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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  December 3, 2018 6:00pm-7:00pm PST

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> nawaz: good evening. i'm amna nawaz. judy woodruff is away. on the "newshour" tonight, the ids farewell to the 41st president. we reflect on the life and legacy of georgh.w. bush. then, a pause in the trade war. president trump hails a new agreement with chinabut few details are known. plus the future of work-- how a small town in kentucky is revy iving their econ shifting from coal to the health care industry. >> we began to realize and accept the fact that coal wasn't coming back. and then the conversation changed to, well, whating to be the future of appachia, the future of eastern kentucky? >> nawaz: all that and more on tonight's "pbs newshour."
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>> financial services firm raymond james. >> the williamnd flora hewlett foundation. for more than 50 years, omvancing ideas and supporting institutions to e a better world. at www.hewlett.org. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions: and individuals. >> this program was ma ssible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions tyour pbs station from viewers like you. thank yo >> nawaz: america's 41st president, george h.w. bush, is lying in state tonight at the
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u.s. capitol. he passed age of 94.ay at the today, the presint's body was corted from a funeral home in houston to ellington airport. hundreds gathered there for a farewell ceremony with full military honors. mr. bush's family, including his son, former president george w. bu, and former first lady laura bush traveled with the casket on a presidential plane to washington. later, at a capitol ceremony, senate majority leader mitch mcconnell, house speaker paul ryan and vice president pence gave eulogies before the rotunda was opened to the public. >> president george.w. bush loved his family and he served his country. his example will always inspire icand his lifetime of sewill be enshrined in the hearts of the american people forever. >> nawaz: the lying in state and public viewing will continue until wednesday morning, when a state funeral takes place. look at the life and
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legacy of president george h.w. bush, after the news summary. in the day's other news, president trump and his top aides touted ps in the u.s./china trade dispute. he and president xi jinping agreed saturday to hold off on onal tariffs, and xi promised to buy more u.s. exports. today, white house economic adviser larry kudlow followed up ont r. trump's claim tina will also cut tariffs on american cars to zer >> well, they're going to roll back their auto tariffs. i assume they're going to roll them all the way back. i can't say with specificity. but that's tta be part of the deal. we know that. see, here's a case whe actions speak louder than words, so we wille monitoring everything. >> nawaz: the president also tweeted today that chinaill immediately start buying u.s. farm products again. later, agriculture secreta sonny perdue said he expects china to begin buying u.s. soybeans around january 1. wall street welcomed news of the
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truce otrade with china. the dow jones industrial average gained nearly 288 points to close at 25,826. tt he nasdaq rose alm points. and the s&p 500 added 30. the prime minister of france held crisis talks with party leaders today, after the worst riots inaris in 50 years. saturday's trouble started with protests against higher fuel taxes. they turned violent as crowds burned cars, looted shops and vandalized national monuments. today, ambulance workers joined in, blocking a bridge to the national assembly, over social security reforms. >> ( translated ): we hope that the government will see reason and suspend this law for now so we can discuss it and work together to find new solutions which will satisryone. but today, no one is satisfied. notus, not the government, our patients, nor our employees. >> n targeted french president
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emmanuel macron, over a range economic iquality issues. qatar will be leaving the international oi as "opec" in january. the small gulf state made the surprise announcement today amid oenngoingons with saudi arabia. qatar is the largest exporter of liquid natural gas in the world. but, it contributes only a modeunt of opec's overall production. e a united nations confere climate opened today in poland, with appeals to implement the paris climate accord of 2015. it called for capping greenhouse gas emissions miting this century's average temperature increases to 3.6 degrees fahrenheit.de gates from some 200 countries convened in katowice, in the h region.oland's coal british naturalist sir david attenborough spoke on the urgency of the problem. >> we are facing a man-made disaster of global scale, our greatest threat in thousands of years-- climate change.
