tv PBS News Hour PBS February 28, 2019 6:00pm-7:01pm PST
captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening, i'm judy woodruff. on the newshour tonight, a summit stalemate, talks between president trump and north korea's leader kim jong-un collapse, as the two are unable to come to an agreement over sanctions relief and tion.leari then, a closer look at michael cohen's testimony. what the preside's former lawyer reveals about how the trump business organization operates. plus, money can't buy happiness, or can it? making sense of how income inequality affects personal well-being. >> if you and i have equal education, the same incomes, the same wealth, the same social class. if you live in a more equal society than i do, everything about your world is going to be better. >> woodruff: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour.
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>> woodruff: today in hanoi, a summit designed to achieve progre toward north korea's denuclearization, as well improve ties with the united states, collapsed suddenly when the u.s. rejected a north rean offer. and tonight, the u.s. and north eikorea are publicly disag over what exactly that offer was. nick schifrin bens our coverage from hanoi. >> schifrin: after flying 8,000 miles and holding hours of high- stakes meetis with a north korean leader he considers a friend, president trump chose to drive away from the hanoi summit empthanded. >> you always have to be prepared to walk. i could have 100% signed something today. we actually had papers ready to be signed. buit wan't appropriate. i want to do it right. i'd much rather do it right than do it fast. >> schifrin: the u.s. says it asked north korea to close the yongbong nuclear facilities that produce plutonium and uranm, seen here in 2005, and what the u.s. suspects is a second uranium plant a few mileaway. but president trump and
secretary of state mike pompeo also eyed a rollback of kim jong-un's entire program. >> we asked him to do more. he was unprepared to do that. even that facility, even the ngbon facility, and all of its scope, which is important, for, suill leaves missiles, warheads, and weapons systems. all of those things, we couldn'e quite there today.if >> sn: the u.s. says north korea agreed to close yongbong, but wouldn't go any further. and they demanded what president trump called excessive sctions relief >> basically they wanted the sanctions lifted, in the entirety. and couldn't do that. they were willing to denuke a large poion of the areas that we wanted, but we couldn't give up the sanctions for all of that. >> schifrin: but in a press conference 10 hours later, north korean forgn minister ri yong ho refuted the president's claim and said north korea was only looking for relief from a ful of sanctions on the korean economy. >> ( translated ): if the u.s. removes partial sanctions, we will permanently and completely
dismantle all the nuclear material production facilities in the yongbong ea, including plutonium and uranium, in the presence of u.s. experts. this proposal was the biggest denuclearization measure we could take at the present stage, >> schifrin: north korea said ia offered to pntly halt nuclear and missile testing. and today kim jong-un said he was interested in denuclearizing. >> ( translated ): if i'm not willing to do that, i won't be here right now >> that's a good answer. might have been the best answer you've ever heard. >> schifrin: president trump maintained his focus on his personal conneion with kim, and extended those warm feelings to the north korean people, saying he wouldn't increase sanctions for fear they would suffer. >> i don't want to talk about increasing sanctions. they're strong. they have a lot of great people in north korea and they have to live also. and that's important to me. f >> schifrin: b president trump what was less important-- punishing north korea for the case of otto warmbier. in 2016 he was arrested in
pyongyang. the next year, he came home to ohio on a stretcher with severe neurological injury and extensive loss of brain tiss, and died. president trump said kim jong-un wasn't responsible. >> i don't believe that heould have allowed to happen. it just wasn't to his advantage to allow that to happen. those prisons are rough. they're rough. and bathings happened. he tells me, he tells me that he didn't know about it, and i will take him at his word. >> schifrin: despite cutting ths summit short, ent trump said he hoped dialogue with the longtime u.s. adversary, would continue. >> this wasn't a walk away, like you get up and walk out. no, this was verfriendly. we shook hands. there's a warmth that we had. i hope it stays, i think it will. >> schifrin: and yet the u.s. delegation left without reizing its stated goals: agreed definition of denuclearization; no roadmap for
next steps; no mutual liason offices. those phased steps were advocated earlie the u.s.' top north korean negotiator steve biegun. >> we need to advance our diplomacy alongside our plans for denuclearization in a manner that sends that message clearly to north korea as well. we are ready for a different future. it's bigrir than denucltion. >> schifrin: instead, as national securboy advisor john on sat at the end of the table, the u.s. demanded major steps toward denucleation. and the hanoi summit ended with a banquet tablfor a planned working lunch that was never used, and a planned atared signing ent, that never occurred. for the pbs newshour, i'm nick schifrin in hanoi. >> woodruff: in the day's other news, president trump's former personal attorney, michael cohen, was back on capitol hill for a third day.st this time, he ied behind closed doors before the house intelligence committee. earlier, before leaving the summit in vietnam, president trump blasted cohen's public
