tv PBS News Hour PBS March 15, 2019 3:00pm-4:00pm PDT
captioning sponsored by wshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening. i'judy woodruff. on the newshour tonight: terror in new zealand. 49 people are killed in shootings at two mosques... one of the darkest days in that country's history. then, mark shields and david brooks on the dangers of hate speech to spark violence. plus, a photographer on a mission to capture the past, documenting the often-overlooked places of the underground railroad. >> it's about the history of people who were engaged in a process and a project of self liberation. i want to remind people about that because i think it resonates even today, globally. >> woodruff: all that and more, on tonight's pbs newshour.
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nation stricken tonight. a self-declared white supremacist gunned down muslims at prayer today, striking terror into a country where police rarely carry guns. the massacre in christchurch left at least 49 dea w and another nded. amna nawaz (gsirensr)coverage. >> nawaz: it is the deadliest shooting in new zealand's modern history. prime minister jacinda ardernse addrthe nation, hours after the horror unfolded. >> it is clear that this one of new zealans darkest days. >> nawaz: just before 2:00 p.m. local time, a nman dressed in all black stormed the al noor mosque in christchurch, crowded with worshippers for friday prayers. >> we heard, you know, the and then, everybody just run to the back doors, just to save themselves. >> nawaz: mohammed jama, former president of the mosque, saw the gunman enter the building.
>> he had helmet, and he had glasses, and he had the dress of the military, and heas gun, machine gun. >> nawaz: after two minutes, the gunman walked outside, shooting people on the sidewalk. he then went back into the mosque, to continue shooting some of those already wounded. ramzan ali survived by hiding. >> i just lie down under the bench, thinking that if i get out, i'll get shot. so i'm just keeping my fingers crossed so i could be alive. >> nawaz: within two hours, more worshippers killed, in a second attack at linwoomimosque, three s away. the gunman live-streamed the attack on facebook, apparently using a helmet camera. facebook said later that it had removed both the shooter's facebook and instagram accounts, and takedown the video after the shooting, and all postssu orting the attack. police have charged one man with murder, and detained two others for investigation. on social media, the apparent shooter identified himself a brenton tarrant, a 28-year-old australian.
he posted a 74-page manifesto, callg himself an "avowed racist," and citing as inspiration, both the white supremacist who killed 77 people in norway in 2011, and the white supremacist who murdered nine black parishioners at a charleston, south carolina church in 2015. he also mentioned president donald trump by name, calling him a "symbol of renewed white identity." in washington, president trump addressed the attack this afternoon: er these places of worship turned into scenes of evil killing. you've sane what went on. it's a horrible horrible thing. ited states is wite them alle thay. >> >> nawaz: the massacre left new knzealand's small and clos muslim community-- around 50,000 people-- reeling. >> we had of all theities, family friends that we've known for 19 years-- dead. people who were there for my engagement-- dead. >> nawaz: in neighboring australia, prime minister scott morrison denounced theiettack. >> we , we are shocked,
we're appalled, we are outraged, and wetand here and condemn absolutely the attack which occurred today by an extremist, right-wing, violent terrorist. >> it is clear that this can now only be described as a terrorist attack. >> nawaz: the mass shooting, new zealand's first in more than 20 years, prompted unequivocal condemnation from the prime minister. >> there is no place in new zealand for such acts of extreme and unprecedented violence, which it is clear this act was. >> nawaz: tonight, police in new zealand and around the world say they are ramping up security for mosques. >> woodruff: for more on all of this, we turn to humera khan. she's the executive director of muflehun, a non-profit
organization that works to prevent the spread of hate, extremism and violence in the united states. kathleen belew is an assistant o,ofessor of history at the university of chicnd has written extensively about white supremacy movements. and, matthew knott. he's a reporter for the "sydney mornrald," based in new york. before moving to the unitedhe statesovered australian politics. welcome all three of you to the newshour. mathew knott. these men moved to australia a tell us a little bit about the political climate right now. >> yesit absolutely devastating for the people in australia but this has happened not just becausel we're soose with new zealand, alvesnsider ourselves two of the same whole really. but the fact was it was a australian has really shocked and made ppsople soet in
australia that itas an australian responsible. it does reflect some of what has been happening in our politics in recent years. there has been a growth of anti-islamic rhetoric. one of the parties has held e balance of power in our parliament since the election is 2016 one nation and one of the principal planks of the policies is a very strong critique of islam, the leader of that party, described i lam as a deans -- islam as a disease thai needs to be vate the against. this is part of our rhetoric over the recent years. it's very disappointing to see this playing outhis way. >> woodruff: you were telling us some of this thinking has beco normalized in australia. n yes, that is the thing. this party oneation came to the fore in the 90's predominantly proteing against