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if we don't take action, the collapse of our civilizations and the extinction of much of the natural world is on the horizon. the world's people have spoken, their message is clear, time is running out. >> nawaz: the conference is supposed to hammer out rules to put the paris accord into practice. year, president trump withdrew the united states from the agreement. back in this country: thousands of children in northern california returned to school after the nation's deadliest wildfire in a century. they came back for the first time since november 8, when the fire storm dtroyed eight schools and thousands of homes. >> i thought today the most courageo brave people were the parents and students. when the and were walking down the street to watch those parents get their children u morning, get those kids ready for school and
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to deal withll the emotions they dealt with is as equal to everyone else working hard to help us. >> nawaz: the confirmed death count from the fire remains at 88, but the number of missing is ow at 25. and, the nasa spacecraft "osiris-rex" chased down the asteroid bennu today after a two-year pursuit. it aims to be the first american craft to bring back asteroid samples-- something only japan has done. the robot explorer will ente orbit later this month, and shadow the space rk for a year. then, it will scoop up gravel and return to earth, in 2023. still to comhe "newshour," the nation reflects on the life of george h.w. bush; what we know about a new trade deal with china; how a small kentucky town's economy is moving from coal to healthcare; plus, politics mondaexplores the political legacy of the 41st president. n
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waz: as president george h.w. bush now lays in ste at the u.s. capitol, judy woodruff has this look back at a career helped create a political dynasty. an i think each president is individual, his own convictions, his own emphasis, his own courage or his own style of leadership... >> woodruff: in september 2004: the 41st president spoke as hird son-- the 43-- stood ready to accept re-nomination to the office they'd both held. only the second father and son to do that. >> im not a legacy kind of guy, i'm not. im a father and with some experience, did some things right, screwed up a couple of things, but i had my shot... >> woodruff: he did, over 60 years in public life, capped by one term as president from 1989
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to 1993. esut it took two tri the first came in 1980. >> good evening. when george vi suddenly found himself king of england, he was deey worried about his qualifications and complained, "all i've ever been is a naval ofcer." that is not the problem of the latest candidate for president, george bush. mr. bush has been not only a naval officer but just about everything else. dr>> wf: for george herbert walker bush-- born to privilege, june 12, 1924 in massachusetts-- that "everything else" included the journey from prep school to heroic world war ii service in the pacific-- where he received the distinguished flying cross-- a post-war education at yale-- where he bame an accomplished first baseman-- then, to texas as an oil man and eventually into government as a lone-star- state member of congress. ambassador to the united nations under richard nixon... envoy to china and... director of central intelligence under gerald ford
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vice president... and, ultimately, president. he was the son of a u.s. senator, and patriarch of a family as successful in electoral polics as any in america including the 43rd president, george w. bush, and former florida governor jeb bush unsuccessfully ran for the republican presidential nomination in 2016. the senior bush and hi of 68 years, barbara-- a force in her own right-- had four other anchildren: sons neamarvin, daughters dorothy and... robin, who died in childhood. appearing on the macneil-lehrer report in 1979, mr. bush defended his moderate credentials as a conservative wave cresting within the party was preparing to anoint his chie ronald reagan.e time: >> in '64 you called yourself a goldwater republican, then you became a nixon republican, you launched your campaign by invoking the names of lincoln and teddy roosevelt and eisenhower.
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what kind of republican do you call yourself now? ational republican >> a national-- what's that? >> that's one who can win the primaries and go on toe nominated and beat the democrats. >> mr. baker, your campaign chairman, says that ronald reagan is the front runner inta the republicans at the moment. if it's important to get a ican elected last year, why don't you just throw your lot with him and help him get nominated? >> because i think i'd be a better president. i've had more experience in business, more experience in the federal legislature, more experience in foreign affairsp and i have a dnviction about our country and i want to be the president. >> woodruff: mr. bush lost the rly lead he had in that tough nomination race after showing open and infamous disdain for what would soon be called heaganomics." s promising to cut taxes by 30% and balance the budget and increase defense spending and stop inflation all at the same time.
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it just isn't going to work, what i call a oodoo economic policy." >> woodruff: but reagan made george bushis number-two, outraging the party's coervative wing. later that year, the ticket won in a historic landslide over president jimmy rter and walter mondale.m two onths after they took office vice president bush was nearly thrust into the presidency following the attem on president reagan's life. >> i can reassure this nation and a watching world that the american government is functioning fully effectively. >> woodruff: but with the president's recovery, vice president bush settled into a somewhat traditional role... and joked about his job as chief funeral-goer. >> you die and i'll fly.- you >> woodruff: such humor did little to mask concerns about mr. bush among some of president reagas most fervent supporters. the vice president spoke with jim lehrer during the republicans' 1984 convention in dallas
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>> what do you say to some of the conservatives around here who say george bush is really not conservative enough, he's a liberal? >> you don't hear that as much anymore, so i don't reay anything to them. and i've got a voting record, i've got a record in public office and varus jobs, at the ited nations, in china as an ambassador and running the ngc.i.a. and as a ssman and, indeed, as head of our party. and now four yeavice president. so i think the record is out atthere, and i don't hear s much. >> woodruff: ronald reagan and george bush silenced those crits with a 49-state reelection win in 1984 and a second term that set mr. bush up as the clear favorite for the 1988 republican nominion. his foreign policy experience was soon put to the test wit the two major international crises of the 1980's: the u.s. face off with iran, and american support of anti-communist rebels in central america. the iran-contra scandal, which involved missiles sold to iran for the release of u.s. hostages and the proceeds then funneled
