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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  September 14, 2015 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> ifill: good evening, i'm gwen ifill. judy woodruff is away. tonight on the newshour: explosive wild fires rage out of control in california, forcing thousands to flee, and scorching entire blocks of homes. also ahead: european governments gather to grapple with the refugee crisis. as thousands more continue to flood the borders, some countries begin to set new limits. plus, miles o'brien reports on the race to find an ebola vaccine. this time, to save the lives of gorillas and chimpanzees. >> i don't really like to see chimps in a cage. that kind of upsets me a little bit. but i weigh the individual welfare of those chimpanzees against the survival of wild chimpanzees. >> ifill: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour.
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>> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and individuals. and... >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> ifill: a firestorm roared across northern california today, leaving at least 400 homes in ruins, and one person dead. the valley fire has swept across 95 square miles, north of the napa valley region. and, southeast of sacramento, the butte fire has burned another 135 homes. between them, the two fires have forced 23,000 people out of their homes, and left crews struggling to hold the line. >> ifill: middletown, california was an ashy, gray ghost town today. the valley fire that exploded over the weekend did not discriminate:
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cars, homes, parking structures all burned to a crisp. >> it was a wall of fire behind us when we left. scariest thing ever. i am still in shock. >> ifill: that 'wall of fire' moved down from the mountains on saturday afternoon and burned out of control in all directions. more than 1,400 firefighters faced the worst possible conditions: a brutal drought that's has turned trees and brush into tinder boxes, combined with blistering heat and high winds. >> this is damn serious stuff. firefighters have to be careful, but so do people who live out in their cabins or homes. they have to leave when they get the word. and this is not just this year. this is the future from now in. it's going to get worse. >> ifill: the area is full of horse farms. and many of the animals were left behind, as owners fled with
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little warning. >> in the case of the valley fire, we have roughly 13,000 individuals that have been displaced. up on the butte fire, we have at least 10,000 that have been displaced. these communities still are in an active firefight. >> ifill: not quite 200 miles away, the butte fire flared up last wednesday and has burned across 110 square miles, and scores more homes. it's 30% contained. firefighters hope for help from the weather as a low pressure system moves in and, possibly, brings showers in the next few days. in afghanistan, taliban fighters stormed a prison, allowing 355 prisoners to escape. a suicide car bomber breached the main gate of the facility in ghazni, and taliban fighters attacked troops who tried to rush in to help. at least four guards and four militants were killed. security forces in egypt attacked a convoy of mexican
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tourists today, killing a dozen people and wounding ten. it happened near an oasis in egypt's western desert. the convoy was hit by air and ground fire. officials said a military-and- police force had been chasing islamist militants, and mistook the tourists for their target. mexico condemned the attack and called for a full investigation. there's been another political change down under. conservative prime minister tony abbot was ousted today by members of his own party amid falling support and worries about the economy. instead, they chose malcolm turnbull as the new prime minister, the country's fourth leader in just over two years. >> the australia of the future has to be a nation that is agile, that is innovative, that is creative. we cannot be defensive, we cannot future-proof ourselves, we have to recognize that the disruption that we see driven by
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technology, the volatility in change, is our friend, is our friend if we are agile and smart enough to take advantage of it. >> ifill: abbott drew international attention last year with a drive to repeal australia's carbon tax and instead, pay industry to operate more cleanly. turnbull gave no indication that he'll seek to change that policy. back in this country, a judge in south carolina refused bond for michael slager, a former policeman accused of murdering an unarmed suspect. slager faces a murder charge in the death of walter scott. video showed him firing eight times after scott ran from a traffic stop. slager wanted to be released from jail, pending his trial. kim davis returned to work as rowan county clerk in kentucky. she had spent five days in jail for refusing marriage licenses for same-sex couples, citing her religious beliefs. today, deputies in her office went ahead and issued licenses, and davis did not interfere. she said an "impossible choice"
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had been forced on her. >> i don't want to have this conflict, i don't want to be in the spotlight, and i certainly don't want to be a whipping post. i am no hero, i am just a person who has been transformed by the grace of god and who wants to work and be with my family. i just want to serve my neighbors quietly without violating my conscience. >> ifill: davis and her lawyers argue the licenses will not be valid without her signature. but kentucky's governor, attorney general and the county attorney say they are. and on wall street today, stocks weren't able to hold on to early gains, in the face of more signs of slowing growth in china. instead, the dow jones industrial average lost 62 points to close at 16,370. the nasdaq fell 16 points. and the s&p 500 dropped eight. >> ifill: still to come on the newshour:
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european governments gather to grapple with the refugee crisis. a new report on the lessons learned from ferguson, and much more. >> ifill: tens of thousands of refugees and migrants continued their long journeys today in europe as the continent's leaders met to chart a path forward. and the two-decade-old free travel policy among european union nations was put on hold. from izmir, turkey, special correspondent malcolm brabant reports. >> reporter: interior ministers from across europe arrived in brussels with a quota plan on the table to spread 160,000 asylum-seekers across the continent.
