact that smoking has on lung cancer or that sun exposure has on skin cancer. so the study does not contribute to anything against what we
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already know to be important. >> brown: so what implications would there be for doctors and future research in all of this? >> probably the biggest implication that we need to focus resources even more on ways to detect cancer at early stages when they are still curable. so early detection. and this, in particular in developing new methodologies that enable us to find the cancers at much earlier stages. >> brown: dr. cristian tomasetti of johns hopkins, thank you so much. >> thank you. >> sreenivasan: they are callingç him a "liberal lion." mario cuomo began life above his father's grocery store in queens and died yesterday as a three- time governor known for unapologetic defense of liberalism.
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>> we won because people... people and the passion of belief are still more important than money. >> sreenivasan: it was november 1982, and mario cuomo had just been elected governor of new york state. his victory marked the ascent of a son of italian immigrants, who became a successful lawyer and then, politician. just five years earlier, he'd lost to ed koch, in the democratic primary for mayor of new york city. but in 1978, he was elected lieutenant governor. and then, captured the governor's mansion. there, cuomo became a rallying point for liberal democrats in the reagan era. >> the truth is, ladies and gentlemen, that this is how we were warned it would be. >> sreenivasan: he electrified the 1984 democratic national convention in san francisco with an impassioned attack on reaganomics. >> you know, the republicans called it "trickle-down" when hoover tried it. now they call it "supply side."
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but it's the same shining city for those relative few who are lucky enough to live in its good neighborhoods. but for the people who are excluded, for the people who are locked out, all they can do is stare from a distance at that city's glimmering towers.
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>> sreenivasan: the speech energized the democratic base and thrust cuomo into the national spotlight. ultimately, the democrats' presidential nominee, walter mondale, lost in a landslide. and cuomo became the party's presumed frontrunner for 1988. he pondered making the race, but passed, in 1988 and again, in 1992, earning the moniker "hamlet on the hudson". in the end, cuomo's national moment passed, and he gave the nominating speech for the democrats' successful presidential candidate in 1992. >> so step aside mr. bush time, its time for change, its time for someone smart enough to know, strong enouch to do, and sure enough to lead. the comeback kid, a new voice for a new america becuase i love new york, because i love america, i nominate for the office of the president of the united state the man from hope arkansas, governor bill clinton. >> sreenivasan: all told, cuomo served three terms as governor, marked by his increasingly
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unpopular stances against the death penalty and for gun control. he also insisted lawmakers had no right to ban abortion despite his own personal opposition, rooted in roman catholic beliefs. in 2004, he spoke with jeffrey brown, on the newshour, about balancing religion and politics. but the question really is, are you in communion with your church if, for example, you're a catholic0w accepts the abortion teaching, as i did, and lived by it for say 50 years, which i have, but refuses to take the position that now i have to make the whole society of non-catholics, non-believers, and even those catholics who do not accept abortion; i have to impose the law upon them or attempt to. and if you do it, you had better and if you do that, you're talking about a catholic theocracy. if you tell people that, they'll never vote for a catholic. >> sreenivasan: by 1994, new yorkers were no longer willing to vote for cuomo, and he lost to george pataki in that year's
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republican wave. the following year, his political career now ended, he returned to private law practice. but last year, in an interview with public tv station wliw in new york, he suggested the career change had been liberating. >> i love the law... i love um... i didn't love politics... as a matter of fact i hate politics. i loved governing, which is, i hope, a different thing. >> sreenivasan: even out of politics, cuomo remained at least partially in the public he mediated a $162 million settlement between the owners of the new york mets and victims of bernard madoff's massive ponzi scheme. >> they will be able to return to as i say, normalcy and that i think is a very good thing. >> sreenivasan: and he lived to see his son, andrew cuomo, follow in his footsteps and win election and then-re-election as governor of new york state. his death came the same day his son was sworn into office for a second time.
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and andrew cuomo poignantly paid tribute to his father in his inauguration speech. >> he couldn't be here physically today, my father. but my father is in this room. he's in the heart and mind of every person who is here. he is here and he's here. and his inspiration and his legacy and his experience is what has brought this state to this point. >> sreenivasan: mario cuomo suffered from a heart condition in his final years. he died yesterday, at the age of 82. online, you can watch more archival video of mario cuomo, conversation with him. >> sreenivasan: the next year is poised to bring more drama and debate for u.s. leaders.