testimony from yesterday, with the exception of one part. >> i think having a fake hearing like that and ving it in the middle of this very important summit is really a terrible thing. heied a lot. but it was very interesting because he didn't lie about one thing. he said no collusion with the russian hoax. >> woodruff: yesterday cohen testified that he was suspicious of coordination between the trump campaign and russia.no but he aedged he didn't have any concrete proof. we'll have more on cohen'ste revelations in the program. israel's attorney general today took the highly unusual step of recommenng an indictment of prime minister benjamin netanyahu on corruption charges. netanyahu has denied wrongdoing, and called the move a "witch hunt." in'll take a close look at the allegations latehe program. in pakistan, prime minister imran khan said he will release a captured indiapilot as a
eace gesture" toward india. tensions between the t countries have reignited over the disputed territory of kashmir. khan made the announcement in an address to the pakistani parliament. but his peace overture did not come without a warning. >> ( translated oday i am telling india, don't take things further, because whatever you will do, pakistan will be compelled to retaliate. i al hope that international community will play its part, so that the situation does not escalate from here. >> woodruff: meanwhile indian officials welcomed pakistan's announcement. but one indian major general insisted his forces will remaing rd for any further escalations along the international border, or "i.b. sector. b our ground-based air defense weapons systems han put on high alert all along the line of i wish to assure the nation that we are fully prepared and in a heightened state of readiness. >> woodruff: this week's clashes
between india and pakistan were in retaliation for a suicide bombing earlier this month that killed 40 indian soldiers in indian-controlled kashmir. back in this country, floodwaters in california's wine country are slowly beginning to recede after days of heavy rainfall. authorities discovered the body of a man in ferndale who had been swept away in the deluge. some 200 homes and businesses bue partially under water, after the russian rivet its banks overnight. local officials said the tn of guerneville "has essentially become an island." new england patriots owner robert kraft pleaded not guilty today to misdemeanor charges of soliciting prostitution. kraft was among hundreds of men charged in a sting operation on day spa in jupiter, florida. law enforcement officials believe the facility wastr operating a seficking ring. the 77-year-old krt has requested a non-jury trial.an
republenator lamar alexander of tennessee today called for president trump to re-assess his national emergency declaration for a southern border wall. alexander warned on the senate floor that the act would weaken the separation of powers, and suggested there are other ways to fund a wall. a "yes" vote from alexander would mean democrats may have enough votes to block the declaration when it comes up for a senate vote, but still not a large enough majority to override a presidential veto. the senate today confirmed president trump's nominee to run the environmental protection agency, andrewteheeler. the as largely along party lines. wheeleis a former coal lobbyist and had been serving as the agency's acting administrato former e.p.a. head scott pruitt resigned in july over ethics concerns. stocks were down on wall street today on word that the u.s. economy slowed at the end of
last year, andobless claims rose slightly last week. cle dow jones industrial average lost 69 points te at 25,916.th nasdaq fell 22 points, and the s&p 500 slipped eight. still to come on the newshour: a closer look at what went wrong at the secd summit with the leader of north korea. what michael cohen's testimony reveals about the trump business organization. israel's prime minister benjamie netanyahu criminal charges. the u.s. house passes the first major gun control legislation in decades, and much more. >> woodruff: we return to our top story, the collapse of talks at the second summit between president trump and kim jong-un. we're joined btwo people with
oad experience dealing with north korea. iojung pak held senior pos at both the c.i.a. and within the fice of the director of national intelligence, dealing with east asia. she's now athe brookings institution. and frank jannuzi was a state department analyst and supported the u.s. delegation for talks tith north korea during the clinton administ. he's now president of the maureen and mike mansfield foundation. and we welcome both of you back to the "newsnur". frank jzi, i'm going to start with you. what is your overall assessment of what haened with the collapse today? >> well, on the plus side, the two leaders avoided wh i would call a catastrophic success. president trump did not agree to a deal which mig have inluded a partial limitation on north korea's nuclear program in exchange for widespread sanctions relief. i think that would have left th u.s. negotiation that was weak to accomplish