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but for our proposal, on the 120,000, we did not hear the agreement we wanted. a majority of the member states are ready to move forward, but not all. the commission is determined to take action. we will need another council meeting in the coming days. this has always been how the unit works. when we do not succeed the first time, yes, we try again. the world is watching us. it is time for each and every one to take their responsibilities. >> reporter: but others, especially those in the poorer states of eastern europe, balked at any talk of quotas. >> we think that quotas is not the solution. and we have to help the countries which are most affected by these huge flows of migrants.
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>> reporter: but while the e.u. ministers debated, europe's system of "no borders" had already begun to crumble. on sunday, germany imposed stricter border controls and sent in more police to step up screening. foreign minister frank walter steinmeier said his government remains committed to the effort, but needs help. >> ( translated ): we stand by our responsibility, and will continue to do so, but we must also make sure that we keep our own shop in order. germany clearly cannot manage this burden alone. we must introduce a real responsibility-sharing. if everybody takes on their fair share, then the burden will be manageable for everybody. >> reporter: the german move caused traffic backups at the border with austria, and set off a chain reaction along the route the migrants take to get to germany. in austria, the government added its own controls along the border with hungary. some 14,000 refugees entered austria on sunday alone, and at least 7,000 more came today, before officials moved to stem the flow. and hungary's conservative
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government stepped up its own aggressive efforts. crews raced to complete a fence along the border with serbia, and troops deployed to seal off unfinished portions. tomoow, new laws in hungary will allow police to jail anyone trying to enter the country illegally. meanwhile, in turkey, refugees waiting in izmir watched the developments across europe with foreboding. the port city is one of the staging posts feeding into the human smuggling racket. it's an expensive, and often perilous, journey to the greek islands not far away for the many here in the district of basmane. they are mainly syrians, sleeping where they can, in squalid, unsanitary conditions. these sleeping represent just a fraction of the tens of thousands of refugees who have gathered on turkey's mediterranean coastline hoping to get to europe. some children were up early on a day when the winds and seas were said to be favorable for the voyage. in the mosque in the main square, where many refugees shelter, the most desperate desire is for the european union
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to open the land borders between turkey, greece and bulgaria, to put an end to the drownings that have claimed thousands. >> ( translated ): one important thing regarding our turkish brothers who deal with arab countries: migrants and those who seek asylum to these european countries, finish your good deed. see all these families with your own eyes. for turkey, america, and the e.u., all the countries that demand human rights: open the crossing. why would children suffer? families are incurring debts to come here and cross, and some drown. >> reporter: as she sat with her grandchildren in the shade in the mosque, rahme habul, from aleppo in syria, was unaware that european countries were hastily fortifying their frontiers. she says three of her sons were kidnapped and murdered by the regime of syrian president bashar al assad. >> ( translated ): i intend to go from my country syria to germany, or any destination you take us. i don't know. i think god would oversee this. god chose to take my kids. they killed them. they told me they grinded them
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in a cement factory and left them there. why?! for what?! >> reporter: some european politicians have said there's no need for the syrians to leave turkey, where they are now safe from war. but living conditions in the makeshift camps there are grim. and some of the refugees are concerned that if they make it across the sea to greece, they will get stuck on the wrong side of the fence being erected by hungary. >> ( translated ): we've heard that hungary is closing the borders in the face of syrians. is this news true, or not? we demand that the barbed wires be removed and facilitate their transportation. >> reporter: the european union may be talking about how to accommodate 160,000 refugees and migrants in an orderly fashion. but all indications here are, that figure is completely unrealistic. and this week in turkey, there will be an attempt to test europe's resolve to protect its outer limits. 3,000 people are planning to march from istanbul to edirne, where the borders of greece and bulgaria meet.