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illegally to rebels from nicaragua, exploded in late 1986. as vice president, mr. bush particed in more than a dozen meetings where the weapons sales were discussed, and he acknowledged some responsibility for the iran arms deal. >> if we erred-- and in i think we diin retrospect, looking back, a deal that wasn't supposed to be arms for hostages proved to be that. but ifred, we erred on the side of trying to free americans thatre held by terrorists. >> woodruff: but he steadfastly maintained he knew nothing of the illegal laundering of money for the nicaraguan contras, moously in a combative interview with dan rather in early 1988. >> this is what leads people to say "either george bush was irrelevant or he was ineffective. he said himsf he was out of he loop." now let me give you an example. you said to ask you a question. >> may i explain out of the no operational role. go ahead. >> woodruff: by theng he was laborder the public impression that he was a nearly- invisible presence in the reagan
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white house-- a charge he sought to knock down an october, 1987 newshour interview with >> woodruff: i guess it's about a month ago there was a profile of you in "the wall street journal," and the headline was, here we are 20 years into george bush'sc career, and we're still asking the question, 'who is he? what does he--'" >> who's asking the question? have you gone to the drilling rigs and talked to the people that helped me build a biness? did you ever interview anybody in the aircraft carrier where i fought and bled for my country? did you ever talk to the people at the c.i.a. that i lifted up at a time of its morale being down? o is it that's saying "they" don't know this? these people that i've served with do. i haven't been too good about dtalking about it, judy, maybe that's partially my fault, i think. >> woodruff: why not? >> oh, i don't know-- cultural. i just was brought up that you don't brag about i'm getting better about it. r woodruff: bush eventually bested bob dole e g.o.p. nod in 1988. arriving at the new orleans nominating convention that year trailing democratic nee
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michael dukakis, he sought tota jump his campaign by selecting a lightly-regarded young, indenator, dan quayle, as his runningicate. >> the vpresident of the united states. >> woodruff: while mr. bush promised a continuation of t reagan years, his speech sought to link that prosperity with se." >> it means teaching troubled children through your present that there's no such, that there's such a thing as reliable love. meould say it's soft and insufficiently tough to care about these things. but where is it written thate must act as if we do not care, as if we are not moved? well, i am moved. i want a kinder, and gentler nation. >> woodruff: but that speech would be most remembered for another, fateful line... >> my opponent won't rule out raising taxes. but i will.
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and the congress will push me to raise taxes, and i'll say "no," and they'll push, and i'll say "no," and they'll push again, ani'll say, to them, "read my lips: no new taxes." >> woodruff: mr. bush went on to win easily in er... but but two years later, were new taxes, as part of a 1990 budget deal. in 2004,e ruefully recalled that broken promise in another interview with jim l >> i remember saying no taxes and then having had to in my view make a compromise to l spending and taxes, and that's just i remember that from 1988, and i do remember that >> that was the "read my lips" speech. >> yes. i hwish like hell never said that because they could
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focus on the, rather than on how the economy was, and, you know, that hurt me, i think. >> woodruff: in late 1989 the berlin wall came down and the cold war began to end; a major diplomatic initiative to reintegrate the damaged nations of the eastern bloc began on president bush's watch: an endeavor, by most accounts, he handled well. saddam hussein's invasion of kuwait came in august, 1990, and george bush assembled a massive coalition to help repel the iraqi leader. >> some may ask: why act now? why not wait? the answer is clear: the world could wait no longer. >> woodrufightning fast early 1991 pushed saddamda back to ba bruised but still in power. the president's approval ratings skyrocketed. but in october, 1998-- four-and-
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a-half years before his son invaded iraq once again-- the president gave an eerily prescient reason as to why he'd chosen not to press on m.d topple sad he spoke to jim lehrer alongside his lotime national security aide brent scowcroft. >> a lot of pele have suggested, wait a minute, we went to war, thousands of people died, most of themraqis, died in desert storm because of o man. why not take that one man out and maybe have prevented the deaths many others? >> well, one reason: you'd have added a lot of deaths of innocent americans too. what gets me, jim, is you got a lot of revisionie s now that tlook ex post facto and say you should have gone in and lled saddam hussei would you want your son there in an urban, a guerrilla war, where we couldn't even find a two-bit warlord in mogishu-- dusty warehouses and then they're saying to me now late-- hey, you
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should have gone in and killed him, alone, occupying power in an arab land-- the united states of america-- no way. >> woodruff: a flagging economy in 1992 brought president bush's popularity back to earth and he found himself in a tough reelection fight against two opponents: arkansas democratic vernor bill clinton, and the independent texas billionaire ross perot. prleident bush was also labe "out of touch," and his patrician upbringing now seen as a hindrance. it was a characterization reinforced by lacklusterncebate perfor. in one townhall encounter, he ecwas captured repeatedly ng his watch. he reflected on that moment-- and on his distaste for debates in general-- during a 1999 terview with jim lehrer for a special called "debating our destiny." >> yeah, o i took a huge hit.. that's another thing i don't like, debate look at your watch and they say that he hasn't any business running for president.
