tv PBS News Hour PBS February 18, 2019 6:00pm-7:00pm PST
captioning sponsored byho neur productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening, i'm judy woodruff. on the newshour tonight, our correspondent in venezuela sits down with juan guaido, whom the u.s. recognizes as the president, about the growing crisis in his country. then, on this president's day, a look at presidential powers, how the country's chief executives have increased the influence of the executive branch over the years. and, a conversion with composer terrence blanchard. his score for the film "blackkklansman" has been nominated for an academy award. >> the role of the music is to bring some of those intangible things to the fore. there are things that we don't, we can't put into words, there's emotions we can't really describe. is there, but the musi to kind of help us experience that. >> woodruff: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour.
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>> woodruff: president trump's declaratioof a national ergency has generated new backlash on this president's day.st activisted scattered protests today outside the white house and from coast to coast. they opposedaking executive action, over the heads of congress, to find more money buo d a border wall. several groups and states say they pn to challenge the declaration in court.id the prt today blasted andrew mccabe, the former deputy f.b.i. director. on twitter, mr. trump said of mccabe: e was fired for lying, and now his story gets even more deranged." mccabe had told cbs' "60 minutes" that firing f.b.i. director james comey may have been a criminal act, to block the russia investigation.o he aid again that current deputy attorney general rod rosenstein tald of trying to remove the president from office, in early 2017.
rosenstein has denied that. president trump today accused both men of treasonous acts. the north carolina state elections director tesfied today that a republican political operative led an illegal ballot-harvesting operation on behalf of al congressiondidate in 2018. it came during the first day of a hearing into whether leslie mcrae dowless jr. tampered with absentee ballots in the state's ninth district. republican mark harris holds a slim lead over democrat dan mccready, but the race has not been certified. president trump today called on nezuelan president nicolas maduro to step down in a t peacefnsition of power, but acknowledged "all options are on the table." he also called for maduro to allow blocked shipments of u.s. humanitarian aid into the country. president trump spoke in miami, home to the largest venezuan community in the u.s., and he
gave this warning to maduro's supporters. >> i have a message for every official who is helping to kp maduro in place: the eyes of the datire world are upoyou today, every day and everin the future. you cannot hide from the choice that now confronts you. >> woodruff: we'll have an interview with venezuela's opposition leader, juan guaido, after the news summary. haiti, government offices and f sinesses began reopening after more than a weekolent anti-government protests. that comes as haitianewspapers reported the overnight arrests of heavily-armed foreign nationals, including some u.s. itizens.s, including some u.s. hundreds of thousands of demonstrators have taken to the streets since february 7th to t,mand the resignation of the country's presidovenel moise. theris word of rising cyber- attacks against u.s. companies and agencies.
"the new york times" reports that chinese and iranian hackers are retaliating for the u.s.si im tariffs and new sanctions. meanwhile, australia's prime minister today blamed what he called a "sophisticated stateng actor" for hacarliament's computing network. c did not name the nation. more than 300 islaate fighters are refusing to surrender, in their st tiny bit of territory in eastern syria. activists said today militants are trying to negotiate safe passage to a rebel-held area in northwestern e ria. the isis fighters lding hundreds of civilians as shield against a final assault by u.s.- backed kurdish forces. in yemen, warring parties have agreed to begin withdrawing forces from the vital port city of hodeida sitting on the red sea, it is the main entry point for humanitarian aid and a lifeline for millions of
yemenis facing starvation. the united nations says the saudi-backed government and the rebels, aligned with iry , agreed sun a mutual pull- back. and, the sailor in an iconic image from the end of wod war two, has died. george mendonsa passed away sunday in middletown, rhode island. the famous photo captured mendonsa randomly grabbing and kissing greta zimmer friedma, in new york's times square, on the day japan surrendered. upon his death, george mendonsa was two days short of turning years old.er greta ziriedman died in 2016, at age 92. still to come on the newshour: a conversation with venezuela's guopposition leader, juan aido. the effect of the latest governme shutdown on the future of public service. a look at the historical trend of presidential powers, and much more.