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their intention is to open the gates of europe and put an end to sea crossings. the refugees here are desperately hoping the marchers will succeed. if they do, it could divide an already fractious europe still further. for the pbs newshour, i'm malcolm brabant in izmir, turkey. >> ifill: so how much will today's decisions in brussels help ease the migrant crisis and the rest of europe? jeffrey brown has that. >> brown: and with us is hungary's ambassador to the united states reéka szemerkeenyi and former british foreign ambassador, let me start with you. at the meeting today in brussels, the u.n. officials spoke of a heated debate of the majority of countries wanting to move forward but some countries, including hungary, i gather, still against a quota system. why? >> the quota system is one that really does not happen in the
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situation. in hungary we see an unprecedented wave of migration and that is really dramatic shock to the world country and i think a dramatic shock to the whole continent. what we can see is also a major need of basic humanitarian needs, and what we could see from the society -- i just got back from hungary a few days ago -- is a massive wave of response for the immediate humanitarian needs for these people coming into their country. we have been providing food, shelter, medication, even schooling for the children of the migrant families entering. but unfortunately, sympathy is not enough. we have to move beyond. >> brown: but you as a whole have not moved beyond. let me ask david miliband. what was your reaction to the seeming stalemate still today? >> i think europe has been very late to get a grip of this
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crisis and it's vital that big and bold decisions are taken by the european union. after all, there are 2,000 to 3,000 people arriving every day in lesbos, the island off grease that has borne about half the refugees in europe. we should all beer these problems of the unprecedented surge, coordinated across the european union with competence and compassion. organizations like mine are not just working in europe, we're working in syria, turkey, lebanon and jordan whose societies are creaking under the strain of a civil war that seems to be without end. >> brown: you speak of the need for more humanitarian help. your government has gone farther in announcing a further zero tolerance policy at the border for refugees or migrants. why go further?
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what happens to the people who come to your border now? >> the hungarian border has been receiving the most impressive and biggest shock of migration coming into continental europe. the response to naysive pressure has been the presentation of empathy and sympathy ward the migrants, trying to provide them whatever is needed down to baby strollerstrollers for the famild immediate help for the women and children coming into the country. at the same time, what we also focused on is the establishment of the security for the rest of the continent. we live up to our promises and the commitment that we made to the rest of the european countries in defending and providing security for all of us. we try to make clear that we follow all the requirements to provide for the registration of
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these refugees and migrants. at the same time what we're trying to do is to go through the exact procedure that is what we have undertaken. >> brown: you're referring to your agreements over the borders. at the same time, your country has been hit by a lot of criticism for insensitivity to the refugee situation. your prime minister got criticized after he spoke of working to keep european christian. what is the response to the criticism that hit hungary? >> i've seen massive outflow of sympathy for the migrant. what many hungarian volunteers have shown was giving their free time day and night to work for the migrants, providing them the necessary help, both in food and medication as well as blankets and sleeping bags for their stay
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in hungary. what we have seen is a very clear experience of sympathy towards these people. >> brown: david miliband, you spoke of needing to take faster and bigger action. yet right now what we're seeing is more countries taking action to close their borders. so what is the way forward? what do you see? >> i think that we've seen extraordinary leadership from germany backed up in a way by france, italy and belgium. i think there is progress with poland. i don't think anyone doubts the hungarian people are full of generosity. no one is saying they're misguided and short sighted. this is especially ironic given 1956 when soviet tanks rolled into budapest, 200,000 hungarians went into austria and were welcomed as refugees. i think it's vital that europe is able to show it can handle a
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small percentage of the european population. if there are 500,000 refugees on a continent of 500 million people, your viewers can do the math and see this is a question of management, not of a country being overwhelmed. equally, it's absolutely vital we don't bottle up either in greece or italy or in serbia which is the next door neighbor of hungary, and the decision simply to build a fence and hope for the best i'm afraid will create a tinderbox in serbia. >> brown: madam ambassador, the answer to the charge of building a wall is not an answer. >> european space and open internal borders are really predicated on the premise that common external borders are secure. this is the commitment we undertook and the commitment we're living up to. obviously, it's all in everybody's interest in the european union to secure our
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borders. the borders control and the ridge administration of the border stations is a requirement that helps us to ensure everybody, all our friends within the european union and the neighboring countries that they can count on us, that we provide for their security and we take their responsibility very seriously. we have made that commitment and live up to that commitment. brown: david miliband, what are you seeing in continuing flow of refugees and migrants if you expect the numbers to continue? >> you can stay shadows, the people sleeping in the port, waiting for ferries tomorrow. my organization international rescue committee has been trying to provide basic water and help for people including transportation who are expected to make a 40-kilometer walk -- women, children, families and
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able-bodied young men. the message to the europeans and the united states is a simple one. the syrian crisis is now a global refugee crisis is global responsibilities that need to attend to all nations. that means that, in europe, there needs to be some significant shift in policy but, also, frankly, the u.s., who so far has only taken about 1,500 refugees over the course of four years, need to live up toits standard role as taking refugees. we have to step up to the humanitarian and the deeper causes in the middle east. that's the only way to build the kind of security that the ambassador has rightly spoken of. >> brown: all right, david miliband and ambassador reka szemekenyi, thank you very much. >> thank you.
