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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  February 19, 2019 6:00pm-7:01pm PST

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening, i'm w judruff. on the newshour tonight, a dramatic elections boantrd hearg ues in north carolina over alleged ballot fraud. it's t one remaining undecided congressional ce from the 2018 elections. then, our coverage of the race for the 2020 democratic presidential nomination continues with a look at the array of tax plans offered by the candidates. and, the nation's top teachers head to the southern border to stage a "teach-in," protesting the separation and detention of migrant children. >> educators are mandatory reporters of suspected abuse, and how we are dealing with immigration right now is abusive. we're taking children and we are putting them into facilities anc inating them, simply because they were born outside
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of the united states. >> woodruff: allhat and more on tonight's pbs newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshenour has be provided by: cr >> on se with american cruise lines, you can experience american cruise lines fleet of small ships explore american landmarks, local cultures almnd aterways. american cruise lines, proud sponsor of pbs newshour. >> ordering takeout. >> finding the west route. >> talking for hours. >> planning for showers. >> you can do the things you like to do with a wireless plan designed for you. with talk, text and data. consumer cellular.
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n more at consumercellular.tv >> babbel. a language app that teaches real-life conversations in a new language, like spanish, french, german, italian, and more. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions: >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. d by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: president trump insisted today that he had, in his words, an "aolute right" to declare a national emergency. that, after california and 15 other states challenged the declaration in federal court. they said diverting military funds to build a southern bordet wall will huir economies and military bases. mr. trump predicted he will win
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the court fig. in a tweet, he also attacked the 16 states, saying they are "led mostly by open border democrats and the radical left". separately, the president denied king mark whitaker, who s then, acting attorney general, to have an ally run a key investigatio it involved hush money payments to wom claiming affairs with mr. trump. "the new york times" reports he asked for geoffrey berman, a federal prosecutor in new york, to run the investigation. the president today branded it "fake news." vermont senator bernie sanders will again seek the democratic party's presidential nomination. the 77-year-old independent formally announced today that he's joining the 2020 field. in interviews, he called again for medicare-for-all, higher minimum wage and free college tuition, just as he did in 2016.
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le all of those ideas peop would say, "oh bernie, they're so radical. they are extreme. the american people just won't accept those ideas." well, you know what's happened in over three years? all of those ideas and many more are now part of the political mainstream, and a majority of the american people now support them. >> woodruff: sanders is the 12th major democratic candidate to enter the race. longtime trump adviser roger stone has been summock to federal court in washington this week, anmay have his bail revoked. judge amy berman jackson acted after stone posted a photo of her with what looked like the crosshairs of a gun, in one corner. stone says he meant no threat.ch he iged with lying to e ngress, witness-tampering and obstruction, in ssia investigation. usthere's word that white officials tried to override national security concerns, in
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2017, to share nuclear power technology with saudi arabia. the proposal never advced, but democrats on the house oversight committee opened anig inveion today. they cited whistleblower claims. saudi arabia is under ny over the war in yemen, and the murder of journalist jal khashoggi. in kashmir, new tensions between nuclear rivals india and pakistan are still running high. last week, an attack in the indian-controlled sector of the region killed at least 40 soldiers. today, india said it has killed the attack oanizer. in turn, pakistan's prime d minister imran khan offe hold talks, but he also warned india. >> ( translated ): if you think that you will launch any kind of attack then pakistan will merely think about the retaliation.l pakistan wtaliate. and after that where things will go, we all know.dr
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>> wf: in turn, india's foreign minister criticized khan and said his government has noto doneh to fight terrorism in kashmir. back in this country, the u.s. supreme court agreed to nsider a challenge to the scope of the 1972 clean water act. at issue is whher the law regulates discharging wastewater into the ground. more than a dozen states askedak the court tothe case. meanwhile, justice ruth bader ginsburg returd to the bench today, for the first time since having lung cancer surgery inmb de. a new teacher's strike in westvi inia got quick results today. teachers walked out this morning, opposing a bill to create charter schools an special savings accounts for private school tuition. within hours, the state house killed the bill. a teachers strike in west virginia last year led to similar job actions nationwide. and, wall street managed a modest advance. the dow jones industrial average gained eight points to close at
