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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  February 19, 2019 3:00pm-4:01pm PST

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captioning sponsored by newshour productns, llc >> woodruff: good evening, i'm judy woodruff. on the newshour tonight, a dramatic elections boa continues in north carolina over alleged ballot fraud. it's the one remaining undecided congressional race from the 2018 elections. then, our coverage of the race for the 2020 democratic presidential nomination continues with a look at the array of tax plans offered by the candidates. and, the nation's top teachers head to the southern border to stage a "teach-in," protesting the separation and detention of migrant children. >> educators are mandatory reporters of suspected abuse, and how we are dealing with immigration right now is abusive. we're taking children and are putting them into facilities and incarcerating them, simplybe use they were born outside
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of the united states. >> woodruff: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshouhas been provided by: >> on a cruise with american cruise lines, you can experience american cruise lines fleet of small ships explore american landmarks, local cultures and calm waterways. american cruise lines, proud sponsor of pbs newour. >> ordering takeout. >> finding the west route. >> talking for hours. >> planning for showers. >> you can do the things you like to do with a sireless plan ed for you. with talk, text and data. consumer cellular.
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learn more at consumercellular.tv >> babbel. a language app that teaches real-life conversati a new language, like spanish, french, german, italian, and more. >> and with the ongoing support of these institution: >> this program was made possible by the corporation for .ublic broadcasting and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: president truminp sted today that he had, in his words, an "absolute right" to declare a national emergency. that, after california and 15 other states challenged the declaration in federal court. they said diverting military funds to build a southern border wall will hurt their economies and military bases. mr. trump predicted he will win
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the court fight. in a tweet, he also attacked the 16 states, saying they are "led mostly by open border democratsn the radical left".ra sely, the president denied asking mark whitaker, who was then, actingttorney general, to have an ally run a key investigation. it involved humoney payments to women claiming affairs with mr. trump. "the new york times" reports he asked for geoffrey berman, a federal prosecutor in new york, to run the investigation. the president today branded it "fake news." vermont senator bernie sanders will again seek the democratic party's presidential nomination. the 77-year-old independent formally announced today that he's joining the 2020 field. in ierviews, he called again for medicare-for-all, a higher minimum wage and free colle tuition, just as he did in 2016.
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>> all of those ideas people would say, "oh bernie, they're so radical. they are extreme. the american people just won't accept those ideas." well, you know what's happened in over three years? all of those ideas and many more are now part of the political mainstream, and a majority of the american people now support them. >> woodruff: sanders is the 12th major democra enter the race.dv longtime trumper roger stone has been summoned back to fedel court in washington th week, and may have his bail revoked. judge amy berman jackson acted after stone posted a photo of her with what loed like the crosshairs of a gun, in one corner. stone says he meant no threat. he is charged with lying tore co, witness-tampering and obstruction, in the russia investigation. there's word that white house officials tried to override national security concerns, in
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2017, to share nuclear power technology with saudi arabia. the proposal never advanced, but democrats on the house oveight committee opened an owvestigation today. they cited whistle claims. saudi arabia is under scrutiny over the war in yemen, and the murder of journalist jamal khashoggi. in kashmir, new tensions between nuclear rivals india and pakistan are still running high. last week, an attack in the indian-controlled sector of the region killed at least 40. soldie today, india said it has killed the attack organizer. in turn, pakistan's prime minister imran khan offered to hold talks, but he also warned indian >> ( ated ): if you think that you will launch any kind of attack then pakistan will merely think about the retaliation. pakistan will retaliate. and after that where things will go, we all know.