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lost in all of that, some of the candidates have been talking about policy from taxes to foreign policy to income inequality. we explore some of that and preview wednesday's second big republican debate this "politics monday." i'm joined by susan page of "u.s.a. today" and amy walter of "cook political report." let's talk about bernie sanders who today was at liberty university, conservative christian school in south carolina and he was making the case that, in fact, the income inequality that he talks about in his speeches is actually a moral issue. let's listen to a bit of it. >> there is no justice when, in recent years, we have seen a proliferation of millionaires and billionaires, while at the same time the united states of america has the highest rate of
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childhood poverty of any major country on earth. >> ifill: it should be said there was some pushback at liberty in virginia, not south carolina, by people saying what about abortion? we consider caring for children also to be about children, children's issues and equality issues. so what is bernie sanders up to, susan? >> i think this is such a smart thing. i think politicians are so wise to go to places not their natural audiences and make their case. what could be more appealing and what could we need more in politics than people who are willing to talk to people who disagree with them? he did go with a point to make. there are probably not six votes for bernie sanders in the student body at liberty university, but he was making the case that caring for people, the biblical injunction of taking care of the neediest i mong us, applies to the case he was trying to make of a liberal economic policy.
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>> it's not just that he was willing to go into the lyons den of people not willing to vote for bernie sanders but highlights awe thenciesty that bernie sanders is really taking and doing a lot with. i think it's part of the reason that you've seen him do so well in the polls is that people see him as somebody that's really -- he's got a message. he goes anywhere. he doesn't care where that is and gives that same message. >> he did not back down. and will not back down. and there is something that is incredibly appealing. >> and he acknowledged the differences. things like same-sex marriage and abortion, it doesn't mean they can't have a conversation about issues that face the country. >> and ended with a prayer with his interviewer on the rash shana, he is jewish, at a christian university praying for the future of the world. maybe that's the way it ought to be. let's move to hillary clinton who gave a speech about sexual assault on campus, in which she's trying also to stay on
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policy. but even as she spoke on policy, we see a new poll today and it shows, in the past eight weeks, hillary clinton has dropped from 71% approval among democrat women down to 42%. that's a big drop. what's going on with hillary clinton? >> that's why, this week, actually the next two weeks, are dubbed women for hillary. so this event on campus rape follows -- she had an appearance with ellen degeneres. she's talking about her speech? 1994 where she talked about women's rights being human rights at the u.n. and likely trying to remind women voters about the fact that she is an historic candidate, will be obviously the first woman to be president, and hillary clinton has enjoyed the support of women without ever making the case for why it would be important to be a female candidate. we're seeing here flashes of 2008 as well, which is, one, it's difficult to make the case
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purely on a gender basis for why hillary clinton should be elected. she's not necessarily comfortable doing that. doesn't want to be just seen as a gender candidate. the second is that even female voters are looking for other -- something else in the other candidates. this is where the authenticity, being different, being different on some of the issues in the way that bernie sanders -- >> ifill: she clearly knows she's in trouble. we know trump has been the big shadow over all this. we've seen jeb bush speaking about taxes, scott walker talking about labor unions. we've actually seen these candidates trying to talk about these issues but one of the ones that seems to have taken hold speaking of women voters is carly fiorina who has been coming up somewhat in the polls, when donald trump gave a interview with rolling stone and said look at that face, she responded with this add.
