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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  July 30, 2018 3:00pm-4:00pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening. i'm judy woodruff. on the "newshour" tonight, california on fire-- teath toll rises as the state deals with multiple spreading wildfires. onen, deadly violence erupts in nicaragua as demrators protest corruption and call for the president to step down. and, inside the desperate journey that tusands of nigerian refugees make to escape human traffickers. >> brangham: nigeria is one of the top countries in africa as tor as the number of people who try to leave hero find a different life up in eueope. >> woodruff: plus, author min jin lee answers your questions about "pachinko," the most recent entry in the pbs newshour new york times book club, "now read this." all that and more on tonight's "pbs newshour."
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foundation. for more than 50 years, advancing ideas and supporting institutionso promote a better world. at www.hewlett.org. on and with the ongoing support of these institu >> this program was made possible bthe corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: from the whiteda house more talk of shutting down the government over border security. president trump floated the idea on sunday, unless demo to fund a border wall and other measures. day, alongside italy's prime minister conte, mr. trump saids ther "red line" for what congress must do.o but he aid he'd have no
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veoblem forcing a shutdown. >> i'll always loom for negotiation, but this has been many years. this isn't just trum ministration, we're new. this is has been many years, we've decades. the whole thing is ridiculous, and we have to change our laws. and we do that through congress. so i would certainly be willing to close idown. >> woodruff: several leading republicans have want to see another government shutdown. federal agencies had tclose for a weekend back in january, in a previous funding figh the president also offered today to meet with iran's president hassan rouhani. it came id heightened tensions after the u.s. pulled out of the iran deal. mr. trump said he's open to meeting with "no preconditions." supreme court nominee brett kavanah won over an undecided republican today. kentucky senator rand paul said that he will vote to confirm-- a key endorsement in a closely divided senate.
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meanwhile, kavanaugh had his first meeting with democrat, west virginia senator joe manchin. he's seen as a potential swing vote. supreme court justice ruth bader ginsburg says she hopes to stay on the court until she's 90. ginsburg is now 85.to sh an interviewer on sunday, "i think i have ...at least five more years." she cited former justice john paul stevens served until he was 90. in zimbabwe they've begun v counties after a largely peaceful election day. it's the country's first presidential election since inrobert mugabe was ouste may. he had ruled for 37 years. his rmer deputy, emmerson mnangagwa, faced opposition leader neln chamisa, who complained of voting delays designed to undermine his support. john ray of independent television news, reports from rare, the capital. >> ray: for zimbabwe a histoc day worth the early start. sunrise and already thousands
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were queuing patiently. many here ha waited a lifetime for this moment.e' >> w only known one president until now, you know. so, i think this demonst tes change. >> chamisa! chamisa! >> ray: there has been a joyous energy about the campaig generated by one man. nelson chamisa has vowed to end i years of one party rule. >> victon. we have won. >> ray: but hope dashed by defeat might yet be a combustible combination. there is no mistaking the confidence or the excitementar ound chamisa.il he says he wnot accept defeat. and that also makes this a dangerous moment for zimbabwe. if you don't win, will there be trouble? will there be violence?th you've said e will be chaos. n' that possibility-- i ca tell. people have their own right. i'll try as much as possible to leave people in peace.
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>> ray: there were no cheering crowds for president emmerson mnanagawa. he's, too, posed as a liberator, from the scter of zimbabwe's past, who cast his vote and what ttle weight he has left- behind the opposition. more than 5-million zim will have their s today. but this election will be won and lost in the countryside. this is robert mugabe'sla birt, where they're used to voting as they're told or threatened. >> and be beaten. can be beaten. even if they don't-- houses can be burnt. >> ray: exavier's seen many elections, but none like this. this time people of different political parties could share together, of which they choose democracy. h thisas been an election of many firsts. no mugabe, no violence, and maybe after a momentous day, the outcome will be something new.
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>> woodruff: that report from john ray of "independent television news." meanwhile, cambodia's powerful ling party easily won a sweeng election victory on sunday.ni prime ster hun sen has ruled for 33 years, and now getsfi another . the main opposition group was forcibly dissolved last year, and it called the election a "sham." the prime minister of has made his first visit to the seeide resort where a wildf killed at least 91 people last week. alexis tsipras met today with firefighters and army personnel be mati, near athens. his government is g criticized for being ill- prepared. the greefire service had warned that years of budget cuts left it unable to handle multiple big fires. independent investigators in malaysia say they have failed to solve the mystery of malaysia airlines flight 370. it disappeared in march of 2014, carrying 239 people from kuala
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lumpur to beijing, china. investigators today confirmed the jetliner was intentionally diverted across the indian ocean. they ruled out blaming the crew. >> we are not of the opinion that it could have been an event committed by the pilot, but at the same time we cannot deny the fact that there was an air turn- back. we are not ruling out any possibilities-- we are justha sayingno matter what we do, we cannot exclude the possibility of a third person, or third party or unlawful interference. >> woodruff: the investigators say they'll never know what oppened to the plane unless the buthe wreckage is found. pope francis today accepted the resignation of australian archbishop philip wilson for covering up seal abuse of children. lsst may, an australian criminal court convicted of concealing the abuse of two altar boys by a priest. it happenein the 1970's.
