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tv   PBS News Hour Weekend  PBS  February 3, 2018 5:30pm-6:00pm PST

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captioning sponsored by wnet >> sreenivasan: on this edition for saturday, february 3rd: president trump claims vindication following the rele e of the divisive congressional memo. in our signature segment, tensions increase between the ounited states and canadar nafta and the dairy industry and, who are "the dreamers"? next on "pbs newshour weekend." r >> "pbs newshekend" is made possible by: sbernard and irenartz. the cheryl and philip milstein family. , sue and edgar wachenhei. dr. p. roy vagelos andgeiana t. s. the j.p. foundation. the anderson family fund. rosalind p. walt barbara hope zuckerberg. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america--
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designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we're your retirement company.d : >> additional support has been provided by: or and by the corporation public broadcasting, and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. from the tisch wnet studios at lincoln center in new york,as hari sreen. >> senivasan: good evening a thank you for joining us there is new fallout over the controversial memo released yesterday by republicans on the house intelligence committee. the memo alleges that the f.b.i. and justice department abused their power to secure a fisaan watargeting former trump campaign advisor carter page. it says the agencies reliedy excessiv opposition research partially funded by democrats. this morning, president trumpet claimed in a that the memo" totally vindicates ¡trump' in probe but the russian witch hun" goes " the ranking democrat on the house intelligence cee representative adam s chiff
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responded "quite the opposite, mr. president," aled the memo "shoddy." schiff has authored a counter- edmo, which remains classi the author of the g.o.p. memo, chairman of the house intell nunes, said on fox news yesterday that there is no evidence of collusion between donald trump and russia and thae he released th out of a" obligation to the american people." when asked if he had read the applications for surveillance warrants, nunes admitted that he did not personally review them, but rather he relied on fellow intelligence committeeember republican trey gowdy. representative gowdy tweeted that he has serious concerns about the fisa process but he is "100% confident in special counsel robert mueller"" and "the contents of this memo doot in any w discredit his investigation." in his first week as acting director of the consumer tnancial protection bureau, mick mulvaney sat president trump put him in the position to "protect people without trampling on capitalism." and one of mulvaney's more controversial moves was revealed
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this week: to strip the enforcement power from the c.f.p.b.'s unit that pursues discrimination cases. joining me to discuss the new tact of the c.f.p.b. is r"washington post" reportae merle. o,, first, tell us what did the c.f.p.b.r what are they planning to do? >> well, right now, youmi have mulvaney in as acting director, and he's trying to reform this agency and make it not as aggressive as it has been under a democratic leadership. so he's pulling back from some of the more aggressive actions that the c.f.p.b. has done over the last couple of years gl and specifically, this division that he's restructuring used to do that? >> the office of fair lending wain charge of finding case where's minorities -- blacks, hispanics or women-- were beinge chmore than whites and they brought big cases against banks and auto lenders where they found blacks and hispanics were being charged more, a higher interest rate, which could amount to hundreds o af dollar they brought some
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big cases those circumstances so in those cases the banks ended up paying millions of dollars in fines? >> yes, the banks end up paying millions of dollars in fines gl whagl what happens to this particular groupow, if it moves kind of the umbrella of the director's office? >> it basically going from career government leadership to political leadership. it's going to be in the director's office. it's going to do most of theut same things,t's not going to have the power to pursue cases supervise companies. and, you know, with supervising companies, you're at the company day in and day out, d seeing if they're doing the right things. they're no longer gog have the power too that instead they're going to be doing things like education and ngordination so it's not g to have the same force it has over the last six years.
