tv PBS News Hour PBS February 27, 2018 6:00pm-7:01pm PST
captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc e> woodruff: goning, i'm judy woodruff. on the newshour tonight, the gun debate gets real-- students the parkland florida high school descend on washington and capitol hill as lawmakers struggle to move forward on gun control. also ahead, downgraded: the president's son-in-law and senior advisor jared kushner is stripped of his top-secret security clearance. then, as hundreds of thousands salvadorans lose protected legal status in the u.s., a look ir uncertain future and what a mass deportation could mean. deportation of salvadorians covered by temporary protected status will have a multi-billion dollar impact on the u.s.conomy. >> woodruff: and, our book club series continues with "killers of the flower moon." author david grann answers
reader questions and talks about the significance of the osage indian murders.>> don't think you can s derstand our country unless you understand trt of our history. this is one of the worst racial injustices and cminal conspiracies in american history and it was never taught in school. >> woodruff: at and more on tonight's pbs newshour. >> major fundi for the pbs newshour has been provided by:
>> and with the ongoing support of these institutions: >> thiprogram was made ssible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: it's been nearly two weeks since a gunman killed 17 people at a high school in parkland, florida. now, congress faces the question nof what to do about guns america. the aner is anything but clear. lisa desjardins begins our coverage >> desjardins: wking the halls of congress today, students turned activists from marjory stoneman douglas high, pressing for more gun control. their supporincluding democratic congressman ted deutch who represents them, said it's past time to listen: >> they're tired of people telling them that this is hard; what's hard for them is what
they're dealing with, which is the loss of 17 members of their family. things that everyone knows can be done that aren't controversial, we ve to stop viewing them as controversial and take action right now. there's no log jam around. the only log jam is that the speaker won't bring them to the floor r a vote. >> desjardins: at his news conference, house speaker paul ryan pointed to a bill his chamber already passed to strengthen current background checks, and was asked how he responds to protesters in florida and across the country, saying congress must do more. >> this speaks to bigger questions, what are we teaching kids, violence in our culture, of course we want to listen to these kids, but we also want to make sure that we protect people's due process rigs and legal constitutional rights. >> desjardins: house majority whip steve scalise, who survived a shooting last year thanks to armed law enforcement, pointed at failures in parkland, florida. >> what about the laws on the edbooks that were not enfo
what angers me the most is breakdowlaw enforcement. the f.b.i. had the shooter's name on silver platter. >> desjardins: on the senate pede, republicans echoed saker ryan, pointing to the so-called "f nics" bill to encourage more agencies to work with the n.i.c.s. or national instate criminal background check system. texas republican john cornyn: >> if our attitude is, "i want everything on my list or nothing," we're going to end up with nothing. let's do what we can immediately fix nics and build from there. >> desjardins: but democratic senate leader chuck schumer says that bill doesn't go far enough. he's calng for universal background checks. >> what will prevent future tragedies? comprehensive background checks will. let's not set our sights too let's try for significant, bipartisan legislation that will
make a real difference in ing our children safe. >> desjardins: republican senator pat toomey and democrat joe manchin are working to revive their 2013 proposal to expand background checks. and republican susan collins and de acrat heidi heitkamp lead bipartisan group of nine senators, pushing to bar people on terror watch lists from rying guns. ent days, president trump has spoken about a range of ideas. they include strengthening background checks, banning bump aocks, raising the purcha for some rifles to 21, and arming teacherin schools. the white house said it will meve more specific policy announs later this week. it's still unclear if anything can pass, but senate democratic whip dick durbin said country is at a "tipping point." >> there are proposals that americans brsupport, let's do something. the n.r.a. doesn't support them
but are they the ones who write law? >> desjardins: meanwhile, in fl several emotional hours at the state house, as a committee voted to raise the minimum age to buy rifles from 18 to 21, and install a three- day waiting period for gun purchases. republicans voted down democratic amendments to ban assault weapons and require mental health screening to purchase a gun. today, attorney general jeff hessions says they believe have the authority to ban those bump stocks or those items that can make a semi-automatic weapon into machine gun. judy? >> woodruff: lisa, there are so many proposals out there. we heard you tick off a number of them. we've be here befor there has been discussion about what to do guns in the past. i heard you say i looks tough, but what looks possible? >> the bill that seems to have the most support, but that doesn't mean i will pass, is
the fix nicks bill, but it has mesome issues. epublicans say it violates dew due process rights. when tse passed its version, it coupled together with this bill a conceal carry reciprocity measurthat would allow conceal carry permits to cross state lines. that's something d support, so the senate has to take those two items apart or put them together and you've got problems in the house. it there's one thing that's very narrow has pal problems. >> woodruff: we also know that these students who have come all the way to washington from florida and other students around the country who supported them are asking for aot more than that. >> that's right. >> woodruff: is there any prospect for more? >> i asked speaker ryan about this specifically, and i think the two best potentials for more than this, one, the llnchin-toomey background the democrats seem to be doubling down on that. they came out of their caucus d,eting. they swe think we're going
to go all in on universal backatound checks. their push. and republicans meanwhile are deciding if they can support manchin-toomey or not. the other thing that i think is a question mark is the idea of perhaps raising age limits nationally. i talked to some conservatives including bill cassidy of losiana. he says he's still considering that. he's not yt a no. >> woodruff: this is something the n.r.a., the national rifle association, opposes. >> that's right. >> woodruff: time line, what are we looking at? a lot of people say they' in a hurry to do something? >> we're just at the end of february. it look like the push is for march. that'srd the say if actually reasonable. they have to ask whether they will hold hearings.th well have some of these students come and testify before congress? will the n.r.a. testify before congress? then you get into what i think will be the key date here, judy 23rd. that's the next spending deadline. eciderats will have to d not only if they are going to push for an immigration deal bere then, but now will they demand some action on guns before march 23rd.