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back in this country, the former personnel chief at the federalme emergency mana agency,ge emergency mant agency, is accused of harassing women and farming them out to agency buddies as sex partners. "the washington post" cites an internal investigation that says corey coleman created a "toxic" atmosphere going back to015. him. cbs is keeping c.e.o. leslie moonves in place-- for now-- while it investigates allegations of sexual misconduct against him and others at the television network. the board of directors said today it's hiring an outside counsel to look into the matter. the "new yorker" magazine has reported claims by six women against moonves over three decades. on wall street today: twitter lost another 8% of its value ask tech stos sent the broader market lower. the dow jones industrial average dropped 25,306.s to close at
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--the nasdaq fell 107 poin more than 1%. and the s&p 500 slipped 16. and, former california congressman and oakland mayor ron dellums died early in washington, after battling cancer. dhe was a fiery anti-war social justice advocate, and he helped start the congressial black caucus during 27 years in the u.s. house. ron dellums was 82-years-old. still to come on the "newshour," dead california wildfires force thousands to flee; violence erupts in nicaragua amid political discontent; our politics monday duo explains president trump's threat to shut down the government, and much mo. >> woodruff: fire crews in northern california spent another long day on the lines, laboring to contain the
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sprawling "carr fire." it's already killed at least six people and left more than 720 homes-- plus other buildings-- in ashes. john yang has our report. >> yang: it's california's largest and deadliest fire in a season that's been relentless. but today, some hopeful news: authorities around redding lifted evacuation orders for some of the 38,000 people who'd been forced to flee.ge jeremy swith pbs station kqed has been reporting from the fire scene. >> most of the areas where evacuations were lifted are fairly concentrated.e they area that's far enough from where firefighters have been able to build containment lines around the fire that fire officials and locaauthorities are confident that, with current wind conditions, there is not a chance that theire as potential to spread into that
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area. >> the care fiarted small a week ago. >> yang: the "carr fe" started small, a week ago. then, on thursday, surging winds turned it into an inferno, sweeping through shasta and keswick, and into western subdivisns of redding, a city of 92,000. >> the wind had come up to 50 miles an hour or more. and there were just all kinds of debris flying around in the air and the hot embers and hot leaves comindown all over the yard. i figured i'd better get out of here. >> yang: more than 3,000 firefighters battled the blaze in bone-dry conditions and triple-digit heat. but by late sunday, for the first time officials struck a hopeful tone. >> we are starting to gain some ground, rather than being in the defensive mode on this fire all of the time. we're starting to make some good progress out there. >> yan hundreds of homes are now in ashes, and some people will return to find entire neighborhoods gone. w ny others-- whose homes survived-- don't ken they'll be allowed back. >> we were checking to see if wt could get backour house
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and they told us that they don't know when they will be opening y the roads. g: there are also questions about who was warned-- and when. ed bledsoe lost his wife and two greagrandchildren in the fir he says there was no warning. >> if i'd ve any kind of warning, i'd have never ever left my family in that house. i was talking toy little grandson on the phone, he was saying, "grandpa, pleasemeyou gotta co and help us, the fire's at the back door." i said, "i'm right by you, honey, just hold on, grandpa's coming." >> yang: meanwhile, two more fires flared to life late sunday in northern mendino and lake counties, north of san francisco, forcing another 15,000 people to evacuate. yet another big fire has forced rare closure of yosemite national park until this friday. they're among a totaof 17 fires burning across the state. jonathan cox is cal fire battalion chief for northern california: >> we call this the new normal in california, and we've seen
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larger and more destructive fires year over year. and unfortunately this year doesn't look to be any different. >> yang: firefighters are also counting their own casualties, with two killed this year-- and the fire season far from over. for the pbs newshour, i'm john yang. >> woodruff: to add some c contexifornia has fought several hundred more wildfires at this point in 2018 compared with last year. the carr fire is now among the ten most destructive wildfiresta in the's history. chief ken pimlott is the director of cal fire-- the state agency in charge of battling these wildfis. he gave me an update on the latest challenges for firefighters. >> we have 17 large fires burning across the state, really five or six of those are the major fires that we're the mot concerned about. in particular, of course, is the car fire in shastacounty and right out and inside the city of
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reading. that fire today is almost 1,000 acres and 20% contained. it'sepreading to thest, to the north and to the south.rt ately, firefighters have done an amazing job of stopping the fire inside the city of reading so tere hasn't been any additional progress inside the city itself, but itti cones to be a large fire and far from out of the woods. >> woodruff: so you've made some progress on it because i guess it was just 5% contained over the weekend, bui did rea the supervisor of shasta coun said, "i have been a life-long resident of this community and ive never seen a fire with such destruction hethis area ever before." what's made it so fierce? >> so, obviously, all of our firefighters have resaly been ng the same thing throughout this event. many of the folks fighng this fire, many of the law enforcement officers, all of them, you know, are residen that community and have experienced this fire either