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>> look at this face... (cheering) and look at all of your faces. the face of leadership. the face of leadership in our party, the party of women's suffrage. >> ifill: in tend she says this is what a 61-year-old face looks like, wrinkles and all. is this her attempt to go for the same folks hillary clinton is trying to go for? >> i think it's the best ad of the cycle, not that there have been so many, in that she took something meant as a slur that she could have taken offense at and turned it to her advantage and made this very effective ad. i will be curious to see what she does in the debate wednesday night when she makes it on stage of the top tier of candidates. she has been a very interesting candidate in that she sits in the outsider mold of the people who are doing well. if you look at the top two
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republicans in the abc "washington post" poll, about 53% of the support of republicans between them, neither of them have been elected anything ever, trump and dr. carson. and fiorina, this is a year in which there is a willingness to consider folks we would have not traditionally consider qualified to be considered for president. >> ifill: is that the secret perhaps to outtrumping trump? my newest phrase, by the way. which is you take the things he throws that you and turn it to the subject you want to talk about? >> we'll see in this debate how successful some candidates are. i think carly fiorina is really honing that hedges to be able to come back -- honing that message to come back at donald trump. the hope among republicans is that he just jumps the shark, to use a tv term, that it becomes something of a bore that he's
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doing this over and over again and the second is they will turn it to their advantage, one saying i have a clip to come back to you, but also we're going to talk about some of the policy issues, specifically calling donald trump out as not being true conservative, calling him out for not having any depth of policy. >> even though there are no polls to show that's working. >> one thing about the carly ad, that's actually a super pac ad. the reason she's not talking to the camera is because she can't. can't coordinate with the rules. >> ifill: okay, quickly, what are you guys watching for in this debate? who are you watching most closely and what would you like to see coming out of it? >> the lead in this debate is going to have donald trump's name on it. what does he do andout doris to him. the idea you can call him out on policy and say he hasn't been a consistent conservative, people
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don't care. they think he'll break the china, get things done, why not go with somebody as inspected as donald trump to shake things up. >> will it last over time? i think that's what voters are looking for. today is that going to be the same thing they're looking for in october, november, december as we start to get closer to voting time? but i think also, i'm looking to see if scott walker and jeb bush can improve performances. they're both seen as lack luster, didn't get a strong message out. it's not about pushing back against trump, showing who they are and why they want to be president. >> ifill: amy walter, susan page as always, see you debate night. >> ifill: when the ebola epidemic spread through west africa last year, the focus was on the human toll of the virus.
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science correspondent miles o'brien looks at the controversial race to develop a vaccine, this time with animals in mind. with ebola thinning their ranks in africa, ten captive chimpanzees in louisiana are enduring one last medical experiment focused not on human health but rather, the survival of their species. they are receiving an experimental ebola vaccine. >> i don't really like to see chimps in a cage. that kind of upsets me a little bit. but i weigh the individual welfare of those chimpanzees against the survival of wild chimpanzees. >> reporter: disease ecologist peter walsh is a leading a controversial effort to vaccinate wild chimps and gorillas against the deadly ebola virus. >> it killed, i would say, roughly a third of the gorilla population, and a bunch of chimpanzees.
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we don't have good numbers but we know from based on how much area it affected, we're talking about a third of the gorillas. >> i think you could say that ebola has decimated portions of the great ape population. >> reporter: kenneth cameron is a field veterinarian with wildlife conservation society based in republic of congo. we met at the bronx zoo, which is run by the w.c.s. over the years the virus has wiped out entire local populations of apes, 10,000-15,000 fatalities at a time. >> i don't think that anybody really believes that ebola virus is going to result in the extinction of western lowland gorillas or central chimpanzees for that matter in central africa. but what it may do is reduce the populations to such a degree that the other threats such as excessive logging, habitat loss and hunting pressure may finally lead to the demise of the species. >> reporter: with the stakes that high, peter walsh believes the end justifies the means in this case.
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we met him at the university of louisiana lafayette new iberia research center, the largest primate testing facility in the u.s. captive trials make it easier to limit the variables and apply strict scientific controls to an experiment. >> there's no free lunch. and the cost of lunch here is that we're going to do vaccine trials on captive chimpanzees in order to save the ones in the wild. that's the tradeoff. and that it's a messy world. that's just the way it is. if i could do it without the captive trials, i would do it. but i can't. >> reporter: but there is a lot of heated debate about whether it is necessary to use captive chimpanzees in this vaccine trial. brian hare strongly objects. >> this is a "hail mary". they are hoping that this could launch a new way to do research with chimpanzees. >> reporter: hare is a professor of evolutionary anthropology at duke university. he works, and plays, with apes in central africa.