the other date that's interesting, judy, march 24th. >> woodruff: the day after. >> that's the day that students are saying they will comto washington in what they plan for as mass protest. >> woodruff: we're expectine a lot of peoo show up for that. we will see. lisa desjardins, thank you very much. >> you're welcome >> woodruff: in the day's other news, the head of u.s. cyber command said tntry will have to do more to deter russian interference by in future elections. admiral mike rogers also leads the national security agency. at a u.s. senate hearing today, he told rhode island democrat jack reed that he would need orders to strike directlr-at russian cytackers. >>you been directed to do so given the strategic threat that faces t united states and the significant consequencesou recognize already? >> no i have not. >> but you need the direct authority of the president through the secretary of defense? >> to do somspecific things >> some specific things. >> there are some things i have under my authority and i am acting within that authority now, not waiting. >> woodruff: rogers also warned
that in the absence of stronr u.s. action, "president putin has clearly come to the conclusion there's little price to pay here." but white house press secretary sarah sanders said later that "nobody is denying rogers the authority" to act. there's word that north korea may be helping syria's government make chemical weapons. the "newtimes" reports a u.n. investigation found 40 suspect shipments from the north to syria. it also said north korean missile technicians were spotted at syrian chemical weapons sites. in turn, pyongyang would get cash for its nuclear and missile programs. meanwhile, the u.s. special representative on north korea, joseph young, made a surprise announcement thate's retiring after 30 years in the foreign service. he cited personal reasons. in syria, russia's call for a daily, five-hour truce collapsed today in rebel-held suburbs east of damascus.
war monitors and witnesses reported the government kept up its air strikeand artillery assault on eastern ghouta. some 400,000 civilians are caught in the onslaught. >> ( translated ): they are targeting us but we are not with a faction or group, we are all civilians, why are they dropping the s on us? they terrified the children, destroyed homes. god bring an end to this. kind of a cease fire is this, a plane has been circling all night. >> woodruf the syrians and their russian allies blamed the rebels for the continued fighting. the king of saudi arabia fired his military chief of r aff and otp defense officials overnight. it came in the face of a stalemated war in yemen. in turn, younger officials were elevated, including the rare naming of a woman to a high- level post, as deputy labor minister. rare, public dissent has rfaced in china, against letting president xi jinping rule indefinitely. open letters appeared overnight
on social media,rging chinese lawmakers to reject the proposal. one called ia return "to an imperial regime." and in hong kong today, dozens of demonstrators held signs of xi depicted as an emperor and monarch to protest the changes. back in this country, west virginia public schools stayed closed in the fourth day oa state-wide teachers strike. they say they're protesting low and rising health care costs. this afternoon, strikers were out in full force as union leaders met with the governor at the state capitol building in charleston the new chair of the federal reserve offered imistic view of the u.s. economy today. jerome powell he woulday if that means another interest rate hike this year, beyond the threalready projected. instead, powell told a house hearinthat his "personal outlook" of the economy has improved. >> we've seecontinuing strength in the labor market. we've seen some da m that will
case add some confidence to my view that inflation is moving uarget. we've also seen continued strength around the glob and we've seen fiscal policy become more stimulative. >> woodruff: that policy stimulation includes the budget deal that greatly increased government spending, and the new x overhaul. the prospect of future interest rate hikes sent stocks meting on wall street today. the dow jones industrial average plunged 299 points to close at 25,4. the nasdaq feloints, and the s&p 500 lost 35. still to come on the newshour: microsoft, privacy and overseas data: a fight before the supreme court. the debate ovearming school teachers. salvadorans caught i tthe middle wiir protected immigration status revoked, and much more.
