tv PBS News Hour PBS March 7, 2019 6:00pm-7:01pm PST
captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> nawaz: good evening. i'm amna nawaz. judy woodruff is away. on the newshour tonight: the u.s. house votesonn a resoluondemning hate. the democratic-backed move is seen as a rebuke ofil congresswoman omar, .ccused by some of making anti-semitic remar then, two years into president trump's "a to foreign trade, the u.s. hits the hiest trade deficit in the nation's history. plus, there's been peace at the border between the republic of ireland and northe ireland since the 1998 good friday agreement, but the brexit debate now threatens th stability. >> nobody envisaged, when the '98 agreement was put in pce, that there would be a situation in which britain would be outside the e.u. and ireland would be in the e.u. so, this throws up all kinds of problems nobody had anticipated. >> nawaz: all that and more, on
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k you. az >> nthe house of representatives voted today to condemn anti-semitism, islamaphobia, and all forms of hateafter an incident that exposed political fault lis. it started when minnesota democrat ilhan omar suggested israel's backers in congress may have divided loyalties democrats' initial resolution focused solely on anti-semitism, but that triggered a backlash from omar's supporters. we'll explore the implications, after the news summary a new firestorm erupted today around michael cohen, president trump's former personal attorney. last week, he told congress that he has never sought a presidential pardon. t in a statement today, his lawyer, lanny davis, said the president's team was openly "dangling" a pardon last year, and cohen directed his previous lawyers to ask about it. that brought sharply different reactions from republicans and democrats. >> he sat there and said he never asked for a pardon, and he had.
but he lied. heidn't forget. he didn't fudge. he lied like a dog. and he lied like a dog to congress. >> the president is now directly implicated in e misuse of pardon power, very directly. offers of pardons are just like offers of money, or any other benefit, in return for perjured or false testimony. >> nawaz: meanwhile, cohen sued the trum claiming it reneged on a promise to pay his legal bills.ry a n florida has convicted a fired police officer, noumanha raja, ones of manslaughter and attempted murder, for killing a black motorist.in corey jones wa broken-down s.u.v. when raja came upon him in october 2015. utors say the officer wa in plain clothes, never identified himself, and provoked a confrontation. rajahowed no emotion as the verdict was read tod now, he faces a mi 2mum sentence years. canadian prime minister just t trudeau deniay that he pressured his attorney general
to settle a corporate iminal case alleging bribery of libyan officials. last week, jody wilson-rayuld accused trudeau's team of inappropriately interfering. she left her government role last month. in toronto today, trudeau blamed what he called an "erosion of trust" and "lack of communication." te i continue to say that there was no inapproprressure. i'm obviously reflecting on lessons learned through this, and i think canadians expect that of us-- that any time we go through periods of internal disagreement and, indeed, challenges to internst, as we have, there are things that we have to reflect on and understand and do better next time. >> nawaz: trudeau said he argued for corporate fines instead of criminalharges, fearing a conviction could cost thousands of canadian jobs, if the companf were barred frure government contracts. in france, meanwhile, catholic odrdinal philippe barbarin was convicte in lyon for not reporting a pedophile priest to
police during the 1970s and '80s. terbarin was given a six-month suspended prison se. he said he will offer his resignation to pope francis. >>y translated ): i dke note of the court's decision. beyond my own personalstase, i wish fo express my compassion to the victims, and will keep th and their families in my prayers. i have decided to go and see the holy father, to handim my resignation. he will see me in a few days. >> nawaz: barbarin is archbishop of lyon, and the senior caolic cleric in france. back in this country, funera began today for victims of sunday's tornado disaster in alabama. the storm killed 23 people in the beauregard community of lee county, with winds blasting at 170 miles an hour.on the na weather service says severe weather is expected again th weekend, across the south. there's word that u.s. customs and border protection is targeting a list of some 60 reporters, lawyers and
activists. nbc news and others report agents have orders to detain hed question them, if they appear at borderpoints near san diego. the agency says it wants to ask about violence at the border i november. the american civil liberties union calls it an "outrageous violation" of first amendment protections. and, on wa street today, banks and tech stocks led the market lower. the dow jones industrial averag0 lostoints to close at 25,473. 2.e nasdaq fell 84 points, and the s&p 500 slid 2e still to c the newshour: a controversial vote in congress to condemn hate. the u.s. reaches the highest traddeficit in its history. what brexit could mean for the 20-year peacin ireland. the famed santa anita racetrack closes, after the deaths of 21 horses. and, much more.