>> woodruff: as you just heard,s ent trump again called for venezuelan president nicolas maduro to st down and hand over power to juan guaido.s the 35-year-old head of the national assembly who the united states and 60 other nations now recognize as the president of venezuela. shortly before mr. trump spokeno this aft, and with the support of the pulitzer center, special corrpondent nadja drost sat down with juan guaido in caracas.te >> rep what do you plan on doing if maduro does not cede
to the building venezuelan national pressure for him to step out of office? >> (through interpret) intenlz already decided for change, intenlz decided for the transition in the majority and c supportenge, it's undeniefnlt not just today with the mobilization in the streets, but also 2015, four years ago, when we won t national assembly which set the stage for me to become president of the assembly and become inter president by constitution. it's important the world knows. this what we're debati in venezuela is how much for expensive is it going to be phon venezuelans to lose more than 15 babies and children ery day to mall nutrition and diseases that should have beenradicated like mmalaria. is one deciding now how costly it's going to be and how much pressure we have to exert to aceve many duro's departure will be maduro. >> reporter:ou've said all
options are on the tablend i'm wondering where you will draw the line in the sand if maduro does not step down from power. would you think of the possibility of outside military ine rvention? >>ve been saying all cards are on the table, the necessary end tochieve the usurping the transitional government and free elections so that it gives stability to the country and lets us have elections as so as possible. our constitution isar c venezuelaians will authorize the use of violence, they will make th decision. obviously, no one wants to get to that point, but, again, it is maduro's choice to refuse something as elemental as humanitarian aid. a clear >>ection. eporter: what do you do if venezuelaians do not allow for elections and he is still in power? what is the next step? >> what we have done for years
continue to gather political, social and international strength. we'v made importanttrides in this journey to gain trust from the people of venezuela, to be erntain we can adequately g the country, that we have the plans available to get venezuela ahead and theth backing in e community. >> reporter: you are organizing to try to bring humanirian aid over t border into venezuela, the international red cross and other org siefti a humanitarian nature have decided not to participate in this operation because they criticize it for using humanarian aid as a tool to achieve a political enpo how do you r to that criticism? >> well, it's a bit of disinfmation of what is happening in venezuela. in venezuela, the level of poverty isr o 85%. they don't live, they barelyia survive, espy when the healthcare system has deteriorated. it's in shambles. there's t even alcohol to disinfect a wound or an antibiotic.
in venhuela, there's not eno food to feed the pop laismghts 60% of the population eats once a day of course, because the origin of the problem is political, not wanting to help because the one usurping the presidency is a dictator and not allowing topeoe et help, would be picking the side of the oppressor, woul be taking the side of the one not allowing lives to be saved.t >> reporter: military does not allow the aid to cross over the border, there is apo ibility of a violent confrontation. is that cost worth it in order to be ab to bring some temporary relief to a small number of venezuelaians in proportion to how many venezuelans need long-term humorteian aid? ou willing to take that risk in order to bring humatarian aid across the boredder? >> it is worth it. it's good for millions of children who are in need. besides, we need to muster the strength for this situation to stop. this has been years in the
making, years of mobilizations of political persecution, of more than a thousand political prisoners. persecutions and acycleees and the exiled, ask them if their sacrifice has been worth it. it has been worth it. >> reporter: there are mantiy s on the table for how maduro might possibly leave office, are you willing, in an effort to reduce the possibility of violent confrontation, is the opposition willing to participate in a model of co-governance for a temporary transition period with maduro? >> the only one suggesting a violent confrontations maduro, with his military aggressions pwhen he threatens us with we're going to continue the blueprint we followed for years if a way that's non-violent and peaceful. they want to slaughter the people, they have the weapons, and they've already done it onoc somsions. so having some sort of akoperation with maduro, it seems not to sense. for there to be a transitional
gornment, it seems maduro would have to be out of the scene. >> you've saidhere's possibility of co-governance with maduro for a temporary period. would you be willing to negotiate with him for him to leave office or accept elections? >> it's absolutely impossible to have a truly free election withe somewho, for years, has kidnapped and killed, who prohibit humanitarian aid. so it seems, at this moment, it's not a pathoward a free election, so that's not an option. >> reporter: everything is moving very quicklyvnd there e been a lot of add vanitiesments, and i'm curious howmportant was the support of the united states for you to be able to stand up and assume they presidf venezuela? >> i think participation from the united states has been decisive and has shown clear
leadership with regard to our constitution, democracy andm. free i think that's important for the region, not just for one country. i think today, in s globalized world, turning a blind eye toto a cse neighbor in serious trouble has consequeetes. for us,mine cooperation from the u.s. is important as that from clommia brazil, chilen arge so many countries who have given their backing andop ation. >> woodruff: juan guaido in that interview. maduro's allies are trying to hold on to power, and the vital issue of when, or whether, humanitarian aid will owed into the country. >> woodruff: a second federal government shutdown may have been averted, but there are still ripple effects from th j one that endt over three weeks ago. in recent days, congress has len looking into how fede agencies continue to grapple