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ored and he's out of this thing, he's not with it and we need change. they took a little it like that to show that i was, you know, out of it. they made a huge thing out of that. now, was i glad when the damn thg was over? yeah, and maybe that's why i was looking at it, only ten more minutes of this crap, i mean. ( laughs ) go ahead and use it. i'm a free spirit now. >> woodruff: george bush lost the white house to bill clinton that year, but the bitterness of that election would later give way to a close, working friendship between the men after they'd both left office. mr. bush largely stayed out of thlimelight during president clinton's term. as the monica lewinsky scandal and eventual impeachment shook washington, mr. bush refused to publicly pass judgment. >> i vow when i left the presidency that i would try to avoid being critical of my successor, and i havene to capitol hill and lobbied, and
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i'd just rather not get into th. >> mr. president, did you see yourself as the moral leader of this country, in addition to being the commander-in-chief, et ceterawhen you were president? >> i don't think i ever put it in that lofty context-i mean, i am the moral leader of the united states of america. i don't think-- i mean, my mother would have killed me. but, no, i think there's a certain responsibility to respect the office that you're privileged to hold. >> woodruff: that reticence held into the presidency of his son, ivo won the bitterly divis 2000 election over president clinton's vice president, gore. in september, 2004, mr. bush spoke of the delicate balance between father-and-son, on a stage like no other. >> here is your son in the same job, same incredible job, and extending your kind of way of doing things, you don't see that at all? >> no. i think he'll do it his own way
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and metimes i might do it differently or sometimes i might not, but if i were going to say i might have done it differently or might do something in the future difrent, i wouldn't iscuss it. i had my chance, and now just get out of the way and be th ae as a fathe sometimes, jim, its not easy, but im so much in agreement with what the president's doing and has done, but its not as difficult as you might think. if i had a nuance of difference, and i said it right here, every guy with a little notebook out would look what he said on lehrer-- and go around ask some guy in the whiteouse, look what the nutty father said now; what do you think and i don't want to complicate the life of e president. >> woodruff: by 2004, mr. bush was joining forces with mr. clinton to better the lives of others, like after the 2004 asian tsunami. and raising money for survivors and reconstruction after hurricane katrina in 2005.
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the elder bush stayed active even late in life-- repeatedly ing skydiving on his birthday, including at the age of 90, when he wasuffering from parkinson's disease and confined to a wheelchair. in november 2014 george w. bush wrote "41: a portrait of my father.. >> i wrote it when i did because i wanted dad to be alive-- to be able to see not only how much i care for him, but a lot of people care for him. people are beginning to reassess the presid to be a part of that process and i wanted him to know the process was gonna take place. this guy's a great president. ne woodruff: in his final years, mr. bush also face controversy. in charged he had groped them during photo ops. he apologized and said he'd never meant offend. and the death of barbara bush
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left the former president a widower in his lasdays. >> nawaz: for some personal reflections of president bush, i'm joined by: christopher buckley, he's a novelist who served as chief speechwriter for vice president bush. peter roussepr he served as s secretary for bush in congress, at the united nations and at the republican natial committee. he now teaches at sam houston and susan page, she's washington rireau chief for "usa today." she's currentlyng a biography of barbara bush and has spoken extensively to members of the bush family. peter rousse i want to start with you and take you back to spring of 1969. you hadn't been out of college longan and, at point, you i had president george h.w. bush come to you and say i want you to join my team. what was it that made you say yes? >> well, it was a blessed moment for me.
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when i first saw hhere if in texas, i thought, there is somebody i would love to work for if ever given the chance and, thanks to him, he gave he the chance. i'll tell you one thing about leadership that i learned early on from him, and it kind of was with an indicator of how he goas g to be as a leader. one of the first assignments i had was to write pss release in which i made an error. and it wasn't an insignificant error. the next dagh i thhe was going to fire me, so i went into his office, i psaw thess release on his desk. all he did was this, he pushed it across the desk and looked at me and said, hey, pal, i know i'm the next one, you're going to knock a homrun. at that point, i would have walked through a bed of burning hot coals barefooted for that guy. now, to me, that was -- i probably didn'tfallly appreciate it a at the time, but that was leadership, that was motivation, that was ipiration, and i
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think that was just a microkossum of what was to come during his career. >> you're noting your he, christopher buckley. what was that especially for someone who was so incredibly modest and di't want to tk about his accomplishments. >> i worked form hi in '81 to '83 when he was ept anit drove his political advisors cuckoo that he wouldn't talk about the fact that he w a world war ii hero. it was a classic case of thg biblical hidis light under a bushel, and they used to teei hair out because they were, in a sense, already getting ready for the election that would surely come in 1988. but it went back to his early days. his mother,a dorothy, was petite but formidable person, and she had a thing about you mustn't talk about yourself.
