tv PBS News Hour Weekend PBS November 24, 2018 5:30pm-6:00pm PST
captioning sponsored by wnet >> thompson: on this edition for saturday, novemb4:erpain reaches a deal with the u.k. on the eve of the bitrexit summ accelerating drug discover as wibody on a chip"; and rapid response museumsif collecting artts documenting real-time events. ndnext on pbs newshour wee >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: bernard and irene schwartz. hsue and edgar wach iii. seton melvin. the cheryl and philip milstein family. ndr. p. roy vagelosiana t. vagelos. the j.p.b.oundation.
that's why we're your ement company. additional support has been provided by: and by the corporation for toublic broadcasting, and by contributionour pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. from the tisch wnet studios at lincoln center in new york, megan thompson. >> thompson: good evening, and thank you for joining us. after 17 months of negotiations, the european union is close to an agreement that would pave the way for a british exit from the political and economic body. as british prime minister theresa may headed to brussels for a special brexit summit tomorrow, the european council president, donald tusk, tweeted an esendnt of the deal. tusk wrote: this comes after the spanish prime minister threateto veto the brexit deal over the
disputed british territory of r, located in the south of spain. spain lifted its objections after a last-minute agreement with the u.k. if the current brexideal is passed in brussels, prime minister theresa may will still have to win support from britain's parliament, where, so far, a majority remains opposed to the negotiated terms. thousands of demonstrators, angry at rising fuel taxes, again took to the streets in paris and across france today. the second weekend that protesters blocked roads and burned barricades as they clashed with french security forces. police fired tear gas and sprayed water canmons on the destrators. authorities say at least eight people were injured in today's protests, including two police officers. french president emmanuel macron imposed the new taxes as part of a plan to lessen depdence on fossil fuels and fund renewable energy investments. more than a dozen people ha
died in haiti during a week of anti-government demonstrations and political unrest. police fired tear gas into crowds of protesters yesterday. many are demanding haitian president jovenel moise step imwn, accusing hf not estigating corruption allegations against the previous administration. at least 11 people died in the protests and several others were killeerd when a govent car lost a wheel and plowed into a crowd. the violent protests have paralyzed commercen haiti's capital of port-au-prince and forced schools and shops to rema closed. >> mexican officials are denoog a "washington post" report that there is a deal to keep ass ylum seek mexico while their claims move through u.s. courts. in an interview with the "post," mexico's incoming interior nnister said the country's new government hotiated a "remain in mexico" policy with the trump administration, which would change long-standing rules
for asylum seekers. the news comes just a day after the mayor of tijuana declared a humanitarian crisis and asked the united nations for help to deal with approximately 5,000 migrants from the so-called central american caravan now gathered in the border city. ththe deadly wildfire in nn california is now almost completely contained thanks to several days of heavy rain, but the search for human remains continues through now muddy ash and debris. at least 84 people died in the two-week blaze, and more than 50main unaccounted for. in southern california, more resiwere allowed to return to areas previously evacuated because of the woolsey fire. crews conto repair power and other utilities in the area, wi more than 1,000 people still under evacuation orders, eidown from 250,000 at thet of the fire. >> thompson: hundreds of volunteers on thanksgiving day helped those displaced by the california fires have a feast. read about it on our web site at
www.pbs.org/newshour. >> thompson: what if we could test new dru without human and animal trials? at the massachusetts institute of technology, resea have developed what is being called the "body on a chip," a device rough the size of a paperback book that may do just that. hari sreenivasan recently spoke with m.i.t. professor linda griffith, who is leading the team developing this new technology. she joined him via skype from cambridge, massachusetts. >> sreenivasan: first, explain hwoow id work. >> so, if you want to study a disease, for example, the disease is affecting three organs in the body, you would build a model of that, and then build an experiment that represts that using human cells and components. >> sreenivasan: so, these are on a cellular level mimicking what a particular organ that i would have does? >> actually, even better than , thcause we build a little model of that organ, or at least parts of that organ.