>> nawaz: we return to today's vote in the house on a resolution denouncing bigotry in many forms. nick schifrin looks now the path to this divisive debate on capitol hill. >> schifrin: for years, minnesota democrat ilhan omar has criticized israeli policies. as a candidate, she argued, that criticism was not the same as criticism of jews. >> i see there being a difference between criticism of a country, criticism of its administration and its government, and criticism of the people and their faith. >> schifrin: but in february, republicans targeted her israel comments.an she said she was being attacked because, "it's all abt the benjamins, baby," suggesting $100 bills created support for israel. when asked who she thought was paying u.s. politicians to be pro-israel, she replied, the powerful lobbying groueraipac, the aman israel publicir affas committee.
her critics accused her of repeating anti-semitic tropes linking jewish influence to money. by the next day she deleted the tweets, but republicanity leader kevin mccarthy called them inappropriate. >> the language they are using is wrong. i would say their leadership is wrong for not standing up to it. it is unacceptable in this country, especially whenou sit back and you thought about and you listened to what this country went through in world war ii. >> schifrin: the same day her own party issued a statement saying her "use of anti-semitic tropes and prejudicial accusations about israel's supporters is deeply offensive." omar, who is muslim and black, issued a statement thanking her colleagues for "educating me on the painful history of anti-semitic tros." she said, "i unequivocally apologize," but also criticized the "problemic role of lobbyists in our politics." it's not the first time she's apologized. during the 2012 conflict in gaza between israel and hamas, she
tweeted, "israel has hypnotizedo thd, may allah awaken the people and help them see the evil doings of israel." in january, she labeled that tweet unfortunate and offensivei but, pnt trump said those apologies weren't enough. >> what she said is so deep seated in her heart that her d me apology-- at's what it was, it was lame-- and she didn't mean a word of it-- was just not appropriate. schifrin: nearly a mont later, while at a book store with michigan delicrat rashida omar was asked about u.s. policy toward israel. >> i want to tk about the political influence in this country, that says iis okay to for people to push for the allegiance to a foreign country. i want to ask, why it is okay for me to talk about the n.r.a., or fossil fuel industries, or big pharma, and not talk about n
powerful lobgroup that is influencing policy? >> schifrin: her critics called her reference to "allegiance" an anti-semitic trope, accusingvi jews of more loyalty to each other than to their home countries. on the same day, a poster brought to a republican event in west virginia linked her to 9/11. by today's vote, democrats expanded their resolution from anti-semitism, to condemning bigotry in many forms. speaker of the house nancy >> it is in the spirit of unity as we come together in this chamber to condemn all forms of hatred, racism, prejudice, and discrimination with a hopefly single and strong voice. >> schifrin: and the vote ndemned anti-semitism, islamophobia and all forms of hate. now we talk to leaders of two political jewish activist groups
in washington. jeremy ben-ami is jeremy ben-ami is founder and president of jtreet, which describes itself as a pro-israel, pro-peace advocacy organization. i josh blochief executive officer of the israel project, which describes itself as anducational organization dedicated to informing the media and public about israel and the middle east. he worked at the american israel public affairs committee, known as aipac, for nearly a decade. josh block, let me start with you. ilhan omar says she's trying to criticize israeli policy, she'ic trying to cre the role of jewish lobby group, specifically there is nothing wrong with making policy cocerns about israel known or even suggesting you think that the other folks in theolitical process are wrong. i think the trouble here is that there's been pattern of using specific language that seeks to marginalize and stigmatize jewish participation in the political proc that's very dangerous for jews. this kind of language that we've seen seep into the procee in
ited kingdom is creating a climate that's unsafe for jews. i think we need to be very conscious here of the need the stand up and make sure that the kinds oft anisemitic language troaps, ideas, don't cloud the conversation when it comes to the discussion of israel, which is a legitimate and important policy conversation to have. >> schifrin: jeremy ben-ami, is the language danghious? >> i we can all agree there is serious anti-semitism in this country. it's a scourge we'll continue to fight for the rest of our lives and beyond i think, but the larger question for society right now is where does this atmosphere of hate and intolerance and racism come from? there is an atmosphere that's been created in this country, and it starts at the top with the president of the united states. itas been created across the board. it's not simply about anti-semitism. it's affected people of muslim faiths, people of clor, and we have an atmosphere right now that white natiolism, white supremacy coming from the right politically has created the i atmosphewhich we're operating. that needs to be called out.