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25,891. the nasdaq rose 14 points, andd the s&p 500 adur. still to come on the newshour: gettgeg to the bottom of alled ballot fraud in north carolina. the widening gulf between the u.s. and european allies. a lo0 at the tax plans of 202 democratic candidates, and much more. >> woodruff: voters in north carolina's ninth congressional district still don't know who their congressman is.s today officild a second day of hearings to determine whether they can certify the results. republican mark harris deated democrat dan mcready by just 905 votes. miles parks from npr has been
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inside the hear, and he joins me esw. from raleigh, m parks, welcome to the news hour. so what are we learning? what a you hearing and learning in these hearings on what happened? >> so the investition is focused on really one man, mccray dallas is his name. he was political operative hired by republican mark harris' campaign with get out the vote efforts. state represents are saying his efforts went a lot further than the apt-28 loued. normal efforts encouraging people to vote and registering them to vote. people say dallas collected ballot, which is illegal. a woman said she even went asas far illing in blank races that were not filled out by the voters. >> woodruff: so that's m question: what evidence has the state provided that proves that
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mr. dallas broke the law? >>e well, we heard from a number of voters who say they provided dallas with ballots that were unsealed. we heard from one specific woman maimed lisa britt, who is dallas' former step-daughter.sh said dallas paid her to collect ballots. that in and of itself isng breaorth carolina law. it's called ballot harvesting. it calls into question a number election integrity issues, because there is questions about whether dallas, if he was checking these ballots, wrthe he turned in all the ballots that he did collect, or whether he manipulated tm in some way. the numbers showed after the election that absentee ball hot numbers where dallas was based s were rallywed toward mark harris that it was really suspicious to election watchers nationally. >> woodruff: so has dallas testified? have we heard from him so far? the hearings go on another day at least,s that right? >> they do. and we have heard from dallas kind of yesterday.wa hecalled to testify, but he
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declined.as basically it a really uncomfortable, tense moment, where he stood upith his attorney and his attorney basically said, if you have him testify, north carolina law says he receives immunity for thati testimonyou compel it from him. the state board went enter a closed session, came out and said, "we are not willing to provide immunity from prosecution for mr. dallas." llas is obviously in some real legal jeopardy. they don't want to provide any outlet where he could get out of this. >> woodruff: i gather today there was testimony from somebody who was defendihim. >> defendanting him sort of. basically andy yates is the man's name. he ran a political consulting firm that was the middle man between dallas and republican mark harris. he paid dallas more than $100,000 for his get out the vote services. yates said he knew nothing about dallas' illegal actions.he he said hought everything dallas was doing was legal, and dallas had assured him, because
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they spoke almost every single day, he assured him everythingoi he was was legal, but yates said after watching testimony, he said he doesn't know if he believes anything dallas told himver the past year that they've been talking. >> woodruff: and the number of ballots that may have been mishandled in some way, is that a number that could override the margin that exists today, we said, what, 905 votes? >> right. 905 votes is the magic number that mark harris defeated dan mcready by. it's really still unclear whether the number of ballots dallas handled actually hits that number. we know that either dallas or people paid by dallas turned int retion forms for more than 1,000 voters, but it's still unclear how may ballots dallas collected an how many he turned in. it's reaety unclear r we're ever going to know that number, and republicans say, if the number -- if the investigators do not show enough evidence to say ballots were affected to get even close tot
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905-margin, then harris should be certified. >> woodruff: clearly a lot of eyes on theseearings, and a you say, they are going into tomorrow. >> yeah, they are. it's really unclear how long this will go. s thrted out as potentially a one-day or two-day hearing. it's been extended tomorrow. they say they have the room reserved until thursday. we're basically taking this day by day. testimony has been going fairly slowly they've gone through less than a dozen witnesses, and there's dozens me that both candidates have requested to testify. >> woodruff: a lot of eyes on t thaaring. miles parks with npr, thank you. >> thank you. >> woodruff: for more than 70 years, globasecurity has been underwritten by the alliance between the united states and its european partners. since president trump took office, those bonds have been fred. and, as nick schifrin reports,
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that unraveling was on display over the weekend, at the annual munich security conference. ec schifrin: walking into the world's premiere sity conference, the host was received as if she were leader of the free world. (applause) and when german chancellor e gela merkel took the stage, she defended the fade the u.s. once championed. so ( translated ): ih carolina, there is one of the biggest factories, no the biggest factorfor bmw. not in bavaria. sew, all of a sudden, they are being viewed as rity threat to the united states. that shocks us. (applae) >> schifrin: as the audience applauds, first daughter and senior advisor ivanka trump stays quiet. what has shocked this audience of world leaders is a president 'sof the united states who called the european union an economic foe. o euroosed u.s. decisions to withdraw from the iran nuclear deal and the intermeate nuclear forces treaty, or i.n.f., restricting mid-rangemi iles, which merkel called the worst decision of all.