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he says the vaccine experiments should be conducted there in ape sanctuaries where the animals live in relative freedom. >> i think they are just taking advantage of a bad situation in africa to continue to get funds that they desperately need to pay for infrastructure at their essentially arcane laboratories. we can also go and do all of the types of research that used to be done in laboratories in the united states, we can do it now in these sanctuaries. so, i think the question really is not whether research needs to be done, but where it needs to be done. >> the facilities here are comparable to a hospital, a human hospital. that's what we're dealing with. we go to africa, we don't have that, it endangers animals. >> reporter: medical testing of any kind on chimpanzees has long been a source of emotional debate. the vaccinations we witnessed occurred in the same facility
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where this gut-wrenching scene was captured. one of many like it recorded during a nine-month undercover investigation by the humane society in 2009. andrew rowan is president and ceo of humane society international. he spoke with us in 2012. >> what we found was that frankly, well, a lot of suffering and conditions that we felt were inappropriate for chimpanzees. and so that's why we sort of came out and said this is ridiculous. >> reporter: jane fontenot is the head of research resources at new iberia. >> there were things i would have definitely preferred to have been done differently. it's research. it's not always something that everybody wants to see. >> reporter: and in fact, they would not let us see them anesthetize the chimps in this study, instead releasing a brief clip showing a single compliant chimpanzee receiving an injection.
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we did get a brief tour of the sprawling facility. in addition to the 230 chimpanzees here, there are more than 6,000 other primates used in medical research. managers here say they have learned some hard lessons, and the animals are treated humanely. >> they will not be harmed. after the study is done, they will go back into their social groups. it will have no long-term effect other than they will have antibodies against ebola. >> reporter: vaccinating wild animals is not an easy task but it is not unprecedented. vaccines protect buffalo at yellowstone from brucellosis and stem the spread of rabies in wild raccoons and foxes in the u.s. and europe. in fact, the safety and success of bait laced with the oral rabies vaccine gave immunologist matthias schnell the inspiration for his vaccine. a researcher at thomas jefferson university, he wondered if a tiny piece of the ebola virus could hitchhike on the rabies
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vaccine. >> what we did is actually putting in one ebola gene which encodes for one important protein to get an immune response against the virus. they are racing to get all this done before september 14, when a federal rule goes into effect that will eliminate medical research on captive chimpanzees in the u.s. but there is one loophole: experiments on chimps can continue if the goal is the preservation of the species itself. new iberia must seek and obtain a special permit from the u.s. fish and wildlife service in order to continue this experiment. they have not made a decision whether to apply. researchers would like to expand the trial beyond ten individuals. but maintaining 230 chimps just for this one purpose may not make sense financially. >> certainly, that is part of the calculation. but this is one of those rare
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opportunities that i believe we have as a research university, as a community of scientist and researchers, to give something back. >> reporter: ramesh kolluru is vice president for research at the university of louisiana at lafayette. >> for us, this is a great way of saying 'thank you' to chimpanzees for all that they have done to help improve human health. >> reporter: if it all ends on the 14th, what happens to the research? is it all for naught? >> for now, for now we can't do what we like to do. we can't do any follow-up studies until it's approved so hopefully that will change. >> reporter: dr. schnell hopes he can gather enough data and make his vaccine stable without refrigeration in time for peter walsh to begin distributing oral vaccines among a half-dozen gorilla groups at two sites in africa in early 2016.
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they're trying a new technique to test for the ebola antibodies in the chimpanzees' feces, essential to judge the success of vaccinations in the bush. if all goes well, walsh will keep pushing for mass vaccinations of wild apes. but is that level of human intervention appropriate? >> the problem is we're intervening in so many other ways there in a bad way that, really, it's a moral imperative that we actually intervene in a good way sometime. and vaccination is a way that we can intervene in a good way. >> if we don't do this, we're going to lose our closest relatives. >> reporter: there are still big questions about how to vaccinate wild apes, and if it's a good idea. but thousands of humans have now received experimental ebola vaccines, with good results. so in this case, humans may, in some small way, be the guinea pigs for the chimps. miles o'brien, the pbs newshour, new iberia louisiana.
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>> ifill: just over a year after the city of ferguson, missouri exploded in unrest after the killing of michael brown, an unarmed black teenager, by darren wilson, a white police officer, a local commission today released a blunt, new report. focusing on race, inequity and history, the 16-member ferguson commission issued 189 calls to action, including improvements in police practices, education, housing, and healthcare access. "what we are pointing out," the commission concludes, "is that the data suggests, time and again, that our institutions and existing systems are not equal, and that this has racial repercussions." joining me now to discuss the report and its possible impact are commission co-chair, the reverend starsky wilson, and missouri state senator maria chappelle-nadal.