so, yoans have billions and billions of cells. we combine many diffkinds of cells from each organ together in a 3d model. then, we connect them together they talk to each other like they would in the body. this is ally important for things like arthritis, alzheimer's, where you've got multiprgles involved. you need them to be a model in vitro that's human, talking to each other. >> sreenivasan: when a new drug roduced, you can study h it might affect my liver and my pancreas and my bladder at the same time? >> absolutely. we right now are doing gut liver pancreas and gut liver brain, but you've g the idea. and part of it is not just to say how will the drug affect this, but we can even say what should thdrug even be? because right now, the hardest thing is to figure out whakind of drug will be good for treating a complicated disease. >> sreenivasan: how do you account for how human bodies have immune systems built in? i mwnean, it seems like our
bodies sometimes reject or accept drugs based on how we're built. >> yes, almost every disease thaa t we havfficult time solving involves the immune system, and that's so different in humans than in mice. so, our system actually has part of the immune system. it has some of the liver's innate immune system, the gut innate immune system. other parts have to be trained, and this is much harder to do. we have a project with the pharmaceutical company we're doing exactly that. and this is very early stage, but this is going to happen in the future. this is where the whole field is imgoing, to incorporate thne system so we can study these really complicated diseases, including cancer, alzheimer'st and so on, tvolve the immune system. >> sreenivasan: does this help bring about that idea of personalized medicine in the future? i mldean, c essentially run almost a clinical trial based on my orgwns in my own body and see if this drug is right for me versus you? >> s, ort ybe. the cost would have to come down
to have it be that personal. b think about it. i study a disease called endometriosis. about 10% of women have this. we published the first par doing a molecular classification into a few groups of patients. so, you can imagine maybe there's ten groups of patients, and now you'll figure out how to make a drug for each of those ten groups. and then, we'll figure out how do we test you so that we can see which group you fall in. then, you can take the right drug without us having to build you because building you is a very personal thing. >> sreenivasan: and is the an acceleration in this field like there is in computers, meaning imdoes it get cheaper over and faster over time? >> we would expect the analogy to hold. you can imagine, it's kind of like buiing an iphone. and to make the iphone work, you had to invent the phonograph,se and then the ce tape player. you had to invent television. you had mpto invent ers. so, a lot of things came together. this is very similar. there have to be huge advances
in biology, material science, and, actuay, in engineering, because we need engineers who think about how do we model the human body? how do we thk about information flow and design these systems? you've got to be able to sign them befre you build them. >> sreenivasan: so, how soon until this is ou tin the wild, speak? >> some parts are going out in the wild, if you count, like, amgen or other people we work with "the wild." it's goi, again, to be sort of like the cell phone because the individual elements that are eded to make it happen are all moving quickly in parallel and starting to come engether. >> sasan: linda griffith of m.i.t., thanks so much for joining us. >> thank you for having me. >> thompson: from politics to olotests, events seem to u so quickly these days that it eecan be hard totrack of them, let alone put them in perspective. in an attpt to tackle those
challenges, some museums and archivists are now trying to create a recd of our turbulent era for future generations by going out to the field and llecting artifacts in real time. newshour weekend's iviate felic has the story. >> reporter: this is the natieuonal mof african-american history and cultn,ure in washing.c. here, decades-old artifactsthnd photos frocivil rights era are displayed along objects depicting a more recent struggle. lisonnie bunche museum's founding director. >> this is a photo of ferguson anmod trations around ferguson. and what i think is powerful is maybe 20 years ago, we might not have collected this. ter: the photo was taken during the protests of the 2014 police killing of michael brown. it was acquired by the museum as part of what it its "rapid response collection program." when major events unfold, the museum sends curators into the field to collect artifacts.