with the effects of that shutdown. and as yamhe alcindor reports, the lingering effects extend to some with careers outside government. >> how do i plan for my daughter? how i plan for myself? how do i plan for my other employees? and what do i tell them? >> alcindor: weeks ago, e government shutdown ended. but lajuanna russell is still feeling its impact. her consulting company's main clients are federal agencies o. the 35-deal hit her business hard. it left russell feeling uncertain about the future. >> for some people it was only 35 days. for me it was 35 days of revenue that we won't get back again. right? and 35 days of you know i had.ll as a susiness you're always planning: for next year i want to be able to hire this person or i want to be able to do this to make the company betterbe. well nopuse we don't know how revenue is going to be.>> lcindor: congress spent last week trying to figure out the scope of the shutdown's impact. one hearing looked at programs funded by the department of
housing and urban development. >> another thing that we heard of was domestic viol shelters attempting to secure hud funding were locked out the system. so why were they not able to access that? >> alcindor: another analyzed the federal aviation administration, or f.a.a. >> there's aircraft certification that didn't happen, there's pilotat and ontinues to add to the frustration. and, if our inspectors, and we've had a few already, say, we're leaving, we're going back to industry. it's going to be a shortfall of staffing. and with the academy being shut down, you can't train new inspectors, so it's a compounding problem. >> alcindor: the shutdown had far reaching impacts. immigration courts, already backlo behind. even further judges say for cases already on the docket, that could add years of waiting. inspections of power plants and oil refineries by the environmental protection agency were also put on hold. trees and wildlife at national parks, like shua tree in california, were damaged, some beyond repair.te weeks of talks, congress
and the president reached a compromise to avoid another shdown. but russell is still worried it could all happen again. >> we were really luckall of our folks who were furloughed came back the da stopped. they came right back. and we breathed a sigh ofelief. we were like woo. but if this happens again, i would. right? i would like-- it's the logithcl g to do to say you know what this just isn't the right place for me. this isn't, this isn't stable. i need some financial securityit and stabfor my family. i need to find something else. >> alcindor: still, russell feels an out of touch congress could mean an unstable future for a broader look at the after- effects across the government, i'm joined by max stier. he heads the nonprofit artnership for public service." it focuses on issues affecting government operations and federal personnel. thank you so much for being here.he last week, were lots of celebrations because a government shutdown was averted,
but ther are still impacts from the longest shutdown in history, the 35-day ordeal. what are th the biggestnd lastig impacts of the last shutdown on workers? >> you are correct, we didt get the second shutdown but we still have the impact to have the longest-ever shutdown that will be for us for years to come and, bluntly, we have the possibiluty ofe shutdowns, whether september 30th at the ebbed of this fiscal yearr beyond. the damages are manifold. you did a great job at the opening of the segment listing some of them. the american public got hurt in whether it's the 40,000 immigration hearings that go canceled or 40,000 homes that couldn't be sold because fema couldn't do the flood insurance, whether it's the f.b.i. investigations that didn't happen or the f.t.c.'s investigation of facebook that got delayed, those damages are profound and the impact will be long tail to come. you also have a real damage to the workforce itself.
you had 800,000 peopl put in an awful situation. these are mission-oriented people who are on their job because they want to make a difference and they were prevented from being le to do so, and they didn't get a paycheck. we have lost a lot of that talent, penal are looking to go other places and, bluntly, there e fewer people thinking about coming into the government. that's a big problem. one stat that i can't help but put on the table is youn oly have 5.9% of the workforce today is under age 30, and we didn't help ourselves by shutting down the government for 35 days. >> reporter: and there's lasting trauma from workers. tell me about that. >> you think about it, there is no other work u can do in which someone can tell you you must go to work or stay at home but you're not getting a paycheck. these are essential peoplet. our gvernms the one tool for collective action that has the taxpayer andublic resources behind it. when you shut down the
government you are burningown your own house. no foreign ad adversary could do this. we've done it to. ourselves >> reporter: the congressional budget office says the economy permanently lost $3 billion. larry kudlow, top economic sdvisor at the white house, s the shutdown was a glitch. what do you make to have at a assessments. >> no glitch. g myss is there's a lot more damage than $3 million. when youhink about the cost to the people inside government, the cost to the ability of government to get the right people in seat t do all these different jobs, that's going to g to tale that we're go feel for years to come. i.r.s. is talking about months if not years of work they will have to do to catch up. i mean, this was aas dting blow. what's really important here is it did not go away. yes, we averted another shutdown now but what we didn't do is solve the problem of stdowns going forward and that's what we need to see happen. the news of the day changed.