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so this was engrained early on. but it was engrained to this point -- in8, 1 he's running for president, home for thanksgiving and telling stories out, you know, running for president, which is probably, you know, more interesting than the six-pound trout uncle bob caught, and mrs. bush wraps the table and said, george, you're talking too much about yourself, stop it. and he did. (laugh that was mr. bush. he had this lovely, sweet reticence. >> chris mentionerunning for the highest office in the land and, after his service, he was wildly popular overseas, in aedible moments inrican history and he's unable to turn that into a second term. what are we toutnderstand a
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why that happened? >> in some ways, i think he was n victim of success. hiow he so skillfully managed the cold war without a shot being fired and managed to form a coalition to expel iraqi forces from kuwait. in the aftermath of that, ihe thinad difficulty pivoting to focus concerns on people's lives at home. he was such a skilled, nuanced leader of international affairs, but at the point of his running for reelection, americans were very concerned about their health care and education and kids going to college, and those were issues much more in the wheelhouse of bill slinton, hi opponent. so i think that was one problem he had. the other problem he had, i think, is americans felt more comfortable electing someone who hadn't been a war hero like george bush, someone who didn't have a lot of foreign policy experience, someone like bill clinton because the world seemed like a safer s ace. >> it mau wonder after a time like this, it's easy to
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look back and focus on accomplishments, and there were h so many in his many, many years of service, but you were with hso ime of those lower points that can sometimes be ealing, especially looking back. so when you think back to those moments where it was a tougher time for him, say a down moment, what do you remember about him? >> you know, a lot of people say, oh, george bush had it made. that's not true at you will. he faced some major challenges in his career and, frankly, was written off sevel times in his career politically, especially after he lost his 1970 senate race in texas. many of the permanents at that time said, oh, that's the en of george bush. well, it didn't quite turn out that way. she had anus enorm propensity for bouncing back from adversity, and i know, i was by ases.ide in some of those c i'll never forget on election night in 1970, wheeverybody thought he was going to win that race, i looked over at him and i saidyou know, it's time too
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down and concede. i said, how do you feel right now? he said, i feel like it's 12 minutes past 84. i said, what on eth does tat mean? he said, i don't know, but that's how i feel right no (laughter) but you know something? feeling sorry for ourselves, get this, the next morning, after he'd lost that regulation and it was a huge loss im thate, the rest of our staff was feeling sorry for ourselves. he was in his office at the crack overdown, making phone g calls, trying jobs for all of those who were going to employed. once again, i would walk through hat coals bare footed for guy. >> you used a phrase to describr him,topher buckley, but you described him as a christian gentleman, why did you use that phrase and wt do you think that those words meant to him? >> well, it'a phrase that, unfortunately, is not much in
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coinage these days, and i think we could use the occasion of mr. bush's passing to reflect on the fact that he was the naradigm of the christia gentleman. the accent there falls on the word "gentle." he was a waher hero at ge of 20, but his life was marked throughout by gentleness and compassion and love, the kind of thing that pete just brilliantly ill humenated. he was all about other people. i have been? rooms with a lot of important people in the course of my life, and they all likely had one thing in common -- they want to talk about them. george bush wanted to talk about you, and that made him special, and that made yoimu love, and it was an absolute, sincere love
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at radiated out of his heart, and it was very much basedn his -- you know, in his epes copailia upbringing at the knee of his extraordinary mother, dorothy. >> susan page,ways look back in e context of our modern histrirks a man who had a reputation as kind, gentle and cntompassionate, n to win political elections. the phrallie horton is something that will forever live in our politicl lexicon. as we look back now, what place do you think this esident wi hold? >> you know, presidents, like human beings, generaly, areot perfect. george h.w. bush was a man of great accomplishment and high character, but that's not to say he dann't maky mistakes as a person and a president. one of the things he did in his
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1988 campaign is pushed new ries of attack ads. it had an ad that involved willie horton. both the campaigns had, and pecially an ad by that independent group, touched on cial fears, was divisive and exploitive and proviad for rougher type of politics we've seen since then. it seemed at many ways atdd with who george bush was, but he was also enormously c about everything. he wanted to win the office, sought the office in 1980 an again in 1988 and won it but won it in a tough way. >> susan page, peter roussel, chris buckley, thank you so much to all of you for being with us today. >> nawaz: and a reminder: we will have special live coverage of the funeral services for president george h.w. bush here in washington on wednesday, beginninat 10:00 a.m. eastern.