asian immigration and against benefits for indigenous australians. the party was stamped outf existence by the mainstream party saying that was not acceptable. and has come back to prominence in recent years. we have anti-islam rhetoric and that is proven more acceptable to t australian public, the senate, the government both needed the votes of this party to get anyg thne. so it has been normalized in our discourse. >> woodruff: humera khan, you spent a lot of time looking at extremism like this. you've read this man's manifesto, what he caled his manifesto today. what came through to you. >> so i think there are a few one is that there's nothing particularly we knew in there which we haven't seen throughif the mato. he's drawn i'dology fromma
festo of right ring groups but you see the similaritiesr what's beeeated before. see you hear the new stuff that's been used by the new nazis the white supreme es. he mentions the manifesto are attackers and he's inspired by that. in that sense, it was not th content that was used but put together. i think what is really importanf omething we should not under estimate is how malignant the ideology and the ideological extremism. >> woodruff: how malignant is it? how wide spread is it, you obviously have studied this. how powerful is it? >> well you saw what happened to new zealand. but this is not the fistr we've seen the attacks in norway but just in america we saw the attacks on the pittsburgh synagogue. in quebec we saw attack on a mosque. this is nothing new and we've
seen these attacks on houses of worship which have been going on for a long time now. he was the attack of the church in south carolana. this iher problem but it's the same, it's investigators of the same ide >> woodruff: which is white supremsupremacy. >> yes. and they don't hesitate to act again. when they molize like every her toirs groups they arein wito kill. >> woodruff: kathleen belew, what should we be learning now by these incidents. >> this is a socl movement. this is the most important thing to understand. this is an action carried out by the white power movemen it has decades of history in the united states and beyond. it is part of a social ground swell. its members are deeply connected with one another and they aredr
ideologicallen as my co-panelist has said. that means that we have to think about how to connect these disparate acts of violence together into one story so we can start to think formulating a response to this as a movement. these aren't lone would haveor attackad men. these are political actors who understand what they are doing to bdmotivated a purposeful. and the other thing about actsis like tand again i'm an historian. i studied the period from th vietnaevaluate war to the oklah- to the vietnam war to the oak bombing which is theirst anti-state violence. when we think about acts likthe new seeland shooting, the oklahoma shooting, the massacre in charleston, the attack on tree of life synagog, these actions are not meant to be the end in and of emselves. the mass attack that's not the
endpoint of this ideology. these actors envision these acts as purposeful political statements meant to awakea broader white public to the urgency of their ideology and to race war. >> woodruff: race war literally. >> yes. that's why i think it' important to call this what it is which is the white power movement. i think when people say white nationalists or white supremacists it serves to soe en fy radical and roof illusionary naturehis activism. white nationasm thinks the nation implied is going to be the nation of the united states or the nation of new zeenaland n fact these activists think about a white nation that transcends national boundaries. they're pursuing an aaro an aryn ing this with an end goal of ethnic cleansing and ra war. >> woodruff: matthew, knowing that this is that serious, what
they really want is elimination of people arwhnot white. is that recognized in australia? >> i think it is going to be now. i igink this is a bake up call for everyone in australian politics and in australian media that that rhetoric and our discourse maers and you have to be careful where it goes and what you tolerate. the thing as security agents sa again and again is that to work with muslim communitou need to not put them off side and to hae a sort of rhetoric that was mentioned by politicians is not helpful in that. this is already something a lot of soul searching in australia is about what has become normalized in ourse disco >> woodruff: humera khan what about the response here in the united states.p president trs asked about this today. he says he does not think that white nationalism is a problem this country. he said it's just a small group
of people. ouat sort of response are you seeing today froleaders to this? >> there's inadequate perhaps is the best way of saying it. we need to acknowledge this system as terrorism. this is terrorism and it has to be dealt with from that perspective. i know today the homeland security committee actually asked the fbi for infoation on domestic terrorism so i think that's a start. but it cn't end there because for years this issue has not been pure ed enough. uestion i keep asking is where are the programs. where is actually the plan for leadership and the funding which is greatly needed to actually counter, not just counter but also prevent this issue. >> woodruff: do you see any movement in the part of the u.s. government to do that? >> at this moment, no. hopefullyat will change. but i think it needs to be and