the damage of the shutdown has not, and we will face this agaid again and again,f we don't deal with the underlying budget issues really at stake her r orter: some people think the pain of shutdowns are the necessary cost because peoe need to feel the pain for there to be political compromise. what do you think about ithat? think it's a crazy argument. i news the metaphor burning down your own hou you ought to know you take care of your house and have to burn it down in order to understand the lesson. there are simple near-term fix that can be done. an example would be to say if the congress and president can't get their work done and get actual budget and appropriations done, the default as a continuing resolution and not a shutdown. another example is they should not get paid andfe thral workforce showvmentd those are all things that could beou changed, that be changed, and i hope that congress will do that in the near her now. >> reporter: max stier, thank you so much for joining us.>>
hank you so much. >> woodruff: on this president's day holiday we're taking a look at presidential powers and how they've changed over time. t're joined by two presidial historians. douglas brinkley, professor of history at rice university andau or of several books on the presidency. and andrew rudalevigfessor of government at bowdoin college and author of "the new imperl presidency: renewing presidential pow after watergate."d lcome to both of you. andrew rudalevige, let me start with you. how much more powerful is the american presidency today than it was either in the earliest days of this country or even 150 years ago? >> well, infinitely more powerful than at the time of the constitutional convention. if you think of the very title
"president," that comesrom the word "presider." there was no idea, i think, t at the presiduld be the main decider, as george w. bush styled himself. the real growth is in the 20t 20th and 21st century. you have the great expansiveness of the scope and size ofnt govern most of that's in the executive branch, so the president has more means, staff and people to help him carry out his preferences, andyou also have, over time, the delegation of great amounts of power to the president by congress, including things that are specifically delegated to b the congre the constitution. trade per, for example. in other areas, presidents have sort of pushed hard to try tor take oe war power, for example, and congress on theee whole has pretty supine about that. so it's a great growth of power in fits and starts, but certainly compared to the founding, a mucfuh more pow office than was anticipated.
>> woodruff: douglas brinkley, is this mainly because presidents have grabbed for more because congress has ceded it or a combination? >> a combination. it's important to hi about when abraham lincoln suspended habeas corpus, he had a good reason to. the civil war. theodore roosetlt named i the white house, and from 1901 to 1909, t.r. used a lot of ikecutive orders, some l going into panama in 1903 without congress. he went to c the grandyon and said save it. congress didn't want it as a national park. there was zinc, asbestos and copper there, so he declared it a national monument and as a weigh station using executiv wer until eventually congress
would take it as a national park. following t.r., you see franklin d. roosevelt using executive power all the time. sometimes in positive days that look well in history, like when saved jackson hole, wyoming, as a national monument in the middle of world war ii, but then, alas, the japanese enferment camps, which was upheld by the courts, that he was allowed to do that kind of roundup of american citizens, and it's an increasing ofpr idential power to the degree now that presidents, no matter who they are, have a 40 or 50% approval rating and congress is often at 15 or 20% approval rating. we are a country of presidential power. >> woodruf andrew rudalevige, is it that the american people watched this over time and felt, okay, this is inevitable, we're going to p have a moerful presidency? >> well, there are good and bad reasons for a powerful presidency. the government, the role of the
united states is much bigger in the world and domestically than they had been prior to the 20th century, so you have, you know, some questions of executive efficiency. it's tot alwaysrible when dngress tell gates power to the --egates power to the president. on the other hand, since the 1960s, nominating procedures means there is more focus on the individual, presidents have to promise more and are under pressure to live up to e promises. the gap between the expectations of the presidency and the actl power is somewhat large. i think presidents, on the whole, cannot carry out their promises to the degree they think they can running for office. president trump's energy declaration is a prey good example -- emergency declaration is a good example of that. people tend to support presidents acting dramatilly and to that degree presidents will continue to do so. >> woodruff: and what president trump has done, douglas brinkley, is one of the to talk to thed two of you because some are referring to it as an
unprecedented move and overreach, but we wan put this into context and look at how presidents desire and determination to take more power unto thems hves -- it's been happening for a long time. >> well, yes. i mean,ichard nixon created a lot of problems, i mean, abuse of power, the movement to impeach him and out of that grew the war powers resolution o 1973, which is supposed to make sure you don't go to war without ngress' approval. the last ronald rgan went into grenada in 1983 withoutss cong approval and george ama. bush went into p without it. you get to see things get watered down. presidts act and let everyone else decide what to do later. what we're debating now in the united states concerning donald trump is ano post-nixon event, the national emergencies act of 1976, and, in that regard, we've had 59 of these