>> schifrin: josh block, can we get to some of the substance of what ilhan omar is talkin about. >> sure. i think problem of the frang of right-left is you get to the issue. the problem is anti-semitism. the language that seeks to ostracize, delegitimize and disenfranchise jewisin participatiohe political process. that language is insidious. so needs to be singled out and stopped. hen we then suggest that critics who have objected to rhan omar's remarks in february were from theht, they weren't. the two democratic members of congressho sparked the discussion were democrats. the concerns are being voiced by jerry nadler. we missed in the package earlier her tweet to seen a senior memberita lowey in which she accused her of being a dul loyalist. jeremy is right, there is a problem in our society. jews are gerd six out of ten times by religiously moivated te crimes. they are the number-one target per capita in the country.
that's been the case for two decades. it's not just since this last presidential election. we need to be honest about the viralty of the hate and confront it. we should be clear, all bigotry and racism has no place in this country. >> schif want to bring the israeli government in this country. many journalists who have lived in jerg usalem, accus, have been accused of anti-semitism for crticizing israeli policies. do you believe the israeli government has encouraged the idea that critics of israel are anti-semitic? i think there is a pattern and there are some in israeli politics, i think there are some in the politics of this country, who do try topo weaze the charge of anti-semitism in order to shut down debate. i think there are instances where language goes too far. i would agree with josh, thearre those instances, but there are many other instances and many more whehre thearge of anti-semitism is used in order to delegitimize the critic or the journalist or the person whi is ta, and it does shut
down debate. it stifles the discussion of the actual issues that matter. how do we best end the israeli-palestinian conflict? what are the actions that can be taken to help palestinians and israelis find a better future? sometimes we can't have that imecussion because first you criticize israel you're called an anti-semite. >> schifrin: is that debate being scuttled by the the people using the wordnti-semitism." >> i think to say criticism of israel is stifled -- the weaponization of this dialogue by folks on both the left and the right who seek to cev their political gains. you know, i think we ought to r focus pairing the breech and educating those about the t ne engage in civil dialogue around these policy issues. now, again, i think it's certainly the case that we want to see abution in ilhan omar's
views, but i have to say i'm deeply alarmed by the resistance we all saw in the democratic caucus to moving forward swiftly anciclearly in the denion. the sir us the that took place i think is a concern fr american jews. those of us who havana beieved for for however many decades that the left would act unequivocally without delay to confront these things, we should pause anoreally reflecn where we are as a society and how much more we have to do. >> schifrin: jeremy ben-ami, i want to bring up president trp. you mntioned him before. a couple of incidents here.ri the campaign, he tweeted an ad with hillary clion, there it is, most corrupt candidate ever inside th star of david. his closing ad during the campaign, i the we have somste l, he talked about must be and global special interests over a video of those two people, prominent jews. more recently in charlottesville, when white supremacist chantedath to jews there," the president said they were fine people on both
and more recently he suggested activist george soros who is jewish mightave funded the campaign or the caravan coming up from mexico. is that accelerating anti-semitism? >> oh, absolutely. i think that the ne for the country is set at the top. unfortunately, i think this president and some of the enablers around him and in this case unfortunately it is within the republicaparty and it i on capitol hill and in the white house, they are enabling an atmosphere in which this kind of hate is festering, and the pittsburgh shooter was not motivated by tweets that we critical of israeli policy. the pittsburgh shooter was motivated by this atmosphere of anti-immigrants, anti-jewish hatred that has been fomented p and massible. i don't see the republican caucus engaging in the kind of condemnation odethe pre that we see here. >> schifrin: very quickly from both of you, are you worried that israel is becoming partisan issue? we have a new generation of
democrats, younger, more progressive who are more interested in criticizing >> i think there is a unanimous consent census among the american public that israel is one of ourosest allies in the world. i think we see strong bipartisan support for israel inongress. the u.s.'s relationship isn't just the u.s.-israeli conflict. >> schifrin: quick response. >> i think fs on the right are trying to turn israel into a culture war issue rather than a serious policy discussion. >> schifrin: josh block of the israel project, jeremy ben-ami of j street, thank you both very much. >> thank you. >> nawaz: president trump has made the trade deficit a central focus of his agenda. that'sncluded a major escalation of tariffs and engaging in trade wars, especially with china. but the latest figures for the past year show the overall u.s.