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>> is thi o one partf a fizz soskal stance that mick mulvaney has taken, of how he wan to reform the c.f.p.b. in a different light? >> so, when miclk muvaney, before he became acting director, he was a republican congressman, and at that time he called the c.f.p.b. a joke. he said he wished it didn't exist. he cosponsored legislation that would have done away with the agency. now he's at the head of the agency and he does say, "we're going to do whatever the law says the c.f.p.b. should do" but they're obviously not going to be doing it in the same aggressive manner as before. mick mulvaney thinks it should be more of a cooperation with the financial sector, that it'su not punishing them. it's about working with them. >> so is there a solution that might work in the next six months or a year to try to balance this out? what does the c.f.p.b. kind of office, or what does the ngrector's office say? are they sayi, don't be concerned about this, we'redo still going t enforcement? >> they're saying now that the
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office of affairs of lending is in the director's office, it's closer to the top of organization. though, that means it's also a part of the political operation of this bureau, so it doesn't have the same powers to go after companies. >> renae merle of the oiashington post." thanks so much forng us. >> thank you. kefind out what's behind ts recent attacks in northwest syria. visit at pbs.org/newshour. president trump has wanted to renegotiate the eerth american rade agreement even before he took office. he calls it a "bad deal" for america and heims to fix it. currently, the united states is engaged in nafta talks with mexico and cana-- and among the many points of contention is the dairy trade. the united states wantday farmers here to be able to sell more in canada, and want canada to end its system of tariffs and quotas. the canadians have called that request "aggressive" and" irrational." in the first of two reports about the economic impact of
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nafta, newshour weekend's christopher booker has this story from both sides of the border. >> reporter: the cows are a lot bigger and there are more of them, but for the most part, the work here is as it was when neil rejman's grandparents started this dairy farm almost 80 years ago. three times a day, seven days a week, 365 days a year, cows get milked at sunnyside farms in dpipio center, ny. unlike his granents, neil runs a high tech operation, the cows cycle through this giant milking-merry gomi round. thing cups are automated, and they pull themselves off when the milking is done. but the biggest change is the amount of milk each cowuc pr. in 1939 when neil's grandparents started, the average american cow produced 12 pounds of a milk a day. toeil's cows make 90. and people are drinkin milk far beyond new york's borders-- as liquid, as powdern. and prot >> we belong to a cooperative and that milk gets marketed to
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d then itustomers gets shipped all over the country and the world. >> reporter: neil's milk ipart of america's multi-billion dollar annual dairy export market-- estimated at $5 billion in 2017. an export explosion that start in large part with the 1994 north american free trade agreement. >> prior to that, the dairy industry had been primarily focused on the domestic consumption of milk. >> reporter: former secretary of agriculture tom vilsack is the president of the u.s. dairy export council. >> we went into mexico and we said, "look, you've got a dairy industry. we have a dairy industry is there a way in which we can work together to increase consumption so thayour producers can do well and our producers can do well?" and that's exactly what's happened in mexico. >> reporter: last year mexico purchased over $1-billion worthf .s. dairy products. in 1996, just under 4% of all u.s. dairy was exported. last year, it was just over 14% >> we are ready to compete and we can win. >> reporter: nafta opened markets for goods and services to travel beeen mexico, canada
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and the united states.e thre, however, exceptions. until 2008, imports of mexican sugar into the u.s. was restricted. and then there is canda's heavily protected iry industry, which remains outside of the nafta agreement. to this day, canada imposes heavy tariffs on imported dairy producve. >> they very closed system and that's one of the problems. they have hi tariffs. they have barriers that are constructed from time to time in order to preserve ierket opportun- for their own producers, in order to-- make it a little bit easier for toeir producere-- well- compensated for their product. >> reporter: unlike in the u.s., where the price of milk is subject to the free market, canadian the price is negotiated beforehand. the government sets the rules of the negotiation and then farmers and processors determine the price. not onlyhat, a quota system, set up in 1971, known as supply management, controls the amount of milk each farmer may produce. what this all means is that while canadian consumers pay more for their milk, canadian
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dairy farmers are shelldred from the wings in price suffered by american farmers they also get a higher rate of return for the milk they produce. in new york, neil rejman gets about $15 for 100 pounds of milk. y farmer in quebec gets about $23, a farmer like peter strebel.so ow many cows do you have on your farm? >> milking 125 cows. total 140, 145 cows. >> reporter: strebel's father s moved frtzerland to quebec in 1976, purchasing the dairy farm peter now runs with his two sons >> obviously the-- the price kind of regulatedo have decent income for the producer. i mean, you-- it's only enmatter of-- dwork for decent pay. >> we just try to balance offer and demand. >> reporter: alain bourbeau is the general manager of fhe quebec daimers, the group that helps negotiate the price peter will get for his milk. with supply management helped to stabilize the domestic production and domestic consumption.or