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>> nawaz: as we reported earlier, over the weekend president trump said his agreement in buenos aires with chinese president xi jinping was "an incredible deal... one that," he saidld go down as one of the largest" deals made-- if it goes through. but as nick schifrin reports, that's the big question: hat did china agree to? and what's the likelihood of reaching a bigger deal in the next t tariffs?s to eliminate >> reporter: amna, there were some specific agreements announced by presidents trump and xi he delayed plans to rais tariffs on 200 billion dollars worth of chinese goods from 10% to 25%. and the chinese promised to buy a significant amount of american products. the president and other u.s. officials have said today china is going to remove tariffs on uhe.s. cars coming into country, but china hasn't confirmed that. let's look at the significance of t what happened, and will needs to take place. michael pillsbury is an adviser to the trump administration, and the director of the center for
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ina strategy at the huds institute. >> welcome back to the "newshour". >> thank you. let's get to some of the core of the al with at least what the u.s. says. the u.s. says chinese promised to pur ase more thantrillion dollar of products i think the number was today. according to t u.s. th agreed to address more systemic issues likeec intetual property theft. the chinese made similar promises in the pawh. should this be different? >> i think the important thing is to see the poverall roach, that it's take an year and a half of president trump's -- i hate say threats, but his pressure on china, in variousg ways, to brbout this three-hour meeting. there's no written agreement that's come out of it, but the focus seems to beon starting formal talks with our u.s. trade representatives' office. chinese are, i wouldn't say frightened, but very respectful ofb. so you have a sense of caution on the chinese side, what are we
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getting into, and that's the issue of what at a actually agreed to. i have impressions from talking to the chinese day and yesterday. >> in their statement after din interest chinese did not mention a few things t uhat ts. said they did. the chinese did not mention any kind of 90-day adline, which is what the president said. >> that's right. ey did not mention any buying of agriculture products at all. you?esn't that conce >> well, there's a big difference, as you point out, between the chinese version of what hpened in their media and what various advisors of president trump have said. the traditionto use be we don't talk in public about arrangements we made with the chinese for a variety of reasons. unstable bamay be in beijing and wouldn't b willing to be humiliated by the american side saying wve got this and that victory. president trump is taking different approach where he's stressing his chemistry with president xi.
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i wouldn't call it a gamble but it's a risk. suppose president xi accepts what president trump is telling him and lls his government fix all this for my friend, that is going to be the bigges breakthrough since 1972. av quickly, in the time we left, are you worried the chinese will have short-term actions for these investments or purchasing and not do the long-term systemic changes that you and many in the administration want them to make? >> what i think chhe ese are doing -- and they're not stupid either -- they'vead alrebegun announcing over the past month a series of reforms that they want to do eion thown. one to have phrases is we're going to open our market greater than the last 40 years. they've then specified $2.5 trillion of foreign services -- insurance, investment, anything that's not a good is a service -- that's a pretty big gesture. they've said a number of about bringing tariffs down.
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they've even said they share the american goal, no tariffs and no non-trade barriers. they haven't said no subsidies. that's probably a bridge tofar because their system is based on subsidies. >> fundamentally you think they're serious about these long-term changes? >> i think the ambassador may have been doing something like in the '80s with japan, identifying there are informers ushing andna and helping them. but the idea maybe president trump has, push on th system, keep xi separate from the wrongdoing and try to get the reformers to change some of this eegious conduct that frankly the whole world knows about in china. >> michael pillsbury, thanucyou very >> thank you very much. >> nawaz: tonight we're starting a special series about the future of work.