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>> ( translated ): we want to say this especially to our u.s. friends: a treaty originally meant to protect europe, at try for disarmament, meant for our protection, is terminated by e u.s. and russia, and we are just left to sit there. >> schifrin: merkel's frustration was open hostilityin he conference's annual report, which accused the trump administration of displang "irritating enthusiasm for the globe" and "disdain for international institutions and agreements."sm and that critiurned applause for merkel into silence for vice president pence. >> i bring greetings from the 45th president of the united states of america, president donald trump.il ce) >> schifrin: he got the same cold shoulder two days earlier in poland. >> as we bring the economic and diplomatic pressure necessary to give the iranian people the region and the world the peace, security and freedom they deserve. ilence)
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>>chifrin: transatlantic leaders traded pleasantries. but european diplomats said the transatlantic alliance that has anchored global serity, was losing its grip.h here's now munairman wolfgang ischinger closed the conference: a ast majority is now sharing our conviction that we have a real proble >> schifrin: for more on this tense alliance, we turn to twore comen who attended the munich conference. icnator ben cardin, democrat of maryland, and repu representative jim banks of indiana. is thank you very much to you tith for being on the news howmple represen banks, let me start with you. as we just heard, there is ari problem, ref to president trump and the transatlantic alliance at the end of that conferencebl is there a p? >> i don't know if i would call it a problem. we were a part -- we were both a part of the largest congressional delegation ever to attend the munich surity conference, about 55 members of congress went along with vice president pe oe and membersf the trump administration to
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assure our nat allies that america stands with them. cet vice president pen message overall was the same tough love this administrationin has showne the very beginning to nato, calling on them to all meet their 2% nato g.d.p. goals. we met with the secretary-general, who said nato has benefited from that tou love of president trump, and nato is as strong as ever. so i believe the relationship is e strong as it'sr been, and in the years ahead, nato can and will be strong and able to achieve what it set out to achieve from the beginning in ways that have want sn before. >> schifrin: senator cardin, you just heard tough love from the president and vice president. what's wrong with ? >> i think this is a european security conference, and you have the president of the unitf states, someis first actions as president was to question the majorur sy
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agreement, nato. then he withdraws from the pis climate talks. then he withdraws from the iran nuclear agreement, and most recently he changes america'sn course syria without conferring with our allies.hi i our european friends see the president embracing leaders that have been on attack against democratic institutions, so they wonder how reliable the united states is as aartner to defend democracy in europe. so i think it is understandable that europe would be very concerned as to what thi partnership means in regards to european security. >> schifrin: representative banks, the iran nuclear deal, the imf treaty, the paris climate agreement, the syriapu out, and this issue of detainees that had been caught that used to be part of ice sis. does europe have a poinwhen it questions whether president trump values the alliance? >> well, let's go back to
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start of what the munich security is about to begin with. 's to talk about th major issues of the day. and many of the differences like the ones that you just mentioned that we have between the united states of america and our european allies. so i found the whconferenceh by the way was my first munich security conference, to be ath he dialogue between the u.s. and our partners. i found more agreement with our allies on so many points than i found disagreement. but that is what makes the conference a healthy interaction between us and europe to begin with. >> schifrin: senator cardin, the president's defenderser as you know, distinguish between the rhetoric and the policy. the president might beic rhetly tough or rhetorically easy onme f enemies, perhaps north korea, russia, rhetorically tough on europe, but the policy against ssia is tough, more u.s. troops in europe, more offensive weapons to ukraine, more natoen
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investment and the president's bdefenders say ater nafta. so the president's-iñ defendersy actually despite the rhetoric,ic the ps have improved. >> well, quite frankly, i ink e members of congress, both democrats and republicans, deserve a lot of credit in regard to getti tough on russia. it was the congress that initiated the sanctions bill that the president signed, ad it allowed us to take a very tough position against russia'so ement in ukraine, their meddling in our election, their interference the european democracy institutions, democratic understandalkings. but it was a conditional initiative. it wasn't the president. when you look at north korea, they don't see results. they see the president giving kim jong-un a platform. as we found out, there has been no progress made to reduce or elinate their nuclear weapons capacity. so i think they are just questioninwhether the polics are the right policies for our security. they s the tariffs that were imposed againstndour fr
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under national security waiver, and they wonder why you have to usenal security against allies. so i do think they question the policies. and i would admit that the way the president does business really gets underheir skin. they don't -- they like to think that when you're a friend, you'll be consulted before action is taken, and not treated the way the president has treated our allies. >> schifrin: representative ndnks, a majority of germans french now trust russia and china more than the united isn't that a problem? >> it is a problem, and vice president pence spoke quite bit about this, and what i thought was the most important part of hisss addt the munich security conference. he told our allies tha there will be a price to pay if they turn to the east rather than the west a partner with companies like yahweh, which is a snake ir ths, posing not just an economic threat but a security