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what about e? >> as producers i would say that we're not looking to export markets. this policy is mainly due to domestic supply because when you produce more than you can sale, the-- there's a spoiling situation. there-- there's no valuation. so you-- you waste water. you waste space. you waste land. you waste everything. >> reporter: while american dairy farmers are frustrated by the lack of free access to canada, some say the real problem is how canadian dairy is impacting the global market. you see, even though the canadian dairy system is designed to produce only as much as canada needsortself, it does, at times produce extra. for instance, a worldwide increase in butter consumption led canada to increase itstt quota. that led to an increase in the production of a butt byproduct: skim milk powder. canada didn't need that extra powder for itself, so it sold it-- cheap-- on e world market. the canadians call this a
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structural surplus, and this is what makes it very difficult for the company that processes neilc rejman's milk pete. >> we compete in the skim milk powder market worldwidedend canada is utting everyone and really driving the market lower. >> reporter: cayuga milk ingredies was opened in large part as an export facility. about half of the milk they process is sold outside of the united states. >> if you're using a manulated system in a free market society you shouldn't have the ability to compete, so that's what makes me angry. it's not the loss of the u.s. sales into canada. i'd say, good on them. but now you can't export. keep your milk in canada. they can do what they want inside canada, but they can' export and dump it. they're dumping it. >> reporter: it's theseur stru surpluses that seem to be causing the greatest amount of anxiety amongst u.s. processors. >> exactly >> reporter: why? >> the u.s. in the last three, creasefive years, they in
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a lot their production, but by doing this, they are catch with a surplus-- with a problem of surplus and that's why they are looking to our market. >> reporter: they called it dumping.a is canmping its skim milk powder on the world market? >> no. for sure. ther- - there's nere's no basis for us to-- to do that. >> reporter: so canada blames the u.s. for creating its own problem-- producing way too much product-- with no plan in place as to how to s, and the u.s. blames canada for its high its surplus as exports. so, where do they go from here? well, as part of the nafta renegotiations, it t been reportt the united states naged products over tenly-fully years." >> that's the end of suppl management. in ten years, they're giving us absolutely nothing in exchange. i mean, if that's supposed to be a win-win partnership, i don't get it. i n't know. >> reporter: but canadian dairy tariffs seem safe for w. in august, the canadian
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representative working on the nafta negotiations, yrstia freeland, said canada wouldly protect its suanagement system. after november's round, freeland seem to reiterate her point. >> while we hope for the best, we look for win-win outcomes. we also need to be very clear that we will defend our national interest-- and we will and we are. >> dairy looms large in theon canadianiousness, that's for sure. >> reporter: maryscott freenwoot is the c.e.o. canadian- american business council-- a cross border trade association based in washington and pttawa that works with multi-national corporations like coca cola and pfizer-- to navigate the ins and outs of doing business under nafta. >> it legitimately bothers the meited states. , canada doesn't have free trade in-- in dairy. so the u.s. is looking ttake down protectionist barriers when it renegotiates a de >> reporter: do you see a future where iry may well be the dismantling piece-- of nafta? >> look, anyne element of this negotiation could cause the
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whole thing to go sideways. so it could dairy, it could be intellectual property, it could be the dispute resolution mechanisms. so, does dairy have that potential?ye it does. am i predicting that? no.ou >>an't expect us to give up 100% of our market totally tariff-free, the demands are just too high. i mean, it's unreasonable. >> reporter: strebel points out that the u.s. also supports its farmers. e most recent farm bill 2014, provided $489-billion in support to american agriculture. >> i mean, which part of th-- that goes to the dairy farmer. so, i mean, sure, probably u.s. tax payers should be frustreted that theubsidizing cheap milk. >> reporter: the canadianrm s support comes through the price control system of supply management. what would it mean for you if supply management were to end? >> the big farms will get so much bigger, i mean, you're gonna lose-- small farms, but th-- there's gonna be overproduction in canada. we've seen that in europe, we've
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seen that in australia and new zealand-- where supplyma gement has been dismantled-- half the farms went out of business. >> report: you think it's a fair ask of the united states to-- to go after the supply management system? >> maybe not, but canada can't be a participant in a market society and protect ly management. nt doesn't work in the same coext. you can't have your cake and eat it too. >> reporter: just how far america is willing to push canada on the dairissue remains to be seen. nafta negotiators just finished their sixth round of tks, it's anticipated negotiations will most likely continue well into 2018. >> sreenivasan: a recent washington post-abc news poll found that 87% of americans believe that dreamers--the young undocumented immigrants who were brought into the u.s. asul children-- sbe allowed to stay in the country.