on the plus side, the two parties narrowed some of theirff ences. we know north korea is prepared to take meaningful steps toward denuclearization in exchange for partial sanctionselief. but i think what happened here was perhaps a lit bit of a u.s overreach of trying to put facilities beyond yongbyon on to the negotiating table for the first time in a may tha have taken the north by surprise, and also a north kore miscongratulation about trump's willingness to get a deal at anyt. cos >> woodruff: jung pak, miscalculation on both sides? >> i do think it's a miscalculation on both sides. i thk both men were so confident in their relationship and their abilityo goo that room and strike a deal that would be beneficial to both of them, that they really did not anticipate the other side notng gin. and i think what happened was that kim also overreached and
that he has faced his first diplatic fairly of sorts. >> woodruff: frank jannuzi, president trump has placed a lot of hope over the last number ofs mooming up with some kind of deal with north korea. no matter whoesesponsibility it was what happened, how much of a disappointment is this for the united staels? >> i think the president, for certain, is massively disappointed. he flew 7,000 miles, he ended up with a fizzle of a summit, but what will be important is what happens next, and kim jong un has already signaled just in rece minutes his continued optimism about the process, and he anticipates another meeting with president trump. and i think, for president trump, he should avoid the mistake the u.s. made in 2002.m at that at a time of tension in the relationship, the u.s. pulled back frolom diae and negotiations with north korea, and it set in motion a period of north korean escalati of their nuear
program. so we need to remain engaged. >> woodruff: jung pak, is there an appetite to do that on the part of the united states after this spectacular disappointment? >> i think so. the president left the door wide open for additional conversations, and i think that's a good thing. he said it wasn't aostile walk away but that it was a friendly walking away. the north koreans' statement soi far te they're interested in talk further. >> woodruff: how much does it matter, frank frank, there are two different explanation frm the two sides about what happened? >> eth not so uncommon, whhaen u a new team on the u.s. side, to have disagreements about what has just transpired. but i think what is more important than the different interpretations of whether the offers reached or whether the north koreans insisted on too much sanctions relief, i think what's critical at the moment is
we have a narrowing of the differences over which facilities are crucial. the u.s. basically said we need get a handle on all fissile production. we have the basics for a deal. >> reporter:. >> wdruff: but if there were basics for a deal, the queion is, jung pak, why could they not make progress when they were together? >> i think what's striking to me is that the two sides had a convergence of interest, and that was in the peace treaty or peace declaration and the liaison office, and kim walked away from that, and so what that suggests t nme is kim ist interested in peace and normalization as he is inti sas removal. >> woodruff: so but what does th mean? that for all the conversation about that, he's not leveling?
how do you explain? >> i think what that says is that kim wants to drag this process on so that he canen further chis status, his claim status as a nuclear weapons power. it boosts legit mas is and also increases the standing in th international community as well as the strategic relevanl . >> this fiint is critical that jung pak has made. for president trump, the summit should be about denuclearization but for kim jong un it's about s prestige aurity. this is why he will have third, fourth, fifth smmit because each summit bestows addional legitimacy and stature upon si north korean dictator. >> woodruff: but is that in the interest of the united states to ve summit after summit if it's not going anywhere? , only if it leads to concrete steps, which is why i should hope this summit would have been
better prepared inaving an agreement before the two met, and if there's going to be a third, y should be sure the working level talks will nail downhat happens before it happens and maybe that's the learning curve for ti president. >> if there's a next summit, we ont the work discusmove forward and advance the conversation rather than have the two leaders in the roomn ago we have another status quo situation. signing the lesson learn is the top-level leadership conversations are good, they' okay for maintaining goolld wi and momentum, but the working-level processes are just as importa if notre. >> woodruff: quickly, bottom line from both of you, you believe the will is there to make pgress, to get something accomplished. >> nawaz: to get an agreement? yes, i do. i think kim is interested in getting the sanctions removal and the fact he pointed to the sanctions from 2016 and 2017 points to the fact that that's
our letrage point and, hout the military option out of the picture, sanctions are our only options and leverage. >> and i agree. i think for president trump, hes wants i a reelection accomplishment he wants some form of peace and nuclearization and he cannot afford thisto let this nuclear threat linger indefinitely. >> woodruff: frank frank, jung pak, we frank jannuzi, jung pak, we thank you both. >> woodruff: the man who was central in a cover-up to silence potentially damaging information about the president laid out a litany of damning claims in public yesterday. william brangahm explores what miael cohen's testimony ma reveal about the inner workings of the trump business organization. >> brangham: it was the first time the publiheard directly from a key figure in the trump organization about how the family business operated.