's also not just the government. this is a case where as the professor described it, this is a movement, a social movement. it's not just up to the government or the government's responsibility to deal with s . everyone h responsibility which means every sector of society. it means religious, the clergy,t soitself, the education system. everyone actually has tomo lize. recognize this is an issue. >> woodruff: kathleen belew back t you how do you see whether it's the united states or australia orr otuntries but clearly we're a program in the united states. whould, what can this country be doing about this now? >> when we think about thikind of a movement, it is a fringe movement. it is a comparatively small group of people. but the thing is people in fringe movement has outsized capacity for violence and outsized capacity for spreading ideas into other circles. i think this is a movement an the history shows this that has
really done a lot of work to disguise itself and to appear as sort of scaered lone t of violence and we see over and over again the idea of the lone wolf attacker at the mad man, a few bad apple when in fact these are coherent and connected actions. so the work of contexturalizing them puing them in conversation with one another and understanding these events are sected isut absy crucial if we want to mount any kind of public response.th movement uses a strategy called leaderless resistance whic is effectively very much like self style terror. the idea is that a cell or e man can work to foment violence without direct communicatiowi leadership. this was implemented of course to stymie prosecution in crt and that's one level of response. the larger consequence ofes leaderlesstance is that our society as a whole has not been able to understand this violence. >> woodruff: well it's clear. we have heard so much aboutla
mic terrorism. it is very clear now we need oko t supremacy as another fo of terrorism. kathleen belew, mathew knott, humera khan, thank you very much. >> woodruff: president trump dispensed his first presidential veto today-- on a resolutionck by some in his own party, that sought to terminate his national emergency declaration. mr. trump signed the veto in front of news camera at the white use today, and he applauded the senate republicans who stayed loyal. >> today, i am vetoing this resolution. congress has the right to pass it, and i have the duty to veto it. and i'm very proud to veto it. and i'm also very prouhe republican senators who were
with me. >> they vo the president's emergency order but the other 12 joined with democrats to oppose it.us neither appears to have the votes to override the veto but the emergcy declaration faces a breert o a tense calm returned in gaza and israel today, after cross- border fighting erupted overnight. daylight revealed the damage from some 100 israeli airstrikes in gaza, targeting the militant group hamas. they were triggered by a rare rocket attack on tel aviv. israeli news accnts said it now appears the rockets were fired by accident, possibly during maintenance work. north korea is warning the u.s. that it may re-start missile launches a nuclear tests. that follows last month's failed summit in vietnam. a senior official in pyongyangsa today that north korean leader kim jong-un will soon decide whether to continue
talks, or resume testing. in washington, secretary of state mike pompeo said that the u.s. expects kim to keep aom e made to president trump. >> in hanoi, on multiple occasions, he spoke directly to the president, and made aha commitmenthe would not resume nuclear testing, nor would he resume missile testing. that's chairman's kim word. we have every expectatat he will live up to that commitment. >> wdruff: pompeo and nation security adviser john bolton also disputed a nortatkorean claim hey torpedoed the summit by refusing to compromise. tens of thousands of yth activists around the world skipped school today, to march for action on climate change. demonstrations spanned more than 100 countries, with rallies in cinges from new delhi, to ho kong, to paris. everywhere, the activists said it was a fight for their future. in wasngton, organizers led chants, called for increased youth voting, and challenged
politicians to end reliance on carbon-based energy. >> fossil fuel corporations have far too long put profit over the people and the planet. we will listen to each oer, organize, and solve this issue, regardless if any adults will join us, because we are the youth fighting for our right to live on this planet. >> woodruff: the worldwide youth d,vement was started by a swedish 16-year-reta thunberg, in 2018. she has since been nominated for a nobel peace prize. volkswagen and a former c.e.o. are facing charges of defrauding u.s. investors during a dieselda emissions sc the securities and exchange commission accused the german auto maker last night of selling billions of dollars in bonds and securities at inflated prices. v.w. entually admitted that nearly 500,000 diesel vehicles sold in the s. were rigged to
cheat on emissions tests. on wall street, stks finished the week on a high note, thanks to tech and reta stocks. the dow jones industrial average gained 139 points to close near 25,849. the nasdaq rose 57 points, and the s&p 500 added 14. and a passing to note: w. merwin, the former u.s. poet laureate, died today at his home on the hawaiian island of maui. merwin penned more than 20 books over the course of his career, exploring themes like nature, and his objection to the vietnam war. his writing earning him a hostof iterary honors, including two pulitzer prizes for poetry and the national book award. w.s. merwin was 91 years old. still to come on the newshour:ie s and brooks on the dangers of hate speech. a photographer works to capture the past, documenting the sites of the underground railroad. and, much more.