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>> woodruff: in turn, india's foreign minister criticized khan and said his government has not done enough to fight terrorism in kashmir. back in this country, the u.s. supreme court agreed to consider a challenge to the scope of the 1972lean water act. at issue is whether the law regulates discharginwastewater into the ground. more than a dozen states asked the court to take the case.wh mee, justice ruth bader ginsburg returned to the bench today, for t first time since having lung cancer surgery in december. a new teacher's strike in west virginia got quick results today. teachers walked out this morning, opposing a bill to create charter schools and special savings accounts for private hool tuition. within hours, the state house killed the bill. a teachers strike in westar virginia last ed to similar job actions nationwide. and, wall street managed a modest advance. the dow jones industrial averag
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gained eight points to close at 25,891. the nasdaq rose 14 points, and the s&p 500 added four. still to come on the newshour: getting to the bottom of alleged bellot fraud in north carolina. the widening gulf een the ans. and european alli. a look at the tax of 2020 democratic candidates, much more. >> woodruff: voters in north carolina's ninth congressional district still don't know who their congressman is. today officials held a second day of hearings to determine whether th can certify the resu republican mark harris defeated democrat dan mcready by just 905 vote miles parks from npr has been
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inside the hear, and he joins me no from raleigh, miles parks, welcome to the news hour so what are we learning? what are you hearing and learning in these hearings on what happened? >> so the investigation is focused on rely one man, mccray dallas is his name. he was political operative hired by republican mark harris' campaign with get out the vote efforts. state r sepresents aring his efforts went a lot further than the apt-28 loued. normal efforts encouraging people to vote and registering them to vote. people say dallas collected ballot, which is iegal. a woman said she even went as far as filling in blank races that wereot filled out b the voters. >> woodruff: so that's my question: whate evideas the state providedve that p that
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mr. dallas broke the law? >> well, we have heard from a number o voters who say they provided dallas with ballots that were unsealed. we heard from oe specific woman maimed lisa britt, who is dallas' former step-daughter. she said dallas paid her to collec ballots. that in and of itself is breaking north carolina law. it's called ballot harvesting. it calls into question a number of election integrity issues, because there is questions about whether dallas if he was checking these ballots, whether he turned in all the ballots that he did collect, or whether he manipulated them in some way. the numbers showed after the election that absentee ball hot numbers where dallas was based were rally skewed toward mark rris that iwas really suspicious to election watchers nationally. >> woodruff: so has dalla testifie have we heard from him so far? the hearings go on another day at least, is that right? >> they do. and we have heard from dallas kind of yesterday. he was called to testiut, be
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declined. basically it was a really uncomfortable, tense moment, where he stood up with his attorney and his attorney sically said, if you have him testify, north carolina law says he receives immunity for that testimony if you compel it from him.ar the state went enter a closed session, came out and said, "we are not willing to provide immunity from prosecution for mr. dallas." dallas is obviously in some real legal jeopardy. they don't want to provide any outlet where he could get out of ufthis. >> woo i gather today there was testimony from somebody who was defending him. >> defendanting him sortf. basically andy yates is the man's name. he ran a political consulting t fit was the middle man between dallas and republican mark harris. he paid dallas more than $100,000 for his get out the vote services. yates id he knew nothing about dallas' illegal actions.d he she thought everything dallas was doing was legal, and dallas had assured him, because
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theypoke almostvery single day, he assured him everything he was doing was legal, but yates said after watching testimony, he said he doesn't know if he believes anything dallas td him over the past year that they've been talking. >> woodruff: and thnumber of ballots that may have been mishandled in some way, is th c a number thld override the margin thats today, we said, what, 905 votes? >> right. 905 votes is the magic number that mark harris defeated dan mcready by. it's really still unclearth whethe number of ballots dallas handled actually hits that number. wet know t either dallas or people paid by dallas turned in registration forms for more than 1,000 voters, but it's stillho uncleamany ballots dallas collected an how many he turned in. 's really unclr whether we're ever going to know that number, and republicans say, if the number -- if the investigators do not show enough eidence to say ballots were affected to getn close to
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5-vote margin, then harris should be certified. >> woodruff: clearly a lot of eyes on these a hearings, as you say, they are going into tomorrow. >> yeah, they are. it's really unclear how long this will go. they started out as potentially aone-day or two-day hearing. it's been extended tomorrow. they say they have the roo reserved until thursday. we're basically taking this day by day. testimony has been going slirly ly. they've gone through less than a dozen witnesses, and there's zens more that both candidates have requested to testify. >> woodruff: a lot of eyes on that hearing. miles parks with npr, thank you. >> thank you. >> woodruff: for more than 70 years, global security has been underwritten by the alliance between the united states and its european partners. since president trumtook office, those bonds have been frayed. and, as nick sifrin reports,
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that unraveling was on display over the weekend, at the annual munich security conf. >> schifrin: walking into theem world's prre security conference, the host was received as if she were leader of the free world. (applause) and when german chancellor angela merkel took the stage, she defended the free trade the u.s. once championed. >> ( translated ): in south carolina, there is one of the ggest factories, no the biggest factory for bmw. not in bavaria. now, all of a sudden, they areew being as a security threat to the united states. that shocks us. (applause) >> schifrin: as the audience applauds, first daughter and senior advisor ivanka trump stays quiet. what has shocked this audience at world leaders is a president of the united st who's called the european union an f economoe. europe opposed u.s. decisions to withdraw from the iran nuclear deal and t intermediate nuclear forces treaty, or i.n.f., restricting mid-range missiles, which merkel called the worst decisionf all.