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what should you look for? our political director domenico montenaro brings us a political viewer's guide to 2015. >> reporter: 2014 was a consequential year in american politics, from the republican election weep that would give the g.o.p. control of the u.s. senate to the president's executive action on immigration to the eruption of protests over the police shooting in ferguson, missouri and the choke hold death of a man in new york. so what might happened in 2015? here are things to watch. first republicans are looking to flex their muscles in congress so expect president obama to dust off the veto pen. he's only used it twice. that's the least of any president in 130 years since james garfield but garfield had a pretty good reason for not issuing any vetoes. he was shot just four months into office. what will be the hot issues? first, healthcare. reps like mitch mcconnell, the man who will control the senate have said things like this. >> look, the american people
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hate, detest and despise obamacare. virtually all of us would like to see it pulled out root and branch. we understand the president is obviously not sympathetic with that point of view. >> reporter: mcconnell knows the white house would block any attempt to overturn the law. what congressional republicans might pass instead are significant changes like ending a tax on medical devices, changing the definition of full-time work so employers would have to cover fewer people and eliminate an advisory board overseeing medicare costs. but the most important building to watch on healthcare may be this one, the supreme court. the justices will decide by this summer whether people who sign up for obamacare through a state exchange are allowed to get money from the federal government to lower the cost of their coverage. if the court rules they can't,ç the amount people paying would go up and that would leave the law on life support. next issue to watch, the keystone pipeline.
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>> i want to make sure that if, in fact this project goes forward that it's not adding to the problem of climate change which i think is very serious and does impose serious costs on the american people. >> reporter: the president has delayed his decision on whether to approve the pipeline. it would move oil from canada to the southern u.s., but environmental groups strongly oppose it. before the president decides on keystone, congress may try to force his hand. republicans want to pass legislation mandating the pipeline's approval, but 'tis the season of joy and merriment even at the capital, is there anything the two sides can do to work on together? one area where mcconnell and a republican senate could actually help the president, trade. remember this fall when president obama went to beijing for that asian economic summit? he's been trying to pass a trade deal with pacific rim countries, but democrats like outgoing senate leader harry reid have
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blocked it. they feel it would outsource jobs. maybe it's the eggnog talking but some are thinking about tax reform but that's been dangled before. if deep issues are what you political junkies are hoping for, have no fear, 2016 campaigning will soon be here. how soon? we'll likely see candidates declare this spring and, by summer, the presidential campaign will be in full swing. domenico montanaro pbs "newshour". >> sreenivasan: and that brings us to the analysis of shields and gerson. that's syndicated columnist mark shields and "washington post" columnist michael gerson. first, i want to start out with a gallup poll a 1,000 sample. they say the most important issue throughout the last year has been government and that was interesting to me because, you know, when you look back at this, 2004 to 2007, it was iraq. 2008 to 2013, it was the economy. then 20 2014, the government. so these are long-standing concerns. when it was the iraq war, that
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was something we were concerned about and the economy through the national crisis. but this turning point that so many people are so concerned about what's happening in government and washington, whether it's even possible to get anything through. what will happen in 2015? >> it's part of crisis of legitimacy of institutions. people are questioning whether institutions including government are up to our challenges. we have serious challenges on education and title reform and our institutions aren't responding in a way they should. i think obama care played into that, to be honest, which faltered at the beginning and also, you know, shook confidence in institutions. so poem want their government to work even, you know, conservatives want in certain areas government to work, and there are real questions about that. >> i would say that confidence in government is diminished, is
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slipping. there are reasons for it. i don't think it's necessarily distinct from loss of public confidence in corporations and other institutions, private institutions, higher education. it's across the board. religion, the military being the sole exception which i think of the psychological factors involved, which they're doing it and we don't have to do it. but ereally think when you look at what happen with the secret service, with the veterans administration, the n.s.a. i mean there's a sense of government not working or not working in the interest of the people who wanted it to. countering that, at the end of the year, there was a surge in confidence because -- where because of government policies or in spite of government policies and democrats would
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argue the former a surge in economy and the president's job rating is higher than in two years and for the first time since the great recession, some six years ago the national economic confidence is in the positive zone. so, you know perhaps the polls, a snapshot in time, hari maybe that one is passed and we're heading into a better and more optimistic time. >> sreenivasan: let's talk about what's possible in the world of bipartisanship and whether that exists or not in 2015. let's start about foreign policy. what's likely to be on the table for both congress and the president? >> well, i think we're going to see the continuing crisis of the middle east dominate on foreign policy. first of all, it's real hard to predict these things because last year i'm not sure i would have predicted ebola or the ukraine or other things, but we do have the circumstance in which three former secretaries of defense from this president