>> woodruff: t president's son-in-law and senior adviser, jared kushner, has been stripped of his top secret ty clearance. the move follows revelations that a number of top officials at the white house, including kushner, were working without permanent clearances. to walk us through the latest developments is robert costa, host of "washington week" and reporter for the "washington post."so obert, what does this mean? what clearance does jared bernstein lose? >> he has been having abscess for over a year in the white house to classified materials. now he will just have a secret designation. that's a downgrade from his current designation. 's been going with this interim clearance for a year, but general john kelly, the chief of staff, has moved to t to tighten up this whole process inside of the west wing. >> amakae know what that
means in terms of what he can still see and what h can no longer see? >> the white house maintains that kushner will be able to work on mexico relations with the united states, will continue to work on middle east peace, but this will be narrower scope of his clearance inside of the white house. he will not have access to top-secret classified information in the same way that the president will the coming months.dr >> wf: so how do the folks you're talking to think that affects his job, the work he's able to do? it was a rough day for jared bernstein. his teop a inside of the white house has announced he's going to be stepping away. he lost his top-secret clearance, the classified access inside of the white house to many omaterials he's currently had access to up to this pilot. and as you recall, just in the last few weeks, his clearans e en under the microscope. rod rosenstein has talked aboutw ongoing concerith kushner's status. this is all swirling around his job tonight. >> woodrf: and we heard the
president say when he was asked about this the other day that he expected the white hse chief staff, who was supposed to be making this decision about security clearance, would do the right thing. we assume this decision came from john kelly, the chief of staff? c it did. it wasculated in a memo throughout the white house late uast week about how if currently have an interim security clearance and it's not moving toward a full security y clearanc will see a downgrade in your status. but this is a fragile momentfo the chief of staff. he's navigating not only political dynamics insi white house but family that counts jared kushner as a n-in-law. the husband of ivanka trump also a senior advise. president trump said in statement kushner is still a va member of the white house, but he's certainly having a tough time to maintain that high status he's had since day one. >> woodruff: meantime, r your newspaper, the "washington post," reporting late today that there is now information coming into the u.s. government that
foreign officials who kushner, jared kushner has been dealing th, have some indication that they think they can take advantage of him. what's that all about? a >> it' complicated story but an important story. it puts the focus back on the presidential transition and conversations that jared kushner had during that time with foreign officials. as you recall, during the presidential transition last year, he was still dealing with some financial projects in new york city, a fifth avenue project, parknue, excuse me, and you see him trying to talk to financial lies at the same time he's trying the work as a transition official. it was a complicated mont for him courage that -- during that time, andt all of t is coming under scrutiny, but it also came yp in kerr sags by foreign officials as tiscussed the incoming administration. >> woodruff: so that sounds like a story we'll be hearing more about. all right, robert costa reporting for us in the "washington post," thank you, robert. >> thank you. oo
>>uff: today's supreme court case involving microsoft and overata puts a familiar tech issue before the justices: the ing act between the interests of law enforcement on one side and privacy interests on the other. immigration has also been a key issue this week for the justices and as always, marcia coyle of the "national law journal" breaks it all down. hello, marcia. let's start with the argument that the justice heard today, the dispute between micsoft and the federal government. we know it started a few years ago. the federal government had a search warrant for microsoft. what was that all about? >> okay. this warrant was not atyour -- e often talk about, a fourth amendment search warrant. this warrant was for-mails that the federal prosecutors
lieve were important a drug trafficking investigation, the e-mails were on a microsoft server in dublin, ireland. but the warrant came through the stored communications act of 1986. and microsoft said that act does not apply outside of the united states and objected to the warrant. the lower federalel ate court agreed with microsoft. the justice departapnt brought thal to the supreme court. so the arguments today we're going to focu whether the act applies outside of the united states, what re this act mean. >> woodruff: and remind us, why did the federal government want these e-mails so badly? >> again, because they believe they were intragal to e government's investigation of drug trafficking. >> woodruff:ight. so how... what kind of conversation or discussion did htyou see? >> r away there were several justices who were concerned about how to apply this 1986 law
to modern technology. justice ginsburg, for example, said back in 1986, no one ever heard of clouds. she wondered, wouldn't it be better to leave things as they are. we haveto give an all-or-nothing decision, but congress can take account of all soance, the new technology. justice breyer aid, is there any way we can read the ?anguage in the act to adapt it to modern tim but lawyers on each side said that the duty of the justice was to interpret the act. so what did they do? well, the government's attorney id the focus of this law is disclosure, and once microsoft retrieves these e-mails, disclosure occurs in thenited states. so the act is not being applied abroad. the microsoft lawyer said, no, the focus of the act is securing the security of these electronic communications, and gog into ireland to get them is invading