cohen's testimony touched on a series of threads about how the president and his company operated before, during and after the campaign. two people who have spent an extensive amount of time reporting on the trump business join me now. andrea bernstein is the co-host of the "trump inc." podcast. and david farenthold of "the washington post." welcome to you both. andrea, to you fir, yesterday one to have the pieces of evidence that michael cohen showed was this bg chck tore $35,000 signed by donald trump when he was president. what was that check allegedly for? >> so this had a startling impact, this check. i was in the courtroom with michael cohen wh he described this scheme where he says he was directed by the person we now know to be donald trump to make this payment, to keep some women quiet who had made allegations of having had an affair with
then candidate for president donald trump. >> reporter: this was an earlier courtvent with michael cohen in new york? >> right. so this happened when he pleaded guilty. but what was so startling is we have not actually seen the check that we saw yesterday when michael cohen turned it over to the house oversight committee from donald trutt wri while donald trump was president and cohen described in his opening atement how he had been on a tour of the oval office and was looking in awe at thehite house, and the president said, oh, don't worry, your payments e coming, they're a little delayed because it takes a while for a fed ex from new york to get through the white house security.h so all oft shows no lines between the presidency, thene bu, the white house and the president signing a check for what u.s. attorneys have described as criminal scheme to violate campaignin fance
laws. >> reporter: david, touching on this, there was a seond reimbursement check signed by one of the financial officers within the trump organization and donald trump, jr. as well for the hush money pay as andrea has been ying, what do you think about how we learned about hothe operation works. >> two things. the small size of the birksz it's a really smallon opera so small that one man, alan wieselrg, the financi officer you mentioned earlier was involved in everythg. this one guy who was trump c.f.o. touched on all things.ng everytohen described as a potential violation of the law wieselberg happened to be involved. the other thing, we saw the way ump exam rated his net worth not just to journalists but to people he was doing business, with lenders and insurers.
cohen brought out documents that said were inflated trump handed over to the folks to get a better deal by misleading them about how much money he had. >> reporter: there are so manyer different inting threads that came up yesterday. another one that came up was tha revelatiout the attempts to build a trump project in mosw. the question always was did donald trumpmi telael cohen to lie to congress and to mislead congressh aboutose negotiations in russia. let's listen to what cohen had to s yesterday. >> mr. trump did not directly tell me to lie to congress.ho that's nothe operates. in conversations we had duringe campaign, at the same time i was actelnegotiating in russia for him, he would look me in the eye and tell me there's no russian business and then go on to lie to the amerin people by saying the same thing. in his way, he was telling me to
lie. there were at least half a dozen time between the iowa caucus and january 2016 and the end of june, when he would ask me, how's it going in russia? referring to the moscow tower project. mr. trump knew of and directed the trump-moscow negotiations throughout the campaign and lied about it. >> woodrufndrea i'm struck by the way in which he talks about. this i think you referred to it eldwhere yesterday as the ce, the understood way that members of the orgtaanization woulk about things they knew would be against thlaw. >> this is one of the most startling things yesterday to see it laiout by a former insider that the lingua franka of the trump organization was lying and everyone knew it was a lie, and it's consistent with the way peoe dedescribe me
about the way things worked. u didn'tcohen said y need to tell me to lie. i would be riding an elevator, mr. trump would say how's moscow doing? then he would say to a rally, no russia, no collusi. so the disjunction between what was actually happening and what trump was telling the american people was startling. cohen also said that president trump lawyers reviewed his testimony before hd presen to congress and he also said explicitly that he briefed donald trump and his family members, beyond, jr. andt ivanump, about the moscow project while it was going on. at one point, he said, mr. trump knew everything that was going on in the trump organwhation, was happening he knew and his family newel david, before you mentioned an wieselberg, michael hen 30 times mentioned this name. he's clearly laying res out
there saying alan wieselberg is the guy totalk to. remember why he's so central in is. th >> he's probably other than donald trump senior the most important person in the trump organizatias. wieselbergeen with the organization since 1980s,th risen througranks to be trump c.f.o. that sounds like a position ofea power, but really donald trump, sr. made all thes decisid wieselberg made it all work. she seems to have been involved in a number of strong transactions both for his business and charity, which is a small charity. anything donald trump was bringing in, alan wieselberg touched it and was there. that's why wieselberg is so important tol an arriva congressional and prosecutorial he knew what was happening behind the scene. >> reporter: david fold, andrea bernstein, thank you very much.
>> thanks for having us. >> woodruff: he has blted the investigation into his administration as a "witch hunt," and claimed the probe was tainted even as some of his top aides turned against him to work with prosecutors. as john yang reports, the long- awaited decision to indict israeli prime minister benjamin netanyahu comes just weeks before an election that could give him another term. >> yang: just weeks before israeli elections, amid a white- hot campaign, israel's attorney general recommended that netanyahu be indicted for bribery, fraud and breach of trust. at an evening press conference netanyahu blasted the decision: >> ( translated ): the lefg is dois because they know they can't beat us in the ballot box. for three yes, they have been carrying out a political pursuit against us, an unprecedented hunting expedigoon with one , to topple the right-wing government led by me.