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>> ( translated ): we want to say this especially to our u.s. friends: a treaty originally meant to protect europe, a treaty for disarmament, meant for our protection, is termated by the u.s. and russia, and we are just left to l't there. >> schifrin: mers frustration was open hostility in the conference's annual trreport, which accused thp administration of displaying "irritating enthusiasm for stromen across the globe" an "disdain for international institutions and agreements." and that criticism turned applause for merkel ilence for vice president pence. >> i bring greetings from the 45th president of the united states of america, president donald trump. (silence) >> schifrin: he got the same cold shoulder two days earlier in poland. >> as we bring the economic and diplomatic pressure necessary to give the iranian people the region and the world the peace, security and freedom they deserve. (silence)
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>> schifrin: transatntic leaders traded pleasantries. but european diplomats said the transatlantic alliance that has anchoredlobal security, was losing its grip. here's now munich chairman wolfgang ischinger closed the conference: >> a vast majority is now sharing our conviction that we have a real problem. >> schifrin: for more on this tense alliance, we turn to two congressmen who attended the munich conference. senator ben cardin, democratd of maryland, publican representative jim banks of indiana. is thank you very much to you both for being on theprews howmple entative banks, let me start with you. as we just heard, there is a problem, referring to president trump and theransatlantic alliance at the end of that conference. is there a problem? >> i don't know if i would call it a problem. we were a part -- we were both a part of the largest congressional delegation ever to attend the munich security conference, about 55 members of congress went along with vice present pence and members of the trump administration to
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assure ourato allies that america stands with them. but vice president pence's message overall was the same tough love this administration has shown since the very beginning to nato, calling on them to all meet their 2% nato g.d.p. goals. we met with the secretary-general, who said nato has benefited from that tough love of president trump, and nato is as strong as ever. so i believe the relationship is as strong as it's ever been,hnd inyears ahead, nato can and will be strong and ae to achieve what it set out tohe achieve from t beginning in ways that have want seen before. >> schifrin: senator cardin, you just heard tough love from the president and vice president. what's wrong with that? >> i think this is a european security conference, and you have the president of the united states, some of his first actions as prident was to question the major security
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agreement, nato. then he withdraws from the paris climate talks. then he withdraws from the iran nuclear agreement, and most recently he changes america's course in syria without conferring with our allies. i think our european friends se th president embracing leaders that have been on attack against democratic institutions, so thew wonder reliable the united states is as a partner to defenu democracy ipe. so i think it is understandable that europe would be very concerned as to what this partnership means regards to european security. >> schifrin: representative banks, the iran nuclear deal, the imf treaty, the paris climate agreement, the syria pullout, and this issue of detainees that had been caughtse thatto be part of ice sis. does europe have a point when it questions whether president trump values the alliance? >> well, let's go back to the
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start of what the munichty secus about to begin with. it's to talk about the major issues of the day. t and many o differences like the ones that you just mentioned that we have tween the united states of america and our european allies. so i found there coce, which by the way was my first munich security conference, to be a healthy dialogue between the u.s. and our partners. i found more agreement with our allies on so many points than i found disagreement. but that is what makes the conference a healthy interactios betweend europe to begin with. >> schifri senator cardin, the president's defenderser as you know, distinguish between the rhetoric and the policy. the president might be rhetorically tough or rhetorically easy on former enemies, perhaps nor korea, russia, rhetorically tough on europe, but the policy against russia is tough, more u.s. troops in europe, more offensive weapons to ukraine, more natoen
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investment and the president's defenders say a better nafta. so the president's-iƱ defendersy actually despite the rhetoric, the policies have improved. >> well, quite frankly, i think the members of congress, both democrats d republicans, deserve a lot of credit in regard to getting tough on russia. it was the congress that initiated the sanctions bill that the president signed, and it allowed us to ke a very tough position against russia's involvement in ukraine, their meddling in our election, their interference the european democracy institutions, democratic understand talkings. but it was a conditional it wasn't the president. when you look at north korea, they don't see results. they see the g presidenting kim jong-un a platform. as we found out, there has been no progress made toedce or eliminate their nuclear weapons capacity. t sonk they are just questioning whether the policies are the right policies for our security. they see the tariffs that were imposed against our friends
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under national security waer, and they wonder why you have to tse national security agains allies. so i do think they question the policies. and i would admit that the wayid the prt does business really gets under their skin. they don't -nkthey like to t that when you're a friend, you'll be consulted before action is taken and not treated the way the president has treated our alli r. >> schifriresentative banks, a majority of germans and french now trust russiand china more than the united states. isn't that a problem? >> it is a problem, andvice president pence spoke quite a bit about this, and what thought was most important part of his address at the munich securitync confe he told our allies that there will be a price to pay if the turn to the east rather than the west and partner withomnies like yahweh, which is a snake in the grass, posing not just an economic threat but a security
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threat, notust to the u.s., but to our european ally, as well some these were important discussis that were had at the conference. they were just the beginning, though. we have a long ways to go to continue to work with our allies in europed sewhere to turn them back in the right direction on many different nes. >> schifrin: in order cardin, the u.s. and europe havedi greed strongly before, the iraq war even. people talked about maybe this relationship will never recoverv it obviously red. why would this moment be different than that? >> quitfrankly, europe will not find security with china or with russia. thear transatlanticership is critically important for european security and american security. i think that was the message you heard undersced by man of us to say, look, we got to increase our confidence between europe and the united states. you have to invest in nato. you have to makeit clear, we will not tolerate the type of acvity we see from mr. putin in russia.