a sovereign interest that has its own laws about storing communications. >> woodruff: could you tellbo anything the kinds of questions, the differences in the kinds of questions the justices were asking? >> their concerns were different. i would say justice alito, for example, seemed sympathetic to the bind the government was in. he sd the government could have probable cause that a u.s. citizen committed a crime in the united states but couldn't get i e-mails to pro because they were stored abroad. >> woodruff: this is one that a lot of people are watching for just so many reason, because tech has become an issuee.ncreasingly bef >> and lots of friend of the court briefs were filed by tech companies, civil rights groups, privacy group, nations. >> woodruff: so separately, the justices weighing in on immigration. they handed down a decision following something they made a decision on yesterday, which i'll ask you about in a moment, but today, mar sharks they rule on a c that has to do with undocumented immigrants in this
country and how long and under what circumstances they can be detained. >> that's right. there were really three groups of detainees that were at issue in this se. asylum seekers, detainees who had committed crimes but completed their sentence, andup another ghat felt they had a legitimate claim to being in he united states, but their claims haven't berd. the lower federal appel et court looked at federal immigration law and ruled that these detainees did have a right under the law to bail or bond hearings and said every six months they should be reviewed to see if they posed a danger to the community or tohemselves or, you know, could commit a crime. it didn't gthrantee thay would be released, but they at tast had the right the hearing. >> woodruff: ong that was interesting today, justice breyer went to some length to read an entire dissent, which is 30-some pages. >> it was a i summary ot, a
listening summary.on >> woodruff: asummary of a dissent. but here i'm quoting from part of what he read. he said, "no one can claim, nor since the time of slavery has anyone to my nothing successfully claimed that persons held within the united states are totly without constitutional protection." >> yes. he was upset that the majority which ruled against the detainees in this case, seemed to say that because you come into this country illegally, you e really not in this country, and so there are no rights that apply. and his quote, as he just read, says that's just the opposite. since before slavery, you know, if you're in the united states, the constitution applies. he read a summary of his dissent. that's an indication of how strongly he feels. i should say, judy, that this case will go back to l theer federal appel et court, becausea these ees have also raised constitutional claims. the issue before the court was federal immigration laws,
statutory interpretation. so that low federal appel et court can decide whether, one, it can rule on their cims, and then actually rule on the claims. this case may come back to the supreme court. >> woodruff: and as we pointed out, this on the heels of yesterday's decisiono hear the case at this point on the daca. >> tha all the court did yesterday was say it would not leapfrog a lower federal appel et court which already had the government's appeal for it. it will wait to see what that court does. >> woodruff: marcia coyle o the "national law journal," thank you. >> my pleasure, judy. ce woodruff: in the days s the school shooting in parkland, florida, president trump and a number of other republicans, as well as the n.r.a., have ramped ls for arming teachers a other educators. there's no specific proposal.
but the president has suggesd it could be done for teachers who voluntarily want to do so, and could be offered a small bonus. it's an idea generating a lot of blowback in the field of education. but there are some districts and states that have tried ations on this. a school in pike county kentucky gave preliminary approval to alouing teachers to carry concealed guns john yang takes a closer look at all of this for our weekly education segment "making the grade." >> yang: we get two views on the question of whether teachers should have weapons in the classroom. first, texas state representative jason villaa, a dallas republican. he's the architect of the school marshal program which allows texas school districts to train and arm teachers. mr. villabla, thanks for joini us. as i understand it, this program allows districts, locct distto make the decision of whether or not to do this. is that right? re>> that is c. these are volunteers at the
school. the district at the trustee level will determine wh wher or not thld dont the school marshal program. >> yang: is there any role for the parents to play in this, to decide if they want th to happen? >> clearly the parents are going to play an active role. one, they elect the trustees who make this decision. two, they can participate in any kind of meetint would be used to determine whether or not the schools would adopt this program. >> yang: and the teachers are selective. it's one i think for every 400 students. is that right >> yes. the idea is the average-sized school campus in texas is right around 400. we want to make sure there are the necessary personne to protect those campuses. so it would be about one per 400. if the school had 800, you could have two marshals on tha campus. >> yang: these marshals can be teachers, any school personnel, is that right? .> yes us anyone is on the premises of the ca so it could be a vice principal, a teacher, even a janitor or a
coach. the idea is these volunteers would come forward. they would ask for exten training. these are not just individuals who go to school for three hours and come bacand say i want to be a school marshal. fiey will be identical training that our police rs go through in texas. 80 hours to be able to confront and neutralize active shooters. they go through extensive background checks. they get mental health screenings. and they hav regularecurring training to make sure that they're proficient in every skilabthat they need to b to act in this role. >> woodruff:>> yang: what are ts about securing the weapons during the school day and when they can act? when they can us the weapons? >> if the marshal is within thee immediicinity of children, say it's a teacher, then any firearm must be underock and key within the immediate reach of the officer. we don't want someone to have to go three campuses down or into a basement to be able to reach the firearm. it has to be within the