trade deficit keeps growing. in fact, it rose by 12%,ar co to 2017, and the trade gap is now the widest it's been since 2008. daviwessel of the brookings institution is back with us, to help unpack what's behind it, and the larger picture. davidwessel, welcome back to ths hour. help us undersnd, how did this number get so high? what's contributing to it? >> basically, president trump's tariffs didn't help, but the major story is our economy is stronger than some of ther economies of the world. our demand for their stuff is growinga faster thn their demand for our stuff. and so the trade deficit, which is the difference be our imports and our exports, is widening. >> nawaz: so the president has repeatedly talked about that gap and called it unfair. he said he was going to use those tariffs you just men ttiod to close the gap. we see it's gone e other way right now, but the studies you've seen so far has shown a bit of what the effects of those
tariffs have been. what do we know about that? right. well, first of all, the president deserves some of the blame for, this because when you t taxes a lot and stir the u.s. economy, people buy more stuff. when our budget deficit gets bigger, that tends to widen the trade deficit. what the president sometimes talks abt is thasomehow china is paying these tariffs, but the recent studies tohich you refer are trying to figure out, when you have these tarit?s, who gets hur is it the exporting country or the u.s. consumers and businesses who are buying the stuff, and their bottom line is most of the burden is falling n us, the consumers and businesses of the united states. f we're payir for imported stuff because of the tariffs. >> nawaz: so te burden is falling to us, but i'm also hearing you say we're consuming more than we produce. that suggests we have the cash and the ability to be abe to do so. so what is the trade deficit say orabout the overall healt strength of our economy? >> well, you know, sometimes i think the trade deficit is
overemphasized as a measure of the economy's health. it does mean, as you say, tha we're consuming more than we produce. we're lucky enough to be able tt t. it also means that we invest more than we save.ow we're bog a lot of the money to buy these imports. but i think e bottom line is that there are good ways and bad ways to get rid of a trade deficit. a bad way would be we could have a recession. then we can't afford to buy anything. a good way to get rid of the trade deficit would be for us to save a little more or for us to get a little morcompetitive, make better things, work more efficiently. so it's a siganal that weve work to do on that front. >> nawaz: david, does this number say to you re is any number for us to be concerned, or if it continues to grow,e could th reason for concern? >> yes. if it continued to grow, there would be reason for concern. at these levels it's no so bad. the problem is it's probably going to get worse. because the rest of the wold is not doing very well. china is slowing. china is actuay importing less from all its trading partner,
not just from us, and today, for instance, the european central bank marked down its forecast for growth in europe. that means they'll be buying less stuff. the trade deficit will get bigger. at some point it could get dangerously large, but we're not there yet. >> nawaz: we're not there yet. we'll continue t track it. david wessel of the brookings institution, thanks for ysur time as al >> you're welcome. >> nawaz: in three weeks time, the united kingdom is supposed to leave the european union, and still, there is no deal for that so-called brexit. a major sticking point? the fate of the border between northern ireland, which is part of the u.k., and the republic of ireland, an independent nation that will remainart of the e.u. how that border matter is resolved could also have major implications for the peace forged 21 years ago, tded
the deadly uprising in northern ireland. special correspondent ja ferguson was born and raised in northern ireland, and returned there to examine these tense and fraught times. n risesrter: as the over this corner of ireland, sifirst light bathes an ine frontier. it touches carlingford lough,st outh of the border... and reaches across to the hills of south armagh, in the north. it's a peaceful place scene. but this rugged, beautiful land, straddling two nations, has aol t history. it was here that the deadliest branch of the irish republican army, or i.r.a., battled against british rule for some 30 years, esginning in the late 1960s. these fields and lecame so dangerous for british troops, they could only deploy here safely by licopter. "the troubles," as they were called, transformed this tranquil place into a war zone. as a youngirl, growing up just outside the small village of markethill, in northern ireland,
i watched how the violence of that time affected everyone. it is amazing for me to think what was normal life back then in northern ireland in the 1980s and 1990s. when i was just a kid here in my local village, the police statiowas attacked. it's just that compound over there. it was attacked by the i.r.a., and while that attack was taking place, i was in kindergarten, in the local village school re behind me. myself and my classmates were all evacuated. back then, normal life involved the threats of attacks and esmbings and killings. protestant communiere mostly unionist, wanting northern ireland to remain a part of the united kingdom. c catholmunities were irish nationalist for the most part, wanting all of ireland to beif d, free from british rule.0 more than 3,ople died during the troubles, half of s em civilians.