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threat, not just to the u.s., but to our european allwe as some these were important discussions that were had at the conference. they were just the beginnthg, gh. we have a long ways to go to continue to work with our allies in europe and elsewhere to turn them back in thone right direc on many different notes. >>inchifrin: in order ca the u.s. and europe have disagreed strongly before, the iraq war even. people talked about maybe this relationship will never recover. it obviously recovered. why would this moment be differenthan that? >> quite frankly, europe will not find security with china or with russia. the transatlantic partnership is critically importa for european security and american security. i think that was the message you heard underscored by many of us to say, look, we got to increase our confidence between europe and the united states. u have invest in nato. you have to make it clear, we will not tolerate the type of activity we see from mr. putin in russia.we
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anl stand tall against chinese practices that tried to undermine our own security. i think that's the key message that we want to ke. we want to reinforce the partnership between europe and the united atates, admittedly it's difficult under the leadership of president trump. >> schifrin: senator ben cardin of maryland, representative jim banks, republican of indiana, thank you very much to you both.r3 thank you. >> woodruff: tonight, the first in our new series examining the policy positions of the ever- growing crop of 2020 presidential contenders. lisa dejardins begins our coverage with a look athe range of tax plans being pushed on the campaign trail. >> desjardins: front and center on the 2020 democratic campaign trail: widening economic divide. >> reversing this administration's giveaways to
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big corporations and the top one percent. >> desjardins: it is a two-fold push. candidates' are outlining new plans to reduce poverty, which they argue will only exacerbate economic divides in america, blasting the republican taal cuts, especily the corporate cuts, as a giveaway to the rich. >> it is not moral, it is not acceptable, and it is not sustainable that the top one- tenth of one percent n owns almost as much wealth as the 9 bott. >> desjardins: vermont senator bernie sanders, newly announced as a candidate, sparked this latest drive in his 2016 run. he wants tprovide universal health care as well as fe pre- school and free tuition at public colleges. he'd raise money for that by raising estate taxes, on inheritance over $3.5 million,wi a top rate of 77% tax at over $1 billion.or >> we cannot ato just
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tinker around the edges with a tax credit he or regulation there, our fight is for big, structur change. >> desjardins: massachusetts senator elizabeth warren would transform the cost of child care, she'd make it free forco low-in families and cap it at much lower than current costs for most everyone else. warren would pay for that wi a first-of-its-kind two percent tax on overa wealth or net worth above $50 million. >> and an ultra-millionaire tax to make sure that rich people start doing their part for the country that made them rich. >> desjardins: there is more... >> we will deliver the largestd working ddle-class tax cut in a generation. >> desjardins: california senator kamala harris proposes a more classic middle and lower- a class tax cuone making less than $50,000 a year, would ore a $3,000 tax credit. it'd be twice thatamilies. her pay plan?
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eliminate some currentan republax cuts.rr one thing hais, and another presidential candidate also tackle-- housing and rent. >> we need a lot of change from our tax laws to endinghings like carried interests. r' desjardins: new jersey senator cory booplan would give a tax credit to those whose income goes disproportionately to rent. he'd also provide a $1,000 savingbond to each child every year until they turn 18. booker would raise the current estate tax. >> i can support folks at thepa tong their fair share. >> desjardins: julian castro, the former housing and urban development secretary under president obama, has backed an idea by new york congresswoman alexandria ocasio-cortez to return to pre-1980s individual tax rates, with incomes over $10 million taxed at 60 t70%. they're now capped at 37%. new york senator kirstenpa gillibrand's cign also says she's interested in pursuing higher taxes on the rich.
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meanwhile centrist amy klobuchar takes a different approach-- she would close what she sees as tax loopholes for the rich but otherwise lieves her fellow democrats are going too far. >> i am not for free fouyear college for all, no, and i wish-- if i was a magicd genie uld give that to everyone and we could afford it, i would, >> desjardins: in a crowded field of democratic candidates, a rigorous and broad debate over wealth for more we turn to philip bump of the "washington post." for more we turn to philip bump of the "washington post." ht away let me start rig with why do you think all of these plans are happening now? >> we're talking about a democratic electorate, which over the course of the past two decades and over the course of the past year, has grown increasingly liberel. this is atorate that wants to see bold talk on things like raising taxes for the wealthiest americans. this is a very different electorate that went to the pos in 12 and brought bill
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clinton to the white house and, you know, who then sort of took a middle of the road strategy toward governance. this is not what democrats now want to see. the mocrats have jumped into the race already and are very cognizant of that. >> there is a broad spectrum of ideas, some dealing with rentals and housing and childcare and education. how do you group these plans ina way to conceptualize the important differences re? >> i thi there are a series of plans which really put a focus on where the revenue is generated from. so we see things likebeenator ie sanders' proposals around the estate tax. we seeli senatorbeth warren's proposal on taxing income. we see these various prosals that are focused on where the revenue comes from. we see a lot of proposal, including some from sanders and warren, which focus on what the benefits would be that result from that revenue increase. we s people like senator kamala harris who put an emphasis on at the programs