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thank you both for joining us. so, call to action, reverend wilson. what was the single most surprising and least surprising thing you found in this report? >> thank you for having us on. first, quite frankly, the most surprising thing was that so many people lived in enclaves of comfort without understanding that folks just 5, 10 miles away lived in third-world circumstances when you talk about health outcomes, life expectancy. it was surprising to note that there is a $15 billion cost in our regional gross domestic product for these racial inequities that we see in our community. it was surprising to note that we are 42nd among the top 50 metropolitansen areas in the nation in economic mobility. the capacity for a child to do better than their parents. so with those surprises, i was shocked a little bit as we went throughout the process that
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there are so many people to be able to come around these issues, when they came to know about the issues, when they recognized the challenges, to actually be a part of the process. we're pleased this process, bold experiment and democracy has produce add result in this report, in these recommendations and now it's time to aggressively pursue them through activism, advocacy and agitation, frankly, of power structures that can make them happen. >> ifill: senator maria chappelle-nadal, is this about the way the region or state is structured or more profound than that? >> it's about how this system is structured. what we're dealing with is the fact that african-americans are at the bottom of the economic
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food chain, in the mud, right alongside catfish in the mississippi. so we have to do something that's different. we have to look at how our system is structured. yes, we have been looking at racial inequity for a very long time. if you look at president truman's freedom from fear, we were looking at racial inequity in 1968 when you had president johnson looking at inequity in the turner commission, and 47 years later, we're still talking about racial inequity, which means we still have environmental inequity, social inequity, economic inequity. so because all of these things still are existent and around means there is something fundamentally wrong and flawed in the structure in which we are operating right now. >> ifill: reverend wilson, let me tell you about two things i found in the report that surprised me. one is there is a 40-year difference in life expectancy based on what zip code you live
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in, and the other is that black motorists are 75% more likely to be pulled over than motorists of the majority race. those things surprise me. so what do you do about that? what does the commission report do to address those kinds of issues? >> the commission report calls for several things, particular as it relates to policing. it calls for us to upgrade to make more robust our racial profiling law in our state and calls for a database on police incidents so that we actually have the data. that's the great value of this conversation, is that we have accumulated data to hold people accountable. that should be happening in an ongoing way as relates to police stops in our states so we can see where inequities lie geographically and demographically. we think it should be happening with legislation at every level. ultimately, this takes us back to what brought us here.
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it brings us back to tissue of police accountability and oversight, police training. so we've made a call as far back as april, actually, to increase the required training under the peace officer's standards training commission in the state of missouri for officers in counties of our size that they should go from 41 required hours to 120 required hours in mandated training in use of force, cultural competency and officer wellness. we're policed to know the post-commission is looking at that. but we need to see more police accountability an oversight moving in st. louis county an in other areas throughout our region, as it has been one in the city of st. louis over the course of the last 12 months, after folks have been fighting for it, frankly, for more than 25 years. >> ifill: senator, you are an elected official.
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you know the difference between recommendation and implementation. how tough will it be to take the next steps called for in this report? >> well, i have to tell you, i actually pre-file a lot of this legislation last december. when it comes to body cameras, i filed that. when it comes to ensuring police officers get proper training, i filed that. special prosecuting attorney in these kind of cases, filed that legislation. upholding our constitutional rights, i filed that legislation. so i have been dealing with this for quite a long time. we were very, very close to passing the deadly force law. as you may know, missouri is 30 years out of compliance with the u.s. supreme court decision in not only 1985 but also 1989 which is the upgrade on what our deadly force is supposed to look like legislatively. so i'm going to continue fighting for many of the suggestions that were recommended that came out today. a lot of this i've already filed, but there were some good
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suggestions that i did not file that i want to follow up on, but i really want to ensure that we are looking seriously at this. literally, we have been talking about racial inequity for decades, and starsky is absolutely right, it's going to take agitation, and we cannot succumb to different interest groups that are out there who are trying to water down this movement, this change in the system that is so needed right now, so that individuals can have trust. well, one of the things i would follow up on, though -- >> ifill: go ahead. one of the things i would follow up on, though, has to do with the environment and housing as well as education. i'm ranking member on the education committee. i also serve on my local school board simultaneously, and i feel as though focus just on early education really was a short step. that's low-hanging fruit to
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invest in early ed. but eve to focus on children who are at risk, who are in middle school and high school who potentially can end up in the pipeline to prison. the report didn't talk about that. and there are other environmental issues. >> ifill: let me ask reverend wilson about. this you call forage -- you call for for agitation and the senator calls for agitation. what stops this report from ending up on a high shelf covered in dust? >> first, i say to the senator, i agree with her investment in early ed. we've take an broad approach to young people understanding the academics is one indicator of their well being but not the only one, and stage-appropriate development is what we're calling for in the report. >> ifill: i really want to ask you about that. the dusty shelf idea before we run out of time. >> absolutely. so one of the things that we have done is made the report
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shareable, clickable, digital first so that people can engage around it, so they can come in and find a place for them to work this. over the course of the next three months, we'll be working to find a successor organization and intermediary to work toward this common agenda by setting up shared measurement systems, assuring mutually reinforcing activities from several actors throughout the area and looking forward to driving continuous education which includes a policy strategy here. >> ifill: reverend starsky wilson and senator maria chappelle-nadal, thank you both very much. >> thank you for having us. >> ifill: later tonight on pbs, "american experience" airs the first half of a two-part documentary on the life and work of walt disney. here's a bit of it, a look at the weeks of preparation leading up to the 1955 grand-opening of the original disneyland in anaheim, california.