in 1998, armed grod politicians agreed to finally make peace, and signed a historic treaty called the "good friday agreement," that effectively ended northern ireland's bloody sectaan conflict. 20 years, and that peace has brought stability. as long as botthe republic of ireland and britain were members of the same european union, there was no need for a militarized border, and sectarian tensions between protestants and catholics eased. now, the political fight over brexit-- britain's exit from the european union-- is threating that precious harmony. that's because if the u.k. slices away all official ties to europe, the irish republic would remain inside the e.u., with a european border running across the land, separating the republic of ireland from srthern ireland, which could mean new customs aurity checks. it's something that would break the terms of the good friday agreement. dat's already reigniting
tensions. >> one of the things the '98 that it ended violence, obviously, but it also rimade it possible to be bsh or to be irish and not to be loyal or disloyal in northern ireland. r orter: professor margaret o'callaghan teaches irish history at queens university of belfast. >> nobody envisaged when the '98 agrewas put in place, that there would be a situation in which britain would be outside the e.u.nd ireland would be in the e.u., so this throws up all kinds of problems nobody had anticipated. >> reporter: ding the troubles in northern ireland, british border posts were viewed as provocative by irish nationalists.li with identity cs, nearly everything becomes political. that's why peace only came after the border was made less visible. it's still here, but you would hardly know it. one potential solutiono the border issue is being called the "backstop." that would mean leaving northern ireland inside the eonomic zone, even though the rest of
great britain would be outside. the customs border would be invisible line across the irish sea, giving northern ireland an economic special status. it's a solution that is rejected by unionists. >> what concerned us about that was it removed us fr united kingdom, and as we see, once you start to break those ties, no matter how subtly, howt behi scenes, once you start to break those ties between northern ireland and the rest of the united kingdom, ita is the start oocess and it's a process that we don't want to be a part of. >> reporter: in northern ireland many people earn a living through farming, like my family. i grew up on this farm in county armagh, and i returned here just as the deadline for making a deal with europe grows near. if trade agreements are severed with a hostile brexit, farmers here-- like my father-- willel find thes subject to tariffs on their goods being sold to europe. my father is also the president' of the farmeunion in northern irend. he says around half of all lamb meat from northern ireland crosses the border into the republic of ireland and ends up in france.