>> yang: attorney general avichai mandelblit led the two- year invesgation; he once rved as a top aide to netanyahu. it's the first time in israeli history that a sitting prime minister has been indied. prosecutors allege netanyahu eased regulations and approved deals for two media companies in exchange for more favorable press coverage. in addition they say netanyahu and his wife, sara, accepted $280,000 worth of gifts in exchange for politicalavors corruption allegations have dogged netanyahu for much of hir time as e minister. but today's charges are a severe blow to his outsized political ambitions, and standing, says former u.s. ambassador to israel martin indyk >> there's going to be thisea drip of revelations about what he said to various people that will sound very corrupt.'l and i think thbe a real
challenge for him as he heads into this election ol 9. >> yang: formal charges will be filed, or dropped, at a hearing after rael's april 9th ection. still, the indictment itself anreatens his reelection i already-overheated political atmosphere. gehe faces a major challen from former army chief of staff benny gantz, who's formed a centrist political party to take on netanyahu's right-wiud party. >> there's this sense that former general who has strong focurity credentials linked to a with him provides the first time in over a decade a serious challenge to netanyahu before the indictment came out. >> yang: a "times of israel" poll shows netanyahu leads gantz 41 to 39%. but when asked if an indictment would affect who they vote for, a majority said they would support gantz in ections. gantz pounced on netanyahu's troubles:
>> ( translated ): i call onyo benjamin netanyahu, from here tonight, to come to your senses, show responsibility, and resign from yourost. >> yang: netanyahu said today he will not resign, and he got a major boost from a key ally;es ent trump spoke in hanoi >> he's done a great job as prime minister. he's tough, he's smart, he's. stro >> yang: there is also ahe longstandi long-suffering issue of the israeli-palestinian peace process, and the coming plan from the trump administration. indyk says the prospects for that plan could actually be improved if netathahu lost >> ie is a more centrist governmentthere is greater prospect that the trump "deal of the century" more warmly embraced by the next>>overnment. ang: that plan is now reportedly coming after th israeli election, one that netanyahu said today he intends to win. for the pbs newshour, i'm john yang.
n woodruff: stay with us, coming up on theewshour: congresswoman pramila jayapal on her medicare forll bill. plus, the connection between happiness and economic inequality. but first, in a major victory for house democrats, a bill mandating universal background checks for gun sales is on its way to the senate. it's the first significant piece of gun control legislationpao the house in over 20 years. lisa desjardins joins me now to dig into the details. hello, lisa. so another busy day at the capitol after yesterday. what would these two msures do? >> all right, one passed yesterday and one passed tonight. first, the one that passed yesterday, this bill would
basically require background ehecks for almost every gun sal or transfer in america, allowing exceptions for family members hunting, sporting, if you want to go to a shooting arrange, and law enfcement, that would not necessarily require background checks. this in the background check bill that pased today would allow 20 days total for a c backgroueck. that's a big change, judy, from the current, which is just three days. now, that's considered the charleston loophole. that's the situation in which the massacre in cheston in which nine chrchgoers re killed was because the background check did not come back for three days. they want to raise that to days. legislators say the 20-day window for a background check is too long for victims of domestic violence, women in parlati
who may want to get a weapon to protect themselves, and that argument was raid on the floor today right before the vote to counter that, a vey passionate speech from michigan democrat debby dingell. p i want tlay some of what she said. >> i had to hide in that closet with my sis,bliwondering if we would live or die. one night i kept my father from killing my mother. he shouldn't have had a gun. my mother went out andought a gun, and then all of us were scared to death about her gun and my father's gu. we had two guns to worry about. no chi woman, no man should ever have to go through that. s> she said her father wa mentally ill and should not have access to any gun at all, soum that's the art democrats have made about that. it was a very powerful speech and that bill did pass in the house today. >> woodruff: very powerful, lisa these two measures passing the
house now go to the senate where, the last time, an attempt at major expansion of background check. ter the newtown school massacre, the senate voted. ?hat does it look like now >> it did fail in 2015, it was a close vote. looks lingke thiare farther apart on this issue. even republicans like susan collins who supported mansion are lukewarm on this bill. we they it has more restrictions than in the past. they're taking temperatures.an there's a something happens in the senate. and one of the reasons is gun statistics. last year the number of gun deaths increased to over 39,000. the majority of those two-thirds are suicides, of course, but it's notable that gun violence in this couny have the second leading cause of death among our children. so here's what's considering, judy.