since 1976, but none like what donald trump is doing. move bya big, politic donald trump. it's not going to be construed as a realmergency in the way harry truman tried to grab the steel industry in 1952 and it wasn't a real ergency, because presidents can't seize private property, and if the trump administration is hell bent on grabbing ranchg lands, build fencing along private property and environmenting zones, it' just going to rain lawsuits on them and it will end up in the supreme court. but, you know, congress is supposed to have the purse. it's supposed to run the money. donald trump n is doing something unprecedented by grabbing the funding from congress and reallocating it in his own -- with s own whims. >> woodruff: arew dalevige, so this stands apart from what other presidents have tone to take more power un
themselves? >> well, professor brinkley talked about the post-water gate regime where you had a realss effort by congo push back on the powers of the president, not just inwar powers, but in intelligence, oversight, covert action, the budget, impoundment of congressional funds, ethics with the creation of the independent council, and the national emergencies act, all of ,hese were designed to rein in presidential powbut presidents keep pushing. they have lots of incentives to keep pushing. really what's happened isco ress has not pushed back. the national emergencies act is a great example of law created to rein in presidents but ended up empowering them because congress has not lived up to its ownnsibilities that it wrote into the law, to review these emergencies ery six months, to come into session, to actually consider them in a serious way. so we'll see if that happens now. certainly the fact that this
emergency -- >> woodruff: i've only g about 40 seconds left. i want to ask you each in brief, i man, is it fair to say it's good or bad for our democracy that our presidents have more power, or do you have to just ke a case-by-case basis, douglas brinkley? >> i think you have to go case by case. but this is an overreach donald trump is going in my opinion, because he's circumventing, doing an end run taround both constitution and congress. but we'll see. he has a conservative supreme court. if it gets there, it might end up being a 5 decision in his favor. >> woodruff: andrew rut?levige, what about t >> it's bad when congress gives power away thoughtlesly. congress has its own authority over in the constitution, it uses it, so if it hands it over to the president thinking about it, that's bad. if it's a case where it's relevaus and ul, then i'm okay with that. w woodruff: wonderful insights anddalevige, douglas brinkley.
thank you both. we appreciate it. thank you. >> thank you. s for having me. uf >> woo stay with us, coming up on the newshour: amy walter and tamara keith joi us to disce week in washington. composer terrence blanchard on his oscar-nominated score for "blackkklansman." a new show on netflix inspires a tidying craze. and jennifer gersten shares her humble opinion on rethinking classil music. as president trump faces the political fallout of his emergency declaration, democrats eager to take him on in 2020 hit the road, courting voters in noe earlnating contests. for analysis on all this and more, i'm joined bour politics monday team. amy walter of the cook political reportnd host of the podcast "politics with amy walter" on wnyc.
and tamara keith of npr. hello to both of you. so there's a lot to talk about. we've just been talkingbout, though, the emergency, the national emergency that presidentrump declared on friday that we are out with a poll just done over the weekend. this is the "newshour", npr and marist college, amy, and it shows and we're showing everybody watching the results among republicans, very pr,u not surprising, 85% like what the president tid, sport it. among democrats, unpopular, only 6%. but among independent it's also not a majority, 33%. what does this tell us about what the president dd and what the public thinks? >> well, the president has had a chalnge for some time now. first of all the facts don't support the claim the is an emergency on the border, whether ing number of people be apprehended, whether people are trying to cross illegally, drugs are comi in, ports of entry,
ohey're not being taken at other border crossings,he facts have been pretty well set that there's not an ergency there at the border, and the president has been trying to make the case now for somime that there is indeed an emergency. it's in an oval offic, addre he's been in the rose garden, he used o the stathe union address to put this idea forward and you see 58% of americans don't believe there is a crisis at the border. the only folks who seem to really be supporting the presidt's claim that h has authority to do this emergency declaration or that there is an actual crisis, not surprisingly, ar republicans, which tell us all you need to know where this is going to head up in congress, which is mos likely the democrats in the house will support a resolution saying they don't agree with the energy declaration, and republicans in te senate will stick wihe president. >> woodruff: republicans are going to stick with him, tam, regardless.
