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tv   PBS News Hour Weekend  PBS  December 13, 2015 5:30pm-6:01pm PST

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captioning sponsored by wnet >> sreenivasan: on this edition for sunday, december 13. what the paris climate change deal means for the united states. trying to contain isis by attempting to broker peace in libya. and, one american city at the center of the debate over how to treat the homeless. next on pbs newshour weekend. >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: lewis b. and louise hirschfeld cullman. bernard and irene schwartz. judy and josh weston. the cheryl and philip milstein family. the citi foundation. supporting innovation and enabling urban progress. sue and edgar wachenheim, iii. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we are your
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retirement company. additional support has been provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting, and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. from the tisch wnet studios at lincoln center in new york, hari sreenivasan. >> sreenivasan: good evening. thanks for joining us. united nations secretary general ban ki moon says the climate change pact endorsed by close to 200 nations is a turning point" to make human life "sustainable on a healthy planet. world leaders are welcoming the agreement designed to curb planet-polluting carbon gases that have been causing a rise in global temperatures. the paris agreement approved yesterday commits countries to take steps that could cap the rise in temperatures to no more than two degrees celsius-- or just over 3.5 degrees fahrenheit-- over pre-industrial age levels. the pact aims for every country to reduce emissions from burning fossil fuels in the coming
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decades so the earth can naturally absorb them in the second half of this century. and under the agreement, countries will re-submit their pollution reduction targets to the u.n. every five years. the climate change agreement does not specify how its terms will be enforced, what happens when countries miss their targets, or how much money will be invested in clean energy technology. secretary of state john kerry addressed those shortcomings o"" fox news sunday." >> if there had been a penalty, there wouldn't have been an agreement. so we did the best we could to set the world on a new course towards energy independence, alternative renewables, lower carbon footprint. >> sreenivasan: joining me now for further analysis of the climate change summit accord is michael levi. he is a senior fellow for energy and the environment at the council on foreign relations here in new york. >> the big question is, what is this mean for united states? qus. >> for the united states, this means that we are done with 20
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years of fighting over the basic architecture agreement and if we flesh this out right we will have a framework so we can have more frame of work into what other countries are doing, regular process for pressing them to do more, and some greater certainty about the international structure that we are working in. sreenivasan: these are big compromises made from a lot of different countries. what did the united states want that h it did not get. judge no distinction between the developed and developing countries. this has been the fight for years. it would have liked exactly the same language about obligation for developed and developing countries on transparency, on updating they're commitments, the basic elements of a deal. they got a lot of these distinctions removed but there are bits and pieces in the agreement and there will be a
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sign we'll continue to fight over those in the coming years. >> a scuffle over the agreement, over the word, whether it shall or should, countries shall or should, make it's gone towards should and everything seems rather voluntary. >> ultimately all of these steps are volunteer. we saw in the kyoto protocol, countries didn't adhere to anyhow. we can get overly obsessed with should or shall. the critical distinction the united states was focused on there is that shall would have sent the agreement to the senate for ratification where it would have died and should allows to it actually exist. so better to have an agreement that is not absolutely perfect but exists but one that you love but can never supply. > sreenivasan: so what are the
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commitments that the united states has to make, even though it doesn't have to go to congress? will we have to create lauds saying, this is how we will decrease our emissions? >> there are two basic elements here. first the united states has made a pledge to reduce its emissions 26 to 28% below its levels by 2025. without new policies we are not going to get there. but whether there need to be new laws or new qualifications under the current laws, remains to be seen. other is the agreement is going to include rules for transparency, for review of countries' efforts for updating of countries efforts, the details of those could mean a lot. it could be not only china and india but the united states that is scrutinized. and the u.n. regulators are going to try to nail that down.
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>> this is what we'll do and we can see what everyone else is doing. >> between now and 2025, between now and 2020, we'll extend that to a 2030 goal to align that with other countries and everyone will participate in this regular five-year process. what worked in the past year was the spotlight paris shown to get countries to work on serious policies that could reduce emissions. and the hope is that ez you do that every five years you can mobilize that same kind of political focus. the fundamental thing here, this is not a technical legal effort, it's about driving better politics that enable better policy on climate change. >> michael levi, thank you very much for joining us. >> sreenivasan: following an outbreak of violence, the u.s. state department has ordered all non-emergency personnel and dependents of government employees to leave the central african country of burundi.