>> woodruff: it may seem early, but the race to take on president trp is coming into focus. lisa desjardins has the latest. >> i'm running to serve you as president of the united states of america. thank you. >> desjardins: another week, another candidate. beto o'rourke is two days into his presidential csppaign, and hat both of those days-- as one does-- in iowa. a back-bench congressman fm el paso, texas, o'rourke gained fame for his unorthodox social-e dia friendly campaigning, speaking directly on facebook, and skateboarding on the trail. he is also a fundraising juggernaut, raising $80 million in his texas senate race last year, mostly from small donors. that wasn't enough, and he lost a close three-point race to republican ted cruz. a moderate, and himself a multi-millionaire, critics
question if o'rourke can appeal to enough core democratic voters. he is specifically aiming for voters in both parties. i want to show up everywhere, for everyone. d jardins: also in iowa, entrepreneur andrew yang, who this week met the requirement to be included in democrati debates by raising money from 65,000 different donors. meanwhile, vermont senator bernie sanders focused south, on south carolina, with an event in charleston last night. >> now, our job is to completeat e started, and now our what we started, and we are gog to bring justice to america. >> desjardins:nd while the race is taking shape, what may be the biggest name remains on the sideline. >> run joe run! run joe run! >> desjardins: former ce president joe biden indicated this week in a speech to a firefighters union that he's inclined to take on ent
trump. >> in america, everyone gets a shot. that's what the next president of the united states needs to understand, and that what i think this current president esn't understand at all. >> desjardins: in a race with no clear frontrunner, the formerp. v.eads the wide-open pack in these early days. a monmouth university poll this week found 28% of democratic voters back biden, with 25% for sanders. both are also the two who have run national races before. the top newcomer to presidential politics is kamala harris, at 10% in this poll, which included a whopping 23 candidates or potential candidates on its list. for the pbs newshour, i'm lisa desjardins. woodruff: we turn to the analysis of shields and brooks. that's syndicated columnist
mark shields, and "new york times" columnist david brook we're going to get to politic in just a moment. but david i want to start with this terrible massacre at two mo we just talked to our guests ing to say about where we are in terms of, what does it saya about us auman race. >> well we're seeing a culture cry in pain a rage and alanation, a culture tht's divideed, isolated where people are lonely, committing suicide at high rates.so of the thing some lonely people exiential angst do, they turn fanatics and that's been the case all through we're just at a moment of just cultural pain and you get these horrific outbreaks some are gentle, relatively gentle screaming at each abo politics. some are really bad, suicide, murder rate, opioid rate andso is horrific which is the mass shootings we see across western society. and it's just the definition of our culturalthoment. thing that kathleen belew said i think is worth repeating that it's a movement. it used to be a movement or evee ror army which is a group
of people who had internal structure and institutions but these are webs organized by the internet. just you because they never met each other doesn't mean they aren't part of one a thingnd fa thattal ideas. what's interesting is how they wink and nod through their stateents and thir manifestos. this guy was quoting something from the pittsburgh synagogue. that's just a scary form of movement.r >> woodruff: em it's a piece, mark, although they don't have a leader. as david said, kathleen blue y id a moment ago, it's about eliminating everybo isn't right. >> i agree and i was struck by mark thatbelew's r it's a white power movement and a social ground swell. i can't helbut think that the amplification and strengthening of this institution or this movement has occurred through the internet.