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and we'll stand tall against chineseractices that tried to undermine our own security. i eyink that's the message that we want to make. we want to reinforce thert rship between europe and the united states, and admittedly it's difficult under the leadership of president trump. >> schifrin: senator ben cardin of maryland, representative jim banks, republican of indiana, thank you very much to you both.r3 thank you. dr >> wf: tonight, the first in our new series examining the policy positions of the ever-op growing f 2020 presidential contenders. sa dejardins begins our coverage with a look at the range of tax plans being pushed on the campaign trail. >> desjardins: front and center on the 2020 democratic campaign trail: widening economic divide. >> reversing this administration's giveaways to
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big corporations and the top one percent. >> desjardins:t is a two-fold push. candidates' are outlining new plans to reduce poverty, which they argue will only exacerbate economic divides in america, blasting the republican tax cuts, especially the corporate cuts, as a giveaway to the richr >> it is not, it is not acceptable, and it is not sustainable that the top one- tenth of one percent now owns almost as much wealth as the bottom 90%. >> desjardins: vermont senator bernie sanders, newly announced as a candidate, sparked this latest drive in his 2016 run. he wants to provide universal health care well as free pre- school and free tuition at public colleges. he'd raise money for that by raising estate taxes, on inheritance over $3.5 million, with a top rate of 77% tax at over $1 billion.nn >> we afford to just
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tinker around the edges with a tax credit here or regulationer our fight is for big, structural change.>> esjardins: massachusetts senator elizabeth warren would transform the cost of child care, she'd make it free for w-income families and cap it at much lower than current costs for most everyone else warren would pay for that with a first-of-its-kind two percent taon overall wealth or ne worth above $50 million. >> and an ultra-millionaire tax to make sure that rich people start doing their part for the country that made em rich.in >> desja there is more... >> we will deliver the largest working and middle-class tax cut in a generation. >> desjardins: california senator kamala harris proposes a more classic middle and lower- class tax cut, anyone makihang less$50,000 a year, would see a $3,000 tax credit. it'd be twice that for families. her pay plan?
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eliminate some current republican tax cuts.e thing harris, and another presidential candidateo tackle-- housing and rent. >> we need a lot of changerom our tax laws to ending things like carried interests. >> desjardins: new jerseyco senato booker's plan would give a tax credit to those whose income goes disproportionately rent. he'd also provide a $1,000 savings bond to each child every year until they tu 18. booker would raise the current estate tax. >> i can support folks at the top paying their fair share. >> desjardins: julian castro, the former housing and urb development secretary under president obama, has backed an idea by new york congresswoman alexandria ocasio-cortez to return to pre-1980s dividual tax rates, with incomes over $10 million taxed at 60 to 70%. they're now capped at 37%.ne w york senatorrairsten gillibnd's campaign also says she's interested in pursuing higher taxes on the rich.
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meanwhile centrist amy klouchar takes a different approach-- she would close what she sees as tax loopholes for the rich but otrwise believes her fello democrats are going too far. >> i am not for free four-year college for all, no, and i wish-- if i was a magic nie and could give that to everyone and we could afford it, i would, >> desjardins: in a crowded field of democratic candidates, a rigorous and broad debate over wealth. for more we turn to philip bump of the "washington post." for more we tu to philip bump the "washington post." philip, let me start right away with why do you think all of these plans are happening now? >> we're talking about a democratic electorate, which over the course of the past two decades and overhe course of the past year, has grown increasiisly liberal. s an electorate that wants to see bold talk on things like raising taxes for t wealthiest americans. this is a very different electorate that went to the polls in 1992 and brought bill
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clinton to the white house and, you know, who then sort of took a middle of the road strategy toward governance. this is nothat democrats now want to see. the democrats have jumped into the race already and are very cognizant of that. >> there is a broad spectrum of ideas, some dealing with rentals and housing andhildcare and education. how do you group these plans ina way to conceptualize the important differences here? >> i think there are a series ol plans which r put a focus on where the revenue is generated from. senatore things like bernie sanders' proposals around the estate tax. we see senator elizabeth warren's proposal on taxing income. we see these various proposals that are focused on where the revenue comes from. we see a lot ofsa pro including some from sanders and warren, which focus on what thne ts would be that result from that revenue increase. senatoreople like kamala harris who put an emphasis on what the programs