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opposition attacks on three army posts friday killed around 90 people, mostly armed resistance fighters, according to the army. the associated press reports after the attacks, army forces dragged some men from their homes and shot them in the streets. unrest began earlier this year when burundi's president, pierre nkurunziza sought and won a third term. more 200,000 people have fled the country. russian authorities are investigating the cause of a psychiatric hospital fire that killed 23 patients last night in a village in southern russia. the fire broke out around midnight, and it took firefighters three hours to control it. most of the patients who died were elderly and asleep in their beds. two dozen more were treated for smoke inhalation or burns. wikileaks founder julian assange will finally be questioned by swedish prosecutors about rape charges brought against him in 2012. the interview will occur inside ecuador's embassy in london, where assange has been living under a grant of political asylum for three years. assange has avoided extradition to sweden, which he fears could extradite him to the u.s., if he
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were charged for publishing a trove of classified military and diplomatic documents five years ago. >> sreenivasan: governments from europe, africa, and the middle east are calling for all sides in libya's four year civil war to agree to a ceasefire. delegations from 17 countries, including the united states, met in rome today with 15 representatives of libyan factions. they discussed a united nations plan to create a national unity government within 40 days. one concern is the current power vacuum could be filled by the militant islamic state in iraq and syria, or isis, whose presence in libya has grown since the toppling of muammar qadaffi in 2011. reuters reporter patrick markey has been covering the libyan conflict. he joins me now by skype from algiers.
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first of all, why is libya so crucial in this and when state of government exists today? >> you know at the moment we have two rival government. one in the east and one in tripoli, each backed by different armed factions. moat o most of them are former rebels who were back gadhafi but turned against. islamic state has managed to establish a foothold, mostly in the city of sirte but other areas of benghazi. italy is only 300 kilometers away from libya across the mediterranean. but for north african neighbors like tunisia, who saw attacks carried out against its tourism
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industry, by terrorism. there is pressure for resolution of the crisis. >> in terms of i.s.i.s. they have been attacking oil fields, military checkpoints, they pretty much control the city of sirte right? there right. they slowly gathered their presence there over the last year or so. there was this attack on the katherineiacorinnecorincrovmenad growing more foreignñi fighterso their base there. sreenivasan: while these conversations happened in rome to try to get these factions to agree, i imagine there's hard liners inside libya that want nothing to do with this agreement. caught in the middle are just average libyan citizens. what's life for them like now in this state of flux? >> as you said you know, there are two governments. and it is very chaotic. there are problems with
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inflation, there are problems with supplies in place like tripoli. kidnapping problems, places like benghazi. for libyans, for the political leaders, people are looking for some kind of resolution. but there are big questions about the people who don't agree with the agreement and certain of the armed groups who may resist. so there are lots of questions about whether this government will work, whether it will be able to form a united front or different groups will come toque and hold a cease-fire. work together against islamic state or as they have in the past, factional fighting as is the case in the the last couple of years. >> patrick markey, thanks so much. >> thank you.
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>> sreenivasan: on any given night in the united states, there are 600,000 people who are homeless, either sleeping in shelters or outside, according to federal government statistics, and the number in shelters has gone up over the past two years. a growing number of cities are cracking down on the homeless sleeping in the streets or outside. one of them is sarasota, florida, where sleeping outside can lead to a police citation or an arrest. a lawsuit against the city argues those penalties have effectively criminalized homelessness, especially when there may not be enough shelter space. special correspondent karla murthy looks at this debate in tonight's signature segment, as we continue our ongoing reporting initiative called" chasing the dream: poverty and opportunity in america." >> reporter: david cross has lived on the streets of sarasota, florida, since 2008, when he lost his home to foreclosure. the 65-year-old former gas station worker now spends most of his days at the local library. >> the library is a safe place. it's air conditioned. you don't have to be bothered by the so-called riff-raff.