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walt was down in anaheim almost every day. he would walk every inch of the construction site, barking orders. move that gazebo, it's blocking the view. can we make that lake bigger? move the train wreck 50 feet. that tree's too close to the walkway. how about moving it? never mind it weighed 15 tons. >> walt was literally down there every day, watching everything. but never distraught, never negative. just urging everybody on, exploring all the ways how to fix stuff. >> walt is interested in every blade of grass. he's interested in every tree, interested in where everything is placed. there is not an attraction where
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walt disney isn't deeply involved. >> disney's constant demands put the entire operation behind the 8 ball, as did his stubborn insistence to get disneyland up and running in a hurry. six weeks from its announced opening date, panic was starting to set in. the entrance plaza was phot yet landscaped. main street was unpaved. the castle, unfinished. the jungle cruise boats were moving, but the robotic animals had yet to be installed. as opening day approached, less than half of the planned attractions were ready to receive visitors, and members of the staff were lobbying to push back the opening. walt was uninterested in the naysayers. he just kept pushing harder. the construction crew tripled in
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the final weeks to 2500 men, many of whom were working 16 hours a day. costs climbed to more than $17 million. more than three times the estimate made when construction began. >> so many things were finished at the last minute. there was a plumber's strike in orange county which was settled about a day before disneyland opened. so walt had the choice of finishing the bathrooms or the drinking fountains and, of course, he chose the bathrooms. >> people can buy pepsico la, disney explained. >> the interesting thing about walt before opening, he was excited like a proud father. look what he's got now! that was walt at his best. his enthusiasm of pursuing where he wanted to go and everybody
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was just going to follow imright a-- him right along. >> the park was abustle the day before the opening. abc was setting its am rase and running rehearsals for the next day's broadcast planned as the most ambitious live telecast ever. one work crew was frantically trying to dig out the 900-pound mechanical elephant sinking into the jungle river. another added lead weights to the front of the train engine to make sure it didn't tip backwards. painters were settling in for an all-nighter. walt himself put on a mask and helped spray paint backdrops for the 20,000 leagues under the sea exhibit. he was still at disneyland at 3:00 in the morning, walking the grounds, barking orders. we need new murals for the trains. get me an artist!
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>> ifill: tune in to watch the entire "american experience" on walt disney, tonight on most pbs stations. on the newshour online: a look at rosh hashanah, the jewish new year, from columnist wendy thomas russell. the holiday began last night and continues through tomorrow, followed next week by the jewish day of atonement, yom kippur. what makes this time of year so important? we have a primer on our home page. pbs.org/newshour >> ifill: and we'll be back, right here, on tuesday, when we talk to germany's ambassador to the u.s. about tackling the refugee crisis. that's the newshour for tonight. i'm gwen ifill. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by:
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>> and by the alfred p. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved economic performance and financial literacy in the 21st century. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org
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this is "nightly business report" with tyler mathisen and sue herera. too close to call? the factors the federal reserve weighs as it prepares to make what could be a historic addition on interest rates. your higher money, how higher interest rates may impact your long-term investments. college calculus. is a degree really worth the price of admission? new data helps students ants that question, all that and more tonight on "nightly business report" for month, september 14th. good evening, everyone. welcome. i'm sharon epperson in tonight for sue herera. >> and welcome from me, i'm tyler mathisen. is it really halfway across

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