wh i ask housemocrats who are pushing this legislation how do you get it through the senate, they pointed to the children of parkland, florida. of course, theye lost 17ople last year in gun violence. they said these kids have beens focused onthe house. now they will pay all their tention on the senate. they think that will be a relentless effort. they have a steep hill to climb. >> woodruff: what are polls saying about the public view on this idea of universals background checks? >> there is a disconnect. the polls say 92% of public support the idea of universal ose.ground checks, 6% opp usually there's a partisan divide,. no on this issue. so you're seeing something where the public agrees, the senatees ot. one issue might be the amount of importance the public plas this. just 2% of americans think that gun violence is the top issue in this country right now.
sadly, that spikes when we see large headlines about gun kland,ce, like after par florida. we'll see what happens, but, right now, there is agreement but maybe not momentum from th public. >> woodruff: it's so important to follow this. ysa desjardins, thank you very much. 're welcome. >> woodruff: speaking of the democratic party's agenda, b health care is part of it. and specifically, a push to expand health care covere and lower costs. but there are many different ideas within the party of how to do that, and just how far to go. .any are loosely referred to as "medicare for al even so, there's a new bill ins the house thatnsidered the most comprehensive version of "medicare for all." na nawaz explores what it might do and how it may affect the polical conversation. >> nawaz: you might remember medicare for all from 16 platform of senator bernie
sanders.s but there'an even more ambitious plan now in the house. it would move the u.s. to a single-payer, government-runhe thcare system. every american would be able to go to the doctor, or the hospital, or get prescriptions without paying anything out of pocket. hospitals would be paid lump sums to manage, not paid by patient visits or procedures. even long term care for people with disabilities or home health services would be covered. and the plan for this total healthcare overhaul in just two years.ce there's no pag yet, but tme estimate a cost of trillions or tens llions over 10 years. coresswoman pramila jayapa of washington state, is the lead co-sponsor of the bill and she joins me now. congresswoman, wel "me back to thwshour". let's start about what minister think of your plan. broadly speakg, there's a lot of support. over 70% say they like the idea. when you drill into details, you ask people adelays in care
or higher taxes, that support drops significantly dowto5% and 37%. so what is your message to the peopleho like the idea bu don't like the details or the impact? >> well, here's the thi that is so important about this, it is not a government-run system, number one, because we use the same existing system of doctors dyd hospitals that is alr there, and i think sometes people confuse what is in our plan. all we're saying is you can see the doctor and the hospital of your choice, in fact more choice than you have right now with insurance plans -- private insurance plans that continue to mit that. the only thing we are changing is who pays for tht. so instead of having five insurance plans, instead of having to argue with the insurance company abut what's covered, not covered, which facility is in or out of thatan network, you see anyone you isnt and get comprehensive care. the second thinedicare is ayvery popular system, and it already exists toor our
seniors, and what we've done is wee expanded and improved upon that medicare system. so instead of having to buy an additional medicare advantage plan for vision, hearing and dental, we covered that for thing with sam mental health and substance abuse. and we say, instead of jt applying to seniors, it applies to everyone, so ex planned andhc improved heae. and in terms of the transition, i would remind people two years seems so hard to imagine, but, in fact, social securitwas implemented within one year, and there were no co, mputeothing existed there to actually be able to do tt. so this plan is about making sure that every american gets guaranteed universal healthcare, and that is something that every major peer country of ours already has and it is affecting our people, people are dying -- dying -- >> reporter: congresswoman, let me ask you about what the
people are saying, in the plan, they say they don't want to pay higher taxes for it. how would you paw for it?re >> we y cover about two-thirds of people through medicaid and medicare. so two-thirds the costs are already taken care of. the other third, we have a number of different ways in which tu could pay or i, including that empyers aren already payingrmous premiums to insurance companies, they could pay just a fraction of i thto this plan and create some of that money that we need, and then wcan have a tax on millionaires and billionaires. we can roll back tax looples. rev never had really a conversation about why i's o important to keep the costs of our healthcare system down. right now, 19% of. gd.p., that's double what any other industrialized country in ther world pays aleady. >> reporter: one to have criticisms is that your plan doesn't include anefforts to bring down the cost of healthcare before the government would essentialltake over the system, so are you worried about
that? i mean, there are people who will say, look, it's already cost so much, why not work to do that first? >> no, actually, that's the beauty of our plan, sit has cost containment built into it through using something called global budgets which is a really important tool for building in cost containment and it allows, on pharmaceutical drugs, dramatically brings down the price, probably to 50% of what pharmaceutical drugs now cost, and we do that through required negotiation of drug prices, which we already have in thet v.a. but nn the medicare system. >> reporter: there is the situation of having tosi tron over 150 million americans who are currently privately insured to this single-payer system. i want to run by something health and human services secretary alex azawaasked today when asked about medeic for all plan. he said the best doctors will jump out of the program, they will be paid undermarket rates.