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are first and then talked about where some of the additionalul revenue come from after the fact. so it's really a bidirectional strategy. and i think the thing we're in the used to seeing, we're very used to seeing proposed programs, proposed taxz cuts for the middle class, such as harris has put forward. poat we're less used to seeing in presidentiatics is bold and aggressive talk about taxing the richest americans at a higher rate. that i think is unusual. i think that's new to this primary season to some extent, too. >> what do we knowabout the appeal of that to the american voter? >> americansroadly would like the see rich people pay more in taxes, right? this is sometng that gallup has been polling on for decades and consistently people think the richest amerins don't pay their fair share of taxes. now, the problem is once you tually talking about what that means, once you start putting forward proposals about taxation, it gets a lot murkier pretty quickly. so, for example, if you taketi represen representativeas
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-cortez's suggestion that you tax people who have $10 million in iome or more annually at 70%, that's something that actually doesn't pollhat well. while you can ask people, do you think people who earn $10 million orore should py higher tax, people say, yes, broadly, a, if news poll that sort of taxation is very popular, but a very specific proposal like ocasio-cortez's doesn't fare as well because people srt considering the numbers. i think it is the case some of these proposals that have been put forward are going to be ones the democratic base can embrace. >> so a big question with just a eflittle bit of time it's been sort of a rule of american politics for decades that you don't propose a tax increase, whether or not these candidates are successful or becoming president, is that rule potentially up for change? do we see a sea changeere? >> yeah, i think it may be in part because the repuaficans r years of talking about
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slashing taxes were able to d so in 2017. so americans have seen that sort of proposal go int effect in way that's fairly novel in recent years, and they have seen the effects. for example, revenue fromro corporationsed pretty substantially between 2017 and 2018. those are the sorts of things americans can now look at and say, we know what that change los like, it may make them more open to other changes in tack code. i can'teinforce this enough, in the abstract, americans really like the idea of rich ericans paying more in taxes. it is just whether or not a candidate can find that sweet spot of a particular policy proposal that appeals both to democrats in the primary and americans more generally duringi the general el. >> in about a year or so we should find out. philip bp, thank you very much. >> woodruff:his past weekend, the vatican made its strongest move yet against sexual abuse in
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the church by defrocking former u.s. cardinal theodore mccarrick for sexually abusingren and adults. mccarrick is the first former cardinal to be thrown out of the church. william brangham examines whether this marks a new chapteu in theh's approach. >> brangham: the move againstrr mck is seen by many as a turning point in the pope's handling of this crisis, which some have argued has thus far been too slow and too timid. while hundreds of priests have beenhrown out of the church, few leaders as senior as mccarrick have been punished. this sexual abuse scandal hasnd struck a tres blow to the church's authority, and, of course, has left thousands of victims traumatized. now, as bishops from around the world gather in rome this week for an unpcedented conference to address sexual abuse, we turn to john allen. he's been covering the catholicf chur decades. he's written eleven books on the topic and is now the editor of the crux, an online site covering the catholic world. he joins me from rome.
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john allen, welcome back to the newshour. for those people who have not been following this as closely as you have for so long, the you help usan under the vatican's punishment of mccarrick, embassy plain the significance >> you have to understand, for a cleric that is a middle east or a deacon in the catholic church, being defrocked, the technical phrase is being dismissed fromri the cl state, is the most severe punishment the church law impose. it's the catholic equivalent of the deh penalty. oso to see that happen not simply to an ordinary parish priest but to a cardinal, and this is the first time a cardinal has been pebbleized for the crimeexual abuse of a minor, that's an extraordinary signal by the vatican and by pope francis. what it essentially indicates is that the church's stated mmitment to zero tolerance, that its permanent reval from
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ministry from one act of sexual abuse of a minor applies at all levels. and that obviously is a signal the vatican wanted to send ahead of the summit that you mentioned that opens here in rome on thursday this week. y> brangham: prior to this move on saturdamany were arguing the pope was not doing enough. can you summarize what their criticism of him has beeh >>e message has gone out that if you are a priest, a dean archbishop, now even a cardinal in the catholic church, and you are found guilty of sexually abusing a min, you're out. what the church has not adopted, and this is the point thats critve made and will continue to make this week ash the summit that's taking place in rome, is that the church does not have an equally strong system of accountability for the cover-up of that crime. that is there are bishop, religious superior, otherhu leaders in theh who have been accused and with some basis of turning a blind eye to abusem ted by people under their
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authority, of deliberately ignoring it, willfully not knowing about it. they have not sufred this kind of consequence. >> brangham: as you knoon sunday, there was a press conference held by bishop accountality, a u.s. advocacy group, for victims. they said there are more many mccarricks out there. they named five bishops that they said should face the same fate as he did. i'm curious, do you think that is likely that more senior leaders will be punished? >> actually, i think that's thquite likely. five bishops that they named are bishops who have, much like the former cardinal and now former priest theodore theodore mccarrick, they have been accused of established abuse. i think the church has established if there is sexual abuse against someone, they will be punished and quite likelyer will sufhe most severe form