the idea t if somebody held those beliefs in the past there was almost a sense of isolation because they were so widely unacceptable to most people. but now you get radification, you get validation because you can alk t people, whether it's somebody going tthe church in chawfercharleston or the tree oe synagogue in pittsburgh or new zealand yesterday going aft muslims. it's worldwide in mhisovement. thd it's obviously not based on anything other that sense of anger, resentment and hostility. >> going after houses of worsh is not an accident. it's a form of anti-religion. it's a faithemr movt of hatred. this is not the first time in history we've had this so you get these moral wars. somebody pointed out when the
printing presses first created people thought it would herald in an age of peace so we could talk to each other through the written word and we got literature wars. so it can have negative effects it was sack in the 50's existential anxiety if you don't know what your mral pose is you turn into fanatic because this power mou vement gives clean moral logic you know your purpose in the universe and you have a clear enemy you can go kill who are human. so it clears your existential anxiety because everything is literally black and white. >> woodruff: right now you don't have an evident to condemn to say this is wrong. >> we all know it's wrong. i mean but how do you confront something that is almost subterranean. it's not something we run into
some of us daily. it was just one moment yesterday on capitol hill when the most powerful democrat on the country quoted the most popular president in the last century. it just said thanks, quoting this president. thanks to each wave of new arrivals to this land of opportunity. we're a nation for every young. forever bursting with energy and eew ideas. always leading world to the next frontier. if we ever close the door to new americans, our leadership in the world will soon be lost.ga ronald res last speech to the american people. >> woodruff: nancy pelosi. >> nancy pelosi's speaker of the house at the luncheon for the ireland prime minister yesterday. donald trump sitting there as she said this wow it's just one of those moments to say we are not who we were. >> it's an assertion what joins us across es race is more important. >> exactly. >> woodruff: you made the segue to president trump and i was going to ask you in the context of the 12 republicans
yesterday in the senate whowen against the president on hisde emergenclaration on the border. but what has come up in the last day or so is a call the president made with breitbart news the right wing website ande aid, he was condemning democrats and saying, the lef he said it's tough. but he went on to say i cu an tl have the support of the police, the support of the military, support of the bikers for trump. i have the tout gh people buey don't play it tough until they go to a certain point and the it would be very bad, very bad. i'm contrasting that with what president reagan said. >> he left out the brownhirts. it is classic authority sarin isn't.l it'sst mouss moose lieny like. president trump told me he's afraid ofonfrontation in person. he'll do it over the internet but he won't do it in person.
he needs to exert toughness and admires ughness and putin and north koreans that's his highest virtue but it's a plus tree front which is trip actual. >> reckless beyond belief. i can't believe it. words matter, especially the words of a president. he's not talng to breitbart or any particular group. whenever the president speaks he's speaking to all of us and for all of us. this was criminally reckless. it was almost sanctioning and condoning any ac violence by one of his supporters, armedin supporters a a political critic, a political appoint ying i understand it. it just contrasted with the words of a reagan or a kennedy or any other president. >> woodruff: for some i think it called to mind what hisrm lawyer michael cone said not long ago when he said, well when he was testifying before
the congress he said he wasn't suen if the preswould accept the results if he lost the election in a close contestd n't know what would happen. so we'll go there another time. let's come back to 2020 with lisa's report, dav. beto o'rourke he ran a good race two yearago in 20 sell but he lost to ted cruz. iis is a different field, isn't. will be very interesting. there are a lot of things i'm interested about the race. it's very hard to imagine one more fascinating with the angles. one is the ideological where owe roque isidentify logically uninformed. but a elizabeth warren and berne sanders, they're not. with beto it's the aurora. people are informed. thee's thegister difference. sanders and warren. they know about what's going wrong in america.