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>> reporter: one night in august, he slept outside the library, which he did from time to time. what time was it when you got woken up by the police? >> about ten past four in the morning. i was sleeping right there. >> reporter: the police issued a trespass warning, which would have banned cross from the library for an entire year. >> i wouldn't have known what to do with myself... >> reporter: the reason sarasota police cited for his warning was a city ordinance against" lodging out-of-doors," which prohibits sleeping or camping outside on public or private property without permission. across the country, advocates say a growing number of cities have been criminalizing homelessness. according to a survey by the national law center on homelessness and poverty, the number of cities with city-wide bans on camping or sleeping outside has increased 50 percent since 2011. >> being homeless is not a crime in this country. >> reporter: michael barfield is vice president of florida's chapter of the american civil liberties union. in september, the a.c.l.u. sued sarasota on behalf of david
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cross and others, arguing:" criminalizing the sleeping in a public space when there is no publicly available shelter violates the eighth amendment prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment." the suit also challenges sarasota's ban on panhandling, arguing that it "constitutes speech protected under the first amendment." >> they get, accumulate criminal convictions that affect their ability to obtain employment, to obtain a valid driver's license. all of these things that would help them get out of the cycle of chronic homelessness, the city is using as tools that keep them within that cycle. >> reporter: sarasota is calle"" paradise" by the people who liveere. it's become one of the top-rated places to retire. but like many cities around the country it's found itself in the middle of a debate for how to treat the growing number of people here living on the street. there are more than 300 people in the city of sarasota classified as "chronically homeless," meaning they've been
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on the streets for more than a year. all together there are about 1,400 homeless people in sarasota county, an increase of nearly 70% since 2009. after the lodging ordinance passed in 2005, the national coalition for the homeless declared sarasota "the meanest city in the country." in 2011, the city removed benches from a park popular among homeless people. >> we're trying to deal with the situation in the most humanitarian way that we can. >> reporter: tom barwin has been the city manager since 2012 and says the "meanest city" label is outdated. >> as far as these labels, meanest city x or y, i mean it's really the police departments and the community having very few other options or choices to try to keep the peace. >> reporter: police chief bernadette dipino says her department is responding to calls about the homeless from the community. >> it was an issue because of the complaints we got from citizens about people sleeping, and doing other things in their
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doorways, and panhandling, and being aggressive in begging for money, and people sometimes are just scared by homeless just by the way they smell, or the way they look, or the way they're acting, so we get a lot of complaints. >> reporter: but chief dipino she says the city has altered its approach. citations for lodging out-of- doors have fallen nearly 80 percent since she took over the department in 2013. >> our police department really shouldn't be the first person dealing with an individual that's homeless, although we do, because we are the ones that are in the street, 24 hours a day, seven days a week. >> reporter: last year the police department and the city created "hot teams" that pair officers with caseworkers to connect the homeless with available services. i followed a hot team as it patrolled a densely wooded area on the outskirts of sarasota, where a group of homeless people had set up an illegal encampment. instead of issuing citations, the hot team provides information. >> you have our cards right there. resurrection house. i'm at the health department on wednesdays. >> reporter: calvin collins is a hot team social worker who works
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with the homeless all over the city. >> oftentimes, they suffer from either mental illness or substance abuse issues, and we just have to continue to motivate. and many of these folks have said, "you know, i don't want help, i'm happy where i am." but we have to continue to engage them and hopefully one day, they'll want to change their situation. >> reporter: officer dave dubendorf says hot teams check up on this camp about once a week. >> these guys all know me by first name, i know them by first name. they feel very trusting, they're easier around me. >> and this guy is going to help me get out of here. >> yes, sir. >> this guy needs to help himself get out of here too... >> i know... >> reporter: officer dubendorf says the anti-lodging ordinance is just a tool in his toolbox. >> sometimes we need that tool to try to drive somebody to want to get help, because a lot of these guys, we've been working at it for years and years. if we can use that, it may not be the right thing, but you know what, if it gets them to want to get back up on their feet and be safe, i'm all for it. >> reporter: in downtown sarasota the hot team engages with some people near the bus
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station, including 52-year old dorothy meehan. >> what do you need to get all that stuff? >> reporter: meehan gets around in a wheelchair since she was injured in a hit and run accident last year. sarasota police have issued her more than 50 citations mostly for minor offenses including drug possession and carrying an open container. but also for lodging out-of- doors and trespassing. she's been jailed a dozen times. >> the reasoning behind a lot of the city ordinances really have nothing to do with anything criminal. it's basically just that somebody didn't want to see you there. >> reporter: last month, the florida a.c.l.u. added meehan as a plaintiff in its lawsuit challenging the policy of arresting peop for sleeping outside. >> i understand if it's a nuisance, alright, you're making a big mess, you're causing a ruckus, or there's tons of people where they can't control the situation. but if i'm sleeping by myself, i'm sleeping, i'm not fighting with anybody, i'm certainly not arguing, i'm not drinking. i'm sleeping.
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and i don't see what the crime is against that. >> reporter: we've talked to a lot of homeless people here in sarasota, and some have said, when we meet the police they are trying to help us, and some of them don't feel necessarily that way, and feel like they're just making it a crime to be homeless. what's going on here? >> i really can't answer that, because the homeless that i've had dealings with, and the information that i've received back from people that have gone out and talked to the homeless is very positive about our police department. our officers are working very hard to have relationships with people out on the street and try to get them help. >> reporter: it seems like the city has really changed the way they're dealing with homeless people in terms of having a caseworker go out with police officers. has that made any difference? >> i think it has made some difference. it is a positive sign. but at the same time, the city is using this sort of carrot and stick approach, and they don't have the resources to fulfill the promises they make to people for assistance.