but our lambs aving northern ireland and going to southern ireland would pay a tariff of about 35 to 40 pounds sterling per lamb, anthat would mean that, well, farming just wouldn't stand that. >> reporter: another fear is new imports from other countries, like the u.s. free from europeans regulations anon how animals are raise cared for, farmers here could find themselves undercut in price by foreign goods. >> the e.u. s quite strict standards, so they don't want american beef because it's full of hormones. the chicken is washed with chlorine, so they don't want at. they won't allow that in. so that's a thing we are concerned about as well. if the u.k. decided to drop the standards, then that would be a major difficulty for us. >> reporter: democratic unionist party campaigned for brexit, ani is a key partnprime minister theresa may's governing coalition; they say that farmers
should keep calm and farm on. >> we want to see a with awal agreement with the european union. we want to see that there is the protection and the certainty there for business above anything else. reporter: for unionists however, there is another concern. to some of their rivals amongst nationalists, the discord overig brexit could sl an opportunity.y the good fridaagreement includes a clause that calls for an eventual referendum, or poll, on removing the irish border entirely and uniting ireland. when northern ireland was formed almost 100 years ago, there was a clear protestant, unionist, marity, protecting the uni with the u.k. over the years that majority has eroded, d is now almost gone. so far, no one has wanted to risk the delicate peaclain northern i since the good friday agreement by calling for a unity ferendum, but the brexit debate has changed everything here. >> a hard border on the isla of ireland cannot happen, will not happen, and is not an option. >> reporter: mary lou mcdonald is the president of sinn fein, traditionally seen as the political wing of the i.r.a. >> if the british government insists on a reckless course of action that brings a difficultyr to the gooay agreement and
causes a hardening of the border, in those circumstaes, the only democratically correct thing that they can do is put the issue of the border itself to the people. allow the people to have their say in a referendu on a border poll. >> reporter: on a united ireland? >> absolutely. >> reporter: a hard border in northern ireland would almost certainly re-ignite anger, butno fo the likelihood of an outright insurgency again is lew. is a return to ve realistic? >> no. i don't think that is realistic at all. i don't see a return to thatnd f violence post 9/11, we live in a different kind of world. >> reporter: that doest mean sporadic violence, less organized, would not be possible. >> i think it would be a very foolish, and very reckless person, that would gamble at all
on stability. that would gamble in any way, however small, would takany chance with the peace that we have built. >> reporter: the memories of violence and loss, however, are still sharp, and nthern ireland's people know they have much at stake in the coming months, hoping their hard-won peace here can withstand the changing world around them. for the pbs newshour, i'm jane ferguson, in belfast, northern ireland. >> nawaz: a spike in deaths among race horses has triggered e indefinite shut down of one of the most famous tracks in the country. as john yang reports, it's shining a spotlight on questions about the welfare of horse racing's four-legged athletes.s
>> yang: this to be a big week at santa anita park outside los angeles-- a major ace for the kentucky derby was set for saturday. instead, it will be . alracing and training, suspended indefinitely. since december 26, 21 hoiles have died training or racing. that's almost double the track'l fatalities iof 2018. the most recent raceatality was this past weekend: a horse named eskenforadrink was in the lead, when she broke down. the four-year-old filly's ane was injured beyond repair. she had to be euthanized. the spike in devastating bone fractures at santa anita is renewing focus on the racing industry's practices. public attention was heightened in 2008 when the filly, eight belles, had to be put down after finishing second in the nationally televised kentucky derby. santa anita is the home track for bob baffert, who's trainedip two crown winners.
>> we love these animals. rewe don't send them out t thinking something bad's going to happen, and it's stressful. >> yang: other horses have been injured, but not badly enough tt endaheir lives. one is owned by larry peal. >> it was running in a race, and then we found out after the race that it needed an operation. and it had a fractured knee, and chip in the other knee. >> yang: some blame this year's unusually wet southernte california w wi i think the rain probably has had something to d it, these record amounts of rain. >> yang: horse owner larry peal says all that water has left the track hard. >> the track is pretty mfrh like the 21way-- it's concrete. >> yang: last week, santa anita shut for two dayso the main dirt track could be examined by experts.e' >> looking at everything.