>> well, most likely, though there have been a few, a handful of republicans who, in the senate, have said that they really don't support this emergency action. >> woodruff: right. hat's interesting here is thataw from 1976 that you just spent a good long segment talking about includes a fast track authority. so the house takes up this bill to terminate the president's emergency order, whi we fully expect, it will pass the mocratic house. will go to the senate and there's nothing mitch mcconnell can do to avoid a vote, it has to get a vote, so it does require republicans who, ading up to this, said, wow, this would be terrible, please don't do it, don't put us in this position, it puts them in at position of having to decide whether they sort of believe in the article i role of congress or whether they want to support their republican president. many argued during the obama presidency that he wasre
ovhing. >> woodruff: yes. and power grab, unconstitutional decisions that he made, specifically, not surprisingly, around immigration. >> woodruff: dreamers, et cetera. >> right, and their parents. >> woodruff: and their parents. the families. >> that's right so that was not done using an emergency declaration. >> correct. >> woodruff: it was done administratively and all within the executive branch. this is a little bit different in that the president has taken the word of congress, congrs says this is how much money we want to give you for the wall and 's saying, actually, i would like more than that. >> woodruff: it's executive action versus declaration of emergency which is a more extreme step to take. r ight. b woodruff: we mentioned 2020, and i want tng this up, and we've got a map. we've tried to look where the 2020 democratic candidates, they were all over the country in the early states, was just looking at this, they were in iowa, not surprising new hampshire, wisconsin, georgia,ut
carolina, texas, california and nevada. tam, you know, they're out there, but the oth new name that we have that we heard about over the weekend is william weld, who has run for office and it was the governor of massachusetts, but he's running as a republica he's challenging president trump -- or at least he's formed an exploratory committee. >> and you can expect him to spend a lot of time in hew hampshire where they may remember him od his name. he did run for vice president or the lrian ticket last time around, he's not like one of the big-name, big-money republicans that potentially could run deagainst pre trump in a primary. but a president facing a primar even a weak primary is something that indicates potentially someone out there believes that the president has weaknesses. >> woodruff: and there are other republicans. >> and there are other republicans looking at it. we'll see. john kasich theost talked about person who's likely to
challenge him. but what's interesting is the candidates or the presidents who have hadr significant priy challenges in rent history, that president had very low approval right scores s among memb their own party, so you think about where jimmy carter's approval raasting when ted kennedy announced, his approval ratings wereomhere in the 40s. when l.b.j. was chamgd by mcgovern, his approval ratings were somewhere in the 50s. george h.w. bush was somewhere in the 70st when buchanan announced hisun. this is about 80% around republicans. so there's not an obv uspath for republicans to take. you don't want as annt incum president to have to spend your time and money and energy on this. but we'llspee,ially in new hampshire which is a swing state, a battleground state, one trump barely lost i theristhere a group of republica
there that are so disappointed president they are willing to support a candidate on the other side for president and that it w ul tells about these voters and where do the voters go, do they go with t democrat, stay at home, at the side to stick with the president attend of the day? >> wdruff: this is unfair. we have less than a minute left. you, too, have wanted to talk about not only is there a presidential campaign in 2020, obviously the senate and the house is up, these senate candidates in a number of states whee the cy is their turn, it's a huge concern to republicans and democrats. democrats want to pick up control. >> yeah, whereas the last midterm was a good map for republans, this is a better map for democrats, but democrats are now frantically trying to get people who could potentialln bee candidates not to run for president. >> woodruff: right. when you're running for president -- >> you can't do both. in places like colorado, montana
s, georgia where stacey abr they're trying to get her to run for senate. >> woodruff: cross pressures. that's right. woodruff: amy walter, tamera keith, thank you both. >> you're welcome. >> woodruff: renowned jazz trumpeter terence blanchard behs nominated for the best original score academy award for his work on the film "blackkklansman."ni ght jeffrey brown continues our feature on oscar nominees as part ocanvas, our new focus on arts and culture. >> brown: in the film," blackkklansman", we meet pfiolie ofrs, members of the k.k.k., various characters. and then there's a difrent blnd of character-- the score, composed by terencchard.
♪ ♪ >> the role of the music is to like, first of all, to bring some of those intangle things to the fore. if there are things that we can't put into words, there's emotions we can't really describe, but the music is there to kind of help us ence that. >> brown: "blackkklansman", directed by spike lee, tells th story of ron stallworth, the first black officer with the p colorado sprinice force. played by john david washington, he infiltrates a k.k.k. chapr by impersonating a white man over the phone. his partner, a jewish officer played by adam driver, goes undercover to gather evidence against the klan. it's set in the 1970s, but lee
makes direct connections to today. and it's based on a true story, which amazed terence blanchard when he first joined the project. >> when spike first told me, first think i thought of was, man, you need put the bottle wn. >> brown: like, you're making this up. >> yeah, a black man infiltrated the klan in colorado springs, really? and that grabbed me. >> brown: blanchard has long been known as a top jazz musician, with six grammy awards. he grew up in new orans, began playing the piano and trumpet as a youngster. he joined the lionel hampton orchestra while still in colleg and later art blakey's jazz messengers.he hewent solo, eventually heading the group,-collective. but he's also now being honored for his decades-long work in films, composing more than 40 scores.