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of punishment, which is being riesthood. of the other advocacy groups will also add they want the same kind ofor accountabilityhe cover-up, not just for the crime. i think that's much more an eten question, r a similar sort of punishment is going to be imposed for concealing the crime rather than committing it directly. >> brangham: about this conference. 'd like the read something you ote recently. you wrote, "perhaps this summit can't deliver everything, but it had damn well better deliver something." what would that something be in order for it to be thought of as meaningful? >> well, honestly, i think the answer to at question depends on where you are in the world. places such as the united statesmuch of western europe, they have experienced the clerical sexual abuse scandals for the better part of two decades now with full force i think the expectations there are very different than they would be say in subsaharan africa or much of asia, pockets of latin america,av thatnot at all experienced the sexual
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abuse crisis. there i think the expectation would be mh more minimal. they would like their bishops to be aware this is a problem and toegin taking steps to address it. but people who have lived with this scandal for a long te, their expectation would be that out of this summit would come a clear, unambiguous commitment to a policy of zero tolerance, both for the crime of clerical sexual abe and also forhe cover-up of that crime. and i suspect that for my people in the united states, survivors of abuse,me ref, activists around this issue, if this summit does n deliver a clear endorsement of that kind of zero tolerae, then they are going to construe it to be a flop. >> brangham: all right, john oulen of the crux, thank y very much. >> you're omwe >> woodruff: some of the nation's top teachers recently
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gathered in el paso, texas to speak out against the u.s. government's pctice of detaining children who cross into this country from mexico, and to see that they get the support they need when they get back into the classroom. special correspondent kavitha cardoza of our partner "education wee was there, and filed this report. it's part of our weekly education series, "making the grade." >> all children deserve to be free. >> reporter: manny manning, this year's national teacher of the year, dismisses the idea that educators should not be involved in politics. >> educators are mandatory reporters of suspected abuse and how we are dealing with them now is abusive. 're taking children and we're putting them into facilities anm incarcerating simply because they were born outside the united states. >> reporter: several state teachers of the year agree. >> when i was 12 years old i was undocumented. and because of the daca program
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i was able to work as a teacher. >> what happens in one part of the country affects us all. even though in my rural community i may not necessarily see these problems manifest, they still belong to all of us as americans.>> eporter: this part of west texas is the epicenter of president trump's hardline immigration policies. one facility in particular, has drawn a lot of attention. it's about 35 miles from el paso, in a small, sleeptoy bordr called tornillo. i'm standing on the u.s. side of the u.s./mexico border and behind me you can see one of the official ports of entry. here in tornillo, texas is where the "tent cy" used to be. this was a temporary shelter, initially meanto have 350 beds r unaccompanied immigrant children crossing the border but it quickly expanded to more than 10 times that number. at one point it was the largesth ter for migrant children in the country. it's closed down now but there
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are still approximately 100 shelters across the u.s. mandy manning says if this helter can close down, so can others. >> i see the clong of tornillo as the beginning because it shows that our government has the ability and the capacity to close these facilities. they're just choosing not to. >> reporter: the department of health and human services, which oversees detained migrant children, declined an on-camera interview. in an email, a spokesperso wrote that the shelters are run consistent with federal law. children have access to medical care, psychological services, recreation and education. jessica vaughan advocates for less immigration. she's at the center for stimmigratioies. >> the understanding of many people in ceral america was that if an adult shows up at the
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border with a child, they would be treated differently, theyow would be a to enter the country. and not only did this motivate a lot of parents to come with a child, it also led some of the smuggling organizations to try and game the system by providntg their clwith a child to use to try and get through. so in a way the child wasor serving as a dtion shield. >> reporter: linda rivas disagrees that children are being used as shields. she's an attorney with las americas immigntnt advocacy . >> that's absolutely not true. our clients are escaping some aprm of violence. some of them are eg domestic violence. some of them are escaping other forms of persecution. >> reporter: rivas is speaking to a client who was separateder fromhildren when she crossed the border to seek asylum. the mother, who has sien deported back to honduras, hasn't seen her children in more than a year.