the mayor of new york, cory booker. he'soing love and beto is doing charm. one of the things that beto and aoc have in common is at the time frankly when the left could be a little turgithey're joyful and i happen to think that's a good formula but we'll see the voters like places lik a iowad new hampshire. >> woodruff: love and charm. it's good to get -- >> it's a nice contrast for the incumbent anyway. but he ran a race tharyt evedy expected him to lose and he came close to unexpected. he had people intatio in text wd not been energized. he showed up and got crowds enthusiastic. he had an advantage then that he does not have now. he was running against a man who trumpeted the fact that he was the most unpopular man in washington, ted cruz. and it was a claim tht he could
vindicate and validate. he was the most unpopular man on capil hill. so there was a lar potential he does connect with people. it's like a first date, it really is. most peoe in president primaries have mastered a state, have become pretty good with bernie sanders minnesota with amy klobucharure. then they're in a chain ballets and have to connecwith oher people. i wouldn't bet against this fellow based upon the magic he's shown so far. >> woodruff: people pointed out there's something to havg political talent. david the polls that have come out ether they mean anything or not have joe biden at the top followed closely bnie sanders. biden isn't in yet. a lot of people think he's goin
to g. >> don't believe the polls. those polls are not worth anything in my view.s at tme in the cycle, every time they are referendums on the list campaign. biden and sanders were really big four years ago and they areh at the top ofe polls now. i don't know how many months we are away from an actual caucus but it's obably 5,000 so there's a long way to go. you look at raw political challenge. it's like going to spring trning and loking at rookie pitchers. ff.t how good is their stu people with good stuff will rise and people without good stuff will not. beto's stuff is casual, let's put it that way. the skateboarding, the video of himself in the dentist chair. that too is stff we're not used to seeing from politicians. and will it work with ederly voters in iowa? we'll see. >> there's no better pollster in iowa and maybe in the country than ann serlts wh settler who e
iowa poll. the wed sand, they're washed out the next time.it as rudy giuliani and hillary clinton at this point just -- >> woodruff: don't get too excited about it. >> no. timing is everythi in politics and there's a certain melancholy that 2016 would have be joe's year. it would have been the ideal match up. donald trump would not have carried michigan or wisconsin against joe biden in 2016. >> woodruff: we will fint. ou i think we will. thank you. >> woodruff: and now, photographer dawoud bey has been considered one of this country's foremost street photographers, taking intimate portraits of everyday life. but now, he's tackling a new subject, looking back at this
country's history. jeffrey brown has this report from the a institute of chicago, for our series on arts and culture, "canvas." >> brown: a young boy in sunglasses poses outside a loews movie thear on 125th street in new york city. a shoemaker stands in his rkspace, cigarette hanging between his fingers. portraits of men, women and children, often amid the hubbub of daily life, yet somehow intimate. "you might just pass us by," the subjects seem to say, "but here we are."'r ththe work of photographer dawoud bey. >> it begins with the subject, a deep interest in wanting to describe the black subject in harlem, in a way that's as complex as the experience of any one else. it's to kindwof re-shape the d one person at a time. >>rown: bey, who has sever hearing loss, first made his name as a street photographer capturing life in harlem in the
1970s. in his work sie, shot in many rts of the country, on streets and in a studio, he's conts ued to re-fow blacks are portrayed in art and popular culture. >> african americans and photographs have very often been viewed through a lens of social pathology. so, wanted to respond to tha kind of representation by making photographs that conveyed a deep, complex humanity. i want there to be real sense of interiority, to go beneath the surface. >> brown: in more recent work, bey, now 65, has extended his view into the past, as in the exhibition, "night coming tenderly, black," now at the art institute of chicago. >> i've come to call them the product of a kind of radical re-imagining of history.
>> brown: the history being re-imagined is that of the underground railroad, the network of secret routes used by runaway slaves in the 1800s. in these photographs, no human faces or figures. instead, they're dark and aceam-like, unidentified landscapes that the viewer in the middle of sparse fields and backwoods. >> i'm trying to imagine them through the eyes of fuvitive slaves, through this landscape under cover of darkness. >> brown: you're showings what's not there, in a sense. >> and that's really what this prect is about, making the invisible visible in the photograph, in a way that is palpable and in a way na res. >> brown: originally created for the "front international" exhibition in cleveland, the photographs werehot in areas of ohio once dotted with safe houses for slaves seeking
freedom. research led bey to possible underground railroad sites. but, when shooting this spot overlooking lake erie, he knew he'd come on something important. >> when i was making this work,a 't looking through the viewfinder, saying, "i need to feel something. ease help me. i need to feel something, to know this is authentic." but when i got there, almost inexplicably, i felt a very strong presence unlithing that i've felt in related to any other photograph, to the point, i said to myself, "this isn't an imagined site. this is an actual location." >> brown: and for bey, it's an r,portant history to remem one that's not often been documented. >> it's abouthe history of people who were engaged in a process and a project of self- liberation.wa to remind people about that, because i think it