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directly or indirtly through family members or friends, and they're all saying the intensity with which this fire has been burning, in particular, late last week, what's nothing more than a tornado ripped through the west end of reading and really carried miles fire in a swirling motion, uprooted trees and vehicles and tore roofs off of houses, and just the conditions are extreme. as a matter of fact, quoting one of my division chiefs, he says i that extre't even the right word to describe the kinds of conditions we're seeingnot only in shasta county but in all of these fires burning in. californ >> woodruff: well, we heard that grandfather in reading who lost a family member saying he never would have left his family had he had any idea. sos there no warning? >> that story anmany others are absolutely tragic. the challenge with his fire a
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many of the fires we're having, especially last year and in the fall in the north bay area counties, ares these fie moving at exponential rates.te they're acting in ways that are unpredictable and move without warning. you know, aggressive efforts are in pce to provide evacuation notices. for example, i was in lake county yesterday when the river fire was bearing don on the community of lakeport, and the sheriff there quickly initiated the evacuations, and this is something we're all looking at statewide to ensure we'ret getting ications out, but it really depends again on residents when they hear te notification or they know the fire is in their community to make se they're heeding evacuation warnings and safely leaving a fire area early. >> woodruff: and do you have the resours, the firefighters and the resources you need the state of california right now?e' >> constantly moving resources throughout california or get ahead and be ready f the next event.
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several of the fires in southern california are releasing resources as those fires bec contained and we're quickly moving those resources north and bolstering the resourcesy hat are alren these fires in northern california. we've placed several orders for fie engines and or resources to states outside of california and other federal agencies, and those resources continue to pour into the ste, and re deploying them around where they need to be. rcraft, hand crews, all f these things are being brought into and moved around the state. but understand, it's not just california. the entire westernnited states is facing extreme fire conditions right now. >> woodruff: a goit reminder s across the western u.s. chief ken pimlott, thank you very much, and a horrible situation and we wish you the very best with it. >> thank you
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>> woodruff: for the last three months political protests havear raged across nua. they started in april after the government of president daniel ortega introduced changes to t nation's pension system. the protests turned violent after government crackdown, and more than 300 people, nearly all of them civilians, have since died in clashes on the street. today, the white house announced it was sanctioning top nicaraguan officials, and that the u.s. government was taking back vehicles it had donated to the nicaraguan national police. nick schifrin has our story. >> schifrin: the street battles are explosive. through long nights... ...and hot summer days. protestors are often armed with no more than cinder blocks and homemade bombs. ( gunfire ) security services fire, as they cower in fear. young people who livestream the violence, and are willing to di
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>> ( translated ): i want to say goodbye and i love you to my family" >> schifrin: many are students rallying against a ruler who once overthrew a dictator, now accused of becoming r dictator. fo11 years daniel ortega has led nicaragua, and he has consolidated near total por, ended term limits, and employed deadly force on protestors who demand democratireforms. >> ( translated ): today we are seeing a government who does not want to negotiate withhe people of nicaragua, and is instead only repressing the people of nicaragua. >> schifrin: in th battle, the catholic church has chosen the protestors' side. religious leaders have come t to support demonstrators who holed up in churches. the church of divine mercy on a university campus in managua, became a battleground. for more than 14 hours security services besieged protestors who lay wounded on the gund.mo father raul is a priest at the church. >> the paramilitaries, the
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police who are working together, attacking the students, they had entered the university, they were going to kill the studentsh >> srin: that's father zamora on the right holding a flag. he shuttled between the frontline barricades and the church that became the tsontline. >> bulmachine gun bullets, bombs, you could actually hear the bullets passing by you. a student told mt he said, "w that red dot that's going around on the wall?" and i knew that that was a a laser, you kno i told the students get down aney shot >> schifrin: two students died that night. th's father zamora, administering last rights. it tried to help them, to put his heart at peacegod, tried to confess him, but of course i couldn't do it. he just kept looking at me with his eyes open, like saying, "whahappened?" he was still alive, of course he was losing a lot of and they were trying to save him,
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but 15 minutes later he died. and his name was gerald. >> schifrin: the ortega administration went fromd harassing saulting protesters to launching counterattacks that are much more aggressive. >> schifrin: geoff thale is the icce president for programs at the washington oon latin america. >> clearly the government's got a lot more aggressive and the hun rights situation has gotten worse. >> schifrin: in 1979, president daniel ortega and other sandanista fighters overthrew nicaragua's last ruling family, the samoza's. in 1990, ortega was voted out of power. but he returned in 2007. and ever since, his critics accuse him of becoming an authoritarian strongman. >> naming his wife first as sort of czar over the press and then as his vice president, many ople expect she will run for president one day, naming hispo children to ketions in the political system and the economy.