he first performed on lee's films, "do the right thing" and "mo better blues." that's blanchard you hear when denzel washington plays the trumpet. d has scored almost every lee film since "jungle fever," including "malcolm x." what was the hardest thing about learni to write music for a film, as opposed to your other life? >> the hardest thing was putting your ego aside. because i come from a world where all the music was aboutut me, it was ahat i wanted to say, or how i wanted to say it. >> brown: because you're not front and center now. e no, no, it's not about me, it's really about ory, and it's really about helping the director tell a story in the way sees fit, you know what >> brown: he typically begins his work with a first cut of thf filmr a great deal of work by actors, director lee, and another longtime collaborator, a editor barrylexander brown.
>> when they hand it to me, it's like a lot of things are don and i'm one of the last pieces of the puzzle.u so when t it, then you go, oh my god, everybody's done a great job. i can't be the guy to drop the ball. so it inspires me to work hard. >> brown: you can make it better, or you could mess it up, >> or really mess it up! the first thing i have to do is let the film tell me what it needs, you know. because-- yeah, because even though it's a great story, the thing is there's lighting, there's editing, there's acting. when i get a cut, with spike you never know, because you can read a scene one way and then he will oot it another way, with emphasis on other enings in the e. so when i watch it, the pace of it, the look of it, it will all speak to me. it will say, okay, well, it slows down a little bit here, maybe we need to pick up the pace here. or, you know what? maybe that's a very powerful moment and mbe we need to back away from that and let the actor have that moment. there are a lot of little things like that that sta to play a role in how the overall thing
takes shape. the other part of it, too, because of spike's unique love for melody, i had to learn how to structure those melodies and orchestrate them onto dialogue, i a way that still could be heard, but not getthe way of the dialogue. >> brown: these are things that inm probably not, i'm not aware of as they're happ right? >> you shouldn't be! you shouldn't be, let's hope. >> brown: in "blackkklansman," blanchard worked with an orchestra as well as his own small ensemble, and for th, e first tiatured the electric guitar. ♪ ♪ >> spike always does a great job at giving you the taste of the usperiod with the source m, you know, all of the songs that are there.ed i wahe score to be universal, first of all, but still have elementof the '70s, and colors of the '70s, and that electric guitar was one of the ones that we used a eat deal. >> brown: the oscar nomination, it's a first for you, right?
>> oyeah, yeah. >> brown: a lot of attention because it's the first for spike lee after so long. does it feel like just a long time coming for both of you? >> it's hard to answer it, because i never expected it, you know what i mean?i' been telling people it's kind of hard to miss what you never had, you know. it's great, it's awesome, it's been an overwhelming experience, erit's been a humbling expnce. i look at this movie asuleing like thenation of what we've been doing for the last 30 years. >> brown: terence blanchard'sne big project: he's working on an opera, his second.r e pbs newshour, i'm jeffrey brown in new york. >> woodruff: you can see another oscar contender in full later tonight on pbs. "pov" will air the documentary,e "mindingap," a coming of age tale of three skateboarding friends nagating out of troubled adolescence, into adulthood.
>> i'm making this film because i saw myself in your story. >> i always felt like i didn't fit with my family. >> my parents ran this very controlling house. >>wa ran ay a lot. this is more a family than my family. >> how did you get disciplined. well, they call it child abuse now, but -- >> life might be moving too fast. we have to fully gw up and it's goingo t suck. >> when you're a kid, you just act. line,omewhere along the everyone loses that. i knew you had some huge weight on you. skate beforing meant more to you. i have to a life or death thing. >> i can remember the screaming coming from your room and it was really, really unnerving. >> one of the last things i said to my d was that i hate you.