the idea is to create a record well before the history books are written. >> so, the goal here is not to sort of sweep in and pick up everything. the goal is to have a few central artifacts that give you many meanings; that allow you to sort of say if somebody sees that, for example, if somebody sees a shirt that says, "black lives ma means today, how important it is, but they may not know that 20 years from now. so, to be able to have somethi clear and concise that we can build stori around is what i ask the curators to collect. >> reporter: other items from ferguson in the mtieum's coll include this gas mask worn by a demonstrator and thisw sun by a pastor who attended the protests. also collected by museum curators in 2014, this t-shirt worn by a demonstrator protesting the police killing of eric garner in staten island, new york. in 201 this rake was used to r ean up a baltimore
neighborhood afople took to the streets to protest the death of freddie grewhile he was in police custody. this t-shirt displa the logo of an anti-violence group that formed as a result of the protests. and this black panther pin was collected later that same year from the 20th anniversary of the million man march in washington. why is rapid response collecting important to the mission of this center? >> in some ways, one of the great divides in america's always been race and that as americans grapple with the changing sense of who they are, as they grapple with the changing notions of how race matters and plays out, we thought it was really important to capture those moments that were transformative. i'll be honest, sometimes u guess. you say, "is this going to be important or not?" f us, it's really important that this museum, which really has to help the american public grapple with things that have divided us, to not just be about yesterday but to be about as
much about today and tomorrow. >> reporter: u know, to play evil's advocate, are you shaping history? >ou> ofe. the job of a scholar is to both t ok back, make sure you interpret the prough different lenses; but also, in a museum, your job make sure the next generation can innrpret the world you live today. so, the kinds of things you coect are shaping history, shaping the way people interpret history. cholar of african american history, there were many times i wanted to do exhibitions, and tinre was nothinhe collections that could tell those stories. that shapes history by omission. so m, the notion fis, let's give people as many opportunities as possible. they may decide that the stories we've collected aren't that important, and that's fine. kebut i want to ure that you've got the resources to be able to tell important stories in the future. >> reporter: other institutions use rapid response collectio as well. the new york historical society began sending out "history
brigades" after the september 11 terrorist attack in 2001, and it has collected items commemorating the 2017 and 2018 women's marches on whington. in orlando, florida, the orange county regional history center acquired more than 7,000 items for its "one orlando" collection. the collection revolves around the 2015 pulse nightclub shooting. a t national civil rights museum in memphis, tennessee, ibhas an e on the trump administration's immigrant family separation policy. the exhibit is titled "i am a child." it was inspired by the iconic "i am a man" photos during the 1968 memphis sanitation workers strike. the exhibit uses photographs at went viral on social media earlier this year. hey show children protesting on the steps of the immigration and customs enforcement agency's new york office.
>> i think whever america is really debating its identity, debating who it is, grappling with issues that divide us, that's when a museum ought to be more aggressive anect material.se it juss to me that a good museum isn't just a place of nostalgia. it's not just a place of the exotic. it's a place that provides people useful tools to grapple with the world they face. and by grappling with the world they face, thettcan make it r. >> thompson: in arizona, experienced cavers and volunteers have been working on one of the largest graffiti removal projects in the u.s. forest system. it's the latest restoration effort for peppersauce cave in the conado national forest, just north of tucson. the t popular cave has mon 7,300 feet of passages and is one of the few caves in arizona
open to visitors both day and night. the clean-up and restoration is part of a multi-year, multi- ouase project. r partners at arizona public media have the story. >> this box is going all beyond the rabbit hole. i'm going to start on drills and grinders, okay?i 'm ray keeler. i'm the president of the central arizona grotto. it's the local chapter of the national speed illogical society. we're about cave exploration conservation science and just a better understanding ofhe caves. today, we are doing... starting a three-day effort. friday is set-up; saturd, ey'll be about 20 people here all day cleaning tags; and
sunday, we'll work till noon and then bring all the equipment out of the cave. there we go. let's do it. the sign outside has four rules: no spray paint; pee before you go into the cave; have at least one l pig person; and then take your trash out with you. the second room was most... one of the most graffitied rooms in the entire cave-- reds, yellows, greens, blues, blacks, whites, nammbes, s. this room here had another 30 to 40 tags on this wall, and that wal there are another 40 or 50.
and that passage here, it's a crawl-through. so, with all the teams working, we just keep progressing into the cave. when we got here, there were five or six spray-paint tags with lots of colors. we've cleaned those off 25 or 30 tags on this side that went clear in here, through... back into this passage, and then another 50 scratches along this wall. it was bad, and we've cleaned it all out. that was three people for three hours to do this. somebody wants to leave their mark, same as 40,000 years ago. only they have spray paint and stable lights. this is flat-out unnecessary vandalism.
the draw for me is... is the work. i do a lot of conthrvation work. isn't the only cave i do. it's tough when you got to clean up on other people's stuff. it's bad enough cleaning up our own stuff, and we try to be very, very careful so we don't leave even bread crumbs on the ground. sothen, they have to do it for other people, you know. it's... it's tough, but it's what we do because we wanto keep our environment. >> iarticipate in this proje because i think caves are one of the last places on earth that are really something special, really unexplored. it's somthing that most people never get a chance to see anything so out of the ordinary. and this cave, it's great because it's really accessible. aop lot of from tucson, from all over the place can come here and really see what caving is all about. but, unfortunately, you know, over the years, people have decided to vandalize it.