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and while leaders both sides of the aisle-- including president trump-- have expressed a desire to give the dreamers a pathway to citizenship, there is still no deal. a the dreamers aiverse group, living and working in a country they hope will not kick em out. newshour weekend's ivette feliciano has the story of one dreamer who is doing something you might not expect. >> reporter: immigration lawyer luis cortes romero's day begins at 6:00 a.m. at seattle, washington's federal immigration court. a today he's here to defen- iear old guatemalan boy who arrived unaccompin the united states after witnessing his father's murder.co at 2:00 p.m.es romero is 30 miles away at tacoma's northwest detention center to defend a former gang member from being deported. by 5:00 p.m., he's finally arrived at h law office just uth of seattle where he meets with the family of a woman for geom he's helped secure re status. so far, that's pretty par for
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the course. but what sets cortes romero apart from other immigration lawyers is that-- like most of his clients-- he too is an undocumented immigrant. what we you told about your status growing up? >> i definitely knew what it felt to be undocumented, though i didn't really know what it meant. because-- in where we were living, there were a l of ice raids. it was-- it wasn't uncommon to hear about it at our neighborhood apartment complex we were living in. and so that fear was very real. but i didn't really kn like what the outside consequences was of being deported. >> reporter: cortes romero was brought to the united states in9 from mexico when he was just over a year old. but it was only when his fathero was ed in 2004 that the realities of being undocumented in america began to sink in. >> at this point, i was in my beginning stages of high school,
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and so you know, i was forming my identity. and so it was difficult to deale with from anity front. it was difficult to not be mad at my parents. it was difficult not to be mad at the immigr.ation syst it was difficult not to be mad at my peers for having this privilege of tm not having to ink about it. ly reporter: cortes romero also faced difficulty ag to colleges, most of which required a social security number, which he didn't have. he was eventually accepted to san jose state university, which accepted his student i.d. from local communllege in place of a social security number. his college degree helped earn him a place at the university of idaho, where he entered law school in 2010. you're studying la, legality. you're supposed to uphold the law.an here you are with this secret-- an undocumented status. >> yeah,you know, it-- it's definitely a lot to-- to try to decipher. and ultimately what i-- what i
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really got out of law school think at the end was that the law's supposed to be fair. >> reporter: and then, in 2012, during cortes romero's third year in law school, an announcement from the white house changed his world. >> effective immediately, th department of homeland security is taking steps to lift thef shadowportation off these erung people. >> reporter: the dd action on childhood arrivals-- or" daca"-- allowed cortes romero-- and almost 800-thousand others like him who had been brought to this country as children-- to apply for work permits without the fear of deportation. >> it's hard to explain the-- the shift that it has on a person to be recognized. when you finally get your identity, it's-- it's-- it's really something that i've never experienced since theven before then. and it made me so much more confident. i, you know, i-- i wasn't scared about being deported. it changed who i was. >> reporter: cortes romero graduated w school in 2013. a year later california's supreme court rud that
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undocumented immigrants could practice law under the state's cotitution. cortes romero was granted a california lawlicense in 2016, which he can use to practice federal immigration law anywhere in the country. when you're going into these spaces, in immigration court-- do you takany special precautions? do you ever feel fear? >> the time that i think about it most interestingly enough is when we win cases. because-- there are situations where i will wise for my client, and ninow he' better position than i am walking out of that courtroom than when we both walked in there. >> reporter: but this past september, cortes romero found himself worried about deportation all over again when attorney general jeff sessions announced that the justice department would end the daca m program ch of this year. two weeks after the attorney general's announcement, six daca recipients filed a lawsuit