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i think people saw that as establishing a dynastyrt >> schifrin:a denied that accusation earlier this week on fox news. ortega says he is only trying to secure atable nicaragua. and he is refusing to accept the protestors' dema, to move up the next election. >> ( translated ): to move up the elections would cr instability, insecurity, and make things worse. >> schifrin: ortega's hardcore supporters defend him as the original and reliable revolutionary. last week, they marked the 39th anniversary of the sandinista revolution. ortega denounced the proteors using the language of religion. >> ( translated ): as christians we are obliged to tell the truth, and ask the bishops to rectify for love of god and don't support this satanic, murderous sect of plotters. >> schifrin: but ortega is fast becomingternational pariah. in addition to today's white house sanctions, a bipartisan senate bill would target ortega and other nicaraguan govnment officials.
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and the organization of american states has condemned his government's human rights abuses, especially on church leaders.f >>u hear consistently in every one of those forums that people dis on human rights, people want to see you negotiatang, it matters. international pressures and economic pressures, banking and financial sa tions, can have an effect. w >> schifrin:ith venezuela fa inflation, and the northern triangle nations honduras, el fesalvador and guatemala sng drug violence and gang extortion, nicaragua's troubles could further destabilize the region and bring problems to the u.s.' borders. >> you talk to experts in any kind, any one of a number of migration, orgs that follow tegration issues, they wil you that we will see an upsurge of nicaraguan immigrants to the united states. >> schifrin: but so far, the two sides e both holding fast. ortega refuses to accept responsility for the victims of the violence. gerald vasquez lopez, the
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protestor given last rights by father zamoros, was buried in managua. his funeral was full of remembrance, and resistance. for the pbs newshour, i'm nick schifrin >> woodruff: stay with us. coming up on the "newshour," nigerians ri becoming victims of human trafficking in search of a better life; our book club puts your questions to author n lee; and an opinion on appreciating the small things without losing sight of the big picture. but first, it's "politics monday," and we're joined today by amy walteof the "cook political report," along with susan page of "usa today." "politics monday." welcome to both of you. >> thank you. rt,woodruff: let's sta susan, with the president, again
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today, saying he is prepared to see the federal governmt shut down if he doesn't get what he wants in terms of border security -- the wall and other items. is this a strt'ategy thagoing to lead to what he wants to get? >> it is a perplexing strategy because it almost certainly will not lead to t passao $25 billion for the wall or anything close to that or the kind of immigration he wants. what it is ld ikely to lea is a government showdown for which he will bear responsibility. americans don't much like what congress does, but they lik congress to be in business and not shut down the government. we know that from the previouss tie government has been shut down. the debate in previous showdowns is who's to blame but today it is president trump forcing a shutdown in which he is unlikely to win. it is a strategy which is flummoxing republicans on the i hill who will a battle in december. >> he wants a bate on
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immigration coming into election, he sees it as a way ta motivate his and talk about an issue he's most comfortable in talking about.e there plenty of times we could could have seen a deal on immigration and a border wall. there was a time democrats were willing to trade border funding for th daca citizenship last year. so this isn't about just border funding for the wall this is about a debate about immigration because, if you listen to what the president said at thisress conference today, it was not just want the wa -- about the wall but about the kinds of people who can come into the country and ending the lottery system. so it's a broader debate. and we're starting to see it in congressional races. i think we'll see it in many ads coming into the election by republicans, making democrats really look as if they're not doing enough to secure theer bond keep us safe from people who are coming in to harm us. >> woo but republicans, susan, are still not comfortable with the idea of the threat.
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>> that's right.n immigrat a good issue, the government shutdown not a good issue for republicans. what wille will talking about making the final decision of who to vote for will they think about government shutdown, about the waythcare premiums are about to rise in a serious way in october? these arthings that could shake the landscape for republicans. it's a pretty friendly landscape for democrats if you look at iti t now. it's 99 days from today until the election -- >> n that we're keeping track. >> woodruff: not that we're paying any attention at all, actually, but where do things stand right now? >> well, you know, like to look at the environment, at where things stand sort of historically and what we know historically about midonterm electis, and really a referendum on the president and how popular he is really determines just how much of a drag or a boost he'soing to be for his party. this president right now sitting on average at about 42%.