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it's clear robotics, automation and globalization are driving big changes for workers and companies alike. our team has beeeling the country to capture just who's benefiting and who's getting hurt. we begin in appalachia, a region where good jobs have been in short sply and diversification is the name of the game. i recently went there to see how one community is dealing with life after coa it's 7:00, on a quiet tuesday evening, in the mounof eastern kentucky. and olivia boyette-- a second year mical student-- is studying at her kitchen table. >> the main reason i st here is so tcan see my white coat behind me and e it kind of as like, "okay, you have to do this." be aay i want that coat long coat and instead of just olivia i want it to say "dr. boyette." >> nawaz: her future maye in medicine, but for decades her family and community were built around pikeville, kentucky is a small city of 6,700 nestled deep in a river valley in the heart of
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rural appalachia. as the coal industry declined, towns across the region struggled to survive. since 2011, an estimated 13,000 coal jobs were lost in eastern kentucky alone. some experts say to make up for the wages and revenue lost in that time, it would take 30,000 new jobs today. pikeville is now trying to fill some of that gap by shiftingo healthcare, and investing in its hospital system, serving 450,000 people across three states. it also employs 3,100 people -- nearly half of pikeville's population. donovan blackburn is the hospital's c.e.o. >> we have some of tkest of the sick when you talk about respiratory cancer or heart disease. but on the other side we've got some of the best workforce, best trained workforce that you'll ever find anywhere. >> nawaz: training that future workforce, like olivia boyette, is where the lniversity comes in. >> we have bright students here
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and all they need is an opportunity. >> nawaz: burton webb is the president of the university of pikeville. >> one of the major puoses of being in a place like this is so that we can retain people who live here. they can train here, they can learn here, grow here and then keep their families here it helps that we have an enormous hospital in town. it's a regional medical center. andfo so there's a placthem to come and to practice and to live. >> i feel like i want to give back to my community. i don't just want to help people, i want to help my people. pikeville, kentucky and the surrounding areas is a very unhealthy area. ere's a lot of tobacco. there's a lot of alcohol abuse. there's a lot of obesity. acfeel like i want to give to my community. >> nawaz: and the need here is dire. life expectancy trails the national average by seven years. and 70% of the hospital's patients rely on medicare or medicaid. >> the amount of moneyis paid to the federal government and to the-- to the state is very overwhelming, but the amount of money that's generated
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back to this community of allowing families to put food on their table. our average salary is around $65,000 dollars a year. so, you know we pal well. overale center has a huge impact to the region. >> nawaz: that impact is the initial return on millions of dollars invested from federal raand regional loans ands, after years of planning by local leaders. city manager philip elswick: >> we began to realize and accept the fact that coal wasn coming back. and then the conversation changed to, well, whats going to be the future of appalachia, the future of eastern kentucky? >> nawaz: born and raised pikeville, dr. chase reynolds didn't think he had a future here. >> in my mind i was going to go to a big city someplace and practice medicine. i was very surprised as i started looking at job o hpportunities to see wh grown up and in pikeville you know since i haleft. >> nawaz: so, this will all be yours? reynolds says the hospital's
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continued growth and investments-- like this $30 ion dollar cardiac lab-- have convinced him to stay. they've expanded to 340 patient beds and there are now 100 open jobs. one of those jobs went to former coal miner kevin little. he started working in the mines at the age of 19. >> not everybody can crawl back inside of a mountain and, you know, go in and take out the of the mountain. it takes a special kind of people to do that. >> nawaz: kevin worked in the mine12 years. when he was laid off, he and his wife misty say got tough for their family of four. >> it wasn't theof not being able to buy everything that we was able to afford, but i was the fact that what don't find another job or what if i found one that i can't tak care of my famod enough with, you know. >> so the job was gone, but our bills were still there. it was scary. >> nawaz: so you were already working in the hospital when the chance came for your husband t come work with you. what did you think? >> i thought it was going to be
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bad. ( laughs ) i really thought it was gonna be bad. he' ms a coer, you know, and him working on patients and things but he's definitely showed me different. i admire the person he's become and the things he can do. >> nawaz: kevin entered a year- long training program, and worked his way urofrom operating technician to surgical first assistant. >> i think the lorhas blessed me so much to be able to have a job like i have now. i see a career now. as before i had a job working in a coal mines, but now i see a career for myself. >> nawaz: the loss of thousands of coal jobs in just the past few years had a devastating effect across appalach. pikeville thinks it has a plan for the future. the question is, can this rk in other places? jessi troyan of the cardinal institute worries that pikeville where 2/3 of the tax base comes from healthcare - is banking on an economic bubble that might burst. >> when i hear numbers like that i'm thinking that pikeville has really capitalized on medicaid
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expansion dollars coming from the federal government and shouldhe political winds shift, you know, does pikeville have to rewrite their story again? >> nawaz: but hospital c.e.o. blackburn says healthcare is just the first step towards a more diverse economy. >> what we're doing is we're making sma investments in healthcare to create a healthy working communit transferable skills while veloping industrial parks to be able to invite industry in. >> nawaz: smart investments in people like olivia boyette-- who's grabbing her chance to change hily's future. >> i questioned myself. i was like, can i actually, really, like, "am i srt enough?" >> nawaz: it must be a lot of pressure. >> mhmm. it is. >> nawaz: to be the one on that road. >> i don't want to let down probably, you know, other than my parents, my little sister. sorry >> nawaz: why is-- what-- why do you think you might let her down?