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againsthe trump administration-- and one of the lawyers representing them is is cortes romero. what is the argument? what's the complaint? >> president trump said on various occasions en after he was elected, you know, "i'm gonna treat the daca recipients with big heart. daca individuals have nothing to worry about." and he said it over and over and over again. so people made plans on that. people renewed on that. people appliedmeor the first n that. and so to say, "nope, joke's on you.ki we're , now we have all your information. thanks. and we're gonna take this away." is something that is not just unfair, but unlawful. >> reporter: whether or not e president's actions are unlawful is debatable-- and the case may be dismissed if congress is be able to pass legislation protecng daca recipients before the march deadline. in the meantime, cortes roro continues his work, defending the undocumented-and in the process, defending himself.
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>> sreenivasan: italian police arrested one suspect in the shooting of six african immigrants in the ty of macerata today. the alleged gunman is identified as luca traini, who has c previominal record. italian media is reporting last year, the 28-year-old unsuccessfullyan as a candidate in a local election representing anti-immigrant nortrn league. the attack comes as italians prepare to go to t polls in a march fourth election, where immigration has become a central issue. al qaida linked fighters are claiming responsibility for shooting down russian fighter jet over the syrian province of idlib. the media arm of the militant group has released video purportedly of the crashed su-25 jet. the militants also say the pot ejected before the crash, but was later killed in a shootout. the c.e.o. of the humane socie of the united states resigned yesterday following a backlash om donors over allegations of sexual harassment.
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wayne pacellstepped down despite the humane society's board voting to keep him in his position the d before. several board members stepped down in protest. in an email to staff, pacelle said he was resigning "to put aside any distractions, in the best interests of all parties." the u.s. supreme court is coidering a request from pennsylvania republicans to step in and halt a state supreme court decision that would redraw district maps ahead of the 2018 midterm election. in late january, pennsylvania's supreme cod urt ruat the congressional map was gerrymandered in a way that violated the state's constitution. only five of pennsylvania's 18 ocngressional districts are represented by dts, even though registered democrats outnumber registered republicans statewide. on pbs newshour weekend sunday, our second report about the impact of nafta. we go inside a fiercelted provision that may threaten the rights of a nation. ve it really has not been shown to be a risk to soignty.
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>> we've been robbed of our power to create our own laws. >> sreenivasan: that's tomorrow on pbs newshour weekend. n'e man behind some of mot biggest hits like "papa was a rollin' stone" and "cloud nine" has passed away. dennis edwards was the lead singer of grammy award-winning r & b grouphe temptations who helped define the classic sound of soul music. edwards grew up the son of a preacher and started his singina carea gospel performer. he studied music at the detroit conservatory of music before signing with the legendary record label in the late 1960s. dennis edwards was 74 years old. that's all for this edition of" pbs newshour weekend." i'm hari sreenivasan. thanks for watching. have a good night. captioning sponsored by wnet captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: bernard and irene schwartz. the cheryl and philip milstein
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family. sue and edgar wachenheim, iii. dr. p. roy vagelos and diana t. vagelos. the j.p.b. foundation. the anderson family fund. rosalind p. walter barbara hope zuckerberg. rporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- idsigning customized indl and group retirement products. that's why we're your retirement cpany. additional support has been provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting, a by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. be more.
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