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are first and then talked about meere some of the additional revenue would corom after the fact. so it's really air btional strategy. and i think the thing we're in the used to seeing, we're overy used seeing proposed programs, proposed taxz cuts for the middle class, chas harris has put forward. what we're less used to seeing in presidential politics is bold and aggressive talk abo taxing the richest americans at a higher rate. that i think is unusual. i think ts new to this primary season to some extent, too. >> wt t do we know abe appeal of that to the american voter? >> amecans broady would like the see rich people pay more in taxes, right? this is somethinga that gllup has been polling on for decades and consistently people think the richest americans don't pay their fair share of taxeshe. now,roblem is once you start actually talking about what that means, once you start putting forward proposals about taxation, it gets a lot murkier pretty quickly. so, for example, if you take representative representativez'
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ocasio-corsuggestion that you tax people who have $10 million in incomer more annually at 70%, that's something that actually doesn't poll that well. while you can ask people, do you thk people who earn $10 million or more should pay higher tax, people say, yes, broadly, a, if news poll that sort of taxation is very popur, but a very specific proposal like ocasio-cortez's doesn't fare as well because people start consis.ring the numb i think it is the case some of been proposals that hav put forward are going to be ones the democratic base can embrace. >> so a bitig ques with just a little bit of time left. it's been sort of a rule of american politics for decades that you don't propose a tax increase, whether or not these candidates are successful or becoming president, is that rul potentially up for change? do we see a sea change here? >> yeah, i think it may be in part because the republicans after years of talking about
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slashing taxes were able to do so in 2017. so americans have seen that sort of proposal go into effect in a way that's fairly novel in, recent yea and they have seen the effects. for example, revenue from corporations droppepretty substantially between 2017 and 2018. those are the sorts americans can now look at and say, we know what that change looks like,t may make them more open to other changes in tack code. i can't reinforce this enough, in the abstract, americans really like the idea of rich americans paying more in taxes. it is just ether or not a candidate can find that sweet spot of a particular policyos pr that appeals both to democrats in the primary and americans more generally during the general election. >> in about a year or so we should find out. philip bump, thank you very much. >> woodruff: this past weekend, the vatican made its strongest move yet against sexual abuse in
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the church by defrocking former u.s. cardinal theodore mccarrick xually abusing children and adults. mccarrick is the first former cardinal to be thrown out of the church. william brangham examines whether this marks a new chapter in the church's approach. >> brangham: the move against mccarrick is seen by many as a turninpoint in the pope's handling of this crisis, which some have argued has thus faren oo slow and too timid. while hundreds of priests have been thrown ouof the church, few leaders as senior as mccarrick have been punished. this sexual abuse scandal has struck a tremendous o the church's authority, and, of course, has left thousands of ctims traumatized. now, as bishops from around the world gather in rome tek for an unprecedented conference to address sexual abuse, we turn to john allen. he's been covering the catholic church for decades. he's written eleven books on the topic and is now the editor of the crux, an online site covering the catholic world. he joins me from rome.
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john allen, welcome back to the newshour. for those people who have not been following this as closely as you he for so long, the you help us understand, the vatican's punishment of mccarrick, embassy plain the significance of that. >> you have to understand, for cleric t a middle east or a deacon in the catholic church, being defrocked, thel techni phrase is being dismissed from the clerical state, is the mosts severe pent the church law can impose. it's the catholic equivalent of the death penty. oso to see that happen not simply to an ordinary parish iest but to aardinal, and this is the first time a rdinal has been pebbleized for the crime sexual ase of minor, that's an extraordinary signal by the vatican and by whpope francis. it essentially indicates is that the church's stated commitment to zero tolerce, that its permanent removal from
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ministry from one act of sexual abuse of a minor applies at all levels. and thatbviously is a signal the vatican wanted to send ahead of the summit that you that opens here in rome on thursday this week. >> brangham: prior to this move on saturday, many were arguing the pope was not doing enough. can you summarize what their criticism of him has been? >> the message has gone out that if you are a priest, a deacon archbishop, now even a cardinal in the catholic church, and you are found guilty of sexually abusing a minor, you'rout. what the church has not adopted, and this is the point thatd critics have and will continue to make this week ashth summit that's taking place in rome, is that the church does not have an equally strong system of accountability for the cover-up of that crime. that is there are bishop, religious superior, other leaders in the church who have been accused and with some basis of turning a blind eye to abusep committed ple under their