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>> just because i grew up in an area where, like, i have explained, like, a lot of people didn't think that they could do. you know what they want to do, especially, you know, a girl and i want her to see that she can do what i do. >> nawaz: and has your little sister told you what she wants to do? >> she says she wants to do the same thing i done.an she wants to become a physician as well. >> nawaz: just like her big sister. boyette is on track to graduate medical school in 2021. for the pbs newshourstern kentucky, i'm amna nawaz. john reports on how minority workers are impacted. follow along on our web site, pbs.org/newshour.
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>> from how he governed to how he camed, president george h.w. bush presidented a republican party of a different era.t to help map e differences of the political landscape of then and now, of course, i'm joint by tamera keith and stu rothenberg of inside elections, "politics monday." president george w. bush said he voted for hillary clinton at his funeral. president trump will not be speaking but will attend. that is unusual. what do you think these two different republican presidents represent about their party and where is the president party now? >> well, what a change, h huh? george w. bush was born into a family, prescott bush who was dwight eisenhower, nelson
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rockefeller republican, and look at where donald trump is today with the republican party. the party changed fundamentally in terms of values, language, identity and ologist partners. we can't even compare it. it's like two different parties. >> tam remarks what do you see? lookcyt poright? if you look at trade, george h.w. buysh rea negotiated nafta. that really was negteot during his presidency though ratified during the clinton presidency. you have president trump over the weekend saying he is going to terminate nafta soon. he doesn't say exactly when. in tms of style, they really couldn't be more different in terms of style, in ter of president bush saw people as opponents but not as enemies, in ways, and president trump sees his political opponents as enpies forever.
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>> let me add one more difference, president bush was an institutionalist. donald trump is a personalist, if that's a word. it's all about him, what he has accomplished, what he can do, whhe is, his power. president bush surrounded himself with major political figures, significant people, and saw himself as a part of a team. that's very different. >> and people were begging george h.w. bush so sing his -- to sng his own praises. president trump does not have that - >> doesn't need much on that,. o you say multi-laterallists, president bush 41, d president bush as a yiewn rarlt esident -- unilateral president, president trump. one day from today we'll ewe will have a new congress led by the democrats in house. what strategic positions do the democrats have to be making over the next month how they approach coming into power in
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just one amber? >> i think they have to make the case for 2020 over the next two years. they have to establish an agenda. look, the house democrats know they're not going to getct anything e into law because the republican senate and the white house isoi notg to agree to anything -- >> you don't think they will? but that doesn't mean the house democrats should just come off as they are posing whatever the republican initiatives are or opposing the president. toey need ursue an agenda, they need to look at things like infrastructure and healthcare so they establish a base on which aneir presidential nominee run and so they can run for reelection as people who try to do something. we know they won't accomplish a lot, but if they can go to thewe voters and said this, this and this and the republicans didn't address th democrats will be in better shape. >> i love someone thinking about the long-term in washington still. tam, what's up first? what do you think are one of the first things that are going to
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pop up for the house democrats? >> one thing is, if president trump folls through on, as he calls it, terminating nafta, that would start a six-month clock and sort of force the hand of congressionas democro will control the house to decide are they going to ratify this new nafta known as unca or not. he says he will give them a choice. that will be the interesting thing to watch. the other thing m watching the john boehner and paul ryan have been vexed by the freedom caucus in the house. the most conservative and trump-y members in some ways. will nancy pelosi and democratic leaders, will they be vexed byfr thdom -- whatever the liberal altertive version, te democratic version of the freedom caucus, or will she sort of be able to keep everyone liin for the next two years? >> quickly, who are you watching lawmakers? >> i'm watching sherry bustos,
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democratic congressman from illinois who's now going to chair the democratic campaign committee. personable, articulate, pragmatic, has btudying democratic victories in different kinds oftr dts over the years. i think she's got a significant future in the party. >> and i will be watching some of the conservative democrats who won inurbs to see how they navigate that. >> tamera keith, stuhe rberg, thank you both. >> you're welcome. thank you. >> nawaz: on the newshour online right now, president trump's "u.s. mexico canada agreement" aims to provide greater protections for workers, but the outcome for those in the auto industry is far ertain. we examine key factors that could determine the pact's success. that's on our web site, pbs.org/newshour and that's the newshour for night. i'm amna nawaz. join us wednesday for special
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live coverage of the funeral ceremonies for president george h.w. bush, begning at 10:00 a.m eastern. and we'll be back here again tomorrow evening for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and see you soon. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >>railway. >> consumer cellular. >> financial services firm raymond james. >> and by the alfred p. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved economid performance nancial literacy ithe 21st century. >> supported by the john d. and catherine t. macarthur foundation. committed to building a more ljust, verdant and peace world. more information at macfound.org >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions
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>> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org >> you're watching pbs.
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