ground-penetrating radar allows us to look through the layers. it's the way that we check that the base, cushion and pad are all of consistent thickness. >> yang: after re-opening, two more deaths, triggering the current closure. in a statement, a santa anita official said, "while we are confident further testing will confirm the sodness of the track, the decision to close is the right thing to do at this time."ac >> we readilowledge it's an athletic endeavor. injuries happen. you want to minimize the effect of the injuries and you want to stay away from the big ones. >> yang: animal rights protestors say horse racing practices in general are to blame. they accuse trainers of pushingo es too hard, and drugging injured horses to keep them running. >> outrage. i mean, one death is one tooma . it should not happen. a lot of these beautiful animald are ow. and who's going to answer to that?ye >> yang: 8-old santa anita park is one of the most storied tracks in america. in hollywood's golden age, it was a gathering spot for movie
e royalty, like clark gabld carole lombard, and maene deitrich. bing csby was a part owner. in modern hollywood, it's beenlo the filming cation for movies like 2003's "seascuit." and now, after so many horses have died, santa anita is shuttered, with a date for its re-opening uncertain.fo r the pbs newshour, i'm john yang. >> nawaz: generation z-- people born from the mid-1990s to around 2010-- make up a quarter of the u.s. population, and they're growing up in an increasingly cash-less society. how does that affect theirti reship to money and finance? economics correspondent paul solman took a group of kids on a field trip, to find out. it's part of our weekly series,
"making sense." >> so, anybody want ice cream? >> reporter: a chilly day in renhattan, but for ten- and 11- year-olds, thereo unseasonable treats. but the excitement for the grown-ups-- myself and personal acnance expert beth kobliner-- this was a transtion with an unfamiliar twist... this store doesn't take cash. ever. like a growing number of retail shs, it's plastic or mobil payment only. but cash-less was no problem for the kids, who of course weren't paying. what are youoing with? >> cookies and cream with a sugar cone! >> reporter: but they're also growing up at a time when only onin three purchases is ma with cash. so, we wanted to know: does an increasingly cash-less economy keep kids from grasping the basics of price and value? eow much do you think th things cost? >> it tastes so good, i think it'll be, like, anywhere from $3 to $7
>> reporter: but the kids say expensive compared to the ice cream trk... >> they only charge you $2.75. >> reporter: okay, so they're familiar with relative prices. but can they calibrate value? if i said to you, i'llive you $5.50, instead of the ice cream cone, which would you choose? the cone or the money? >> the money.>> eporter: you would; why? >> because i could get something else, cheaper ice cream.t a >> you can get the same amount, a bigger amount of ice cream,$2 fo5 at trader joe's, or $3.99 at trader joe's, and then you can have ice cream for a whole week. >> rorter: i know what i'm going to do. i'll offer $2. who will still give me their ice cream for $2? what about a dollar? a dollar. but in the end, two of the kids actually took my low-ball $1
cash offer for half-eaten ice crea whose allure was apparently melting as fast as the foodstuff itself. this suggested not only the economic concept of diminishing returns, but also that hard currency has the same cachet, or more, than it did when beth kobliner and i were first lured into the sugar market. >> when i was little kid, out ten or 11, yeah, i remember going to the ice cream store, and my dad would give me $1. and ice cream then was 50 cents, and the sprinkles were five cents. >> reporter: in my day, a quarter, by the way. an ice cream cone was a quarter. >> and i would get change. the whole transaction was really about learning addition, subtraction, numeracy. today, 70% of all our purchases are done online, or with cards.r >> rr: how many of you have smartphones?. every one of y now, about half of ten- to 12- year-olds have smartphones, and 40% of teenagers have debit cards. so is ca arithmetic a lost art?
how many quarters in $3? >> 12! >> reporter: how many quarters $3.75? >> 15. >> reporter: 15, very good. so kids can still count, without burning much cash. but aren't they beinckered into spending, by switching to a wedit card? >> i don't thinkld be responsible with one, because i would just want to go around spending, spending it,upid stuff sometimes. is reporter: isaac smith l reluctance was echoed by the others. >> i'm going to be gng on, like, shopping sprees and be, like, "okay, everything is on me." >> i can't use cret cards, because i would be, like, i'm going to buy that, i'm going to buy that, i'm going to buy that. >> money doesn't grow from trees. >> reporter: when it comes to credit cards, in fact, gen z-ers may be more penny-wise tn their parents. dawood's mom, huda qatabi, for example:
>> i'm worse! ( laughter ) >> reporter: so are these gen-e zers sth their-- or their parents'-- money? no. i taone further remove, and to tech-savvy marketers, they're sitting ducks. that's because kids this age spend about six hours a day online, on average, much of it playing video games... and spending on them. the industry's new business moel: selling items within game. like the outfits the characterse ar, also known as "skins," in the game sensation "fortnite." >> in-game purchases, i feel like, it's just like, "click, click." it's just not real moneyga >> inside th, it's like you're just using game money. >> reporter: theon kids aren't facebook came under scrutiny earliethis year when documents revealed it made than $34 million om in-app purchases made by minors. and, as alice richson told us, these aren't always one-time
charges. >> i got a subscription on a coloring app, and it just kept taking money from every month, and finally my dad found out and i got in trouble. >> yes. she somehow signed up on itunes for a bunch of games, some games that kept charging every month. and i didn't get the receipts. it went to her email. but i chged that now, so i didn't know that was happening. so, i shut that off, yeah. >> reporter: but when it comes tother in-game purchases, jason richelson said... >> i give in sometimes. >> reporter: why do you give inb ause they keep bothering me. >> reporter: impulsive kids; pestered parents. all overmatched by online credit-- cash-free; card-free. and that's why the actual way we finally purchased our ice cream gave me pause. you do not accept cash? >> no, we only take credit card, debit card, or apple pay. >> reporter: apple pay?