>> you can't just have a child and abandon them. life doesn't work like that. >> you still want them to grow up like me. i just want to hide. iust want to ru away. that's what the drinking is about. >> maybe you're right. maybe i need to just move on. >> i wish you could. i wish i couldo it over. >> i could seriously be on the verge of having a mental breakdown.s but as long a i'm able topl skate, i'm cely fine.uf >> woo "pov's" "minding the gap" airs tonight on most pbs stations. spring is around the corner, which for some means it's time to clean out the closets.he asewshour's rhana natour explains, the philosophy has a popular netflishow featuring japanese organizing expert marie kondo encourages people to "iscard items in their home that do not "spark jo >> chose item that spark joy for you. >> reporter: it's the phrase's thparking a nationwide closet clean out. s
in her netflixw "tidying up,"tapanese organizing exper marie kondo helps people transform their cluttered home into tidy retreats. kondo's best selling 2014 book "the life changing mf tidying up" first popularized her trademark konmari method. the method tackles decluttering by separating items into categories like clothes, booksan sentimental items. the fundamental idea after that is simple: if an item "sparks joy" it stays. if it doesn't, kondo encourages people to thank the item for serving its purpose, then out it goes. >> thank you, thank you for letting me wear you. okay, this sparks joy. >> reporter: the show's inspiring such a tidying crazeth at second hand stores naedonwide are getting inund with discarded items. following the show's premiere, one goodwill store in maryland reported a 367% uptick in
donations in new york, a popular thrift b store thats used clothing is seeing wait times double for customers hoping to sell them their cast off clothing. i think at first we didn't really know what was happening, and this was what was interesting is that people were waiting in line and you heard people talking about it and watching that show?'¡ou is that why you are you cleani your closet out?' >> reporter: in chicago, ravenswood used books manager barbara strangeman says their getting three times the number of books these days-- nearly 30 boxes worth a weekend. >> i noticed something was different because generally people are either moving and they're not happy to get rid of their possessions. but people were happ people they were like ¡yay! i've got a clean shelf. yay!' ¡these don't spark joy' and that's when i thought ¡oh spark joy'. i know that. >> reporter: the show's tappedtu into the cl zeitgeist in a major way as illustrated by this "new yorker" cartoon and h propelled marie kondo into a household name in the u.s.
>> i would follow you to a cult compound and never look back. >> reporter: as to why the show, with its petite star who speaks very little english, has become such a sensation. professional organizer jenny albertini, who was trained by marie kondo in 2016, thinks it may be a form of stress relief. >> going about our business in times of strife is just draining anwestressful so like how ca address on a daily basis things that will make us feel that we're more connected to our lives. >> reporter: but is throwiin away a sustainable approach? >> when we watch the show, wese people throwing out mounds of things or collecting mounds and that seems to some people wasteful. >> oh i would really start five steps before that and say i think the waste starts when we purchase those things. what i say to clients often whe we l these piles that they've created when we look at the bags of things that they're ooing to say this is the last time you have toat something like this like you can choose from here on out that you
isdon't have to live like >> reporter: and you may want to get moving on decluttering that messy work desk because marie ndo's next book "joy at work" takes tidying up to the office. it is scheduled for rele.e next spri consider yourself warned. for the pbs newshour, i'm rhana natour. productivity, even blood e pressure: all of these hen studied in relation to classical music. it's almost as if this genre of music is suspected to have superpowers. but producers and performersre still trying to gain audiences. enter the marketing teams. tonight, musician and critic jennifer gersten shares her humble opinion on why the new "sell" is selling the music short. >> "take some time to relax!"
rise above it all."" calm and refreshing!" these glines could be advertisements for a caribbean cruise, or at the ve least an ambitious boxed wine. they're actually examples of how codio stations and streaming services across thtry sell classical music. classical, this advertising suggests, isn't really for listening. it's for chilling out, tuning out, zoning out. thus, an over-500-year-old art sform is being reduced to day soundtrack. this marketing sort makes nse. classical music is perceived asb inaccessle, elitist, incomprehensible to an who isn't wearing a monocle. perhaps the logic goes that framing the genre as mellifluous ambien might usher people into expensive auditoriums-even if isst for a nap. but this rhetoric ailing the music it's supposed to support.i
um any other musical genre, classical offers iable sounds and triggers as many emotions.nd some of itd might calm you. other types seem primed to get you ipping down the block. if we think of classical music solely as relaxing, we circumscribe its ability to move us, shake us, twist us in knotsh we feeidea that this music is somehow more elevated than pop or rap, and that itson practis are more enlightened. this reinforces the implication that classical music is for the rich white people filling opulent concert halls,hich is increasingly not the case. i'm a music student with many years of classical training, and gsalso write about music. i love some thin play andhi hear; some ts i'm just okay with; a few things i despise. for best results, we should learn to think about this music for ourselves, instead of outsourcing our opinions to strangers.an weo this by listening deeply and intentionally.
>> woodruff: aws that's the ur for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. join us online and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us at the pbs neuhour, thank you and see soon. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> babbel. a language app that teaches real-life conversations in a new language, like spanish, french, german, italian, and more. babbel's 10-15 minute lessons are available as an app, or more information on babbel.com. >> and by the fofred p. sloan dation. supporting science, technology, and improved economic
performance and fina literacy in the 21st century. >> supported by the john d. and catherine t. macarthur foundation. committed to building a moan just, verdanpeaceful world. more information at macfound.org >> and with going support of these institutions >> this program was ma possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc captyned media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org