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and the former secretary of state have all been publicly critical of the president's conduct, of policy in syria and iraq, which has metastasized across the region, produced 200,000 deaths, you know 9 million displaced people in the region and now threatens lebanon jordan and other places and terrorism across the world. this is likely to be a major focus. do we have the policies in places in to contain that crisis right now? and some offour military's questions about that. i think we'll see that work itself out with i.s.i.s. over the next year. >> i mean i don't pretend to be a prophet about what's going to happen in the world. of course, i did say the ukraine and ebola a year ago -- (laughter) -- but i was the first person to identify i.s.i.s. out of the entire picture. but i think there's going to be an ambivalence in american fb and defense policy, going to be
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saying we have to do more and be more overt and more involved and engaged in combating i.s.i.s., and that is coupled with and tempered by a strong resistance to america reentering and that really is the quandary and the dilemma. i fear that as the russian economy mum plum plummets and energy price goes down and oligarch is threatened that russia will become more nationalistic which is only a recipe for trouble. >> sreenivasan: what about the situation of troops on the ground? it seems there's been a lot of concern about whether the u.s. withdrew too soon, committed too many or too few in states like iraq or afghanistan. an afghani in a recent interview
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said that whole withdrawing by 2016 could still be negotiable, and the president knows what i'm talking about but we clearly don't know that. >> well, i think the administration claimed that the iraq war was over, but i.s.i.s. did not believe it was. they claimed the syrian crisis could be contained and it has not been contained in the way originally intended and, now, the claim is that we can leave afghanistan, but i'm not sure the taliban are going to cooperate here. so that i think is a very live issue. what is necessary? i don't think anyone has an appetite for troops on the ground in the same way they have been in the last ten years in the middle east. the question is whether this strategy we have of striking from afar, using intelligence capabilities and drones is sufficient to the defeat of i.s.i.s. and that was a very much open question.
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>> i would simply add to that, i would wait and hope that we will have the debate on this subject. i mean the congress, both parties has not forced the issue. i mean, this should be national policy. what it has been in a sense is delegation to the president. you can delegate authority but you can't delegate responsibility, and the responsibility under the constitution is with the congress, it's with the people. we should have a national debate exactly on what we are willing to to do. we've had ouchless painless wars, tax cuts for the past 15 years and coffin after coffin has come back and congressman after congressman and president after president have not gone to the numerous and gold star mothers are not comforted except by an occasionalled phone call. this is a violation of the great american principal of the universality of shared sacrifice
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and that has been totally missing and we need a debate on it and it's a dereliction of duty on the part of the people in us not demanding it. >> sreenivasan: domestic policy, do you think there's movement on immigration or keystone? >> first of all, i think mark is exactly right that the key in the next year is going to be whether the serious growth we're seeing will be sustained. that would create an environment tougher for republicans in 2016. not impossible but tougher. that's the context in which many of our debates take place so i think that's certainly true. the problem is there are a bunch of issues -- tax reform trade -- that were mentioned that adults in washington want progress on that our country could benefit from. but we're likely to have a debate on immigration in february with the funding of the department of homeland security that was deferred this last time and maybe a debate on the debt
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limit in march that could be knock down, drag out funding debates of the kind we've seen in the past where both sides went at each other's throats. the question is does that overwhelm? does it prevent progress on other issues on this agenda that are necessary that most people can see they're necessary? i'm afraid that we're going to see the kind of debates we've seen in the past and that could really overwhelm, you know the capacity of our system. >> reporter: i'm a little more optimistic. i don't think there's a calling for more rancor out of washington. i think there's an interest on the part of republicans that they can be a governing party, something that there's been widespread doubt about. there's an urgency certainly on the part of president obama to add to or create his record for the last two years. i would add to domenico's list and certainly include tax reform, but tax reform requires a lot more than an agreement
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that a corporate tax cut ought to be lower. if you're going to raise revenue that's going to require real sacrifice again, real deal-making and there's no bill bradley there's no central figure who's made this his case and dave camp did and now he's gone from the congress. so i think that the infrastructure, there is a hope. i mean when you get a water main breaking in every major city and flooding a block at least on a weekly basis, it seems, it ought to be a reminder that bridges tunnels, roads and water systems are part of the national competitiveness in addition to living a decent life. >> sreenivasan: all right, speaking of living a decent life mario cuomo. your thoughts? >> i think there are consummate new york politicians who are influential people who never became president.