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that's not a good place to go in as the party in the whitehouse, for republicans. i also look at the enthusiasm and intensity of one side versus the other. again, democrats ctlnsist saying to pollsters, we're eyeing this in special elections, the turning out at higher rates than republicans, so those two things working to the benefit ofs. democr what's working against him in the senate is the map.de they'rnding, democrats are, a lot of dark, dark red states and, in the hou tsre were only 23 districts that donald trump did not carry in the house that are eld by a republican. emocrats need 23 seats to win, so it means theed to put a bunch of seats that trump carried in play and to win those. it h plps when tesident's at 41 or 42%, not at%. and i think susan makes the other point that i will end onh here wh it's not just a referendum on the president. its so much about the president's personality.
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how you feel about him personally rather than how you necessarily feel just about the policy, is really what's driving voters, and i think will continue to do that regardless of whethere're talking about premiums or something going on overseas. what is thpresident himself doingg? tweet >> woodruff: it's not as if the individual candidates don't matter at all, dohey? >> they particularly matter in the senate more than the house.n what's strto me is rewie are looking at what looks to be a democratic wave election, not for sure, but more than likely at a time when growth rate is 4.1%, record unemployment, yet the incumbent party is in serious trouble for issues not related to the economy. that's pretty unusual. when you're not in a shooting war, usually the economy prevails. it's a concern about the president and republicans on a whole host other issues generating all this democratic energy. >> right, and that goes
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against -- >> that the what goeagainst. right. in midterm elections, historically, we found the economiy not quite as important as it is, say, in a presidential year, but, still, you would say this is exactly e kind of political environment economically that any party i power would want to be in, and that's all they would be talking about. if we're up paul ryan, speaker of the house, and mitch mcconnell the majority leader in the senate, that's all theyng would be talabout. the other interesting thing is, the two issues congress actuay debated, one they passed, one they didn't, also aren't vey popular. the repeal of obamacare, which i think you will hear a lot on the campaign trail about healthcare by democrats, and the tax bill which iss baically break even. republicans thought this was going to mote that it their voters and become so popular. it's okay but not particular populaco even amonre republicans. >> woodruff: the white house continues to talk it up. one ther thing that guess some people say could be a
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factor depending how lae the confirmation hearings go is brett cav knew, thepresident's latest nominee to the supremefi court tol the justice kennedy slot. today two, developments, senator rand paul saide woulsupport invanaugh and kavanaugh had a first mewith a democratic senator. >> he met with joe manchin for over two hours. it is a sign democrats will have a hard ti holdng people like joe manchin or senators om indiana, joe donnelly, who are in very red states where trump is popular, there are democrats running for reelection. i think democrats have been aurprised at the difficulty getting tractioinst brettka naugh, and if he is charged --
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>> and the rand paul example just shows that republicans seem to be rather unified. weit doesn't like lik're head headed to a place where we were with the health bill where you aye saw a number of o publicans holding back and saying i'm goingit till the very end. right now, again, they haven't all said they're voting in support of him, but i think it's probably easier for some of these moderates likean sus collins and lisa murkowski to support brett kavanaugh. >> woodruff: we will be watching that closely. amy walter, susan page, politics bli"politics monday," thank you. >> you're welcome. >> woodruff: we've become almost inured to the sight: thousands of refugees afloat on the mediterranean, trying to css into europe. in recent years, a growing number of nigerians have joined this migration. in fact, nigeria is now one of
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g e most dangerous places for yoople who often fall into the hands of human traffickers. william brangham recently traveled to benin city in nigeria to see what's driving so many young people to set off on this desperate journey. >> brangham: this evenlyn here? >> yes, this is evelyn. >> brangham: the story of modern-day human trafficking l ten begins in neighborhoods like this, in rugeria. places where young people like joy oghagbon's daughter, evelyn, dream of a better life for aheir families give up everything to trand find it. a year ago, evelyn was a happy and ambitious student nishing her last year of high school, but then she disappeared witut warning. days passed before her brother stanley's phone rang. >> i was shocked to see a libya number. who is this? she say, "it's evelyn." i say, "evelyn, what are you doing in libya!" >> brangham: evelyn had join thousands of other nigerians who