i don't have that? r i have apple pay. >> reporter: koblies mobile pay apps, but she does have concerns about them. oo>> there is a study thatd at mobile pay, and it turns out when you use your phone to buy , you are more likely to feel that you've got a good deal at that store. it's like th magic wand; you're getting something for nothing; you're not giving up dollars. >> reporter: really? >> so stores really have an incentive to not let uuse cash. >> reporter: even friendly cash- free stores like this one. as if the magic spell of ice cream wasn't troublesome enough. for the pbs newshour, economics correspondent paul solman, reporting from manhattan's lower east side. >> nawaz: and we'll be backh shortly, wjudge who
>> naw any given day, approximately 50,000 young people in the u.s. are held inns juvenile pri johnnie mcdaniels, a judge in mnds county, mississippi, believes americas incarceration problem actually begins during teenele years. mcdaspent three years as executive director of the henley-yng juvenile justice center, and offers this "brief but spectacular" take. >> being a prosecutois about making sure that justice prevails. i'm an absolute vocate, and i advocated it from the courtroom, that if a person was not guilty or sometng, the system is designed that that person should be let go. >>he criminal justice syst was always interesting to me.
i'm the youngest of ten children one older brother has had the misfortune of having got caught up ithe criminal justice system, and actually went to prison. i would go and visit him with my mom at the state penitentiary in parchman. he would always give the most wonderful story when we were there with my mom. you know, "i'm doing fine, and, and, you know, i'm going to be okay and, and, and they treat me nicely," and that type of thing. when she was gone, you know, you would hear the other side of it. you would hear t difficulties associated with being incarcerated in the state of mississippi. the difficulties associated with not having proper legalre esentation. so i was always saying, you know, at one point, you know, i'm going to go to law school, and i'm going to be a greatto defense ey. i'm going to make sure that i can make a difference to people coke my brother. as i stood in thtroom, prosecuting young people between the ages of 18 and 21, one ofcs the first dynahat i absolutely encountered was, all of them have some type of evolvement with the juven
justice system. so, seei that, i naturally began to ask questions about what's going on with juvenile justice issuesn jackson, mississippi, and found some pretty astonishing things in terms of the number of youe people who wt being adjudicated, the number of young pele who were not receivin the type of services that were necessary. the system not having the proper mechanisms in place to deal with the revolving door of junile justice is absolutely problematic. many of those juveniles have been t subject of some type of abuse; some type of neglect, some type of trauma. that's why it's so important to have the right type of mental health professionals in place, when you're dealing with juveniles who are engaged in the criminal justice system. if you allow it to just kind of not receive the proper attention that it deserves, you're going to have a young person who's going to matriculate from age 13, engaging in behavior, all
the way until they do something unfortunate and sensational that they're on the 5:00 evening news, and at that point, thereo isre saving. i absolutely believe that we car divert aabilitate young people, so that we won't have se many people inriminal justice system. if you don't get it right at the juvenile level, in ttext of criminal justice, you're never going to get it right at e adult level. i'm not talking about, you know, making communities unsafe. there's a way to do this in suc a at we can have smart justice, safe communities, but make sure that our jails and prisons are not full of people who shouldn't be there. my ne is johnnie mcdaniels a this is my "brief but spectacular" take on the revolving door of juvenile justice. >> nawaz: you can watch additional "brief but spectacular" episodes our website, www.pbs.org/newshour/brief. and that's the newshour for tonit. i'm amna nawaz. join us online, and again here tomorrow evening.
for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you, and see you soon. di >> major funng for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> babbel. a language program that teaches language, like spanishfrench, german, italian, and mor >> consumer cellular. >> bnsf railway. >> american cruise lines. a with the ongoing support i of thetitutions >> this program was made b possibthe corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbe station fromrs like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc
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