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>> ( translated ): at night i would dream that we were watogether and then i woul up to the reality again that we aere not. my children need m i'm not there. this is the hardest thing that a mother should ever have to go thugh. li>> reporter: when court s forced the government to change its policies, her two sons, along with thousands of other migrant children, were moved from shelters to be reunited with family members all over the country. her sons a now living with a relative and are attending public school. >> ( translated ): my hope for em is for them to study. in my country, they couldn't. they can hardly readecause we were so scared that we had to continue moving them from school to schoo now, i just hope that they're tole to meet their goals and that they're ablinish school. >> reporter: research shows these detained children suffer high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression and behavioobl ms. experts found even brief detention can cause
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psyclogical trauma and induc long-term health risks for children. sarahi monterrey says she sees these effects of trauma in her classroom. students say they are sad, can't concentrate or hs.e stomach ac >> it's very difficult for students to learn. and it very hard because even as an educator, it's hard to find the right words of what to say, because sometimes i do feel helpless. >> reporter: but at this eventsh s found information andsh chsources e can take back and share with other ts. mandy mannning hopes teachers continue to speak out. >> we shouldn't stay in our classrooms. we're teachers. we should be speaking for all kids. >> woodruff: his is a regu voice on the newshour: "washington post" columnistl
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michrson fills in from time to time, as part of our regular friday wrap-up of the week'sbuolitical news. this past sunday, he delivered the guest sermon at washgton's national cathedra. it focused not on politics, but on something more personal he revealed that he battles depression. >> like nearly one in 10 americans, and like many of you, i liveith this insidious, chronic disease. depression is a malfunion in the instrument we use to determine reality. >> woodruff: and michael g wson h me now. welcome to the program. >> good to be with you. >> woodruff: michaeonl, how have you known that you had depression? >> really since my 20s. but like a lot of people, i thought i was coping. i w on antidepressants. i was able to finish my work. and that's how a lot of men and women determine whether they'ree sung or not. i was really very much in a downward spira of depression.
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my psychiatrist said, you're on a dangerous course. and she was exactly right. >> woodruff: what made you decide to talk publicly about it? >> well, i was asked to do this sermon months ago, so it came ae just time, about two weeks before i had had a medical hospitalization for depression. and it had been a week in the hospitalized. and coming out of that experience, you have to make a choice. are you going to be public, are you not going to be public. part of the problem is there is a stigma. there should be no stigma attached to this. i thought i'd give the message pretty pure and let people deal with it the way they want, butth response has been extraordinary. and a lot ofm t froople who look like they're coping themselves, you know, public people that you think, u know, they're successful, and they're not. th're on the same kind of path.
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and it's a dangerous one. >> woodruffyou said among other things in the sermon, you said over time despair can grow inside you like a tumor. how has it affected your life? >> well, it's interesting. e lowt a journal at point of my last depression that got me in the hospital. and you write tw,ngs, you k i'm a burden to my friends or no one cares about me that are just lies. j tht are not true. but at that moment, when you wre them, you believe they're true. and that very much is the function of your brain, you now, related to certain chemical reactions, where you get, you know, a depressive episode, and it interprets it in ways that are consistent with your brain patterns, and you end up thinking no one likes me. and it seems, particularly when you're isolated, it can be very
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dangerous. because all you are are these thoughts in your own hd, these resume nations in your own head. it really takes other people to break into that and say, this is wrong. this was notrue. what you're thinking is not correct. and, you know, there are a lotay of to recover from, that but it really is -- you have to have ati recog that you're not right. >> woodruff: i think for many people it's striking that someone as successful as you are, a columnist for this important newspaper, the "washington pt," speechwriter in the bush white house, you have had a public role for a long time, and yet you have been battling this year after year. explain how you can both be in the public eye, be doing the important work you're doing, and be dealing with this. >> well, you do it by husbanding your energy to do the thing you haveo do in your life, and then letting a lot of other things in your life, whether it's family or social engagement, or a lot of other
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things slide. and, you know,t' eventually t all you have left is a work life. and that was the situation which i was in. d it was noay to live. it really was on ah. bad p but i know people that have -- that are, you know, struggle with depression, you know, prominent teachers. i have some col pfessors at harvard today. i got some from other mea figures. it's a broader group of people thanouhink. and part of it is because people can cope in their work life, but they're not really coping in the rest of their lives. >> >> woodruff: you said in the sermon, and you said a number of things i wish we could talk rcted, but at one point you were talking about ywn faith, and you talked about when all else failsthere is love. how does that play a role?