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>> reporter: what resources are available for the homeless in sarasota is the center of this debate. there is only one large homeless shelter in sarasota, which is run by the salvation army. ethan frizzell is in charge. >> so what are we against? drinking, drugging, and dying on our corner. what are we for? housing! >> reporter: the shelter is zoned for 260 beds, most of which are reserved for people who enroll in salvation army programs for things like substance abuse and help finding housing. there is room for walk-ins to stay overnight. most stay on these mats, which are laid out in the cafeteria after dinner. six beds are set aside for the homeless brought in by the police. >> so if they're drinking or whatnot, this, this is fine. >> reporter: the ordinance says that before a citation or an arrest is made, a police officer has to offer to bring that person to a shelter, which is usually the salvation army. but the florida a.c.l.u. lawsuit argues that the shelter is at or above capacity most of the time.
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>> you either have a shelter, or you don't criminalize behavior that requires a shelter. >> are there days that we're very full? yes, we are. but it's because some people come in on days of terrible weather or whatnot, but they don't want to come into any program that will change their lives or help them to housing. >> reporter: two years ago, the city of sarasota and the county agreed to build a new emergency shelter, but officials are now at odds about the size and location of any shelter. the city is now considering a "housing first" approach, a model that's been used around the country. it places the chronically homeless in permanent apartments first and then offers support services. sarasota estimates it would cost less than the $10 million a year the county currently spends on treating or incarcerating the homeless. city manager tom barwin says he's confident the city's ordinances pass constitutional muster and calls the lawsuit a distraction that misses the larger national issue.
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>> i don't think it's advancing any solutions. we've got this huge, gaping hole in the mental health infrastructure. that's the real problem, and here in florida, we're the third-most populated state in the country, yet we're 49th in funding mental health, okay. >> reporter: david cross appealed his trespass warning to the police and won, so cross can still hang out inside the library. but he still worries about run-ins with the police. >> they're doing everything possible to get the homeless element out of the city. >> reporter: so then why not leave? >> where am i going to go? it's beautiful here. i'm 65 years old. you come to florida to retire. >> sreenivasan: see how the number of cities with laws prohibiting living on the street, in parks, or in vehicles has increased in the united states. view our interactive map at pbs.org/newshour. >> this is pbs newshour weekend,
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sunday. >> sreenivasan: a leading u.s. government's scientific agency, the national institutes of health, has decided that it will no longer allow its chimpanzees to be used for bio-medical research for human health. the newshour's stephen fee has more. >> reporter: at this 200 acre expanse near shreveport, in western louisiana, chimpanzees have the run of the place. it's called "chimp haven"-- a sort of retirement community for chimpanzees, our closest genetic relative in the animal kingdom. the national institutes of health decided last month to end its support for biomedical experiments on chimpanzees, and it will send them here to live out their days. n.i.h. director francis collins says such medical testing is no longer necessary. >> a lot of the things that we used to depend on chimpanzees or other animals, we can now actually do in other ways that
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are probably more reliable in terms of their predictability about what would happen in a human being. >> reporter: the n.i.h. began winding down its testing on chimpanzees two years ago, keeping just 50 of them on reserve. since then, there's been just one request to use an n.i.h. chimp for research-- and it was withdrawn. so collins made the decision to release the remaining 50 primates. >> those chimps who participated in research, whether it was on aids or hepatitis c, they gave us all a gift by the things that we learned. but science has moved on. >> reporter: animal welfare groups have long pressed to end corinthian.çó katherineian,ñi katherine, it's hepatitis rks hari sreenivasan, by the things that we learned. but science has moved that testing on chimps. the u.s. fish and wildlife service decided in june to classify captive chimps as endangered, in addition to chimps in the wild. the n.i.h. owns 491 chimps, and 183 have already moved to the federally-funded chimp haven. the rest will be relocated here in the coming years, as funding and space permit.
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>> finally tonight in saudi arabia, at least 14 women have won local council seats in the first election in which women could vote. only elected in the saudi monarchy. and in france the far right national front party has struck out in regional elections. after doing well in the first round, the appeared of marine la pen did not do well. 28% of the vote nationwide. francois hollande, and nicholas sarkozy won 40%. that's it for this edition of newshour weekend. i'm hari sreenivasan, good
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night. captioning sponsored by wnet captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: lewis b. and louise hirschfeld cullman. bernard and irene schwartz. the cheryl and philip milstein family. the citi foundation. supporting innovation and enabling urban progress. judy and josh weston. sue and edgar wachenheim, iii. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we are your retirement company. provided by:pport has been and by the corporation for public broadcasting, and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.
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hello, i'm greg sherwood and i'm happy to have bob goldman as my guest here in the kqed studio. bob, thanks for joining us. what fun to have you here. >> delighted to be here. >> i can't wait to talk to you more. bob is a bay area financial planner who works with individual investors and he's here to share some of his secrets of successful retirement planning. bob is a member of the garrett planning network and the national association of personal financial advisors, and his work has appeared in the new york times and the wall street journal. you have probably heard him, as i have, as he's a frequent guest on "forum" on

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