to get quality care, yo will go outside the system if you have the money the do so. my question is, is a concern you make a two-tier system where ople who can afford to go out of it do. >> it's the opposite. we cover everybody and not lale ow duplicatre, which is how we operate with medicare now, we believe the majority of doctors will get paid the same or a ittle bit more. some specialty doctors might have to earn wil a little less. you don't have to be rich or poor but you get quality healthcare. 's one of the benefits we have proposed versus the system we have now. 30 million people uninsured, 40 million people undertwsured. thirds of all bankruptcies in this country because of medical costs. that's wrong and we need to end that. >> it's fair to say you have an uphill legislative battle. some of your own party memberst dokely love this plan.
there's nothing incrementalla about this is the idea that you change the conversation so that moreta incremsteps are maybe mor palatable? >> no, we're all about passing the plan. it sounds ambitious on the because healthcare in this country is so broken, b the reality is every industrialized country in the world provides this. why ist that the united states, the richest country in the world, cannot arantee healthcare for every single person in this country? right now, we speend doubl what other countries spend, and we have more mothers dying in childbirth, we have more babies who are dying in terms of our infant mortality rates, and our li expecty is the lowest of all our peer countriesai this is not a particularly ambitious plan in the sense that so many others have done it. the united states should be leading on this issue, and i think this is the planhat et cetera us there. >> reporter: a few seconds left here, congresswoman. i want to ask you about the idea of something being medicallyy,
necessar the things covered as part of this plan. wouldn't that changed based ona who's in ce, what people deem necessary and not? >> no, we actually specify very clearly what is covered. so, you know, dental, vision, comprehensive care, reproductive care, substance abuse, all of those things are detailed in our bill. it's over 15 pages, we've put a lot of thought into it and it real will yois a real transformation of our healthcare system so that everybody in the united statedoes not have to go to bed worrying about where they get tir care. >> reporter: congresswoman pramila jayapal, thank you very much for your time. >> thank you. woodruff: anger over inequality and its effects are important themes runningonhrough our na politics in both parties now. but just howou gauge the true impacts on health isd happiness
bit more nuanced than you might think. our economics correspondent, paul solman, dives into some of those distinctions, part of our weekly segment, "making sense. de reporter: as a record number of private jets ended on davos last month for the world economic forum, the anti-poverty nonprofit oxfam released its annual inequality statistics. according to oxfam, the 26 richespeople on earth, just a bit over the seating capacity of the bombardier 7500, have the same net worth as the poorest half of the world's population, some 3.8 billion people. but a major discovery of medical research in recent years has been that inequality doesn't just weigh on those below. >> the biggest effects are one or but the vast majority of the population does less well they're in a more unequ society. >> reporter: epidemiologists richard wilkinson and kate pickett document this claim in their latest book, "the inne" level."
yes, economic growth drives greater contentment," happiness," but only to a point. >> in the rich, developed world economicis no longer buying us gains in health and happiness. >> reporter: and so as poor counies get richer... >> things get better. >> reporter: and then if you have inequality or increasing inequality in that country then you're going-- you will not be doing as well as the other rich countries. >> reporter: it's the difference between the u.s. andna scana, says pickett. >> if you and i have equal education, the same incomes, the same wealth, the same social class, if you live in a more equal society than i do you are more likely to live loyour children to be healthier, less likely to do drugs or drop out of school. everything about your world is going to be better >> reporter: consider mental illness, whi pickett and wilkinson first linked to inequality a decade ago. >> since then, i think we're
seeing an epidemic of mental illness in the most unequal rich developed countries. about 80% of our young people feeling incredibly stressed, many of them suiciday of them hurting themselves. >> reporter: and of course it's not ju the young, says ckett's husband. >> in britain, three-quarters of the population feel overwhelmed by stress and unable to cope. >> reporter: three quarters? >> three quarters. >> reporter: this is a large sample? >> yes. >> from the mental health foundation. a third of the population have had suicidal thoughts in the last year.fi and thres in the u.s. are pretty similar. about 20% of your population gnosable mental illness at any one time. >> reporter: how does it work? >> so we judge each other more by status in society.equal n d with that goes more worries about how we are sd judged. >> the effects are biggest among the poor. but they go right across tthe top tenth, tenth percent of the