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traverse the sahara desert to owach libya, where they cr into boats to cross the mediterranean into europe. but, like nearly a million other migrants, evelyn got stuck in libya, apparently held captive by those she'd paid to takher across. joy oghagbon demanded that the captors return her daughter. >> the woman say, "no. she can not come back. unless we give them 750,000." then me say, "i don't have that kind of money!" brangham: oghagbon couldn't come up with the roughly $2,000. they haven't heard from evelsi e.ne nigeria isf the top countries in africa as far as the number of people who try too leave here tind a different life up in europe. and edo state,hich is where we e right now, accounts for the vast majority of nigerians leaving the country. almost half the people who depart come from right here. while nigeria makes a lot of money from oil, corruption,
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poverty and high unemployment have sent young people looking for opportunities elsewhere for years. the money those migrts send back helps their families build houses and buy car, propping up the cal economy and fueling the cycle of more migration. this young man, he pfers to be known only as amos, was told he could find work easily in europe. at the time, amos' life wasn't bad. his family lived in a large home, he took vacations with friends. he had a girlfriend, a was going to school to become a nurse.th but he saysmugglers promised him an easy journey. >> they told me, in two, three weeks time, that i would be in europe. >> brangham: in two to three weeks time? you give us the money, and in two weeks, we'll put you in europe? >> yes. >> it's embedded in their cultural fabric in that part of the country, that people migrate. >> brangham: frantz celestin is deputy chief of mission of the u.n.'s migration agency in nigeria. he says the cultural pressure to
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go abroad and find a new life, like here in italy, is aul poweorce on young nigerians. o >> it's a sourf pride to sayki that i have tw in atlanta or i have a son in london, i have a daughter in geneva. and, because of that, that then tt, the pressure on the n family to send their son or daughter to those countries. >> bra out, the journey to europe is often much harder than advertised. immigration crackdowns in europe and tighter controls on visas are now sending people on this dangerous path. those caught on the mediterranean are often sent back to detention centers in libya where conditions are bleak. amos spent two weeks crossing the sahara, most without food or water. they became so dehydrated, he said h drinking their own urine. once in libya, his smugglers betrayed him, selling him off in a slave market. much like this one seein video obtained by cnn.
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>> ( translated ): "big, strong bo for farm work," he says "400. 700." >> i spent more than a week in that place because i was sold off to someone. >> brangham: he says he was bought and sold three times, and ended up in a cell where he was beaten with a pipe. he was told his freedom could be bought for about $1,100. i as asked to call my parents to send money, so that r they wouease me, they told me to tell my parents to sendse 400,000 to rele, which i di i called my mother. >> brangham: amos's mother back home in benin city was trrified. she hastily sold family home to pay the ransom for her son. that's it behind the gate. amos was let go, but then got kidnapped agai during a final melee, he was shot in the arm... some of the bullet is still loed in his elbow. he can't afford surgery to get it fixed.
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can you bend it this way? >> just like this. >> brangham: that's it? >> yes. >> brangham: so, you really cannot use your arm? >> no. >> brangham: many of the women who attempt this journey are forced into doing sex work. we visited this catholic shelter, where several womend have returom libya. this woman in the tan scarf asked that we not use her name and hide her identity. she left home last year after being promised a fashion job in europe. but when she arrived in libya, she discovered there were other plans for her. >> i was begging the man, he should please, he should please even if it is housework, he should find me wor so, i don't have to go to a prostitution house. e man will say no, and he will be beating me every, every morning. >> brangham: she resisted... and says she was raped >> i was raped going to tripoli,
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by some arabs. since that time, i was pregnant. >> brangham: i'm ver ssorry. she sa hadn't yet told her family s was back in nigeria. thflu.n.'s migration agency ew more than 2,000 nigerians home last december.at more than double the number in all of 2016. more than 6,700 were returned from libya in 2017, but famore are setting outhan are being returned.as this man helped smuggle people on that journey. a says he's helped over a dozen get through libyd into europe. he showed me pictures of people he says he's helped land in italy and spain. despite what we heard from every migrant we spoke to, he claims eryone knows the risks. >> i said, "the journey's bad. the journey's not good. out of hundreds, only ten survive it. i saw it with my eye. you will not--"
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>> brangham: so, you knewer hundredsgoing, and only a few make it through? >> only few, yeah, few. >>rangham: he also says th almost all women will end up doing sex work. >> 90% of them do sex work. >> brangham: 90% of them do? >> 90%, yes. they are doing it. >> brangham: you explain that completely to them, before they begin the journey? >> yes >> brangham: do the nts know that their daughters will end up doing sex work? >> not all parents. some knew. >> brangham: does knowing how hard the journey is, hower das it is for people, make you feel like maybe i shouldn't be doing this job? >> you, you see? they'd rather go and die in libya, than to be remain here, suffering, doing not >> brangham: but it's not money alone that compelsigrants to stay on this risky path. traffickers often demand young people undergo this unique ritual before they leave."