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true of hubert humphrey and a group of people who really influenced american politics without being president. he belongs in that category. there are some orders in american history that are orders of unity and national purpose. he was an orator of ideological definition. he told democrats this is what we can be and should be and he inspired his party in ideology in the same way ronald reagan did in "a time for choosing." bill clinton eventually won the argument over the future to have democratic party with new democratic ideas, but mario cuomo won the soul of the party and people are still very nostalgic about that. >> it's a good point. what's his name, the great jewish philosopher and funny man -- harry golden said he
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always knew the next jewish president would be episcopalian sort of nationalizing and taking off the rough edges if you go international. mario did not speak english until he entered public schools in new york. it was said of roosevelt he was a first rate temperament and second rate intellect but mario cuomo was a first-rate intellect and he brought to it a gravity and a seriousness. he could deal with any issue philosophical, political, policy in a real sense, and my one regret that he didn't run for president, it would have been a great debate, we would have been forced to confront real questions and eternal truth. michael is right he spoke to the soul of the democratic party. in the 1980s when he emerged,
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the democrats carried kje state if in 1984, six states in 1980 and ten states in 1988. they were wiped off, 17 states. to a discouraged democratic party, he said, this is who we are and we must be a family we must share the burdens and the blessings and he really did, he gave a great, great lift to a party that needed it. >> sreenivasan: mark shields michael gerson thanks so much. >> sreenivasan: finally tonight, a second look at singer and humanitarian angelique kidjo. she was recently nominated for a grammy, is receiving an award at the world economic forum this month, and has a new album coming out. jeffrey brown caught up with her in concert last year. ♪ ♪ >> brown: angelique kidjo dedicates her new album "eve" to
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the women of africa: to "their resilience and their beauty." born in the small west african country of benin, now living in brooklyn, kidjo has made the empowerment of women and girls a part of her music and life's work for fedes. ♪ ♪ >> brown: tm r anthem "afirika." she sings in a variety of african languages, along french and english. and mixes african rhythms with western pop, soul and jazz. the idea for her latest work came during a trip to kenya when she encountered a group of women singing traditional songs. she went on to record them and then other women's choral groups
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in benin, and it all became part of an album celebrating women's potential. >> a woman does not sit home doing nothing. it's impossible. 5:00 a.m. in the morning she's already up humming a song, getting ready, thinking about how this day going to go, what can i do to make this day special a one even though there are challenges. its not living it's survival but they have a skill of survival in beauty, resilience, mind and strength and every time i go i'm reminded every day when i go that its not about money its about how you fall and how you rise. >> brown: the grammy-winning kidjo has attracted a global pfollowing and performed and recorded with leading western stars including bono and alicia keys. and now she's told the story of her rise to the international stage, in a new memoir: "spirit rising: my life, my music." timed to a u.s. tour and the
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release of her tenth album. the story begins at home, with nine siblings, two supportive parents, her mother was a dancer and her father an amateur musician, and one very determined young girl, ready to sing her heart out. >> the voice is the mirror of your soul and i want my soul to touch other people's souls. >> brown: you knew this even as a young girl? >> i have so much fun when i'm singing. music has always been my breath my strength, everything comes back to it. >> brown: but in her culture, girls weren't supposed to aspire to be aretha franklin, an early role model for the young angelique. >> the defining moment for me was coming back from school one day where out of the blue i start hearing people throwing stone at me, spitting at me, calling me a whore, a prostitute a kind of horrible name. >> brown: it just wasn't something girls were supposed to do. >> no. you sing traditional music its okay because our tradition is oral. so i came home crying saying i