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authority, of deliberately ignoring it, willfully not knowing about it. they have not suffered this kind of consequence. >> brangham: as you know on sunday, there was a pressce confereld by bishop accountability, a u.s. advocacy group, for victims. they said there are more many mccarricks out there. haty named five bishops they said should face the same fate as he did. i'm curious, do you think that is likely that more senior leaders will be punished? >> actuall's i think th quite likely. the five bishops that they named are bishops who have, much like the formerardinal and now former priest thdore theodore mccarrick, they have been accused of established abuse. i think the church has established if there is sexual abuse against someone, they will be punished and quite likely will suffer the most severe form
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of punishmt, which is being kicked out of the priesthood. ther advocacy groups will also add they want same kind of accountability for the cover-up, not just for the crime. i think that's much more an open question, whether a similar sort of punishment is going to be imposed for concealing the crime rather than committing it directly. >> brangham: about this conference. 'd like the read something yoreu wrotntly. you wrote, "perhaps this summit can't deliver everything, but i had damn well better deliver something." what would that something be in order for to be thought of as meaningful? >> well, honestly, i think the answer to that question depends on where you are in the world. places such as the united states, much of western europe, they have experienced the clerical sexual abe scandals for the better part of two decades now with fl force. i think the expectations there are very different than they would be sn subsaharan africa or much of asia, pockets of latin america, that have not at all experienced the sexual
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abuse crisis. there i think the expectation would be much mor minimal. they would like their bishops to be aware this is a problem and to beginte taking to address it. but people who have lived with this scandal for a long time their expectation would be that out of this summit would come a clear,ig unaus commitment to a policy of zero tolerance, both for the crime of clerical sexual abuse and also for the cover-up of that crime. and i suspect thator many people in the united states, survivors of abuse, reformers, activists around this issue, if this summit does not deliver a clear endorsement of that kind of zero tolerance, theg they are goo construe it to be a flop. >> brangham: all right, john allen of the crux, thank you very much. you're welcome. >> woodruff: some of the nation's top teachers recently
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gathered in el paso, texas tons speak out agthe u.s. government's practice of detaining children who cross into this country from mexico, and to see that they get the support they need when they get back into the classroom. special correspondent kavitha cardoza of our partner "education week" was there, and filed this report. it's part of our weekly education series, "making the grade." >> all children deserve to b free. >> reporter: manny manning, this year's national teacher of the year, dismisses the idea that be involvedould n in politics. >> educators are mandatoryus reporters ofcted abuse and how we are dealing with them now abusive. fa're taking children and we're putting them intlities and incarcerating them, simply because they were bo outsid the united states. >> reporter: several state teachers of the year agree. >> when i was 12 years old i was undocumented. and because of the daca program
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i was able to work as a teacher. >> what happens in one part of the country affects us all. ev though in my rural community i may not necessarily see these problems manifest, ey still belong to all of us as americans. >> reporter: this part of west texas is the epicenter of president trump's hardlinen immigratlicies. one facility in particular, has drlot of attention. it's about 35 miles from elso in a small, sleepy border town called tornillo. i'm standing on the u.s. side of the u.s./mexico border. and behind me you can see one of the official ports of entry. here in toillo, texas is where the "tent city" used to be. this was a temporary shelter, initially meant to have 350 beds for unaccompanied immigrant childrenrossing the border but it quickly expanded to more than 10 times that number. at one point it was the largest shelter grant children in the country. it's closed down now but there
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are still approximately 100 shelters across the u.s. mandy manning says if this helter can close down, so can others. >> i see the closing of rnillo as the beginning because it shows that our government has the ability and the capacity to close these facilities. they're just choosing not to. >> reporter: the department of health and human services, which oversees detained migrant children, declined an on-camera interview. in an email, a spokesperson wrote that the shelters are runw consisteh federal law. children have access to medical care, psychological services, recreation and education. jessica vaughan advocates for less immigration. e's at the center for immigration studies. >> the understanding of many people in central america was that if an adult srdws up at the
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with a child, they would be treated differently, they would be allowed to enter the country. and not only did this motivate a lot of parents to come with a child, it also led some of the smuggling ganizations to try and game the system by providing teir clients with a child to use to try and gough. so in a way the child was serving as a deportatield.in >> reporter: rivas disagrees that children are being used as shields. she's an attorney with las americas immigrant advocy center. >> that's absolutely not true. our clients are escaping some form of violence. of them are escaping domestic violence. some of them are escaping other forms of persecution. >> reporter: rivas is speaking to a client who was separated from her children when she crossed the border to seek asylum. the mother, who has since been deported back to honduras, hasn't seen her children in more than a year.