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eziza" is a juju priest in benin ty. juju is a spiritual practice common in west africa. for a fee, eziza demonstrated the protective blessing he rforms on migrants who are about to go. >> to cross that big river. that river is very bad. >> brangham: the ocean? >> the ocean. there is many spirits in that ocea >> brangham: but anti- trafficking groups say the rituals often serve another purpose: to threaten the young people that if they run from their smugglers, they'll be cursed and will suffer terribly. >> people generally believe that there is power in these, they believe! >> brangham: it's just a tool of coercion. >> exactly. exactly. just a tool of coercion! et brangham: they fear that if they run away, sng will happen to them. roland nwoha runs a local nonprofit that's been som ding the alarout trafficking. his group, idia renaissance,
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tries to reach vulnerable kids and teach them skills they can use to earn living here in nigeria. but he says it's hard to combat the pull of europe, especially in the digital a. >> we live in a society that is very westernized. the social media, especially esw, everyone has access to facebook, um, veryrnized. see a lot through the media. some people who have opportunity so, you know, it creates a general feeling that once you arrive, the western world, everything is good. pierything is perfect. >> brangham: des all their efforts to stop them, young nigerians continue to leave the country by the truckload. some make it. most do not. some are never heard from again. a year later, evelyn oghagbon is still missing. >> im looking for my daughter,ye >> brangham: every time her mother, joy, hears a rumor thato young people are being returned, she goes to the drop off spot, hoping today will be the day evelyn comes home.
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there's an expression in nigeria that says "it is better to lose your child than for your child to be missing." it's an expression of the anguish and the worry that thousas of parents like joy have to endure every day. for the pbs newsholl, i'm m brangham in benin city, nigeria. >> woodruff: every month, "now read this," our book clu partnership with "the new york times" features a different book. jeffrey brown talks withleuthor min jiand announces our pick for august. >> brown: history failed us, ut no matter, the opening line of the acclaimvel patch patch, a page pachinko.
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it was our book club pick this month. i know many red along with us and a number have sent in questions for author min jin lee, whom i'm delighted to welcome now. hello, and i'm glad you could be part of the book club. >> thanks for having me. >> brown: address the first line, history has failed us. tell those who didn't read the book or are less aware of it. what were you after? >> that's my thesis statement, and i was really trying to argue thatas think history hailed ordinary people around the world, because we're not, document're not recorded, we don't understand what's happened to us because all of us, historically, because so many people didn't leave primary ndocuments. it that historians are bad people, they're not elitists, it's just they can't. so if you're illiterate, for example, people don't know anything about you, unless people are recording you n real time. >> brown: so you ended up telling a multi-generatnal story of poor people, basically, moved around through history.
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>> and they are forced to move. h. brown: yea so i was interested in trying to figure out what were their stories like. i used to believe thewere victims, and then i met so many of them who are descendents, and i reaarzed, no, they incredibly fierce and intelligence and incredibly adaptive. >> brown: let's start with the question. the first goes to that issue. >> i was very interested in the history and the culture in the book. would u talk a little bit about your research and preparation for the novel? y oh, i majored in histon college. >> brown: yeah. so i really like research, and i like reading nonfiction. i love biographies, and i like anthropology and sociology, so i did a lot of academic research first, and then i did secondary rearch in terms of the academic and mainstream research, and then i started to really talk to the people in japan, i lived there because my husband got a job ere. when i met the korean japanese,
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i realized all the books were great but they had a reallpo seriout of view and it didn't really captures the personality of peopl i thought, fiction can do that. fiction has the ability to expand peoe's points of view and also to have the contradictionsarbecause people so contradictory. >> brown: and this is to set the scene. this takes us through the really 20th century startingn a very poor area of korea. >> mm-hmm. >> brown: you went back and studied the history. >> i did. i even went to hiss fork villages. i met a lot of people who spokee in a different way than people from seoul, for example. a times, i was so dumbfounded by the complexity and the variety ofkoeans in japan, and then i met the koreans rea and there was an incredible variety there. so i thought, wa, even s guilty of having a monolithic view of people in korea and japan. >> brown: okay, let's go to our next question and s what's
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coming here. >> i have two questions. first, was kohansu modeled off rete butler from -- rhett butler from gone with the wind and how do you discover your character? >> brown: addss it more generally how you come up with characters. >> the way i come up withch acters is by meeting people. akfind people really fascinating, and ie composites, so i don't actually have a character that comes up in my head, usually they come from interviews. so i'll interview a lot of different people and certain types come up. >> brown: the research goes to the character. >> yes, i work ry much like an academic. not so much like a fiction writer who says hea song or a voice. i don't work that way, i usually come fromhi thestory and sociology and i go, oh, these people existed. >> brown: next question. why did you choose to write from thevipoints of multiple characters rather than focusing