>> we put in reflective arrows so you can see one to the next. oid if you miss that one, we've got another oneing to the right. so, this one's pointing down underneath, and that one's to the right. the idea is to make sure people can get out the easiest way of the cave. people were putting in arrows themselves. some eipeople mark arrows going into the cave. we went this way. instead, some people mark the arrows going the opposite direction. so, sometimes the arrows are pointing in, some are pointing out. so, now, they were doing multiple tags, multiple arrows with different colors, so you have your own color. we've solved all that. we've made it easier. there's no need for it anymore. om new york city. i live in harlem. i'm here with some family, friends. they took me to the cave, and i guess is the word "spelunking," because we're... we're going around in the cave, and we're just climbing all through and exploring everything.
's been completely amazing. i have never done anything like this before, and i had no idea what to expect. it's been a lot of fun. >> i really think, like, tngs like this, like, volunteer work for, like, natural areas are just, like, phenomenal. people and. you know. someone's got to do it. and it's... it's grueling work, and it's... i respect people that... that take their time to do that. >> we enjoy caves, so this is just our way of paying back to the community and to the forest service for allowing us the opportunity to go into caves. >> solventdrrills, solvent l, brush, brush, brush, solvent. and we got it to a point where ibut's mudded ove.. >> and unless you literally go
behd the formation and put your head down or just look at the water, you don't realize there's fear.yo bleed you sweat you get dust everywhere, and, ndke, or mud. ust, like, you have good times and you have bad times, but, at the end, you come out anyod you laugh anjust, like, "this is what we did." like, "we did this capers." we do this on our spare time. we're all volunteers. none of us get paid. the reason we were doing this is because people go through the cave, and they say somebody should take care of that car, ing somebody to do some that. and we decided we were going to be the somebody. >> thompson: finally tonight, it's been more than six weeks since hurricane michael hit the florida panhandle, leaving thousands homeless.to join urrow for a special report on "florida's forgotten enast," where some residents
d makeshift homes stills waiting for word on when and how they can rebuild. that's all for this edition of pbs newshour weekend. i'm megan thompson. good night.atching. captioning sponsored by wnet captioned by ss group at wgbh access.wgbh.org >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: bernard and irene schwartz. sue and edgar wachenheim iii. seton melvin. the cheryl and philip milstein adr. p. roy vagelos and diana t. vagelos. the j.p.b. foundation. rosalind p. walter. barbara hope zuckerberg. corporate funding is provided cby mutual of ame designing customized individual and group retiremt products. hat's why we're your retirement company. aendditional support has provided by: aiond by the corporfor
steves: while neighboring croatia is famous for its coastline, slovenia enjoys its own 29-mile stretch of adriatic seafront. that's about one inch per resident. its best stop -- the town of piran. many adriatic towns are overwhelmed by tourists and concrete, but pira has kept itself charmi and in remarkably good repaird while g the tourist sprawl at bay. crowded onto the tip of its peninsula, piran can't grow.
the main square was once a protected harbor until it began to stink so badly they had to fill it in. a colorful mixe of work and pleasure boatsr fill today's harbor. these days, piran's walls are inviting, rather than defensive, and the town is simply an enjoyable place in which to relax. explore the evocative back lanes. hike up to the cathedral. scale the venetian-style bell tower. on top, catch your breath by enjoying views of pirand arly the entire slovenian coastline. the traffic-free harbor front, lined with slovenes enjoyingresh seafood, is made to order for a stroll. swimmers frolic while sunbathers claim more than their share of the national coastline.
pirawpclusters around its sce square, piazza tartini. as with most towns on the adriatic, it was long ruled by nearby venice and retains its venetian flavor. in fact, the town is officially bilingual -- slovene and italian. today the square is enjoyed by visitors and locals of all generations, savoring the good life where the slavic world, the alps, and the mediterranean all come together.
explore new worlds and new ideas through programs like this. made available for everyone through contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. [crowd cheering, band playing] ]["the obvious child" pla ♪ well i'm accustomed to a smooth ride ♪ ♪ or maybe i'm a dog who's lost it's bite ♪ ♪ i don't expect to be treated like a fool no more ♪ ♪ i don't expect to sleep through the night ♪ ♪ some people say lie is just a l♪