income disibution. it affects our physiology, our hormones, the way we think, the way we behave and those changes have been linked to a range of nowtal illnesses that we are related to income inequality. >> reporter: according to goodrx.com, depression and anxiety prescriptions are on the rise in the u.s., and they track income very closely. of course richer people can afford more anti-depressants and the like. but the well-off sure do csume a lot of them. and if depression isn't the functional definition of unhappiness, what is? after al betsey stevenson and justin wolfers, doesn't everyone know that more money doesn't make yoa ier? you hear it everywhere.ab aftet $70,000 a year of household income, maybe it's a little more in san francisco or something, people are no happier making more than that, than the people who make that amount. ue? no? >> it's a truism, but it's
false. >> reporter: wolfers cautions that wilkinson and pickett have taken the inequality aument too far. >> rich people are happier than poor peoe, and that's true all the way along the income distribution. peoplearning half a million are happier than those earning m quarter oflion. happier than people earning 100,000, happier than people earning 50,000, all the way. >> reporter: now wait a nute. what about 40 years worth of happiness research on lottery winners, going back to a widely trumpeted 1978 study? >> so that original study was a study of, i think, 30 lottery winners. >> reporter: actually, just 22 lottery winners. but a much more recent study tracked hundreds of lottery winners in sweden. >> it turns out that folks who won big lotteries are much ppier than folks who won smaller lotteries, are much happier than folks who won no lottery whatsoever. >> reporter: just as their cats may be, as this swedish lottery ad suggests. >> so it turns out, big bump in
income, big bump in happiness. >> wilkinson response?t- don't put too much stock into self-rated health and happins ports. >> so th 80ry high level of good self- rated health; abouof americans say their health is great. but their life expectancy is ath the bottom ointernational league table among the developed countries. now japan which has the highest life expectancy in the world -- people live there longer than anywhere else-- only aboutm alf of tink their health is good. so there's a complete mismatch between subjective and objective measures when it comes to health. >> so you have to be very careful with that data. >> reporter: so when peoplere rt greater subjective happiness as a function of having greater wealth, are they kidding themselves? >> no, they're not kidding themselves, but we finthat these things are related to inequality. so you're much more likely to say that you are fabulous if you
live in a more unequ society. >> so do you think you're a better driver than most americans? >> reporter: i think i'm worse. >> do you think your i.q. is higher? do you think you're mo attractive? do you think you're more generous? >> reporter: so you think that the reason that, i can't remember the percentage, but 70, 80% of americans think that they're i think much better than average drivers. >> 96% >> reporter: 96% think they're better than average. >> in sweden it's 66%. that is strongly linked to income inequality. >> reporter: in the end though, while the two couples disagree about the effects of wealth on ppiness, they're on the same page regarding inequality. that's because, says betseyn. steven >> increases in income keep making you happier, but they're making you happier at a decreasing rate. it's just that that rate never goes to zero and that's an idea of diminishing returght? if i'm looking at a millionaire to get the same boost in happiness for them, i'm going to need a lot more dollars than for somebody who is pretty low
income, because the relationship is with a percentage change. >> reporter: in other wos, say these liberal economists, you can give one millionaire 10% more money, make him or her 10% happier, or you can divvy up that $100,000 among lower income people to make eacppof them 10% r. >> paul, you may have just found the logic of redistribution. right? take that $100,000 ad 20 people on $50,000, move them from 50, to 55,000, you've made 20 people get the same boost in happiness. >> so we've sacrificed one person with one decrease in happiness that's been offset by an increase in happiness that's 20 times the size. >> reporter: and if redistribution doesn't happen and inequality continues to grow? >> if that whole society becomes very unequal happiness and measures of well-being will decline. >> reporter: and that's the essence of what you're saying. >> yes. >> reporter: for the pbs newshour, this is econrrics coespondent paul solman.
>> woodruff: finallymbonight, we re the life of versatile conductor, composer and performer andre previn. he played jazz with some of the greats, including ella fitzgerald and benny carter. and he won oscars for composing, conducting or performing music in films such as "gigi", "my fair lady" and "porgy and bess." previn became well known too asi thctor of some of the world's leading orchestras, including the london symphony orchestra. he was married five times including to mia farrow. he won 11 grammys and many other honors. here he is both conducting and performing mart's "piano concerto number 17" in 1976. ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪
♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ >> woodruff: andre previn was 98 years old. and that's the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and see you soon. bs>> major funding for the newshour has been provided by: >> babbel. a language app that teaches real-life conversations in a new language, like spanish, french, german, italian, and more. bael's 10-15 minute lesson are available as an app, or online. more information on babbel.com.
>> american cruise lines. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions >> this program was made possible by the corpor public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you.u. thank captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc captioned by media access group at bh access.wgbh.org results are only a
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