immediate access so we can cut that confrontation down to seconds rather than minutes. if the individual is not inhe vicinity of children, let's say it's an coach i office hours where there are no children around, then and only then can the officer carry the weapon on his or her person. >> yang: i know this program sis supposed to beret. you don't want shooters targeting schools with these marshalsnybut do you have sense of how many districts in texas participate in this? >> w have talked to the organization that administers the program. we know that about 50 dividuals have gone through training. we know that the certification number is probably less than that. they try to keep i confidential. the last number we heard was in the 20 range for the indepet school districts that have adopted this plan. it has not been more widely adopted only because when we passed the bill there was no fuing for the training a right now because it's not widely knownut a... the
program isn't widely known. so we don't have a lot of i.s.d.s adopting it. mostly it's been rural areas that don't have police officeons ampus or even within the fa -- vicinity. >> woodruff: national teachers doups have been responding to thcussion by saying they want to focus on educating children, that the securitoty oughe left up to professionals. how do you respond to that? >> i would say we need to distinguish what we're trying to do here from arming the teachers. i hear this program often called "arming the teachers." that's not what this is. what we're trying to do is train viduals to become police officers. the law in texas cated a new class of police officer that would be the school marshal to act in this one instance. look new york one wants to intruce more firearms into the school place. certainly i don't as parent of children in the publicls. but in that instangs, where somebody is seeking to do harm to our children, i as a parent want last line of defense to
give my children a chance. >> yang: representative jason villabla of dallas, thanks so much foroining us. >> my honor. thank you so much. >> yang: now, what do teachers think about this? for that we're joined by becky pringle, a middle school science teacher who is vice president of the national education association. the n.sa. reprets about three million public schoolteachers, administrators, and other personnel. thanks for joining us. you just hea him say that this is not arming teachers but turning teach, and other personnel into peace officers, last line of defense. >> that's not what it sou like. it sounds like arming teachers. and our teachers acrosthe country, as well as other educators as he talked about in his segment, even other educators on the campus. for them to be armed only puts g mos in our schools, and we feow that is not the way to keep our students >> yang: governor scott ofa flornounced a big plan.
he wants to put armed guards in every school. what do you think of that? >> well, i think it is for each school district and community to come together and talk about this new reality. for unfortunately too many of yr students, it's the o reality they know. but here's the thing: adults int the will always get together and talk about solutions, and they usually leavout the voice of our students. eyey're not being silent this time. re here in washington, d.c., today and they're coming back again, and they'inre speak up and they're telling us, keep us safe. they're not talking about arming their teachers. utey're not talking a arming the custodian. they're talkingbot common sense gun law reform which, by the way, the majority of americans agree with. wenow we need universal background checks. we know we should not have assault weapons that are easily accessible to dangerous people.
the students know that, and s do we, and we stand with them in demanding that our politicians finally do something about it.an >> in the texas situation, it's the local school district that would decide whether or not to parti do you have any objection if a local school were to say,we nt to do this. >> my question would be, who are they involving in that decision? lre they involving the students? are they invng the parents? are they involving the teachers td other educatessors in that school district y're coming up with a common sense solution that will actually keep the udents safe? that would be the question i would ask them, but we know from evidence that introducing more guns into a situation only makes it more dangerous or more >> yhat would be the g:latile. solutions you would favor? >> we want our politicians to finally stand up and do what's right for our ntude there is absolutely no excuse for assault weapons to be easily accessible to dangerous people. we're only asking for common
sense gun reform. that's what 're asking for. we know that these guns are eesigned to kill as many peopl as football in the shortest amount of time. there is no place for those guns in our schools or in our community. >> the parkland incident, iave to ask. the number of teachers who died and were wounded shielding their students in this attack. how has this job of a teacher changed since district of colums ago. >> when the presiident inially talked about arming teachers, i tried the imagine, i'm an eighth grade science teacher, theer woears. and my job was to eastbound still in them the wonders ofto science anive them that opportunity to explore it with ca. ot imagine adding to the list of things that i dohat already go outside of the scope of my job carrying a loaded his toll. i cannot imagine taking on that
responsibility. and that's why we're saying, no. politicians need to take their responsibility in enacting common sense gun reform. that's what needs to happ our students are demanding it. and so a our educators. >> yang: becky pringle, vice president of the national education association, thanks so much for jning us. >> thank you, john. >> woodruff: over the last three months, president trump has announced he was ending temporary protected status for hundreds of thansands of immi from latin america and haiti. the largest of those groups is from el salvador. special correspondent fred de sam lazaro reports on what such a mass deportation would mean for that coury and for the families that are caught in the middle, having grown up in the united states. >> reporter: every weekday