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>> well, even the bottomf your depression, you sometimes get hints and glimmerof hope. and it's usually someone coming to you and showing you that they care about you deeply, that they love you dee and that can be professionals, it can be family, it can be friends but it's -- you know, a lot of people think, i don't want to get involved, but someone who is in a depressive episode like thateeds to know that they're cared for. and i of courase am christian. i come from a christian background. i think there is a broader divine love involved, as well, 'sre, that everybody is created in g image and is equal before him. and remembering that, remembering that you're as valuable as everybody else can be part of a recovery. i think a l of peop have that experience. >> woodruff: one ofhe thing that's clearly coming there this
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is others are responding. d whyou say? what did your own experience do you think say the people battling depression and the people around them who love them? >> people should get professional help. you can't will yourself out of this disease any more than you can will wrowrs out of tuberculosis. this is a physical disease where you need help. but isolation can be deadly. and that has to be broken ndby family also broken by the people themselves that are involved with it. you know, i'm not anxample here. this is a fairly recent depressive episode. i know i'll get one agai that's the nature of a chronic disease. but you need to put in place the structures by which when you need to be rescued, that there are people thereo rescue you. my psychiatrist was really a godsend and was, you know, it thou was coping. she said, you're not, this is
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not the way t live. everyone needs -- everyone who is are dive needs someone in their life to say this. you're not living the life you could live. you're, in fact, much too hard on yourself. you're living ina kind of small little world of your own creation. and you need to come out of it and i think family and friends can play a really important role then. >> >> woodruff: i thought it was so important to try to have a conversation with you. i was struc when you sa nearly one in ten americans are battling depression and hearing your story can make a difference. >> well, tha you,@% i appreciate that. >> woodruff: michael gerson, we thank you. >> woodruff: a giant of the fashion world passed aday. karl lagerfeld helped shape the modern fashion industry through his work with major hond his own personal style.
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jeffrey brown has our remembrance, part of our ongoing arts and culture series, "canvas." >> brown: his nameas synonymous with luxury fashion for well over half a century. the german-born designer spent the bulk of his career at the helm of some of the world's biest fashion houses. >> you know fashion is not needed. there are other problems in the world which may be mo re importan this is not a problem but it's an industry and you know, fashion has to go with time. if fashion doesn't go with time, fashion would be lost. >> brown: lagerfeld transformed the italian brand fendi, becoming its creative director in 1965, and spent 20 years designing for the french label chloe. but he's best remembered for being the creative force behind the french fashion house chanel, taking over in 1983 and working up until his death. he took what some then saw as a stodgy label and added all manner of attention-grabbingde signs, including reinventing
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their iconic tweed suits for a younger set, slashing hemlines and adding glitzy accents. robin givhan is the "washington post's" fashion critic. >> he revived chanel when he took it over, the founder had been deceased for almost0 years, and it was somewhat of a dusty brand, lived on in the fragrance. but he was one of those firstsi deers that invented it, incredible financial success >> brown: lagerfeld was just as well-known for his distinct personal style: his signature ponytail, dark sunglas and black finger-less leather gloves. shoppers outside the chanel store in paris today lamented the fashion industry's loss. >> ( translated ): karl lagerfeld represented creation, frdom, an era.
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what is scary now is that there used to be great artists and inventors. we went through a period when we were reinventing a bit andin geinspired, and now, we are starting to lose the people who served as inspirations. >> brown: that singular, even quirky, vision was on full ,isplay at his runway shows making catwalks out of the unlikeliest of places, from the great wall of china to a mock-up of at terminal. lagerfeld did not appear at chanel's january show in paris to take his customary bow, setting off rumors he was ill. the fashion house confirmed his death today in paris. karl lagerfeld was 8s old. >> woodruff: before we go, a preview of our weeklfacebook watch show, "that moment when." this week, actor justine bateman the price of fame.
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>> when you become very famous for a long period of time,ev ybody changes around you. you don't change, but everybody changes around you, and how we form reality is by looking at what's being reflectedack at us. now, if everybody is reflecting back to you that you're this incredibly famous person, maybe you don't want to think about it and eventlly you just relax into it and it becomes part of the foundation of your reality think about other things that are foundational to somebody's reality, who they're married to, who their parents are, the job they have, and thent when starts descending, that's what you find out what you had attached to it. you can't help but start attaching your self-esteem, your identi, yourelf-worth, your standing in society. you allow certain tethers to be hooked into you.'s and ine. it's comfortable, but when that fame starts pulling away, itul startsng those tethers with it. you go, oh, oh, god, it's attached to this, it's attachedn to thithat, and you have the start unhooking them really fast. some peoe don't want t do the
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unhooking. of everything that was attached to the fame. it's a defense. >> woodruff: find all episodes of our program on facebook watch at that moment when show. and that's the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. join us online and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and see you soon. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> babbel. a language app that hes real-life conversations in a new language, like spanish, french, german, italian, and more. >> the ford foundation. working with visionaries on the frontlines of social change worldwide.
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>> carnegie corporation of new york. supporting innovations in education, democratic engagement, and the advancement of internationalrieace and se. at carnegie.org. s> and with the ongoing support of these instituti and individuals. >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pb statom viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org
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. hello, everyone. and welcome to amanpour and company. here's what's coming up. >> i didn't need to do this but i'd rather do it much faster. >> legal and political fears for the president's emergency declaration. ic senator chris coons on what's to come. and one of trump's closest confidants on the presidential mind-set plus. >> i want to run away. >> that's what the drinking is about. >> a candid look at thowing up wi the specter of domestic abuse. how skateboarding saved director bing yu's life. and matthew broderick and director sean snider speak about their dark comedy "to dust."

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