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>> ( translated ): at night iwo d dream that we were together and then i would wake up to the reality again that we were not. n children need me and i there. this is the hardest thing that a mother should ever have to go through. ter: when court rulings forced the government to change its policies, her two sons, along with thousands of other migrant children, were moved alom shelters to be reunited with family memberover the country. her sons are now living with a relative and are attending public school. >> ( translated ): my hope for them is for them to study. in my country, they couldn't. they can hardly read because we were so scared that we had to continue moving them from school to school. now, i just hope that ey're able to meet their goals and that they're able to finish school. >> reporter:esearch shows these detained children suffer high rates of post-traumaticss stisorder, anxiety, depression and behavioral problems. experts found even brief detention can cause
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psychological trauma and induce long-term health risks for children. sarahi monterrey says she es these effects of trauma in her classroom.he students sayare sad, can't concentrate or have stomach aches. >> it's very difficult for students to learn. and it's very ha because even as an educator, it's hard to find the right words of what toa because sometimes i do feel helpless. >> reporter: but at this event she's found information andke resources she back and share with other teachers. mandy mannning hopes teachers continue to speak out. >> we shouldn't stay in our classrooms. we're teachers. we should be speaking for all kids. >> woodruff: his is a regular voice on the newshour: "whington post" columnist
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michael gerson fills in from time to time, as part of our regular friday wrap-up of the week's political news. set, this past sunday, he delivered the gueson at washington's national cathedralo it focused npolitics, but on something more personal: he revealed that he battles pression. >> like nearly one in 10 yoericans, and like many o i live with this insidious, chronic disease. depression is a malfunction in the instrument we use to determine reality. >> woodruff: and michael gerson is with me now. welcome to the program. >> good to be with you. >> woodruff: michael, how long have you known that you had pression? >> really since my 20s. but like a lot of people, i thought i was coping. i was on antidepressants.i s able to finish my work. and that's how a lot of men and men determine whether they're succeeding or not. i was reallyn very much i a downward spiral of depression.
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my psychiatrisu' said, yo on a dangerous course. and she was exactly rht. >> woodruff: what made you decide to talk publicly about it? >> well, i was asked to do this sermonnths ago, so it came at just the time, about two weeks before i had had a medical hospitalization for depression. and it had been a week in the hospitalized. and coming out of that experience, you have to make ach ce. are you going to be public, are you not going to be publi part of the problem is there is a stigma. there should be no stigma tached to this. i thought i'd give the message pretty pure and let people deal with it the way they want, but the response has been extraordinary. and a lot of it from people who look like they're coping themselves, you know, public people that you think, you know, they'ress sucl, and they're not. they're on the same kind of path.
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and it's a dangerous one. >> woodruff: you said among other things in the sermon, you said over time despair can grow inside you like a tumor. how has it affected your life? >> well, it's interesting. i kept a journal at the low int of my last depression that got me in the hospital.d u write things, you know, i'm a burden to my friends or no one cares about me that are just lies. they justare not true. but at that moment, when you write the you believe they're true. and that very much is the functi of your brain, you now, related to certain chemical reactions, where you get, you know, a depressive episode, and it interprets it in ways that are consistent with your brain patterns, and you end up thinking no one likese. and it seems, particularly when you'resoted, it can be very
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dangerous. because all you are are these thoughts in your own head, these resume nations in your own head. it really takes other people to break into that and say, this is wrong. this was not true. what you're thinking is not correct. and, you know, there are a lot of ways to recover from, that but it really is -- you have to have a t recognitiont you're not right. >> woodruff: i think for many people it's striking that someone as successful as you thisa columnist for important newspaper, the "washington post," speechwriter in the, bush white houyou have had a public role for a long time, and yet you have been battling this year after year. explain how you can both be in the public eye, be doing important work you're doing, and be dealing with this. >> well, you do it by husbanding your energy to do the thing you have to do in your life, and otheretting a lot of things in your life, whether it's family or social engagemeth, or a lot of
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things slide. and, you know, eventlly that's all you have left is a work life. and that was the situation which i was in. and it waso way to live. it really was on a bad path. but i know people that have -- that are, you know, struggle with depression, you know, prominent teachers. i have some collesge profess at harvard today. i got some from other figures. it's a broader group of people than you think. and part of it is because people can cope in their work life, but they're not really coping in the rest of their lives. >> >> woodruff: you said in the sermon, anyou said a number of things i wish we could talk acted, but at one point you were lking about your own faith, and you talked about when all else fails, there is love. how does that play a role?