morning, the velasco children open their books at the dining table. their mother vanessa leading the class. aside from two years in a nearby hchool to pick up engl skills, the velascos, devout evangelical christians, have homeschooled their children.te in the day they will be carpooling to gymnastics and soccer.e so youving the american dream here in brentwood, california? >> yes, this is the erican dream. >> reporter: it's a dream that vamay soon end. ssa and enrique came to this country from el salvad years ago on tourist visas, after an earthquake devastated thr homeland in 2001. they were able to stay in the du.s. under a program cal t.p.s. or temporary protected status. starting in 1990, it has allowed visitors from several countries to stay on if natural disasters or armed conflict would make it dangerous to return. some 200,000 salvadorians were
routinely granted extensions, 18 months at a time, until the trump january decision to end eir t.p.s. status. james carafano, a trump transition advisor now with the heritage foundation, supports the president's approach. >> it was not meant to be different form of permanent gration. it was meant to be a humanitarian gesture for people toeyome to the u.s. because were in peril. and then when the condition in their country was acceptable, the notion is that they would go back home. >> reporter: for the velascos, going back will mean leaving behind the oldest of their three children, who are u.s. citizens7 ear-old ariana, a straight-a student applied to u.c. berkeley and fears she'll rarely be abler to seearents when she attends college. >> the first thought that comes to mind is being separated. they would have to go back to el salvador. i would have to stay here. so it's going to be a very difficult time.
>> reporter: 12-year-old dayanie woabout leaving the only home she's ever known, as she and four-year-old brother andres would have to accompany their parents. >> we don't know how it's going to be over there and the conditions in el salvador. it's kind of dangeus to be there. >> reporter: indeed, enrique velasco, who has made good living working construction jobs in california, says he worries about returning to an increasingly violent country. >> my fear is that in a lot of cases, you'd take all your dsavings, all your money people come and steal everything from you. it's not safe. t >> reporter:o discover what might await the velascos, we made the 3,300 mile ney from san francisco to el salvador's capital, san salvador. heavily armed police and soldiers seem everywhere, in response to an epidemic of gang violence in the past two decades, which h emptied entire neighborhoods whose
families have fled in terror. oscar chacon works with a group lobbying on behalf of t.p.s.mi ants. >> last year, el salvador becam age most violent country as measured by homicide rates in latin america. gang violence, insecurity is n e related to tthquake that allowed t.p.s. to be granted in 2001. but if you do a more dynamic interpretation of conditions in el salvador, you inevitably come to the conclusion that el salvador is t a safe country. >> reporter: returnees fall victim to gang violence and extortion, he says, and eir expulsion from the u.s. will .urt el salvador's already struggling econo >> the deportation of salvadorians covered byte temporary protstatus will have a multi-billion dollar o impathe u.s. economy. most people have jobs: the average income in excess of $50,000 a year.
rst the impact on the salvadoran economy will be orf magnitude greater. one-fifth of this country's economy is fueled by money sent home from families in the united states. >> reporter: one example, back in california, is 45-year-old yanira arias who we met at the velasco home. she came to the u.s. 18 years ago, working first as a journalist, then as a community organizer. arias sends one-quarter of her monthly salary, about $700, to salvador to help support her elderly parents and extended family. s yoary supports how many people in el salvador today? >> it supports right now seven people. that includes food, education, the bills, if there are additional needs such as alalthcare. >> reporter: video are as close as yanira arias has come to seeing her family, who want her to remain in the u.s.
when we met themn el salvador, they asked us to conceal their identities for fear of extortion by gangs. >> ( translated ): yes, it's true that i miss her a lot. but she's responsible for our survival.at >> ( tran ): there are thousands of people struggling to find a job here.il itbe impossible for people coming from the u.s. to find jobs. >> i'm still not used to being here. >> reporter: hugo castro knows e the tough job market her el salvador first hand. he lived in thunited states for 30 years, first on a student visa and then worked in restaurants as a greenard holder. in 2015, at age 50, was deported for a minor drug charge, after serving a 30-day priso sentence. >> i had to start all over again and it hasn't been easuse el salvador isn't an easy country. especially for people my age. you come here and work does not exist. >> reporter: castro now workstw fonon-profit organizations
that help resettle deportees, giving counseling and limitedl medid legal aid. iabut his advice to salvad still in the u.s.: don't come back. >> we are telling people to try to fix their immigration status. go to pro-immigration organizations like catholic charities. >> reporter: it will not be ansy ath. the trump administration's decision to end temporary protected status has strong support from conservatives in congress. the heritage foundation's carafano says he's sympathetic to families like the velasco but... >> if the u.s. is going to maintain programs for humanitarian purposes and maintain the support of the american people then those humanitarian programs have to be used as they're intended. so at some point, administrations ne to make tough choices. maybe they're not sending people back to the land of milk and honey, but we ought to comply with the intent and purpose of the law and send those people home. the word temporary was there for
a reason. >> after 20-25 years, that is not temporary anymore. we made roots here, we have family-- raised families. >> reporter: the velasco family d a way they can legally remain in this country that they call home. one option they say they don't nt to think about is to stay on illegally by going underground once their temporarc prd status expires, in ser ember 2019. e pbs newshour, i'm fred de sam lazaro in brentwood, california. >> woodruff: fred's reporting is a partnership with the under told stories project at theth university of as in minnesota >> woodruff: the war between ukraine and russian-backed paratists is entering its fifth year.