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don't want to sing anymore and my grandmother said to me, "that's all? you are crying because some stupid people are making comments? i have advice for you: you cannot be loved by everybody and you cannot love everybody. >> brown: kidjo left her homeland in 1983 after a communist regime took over and cracked down on artistic freedom. she went to paris and established herself in the music scene there. she also met her musician husband, jean, now her manager. >> brown: in a further nod to her past, on the new album the 53 year old kidjo recorded the voice of her 87 year-old mother "yvonne eve" on a song called "bana," which urges people to value each other over money. ♪ ♪ >> at eight years old when i was singing women's rights with my
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mother, i didn't even know i was her voice was the last one that i recorded. i always ask why women are blamed for everything and she said to me because men have told our story for us. we need to tell our stories of all of us, men, women, all around the world. >> brown: that is what she aims to do with her work as a unicef goodwill ambassador, and with her own "batonga foundation", which has promoted education for girls across africa since 2007. >> women are the backbone of africa. and when you educate a young girl, once she becomes a mother she put boys and girls equally to school, she understands sanitation importance, she understand vaccination, she understand a lot of things that would help her kids grow up to be healthy and to be well educated. the woman that is educated raises the g.d.p. of the country. child death at birth is reduced drastically. diseases disappear. i mean we transform africa
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>> brown: the empowerment theme continues to animate her music: one song suggests that since women suffer during war they should have a role in brokering peace. and, another addresses forced marriages. at the end of concerts, angelique kidjo invites the crowd to join her on the stage. its a festival of dance and song, of all ages, sizes, men and women. when i'm on stage, stage is my little piece of heaven. if heaven looked like this the day i die, oh boy i'm dying tomorrow. ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪
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>> sreenivasan: again, the major developments of the day. president obama announced fresh sanctions on north korea, in response to its cyber attack against sony pictures entertainment. italian authorities took control of a migrant ship abandoned by its crew and loaded with mostly syran migrants. the icelandic coast guard is helping tow it toward port in italy. states lower their corporate tax rates to attract new businesses, but who actually sees the economic benefits? we have a breakdown based on data analyzed by the national bureau of economic research. find that on our homepage. all that and more is on our web site, pbs.org/newshour. and a reminder about some upcoming programs from our pbs colleagues. gwen ifill is preparing for "washingtoo0week," which airs later this evening. here's a preview: >> ifill: tonight, we're looking ahead to 2015, and all the ways it could alter the course of history in congress at the
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white house, at the supreme court and in politics. we'll tell you what to watch for, who to watch for, and why. tonight on washington week. hari? >> sreenivasan: tomorrow's edition of pbs newshour weekend looks at how colorado's law allowing the recreational use of marijuana is working and how other states are now following colorado's lead. in this excerpt, newshour special correspondent rick karr talks to one marijuana businessman. here's an excerpt from that report. >> this is an industrial manufacturing plant that grows marijuana. >> reporter: stores like these can now sell up to an ounce of marijuana to customers who are 21 and over. the products come in all kinds of forms. cancannabis buds from range of varieties treat particularly ailments, provide a mellow buzz or deliver a powerful rush. pre-rolled joints pot-laced brownies, chocolate bars. marijuana infused beverages and
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massage oil. consumers spend tens of millions of dollars a month on those products but williams is sure there is a lot more money to be made in his business. >> right now i know of new chip companies that are on the start line. they're going to come and buy people up and i want to be one of those guys. >> sreenivasan: and we'll be back, right here, on monday with a report on the first day of jury selection in the boston marathon bombing trial. that's the newshour for tonight. i'm hari sreenivasan. have a nice weekend. thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your life and become you're own chief life officer.
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>> carnegie corporation of new york. supporting innovations in education, democratic engagement, and the advancement of international peace and security. at carnegie.org. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and friends of the newshour. >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org
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