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>> well, even the bottom of your depression, you sometimes get hints and glimmers of hope. and it's usually someone coming to you and showing you that they care about you dply, that they love you deeply. and that can bena profess, it can be family, it can be friends. bu it's -- you know, a lot of people think, i don't want to get involved, but someone who is in a depressive episode like that needs to know that they're cared for. and i of course am a christian. i come from ais can background. i think there is a broader divine loveve inv as well, here, that everybody is created ine god's imad is equal before him.an remembering that, remembering that you're as valuable asbo eve else can be part of a recovery. i think a lotef people h that experience. >> woodruff: one of the things that's clearly coming there this
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is oers are responding. what do you say? what did your own experience do you think say t people battling depression and the people around them who love them? >> peoule s get professional help. you can't will yourself out of this disease haany moreyou can will wrowrs out of tuberculosis. this is a physical disease where you need help. but isolation can be deadlyd . at has to be broken by family and also broken leby the pehemselves that are involved with it. you know, i'm not an example here. this is a fairly recent depressive episode. i know i'll get one again. that's the nature of a chronic disease. but you need to put in place the structures by which when you need to be rescued, that there are people there to rescue you. my psychiatrist was really a godsend and was, you know, i thought i was coping. she said, you're not, this is
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not the way to le. everyone needs -- everyone who is aed depressive someone in their life to say this. you're not living the life you could live. you're, in fact, much too hard on yourself. you're living in a kind of small little world of your otiwn cr. and you need to come out of it and i think family and friends n play a really important role then. >> >> woodruff: i thought it was so important to try to have a conversation with you. i was struck when you said nearly one in ten americans are battling depression and hearing your story can make a difference. >> well, thank you,@% i appreciate that. >> woodruff: michael gerson,. we thank y >> oodruff: a giant of the fashion world passed away today. karl lagerfeld helpeshape the modern fashion industry through his work with major houses and his own peonal style.
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jeffrey brown has our remembrance, part of our ongoing arts and culture series, "canvas." >> brown: his name was synonymous with luxury fashion for well over half a century. the german-born designer spent the bulk of his career at the helm of some of the world's biggest fashn houses. >> you know fashion is not needed. therare other problems in th world which may be more important, so this is not a problem but it's an industry an you know, fashion has to go with time. if fashion doesn't go with time, fashion would be lost. >> brown: lagerfeld transformed the italian brand fendi, becoming its creative director in 1965, and spent 20 years designing for the french label chlo but he's best rememberedor being the creative force behind the french fashion house chanel, taking over in 1983 and working up until his death. he took what somthen saw as a stodgy label and added all manner of attention-grabbingnc designs, iluding reinventing
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their iconic tweed suits for age yor set, slashing hemlinesad ding glitzy accents. robin givhan is the "washington post's" fashion critic. >> he revived chanel when he took it over, the founder had been deceased for almost 10 years, and it was somewhat of a dusty brand, lived on in the fragrance. but he was one of those firstth designers invented it, incredible finanal success >> brown: lagerfeld was just as well-known for his distinct personal style: his signature ponytail, dark sunglasses, and black finger-less leather gloves. shoppers outside the chane store in paris today lamented the fashion industry's loss. >> ( translated ): karl lagerfeld represented creation, freedom, an era.
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what is scary now is that there used to be great artists and inventors. we went through a period when we were reinventing a bit a getting inspired, and now, we are starting to lose the people who served as inspiratios. >> brown: that singular, even quirky, vision w on full display at his runway shows, making catwalks out of the unlikeliest of places, from the great wall of china to a mock-um of an airport al. lagerfeld did not appear at chanel's january show in paris to take his customary bow, setting off rumors he was ill. the fashion house confirmed his death today in paris. kad. lagerfeld was 85 years >> woodruff: before we go, a preview of our weekloky face watch show, "that moment when." this week, actor justine bateman on the pri of fame.
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>> when you become very fa pus for a loniod of time, everybody changes around you. you don't change, but everyboday s around you, and how we form reality is by looking at what's being reflected back at us. now, if everybody is reflecting back to you that you're this incredibly famous person, maybe you don't want to think about it and eventually you just relax into it and it becomes part of the foundation of your reality. think about other things that are foundational to somebody's reality, who they're married to, who their parents are, the job they have, and then when it starts descending, that's what you find out what you had attached to it. you can't help but start attaching your self-esteem, your identity, your self-worth, your standing in society. you allow certain tethers to be hooked into you. and it's fine. it's comfortable, but when that fame starts pulling away, it starts pulling those tethers with it. you go, oh, oh, god it's attached to this, it's attached to this and that, and you have the start uooking them really fast. some people don't want to do the
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unhooking. of everything that was attached to the fame. it's a defense. >> woodruff: find l episodes of our program on facebook watch that moment when show. and that's the newshour fort. toni i'm judy woodruff. join us online and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and see yo soon. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provid by: >> babbel. a language app that teaches real-life conversations in a new language, like spanish, french, german, italian, and more. >> the ford foundation. working with visionaries on thei frontlines of change worldwide.
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>> carnegie corporation of new york. supporting innovations in education, democratic engagement, and the advancement of international peace and security. at carnegie.org. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and individuals. >> this program was made possible by the corpor bion for publadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org
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♪ ♪ - this week on milk street, we have a jam-packed show, because we go to singapore. we start with a chicken satay, which is really easy to do. then we move on to a classic, which is coconut rice. we go to a couple bars in singapore and find the best recipe for the singapore sling. and we f aally end up with great soup p. with chicken and shr so stay tuned for singapore classics, right here on milk street. s - funding for thisies was provided by the following.

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