since it begancimore than 3000 lians have been killed, and7 llion have been displaced. to see how the conflict is affecting children living along the frontline, special correspondent and videographer sebastian meyer went on assignment for unicef to eastern ukraine, and brought the newshour this story. >> reporter: every morning sisters, diana and dasha, get ready for school. their day begins like so many other children: braiding hair, getting dressed, and walkingo the school bus. but that's where the similariti end. diana and dasha live near the frontlines on the outskirts of donetsk in eastern ukraine. their school has been hit so many times with shrapnel that now all the classroom windows led high with sandbags. i counted at least 14 holes in the windows. dasha, the older sister, remembers the school being hit
while in chemistry class. >> ( translat): we ran out just in time because as soon as we ran out a piece of shrapnel hit our window. of course, it wa gscary. i didnto school after that for two days. i was scared that something like that wouldappen again. krt then i started going again. >> reporter: now aainian soldier is stationed at the school. this conflict began after the ukrainian president, viktor yanukovych, fled to russia in 2014 after violent protests in the capital, kiev. within months, moscow had invaded and annexed crimea, and thrown its support behind pro- russiaeparatists here in the donbas region of eastern ukraine. russia backed the separatist movement; it quickly turnedsc violent and ded into all out conflict with the ukrainian military.th two sides have been locked in combat ever since.
today, an ad hoc border now runs hundreds of miles through eastern ukraine. to cross back and forth, civilians ha to pass through military checkpoints. their bags are checked and passports inspected. i was allowed to cross over into the non-government controlled area, but was not allowed to film.mp despite atted ceasefires, this conflict is about to enter its fourth year. according to the u.n., over 10,000 people have blled, cluding 138 children. these children of school number two in ksnahorovka are targets. last year their school was hit in. direct strike on may 29 >> ( translated ): the shelling doesn't leave a child's psyche unscathed. children are traumatized. they are terrified. there are children who become very emotional. they pour their feelings o.
on the other side, there are children who keep this pain inside. it is very sad to see children, who should be having a happy chilood, suffer because of this war. >> reporter: last year 42 children were wounded and six were killed because of this conflict. sasha was waiting outside a friend's house when he was shot by a stray bullet. >> ( translated ): the bullet hit my leg. i ran a little. then my friend came out. i called to him. he put me on my bike and brought me home. >> reporter: the bullet hit him in the ankle, shattering his dream of one day becoming a soccer star. the shelling is so intense where sasha lives that his school is only open three half-days a week. children are so accustomed to artillery they now no longer react to the sounds 's shelling. itot just the live rounds that are a dger to children.
nes and other explosives are a serious threat. expertsay that eastern ukraine is now one of the most mine- contaminatedlaces on earth putting 220,000 childrt risk. 14-year-old alyosha lives in a village where ukrainian troops are stationed.at >> ( tran ): we were on our way to the pond when the soldiers drove by. it was summer and we were headed there to go swimming a group of soldiers passed us and something fell on th ground. i didn't know what it was, so i picked it up. i must have pressed something because it just exploded. >> reporter: alyosha losonthree fingeris right hand which has made life very difficult for him. >> ( translated ): there are some things i can't nymore without my fingers. i can't chop wood vel anymore. to be honest, there are a lot of things i can't do anymore.me somei get upset. not all the time, but sometimes
it makes me cry. >> reporter: even returning home does not make diana and dasha safe. the family's house has been hit as well.>> ( translated ): we were at home and the shelling was very heavy. a large shell flew over creating a shockwave. all the lights went out and we tl fell on the floor. then we crawled basement. we stayed there so long it was like we lived there. >> reporter: as the conflict enters its fourth year, it shows no signs of coming to an end, which aves all these children as vulnerable as ever. for the pbs newshour, i'm sebastian meyer in eastern ukraine. >> woodruff: finally tonight, our monthly "now-read-this"rv inw. that's our new book club, a partnership with the "new york hames," that so many of yo joined.