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on an individual and letting his or her story review and poulate the cultural, economic, political and psychological situations? >> brown: multi-characters, interestg question. >> i used the omniscient narrion, i tipped my hat to the 19th century literature in i want to write.t i want to ack homeland and identity in a whole community, and in that sense i can't be limited to one or two characters, so i had to have this huge panorama. i really like it ause i like minor characters very much. i've alwayselt like a minor abaracter, so i feel very comfortable talkint them. >> brown: let's go to one more question for this section. >> if your novel was taught in a high school english class, char the themes you wntould wa young people to be challenged by and discuss in a literature course. >> that's a terrific question. i have been told it's taught in colleges and high hools now
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and i've spoken at a couple of high schools, but the thing you'reot going to get right away is i would love for people to talk about a communitye, becaery often, people talk about the immigration, the refugee issues as well as xenophobia, all of those things are absolutely in the book, but i'm interested in the idea that, dewhen you have a stu, how does she see herself in a community? what is her role?k because i th the u.s. we have so much about individuality, and i think, actually, individuals are really important, but what's really important is how we're connected to each other. >> brown: all right. stay right there. we're going ue contur conversation and we're going to post all of it on our web site and facebook page and, for now, i wil ml say jin lee, thank you for pachio and thank you for choing us. >> thank you, jeff. >> brown: our pick for august, we're range changing it up and would like to introduce you to leslie ar ima, raised in niria ia and honored in the national
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book foundation in its uder age 30 category, her collection what it means when a man falls fro the sky was named a best book of 2017 by numerous publication i'm looking forward to reading it and i hope you will join us once again for b ouook club. now read this, a partnership with the "new york times." >> woodruff: also online, min jin lee takes >> woodruff: also online, min jin lee takes us into thewi kitche her mom, where they show us how to prepare stuffed cucumber kimchi, a family recipe that plays role in the novel. that's at pbs.org/newshour. >> woodruff: apple, the world's most valuable company, reports its earnings tomorrow from the last fiscal quarter. the computer maker's cutting edge designs have defined a generation, but s fortunes ultimately come down to the idea and application of precision. tonight, author simon winchester
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his humble opinion on the importance of looking at the small picture. >> winchester: every week, two or three times, kind p strangers from all over the world, send me ideas for books they think i should write. each time, i have had to write and say "sorry," but five years back a man named colin povey, a glassblower who lives in florida wondered if i might be interested in writing about something hidden in plain sight in modern society-- and that was precision. precision is everywhere, he said. the modern world couldn't function without it-- and yet no one really knows what it is, how it began, whe it might lead .y i was instanptivated. y father had been a precision engineer, made tectric motors for the royal navy, and i loved it when used to take me round his factory to s most minute components being made
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making these tiny things, all just the same, all made to the same degree of exactness, that was what precision was: mechanical perfection, time after time. and precision did indeed seem to be everywhere: it is vital part of mass-productionf cars, for instance; in the innards of jeto engines; murgery, the roploration of the stars-- however, i came a troubling contradiction. like anyone, i was awestruck by some of today's ultra-precise creations. there are four billion, with a "b," transistors in an iphone, for instance. and speaking of transistors, there are more of them in the world now than all the leaves in all the world's trees. yet, at the same time i started to wonder how truly beneficial precision truly is. hasn't it perhaps made us lose sight of the beauty of nature, of the imperfect, of the imprecise?
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and with robotics and artificial lligence coming down the road, all based on super- precision, isn't there a danger' that fetishize it, let it dominate us, ctae to worship r more than, let us say, wood or bamboo--ass? well, and not entirely by chance i like to think, mr. povey came to the rese. he sent me what he called a "trinket." and here it is: a klein bottle, a three dimensional version of a mobius strip, in that only one continuous surface. it is a fantastically difficult leing for even the most sk of glassblowers to make, and i'm proud and grateful for it. but-- and he's the important thing-- it is not precise at all. it is the work of a man who may be fascinated by the idea of precision,ut remains at heart, a craftsman. and so, i'll keep and treasure this for all the rest of my days-- long after my precise iphone has become obsolete, this
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will be here, a triumph of t human spirit, and quite lovely to behold. >> woodruff: and that's the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. join us on-line and again here. tomorrow eveni for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and see you soon. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: consumer cellular. f >>ancial services firm raymond james. >> babbel. a language app that teachesal ife conversations in a new language. >> and by the alfred p. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved econoanc performancfinancial literacy in the 21st century.
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>> supported by the rockefeller foundation. >> supported by the john d. and catherine t. macarthur foundation. committed to building a more just, verdant and peaceful world. more information at macfound.org >> and with the ongoing support s these institutions >> this program de possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org >> you're watching pbs.
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