jeffrey brown talks with this month's author. >> brown: in the 19th y, the osage indians wer driven from their lands several times. by the early 20th century, they lived in part of oklama that no one else wanted, but there was oil under the ground there, andhe osae became very wealthy. and then in the 19 20s came a o serimurders and suspicious deaths. our now read this pick for uary is "killers of the flower moon" is a work of history. it clearly captivated many of yowho read along us wit. author david graham is here now to answer some of the questionsc you've sent hello, david. thank you for being our february pick. >> it's been an honr. >> brown: we got lots of questions. one, anot of people ered how you came to this story. so don c. from san francisco, what inspired do you collect this story and turn it into a book. lisa from asheville, with soev many of usr having heard of this, how did you come to it.
>> i too had never heard of it.a at one poi historian had mentioned it to me, and i made a trip out to the osage nation in oklahoma. i visited th museum there. at that point i had no plans of writing a book or a story or anything. i was at the museum. there was this great photograph on the wall taken in 1924. it showed members of the osage nation with white feathers. it looked very innocent. i noticed a portion of theis photograph wasing. i asked the museum director, what happened to it.sh said it contained a figure so frightening that she decided to remove it. and she then pointed to the missing panel and she said, the devil was standing right there. the book grew out of trying tode tand who that figure was. she went down into the basement and brought up an image of the missing panel. it contained an image of one of the killers of the osage who had murdered many of them for the oil money. i kept thinking, the osage hadre ved that picture not to
forget what happened, but because th can't forget. and yet so many people, including me, had no knowlee of this event. so that was the real impetus to fill in my own ignorance. >> brown: a lot of our readers had questions about the research about how you did it, wheryou did it, how long it took? >> it took me close to five years to resarch and write. it took a long time for two reasers. basically were two avenues of research. one avenue wasrchival, and one avenue was trying to track down the descendants of both the murderers and the v, many of whom still live in the same neighborhoods in oahoma side by side, their fates intertwine, which is in many ways the story of america, and it was meetg with many of them that gave me a real sense of how this history stilreverberates to this day. >> brown: you even wrote, page 264, i marked it, i often felt i was chasing history even as it
was slipping away. severaerof our readnoted that, as well. >> yes, it was often like chasing ghosts. i went to the arche in fort worth, texas. at one point, i pulled a box that contained guardian records and becaage had money back then because of oil, the u.s. government had given themar an, white guardians to manage wealth. this was a deeply racist system. when was looking through this book, i pulled a becomes on the guardian and foud this old logbook, and it was looking thro h it. i woulee the name of one guardian, and i would often see five osage whose wealth they had managed. if the osage had died, somebody wrote the word dead o their name. in one case there was an osage, and it had the word dead. .ext osage, dead, dead, dead, dead, all five then i looked at another guardian. they had about 12 osage ose fortunes they had overseen, 50%
of them were dead.ed this defny national death rate, and it was documents like that going back to your question, that gave y sense of the breadth of this conspiracy. it opened thl whole word up and demolished my original notion of the book, which was really a story about who did it. wh became a story abou didn't do it. >> brown: we ha a number of questions about the impacted of the book. clearly people wondering what io diyou but also what it did to the people involved. so brandon irwin from glendale, arizona, what do you see as the principle benefit of bringing to light history that has been forgotten? >> i don't thnk you understand our country unless you understand this part of our hieory. this is of the worst racial injustices and criminalam conspiracies iican history, and it was never taught t school, it was never taught to me, is not taught in most oklahoma schools, the osage were intimately aware in history,
others weren't. i don't think you can understand this country uns wil have events like this. i think stories like this were marginalized and neglected, and they belong with part of our history. >> brown: you brought it back the li. >> i hope so. >> brown: we'll continue thison conversan our website and on our now read this facebook page. thankn you, david gn. >> thank you. >> brown: now i get to announce our next book club pick, "exit west." it's a deeply written and imaginative take ony contempor issues of migration and displacement. if you're already part of "now read this," you know how it works. if you're not, now is time to g to our facebook page and join nearly 50,000 other readers. now read this is a partnership with "the new york times," and we are very glad to have youad g along with us.
>> woodruff: v that book club, and an update, west virginia's governor said ai stat teachers' strike will end on thursday. schools will reopen. the educate years have beenpr esting for four day, demanding better pay and benefits. the teacher and schoolservice personnel will now receive a 5% pay hike next year. and that's the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. join us on-line and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and see you soon. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: na the ford foundation. working with vises on the frontlines of social change worldwide. >> carnegie corporation of new york. supporting innovations in education, democratic eagagement, and the advancement of international and security. at carnegie.org.
>> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and individuals. pr >> thiram was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org
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