resonates even today, globally. you have hundreds of thousands, if not millions of people, moving across the global landscape, fleeing persecution, trying to find a place where they can live out their lives freely. >> brown: bey began his look into the past in 2013, with an exhibition on the 1963 bombing by members of the k.k.k. of the 16th street baptist church in birmingham, alabama. for "the birmingham project," bey paired two sets of portraits: one of children the same age as the victimkilled in the attack; another of adults the age of those same victs, were they alive today.wa >> ithat project, the "birmingham project," that got me really deeply interested in this idea of, how does one visualize the pant in the porary moment? ntw do you make the past resonate in the porary moment? >> brown: photography has also had a ofound, personal meaning
for bey. >> the camera for me became a way having a voice in the world. and over the years, i've come to suspect also, because i have a hearing loss, and because i do know that, i have compensated for that by tending to sob more, ly, than most people do. i don't think it's a coinciden that i've made my life and my work and career through my eyes. >> brown: in 2017, dbey received a macarthur fellowship, the so-called genius award, and la year, he published a beautiful retrospective of his work in e book titled, "seeing deeply." >> that's what i've been doing for the last 40 years. and that's why i think art has the capacity to do. to create the kind of
transformative experience for each person who stands in front of it, and then hopefully, wn they leave their work, they go back out into the world with something that they didn't havet befoy encountered the work. >> brown: the exhibition, "night coming tenderly, black" runs urrough april 14. for the pbs newsi'm jeffrey brown at the art institute of chicago. >> woodruff: and we'll be back shortly, with a differtype but first, take a moment to hear from your local pbs station. >> woodruff: for those stations miles o'brien has this encore report on how california is zeroing in on this issue. >> this is honor rancho. >> reporter: this is about ten clicks north or so.
it's time for a preflight briefing at burbank airport. we're going to get plenty of data over the-- over the sites. n'm flying with a team from nasa's jet propuls laboratory. a place that specializes in exploring distant planets, today is focused on our own. they're taking flight over southern califora, hunting one of the most potent greenhouse gases of all-- methane. it accounts for one-fifth of the global warming we are experiencing now. >> you can't manage what you don't measure. >> reporter: riley duren is the chief systems engineer for j.p.l.'s earth science directorate. he and technologist andrew thorpe are using a state-of-the- art infrared imaging spectrometer to find plumes of methane invisible to the human eye. nationally the e.p.a. estimates about one-third of m emissions come from oil and gas omoduction; another third
the methane created by the belches and manure of livestock; and about 16% from organic waste dumped in landfills. so today, we are flying overfe ile methane territory. there are 200,000 oil and gas wells, almost 2,000 dairy farms, and hundreds of landfills in califonkia. >> tf it as a baseline medical exam. no one has done the first methane assessment of the state of california, and maybe this is going to happen every year. >> reporter: california is funding the flights to find and stop methane leaks. there is good reason to focus on methane in the fight against climate change. lasting only a decade or so, it ishorter-lived than carbon dioxide which persists for a ntury or more. but during its life span, methane is about 85 mes more potent at trapping heat than carbon dioxide. >> what the state is trying to
do is to get an initial assessment of how many strong methane sources are there in a state, where they're located, how much are they emitting. >> reporter: in 2016, researchers from harvard used satellite and ground t observatiodetermine asthane emissions steadily increased in thedecade. and, they concluded, the e.p.a. is underestimating meteaks fr all sources by 30 to 50 more recently, the environmental defense fund published a study in the journal "science," concluding the e.p.a. is underestimating methaneon emisin oil and gas production by about 60%. the first step to plugging these methane leaks is pinpointing them. on flights like these, j.p.l. is using the airborne
so the landfill changed its routine, keeping the topsoil in place until just before the trash is dumped, greatly reducing methane emissions. aviris was also deployed to capture images of a massive natural gas blowout. it happened at a southern california gas company storage n faciliear porter ranch. it was captured on video using .n infrared camera as we it began in october 2015 and lasted four months. nearly 100,000 tons of methane here released, about 5% of gas that socal delivers annually, the worst natural gas leak in u.s. history.so >> it wathing that was disheartening for all of us. >> reporter: dearea haines, dior of gas engineering for socal. it is the largest gas distributionompany in the united states, maintaining over 100,000 miles of gas mains. >> reporr: i met her at the training center they call "situation city."
here, they practice maintenance and repair techniques, and test new technology. their tried-and-true method for finding leaks is the human nose which can detect the sulr smell that the company adds to the odorless methane, also called natural gas. but they augment that with some technology-- fixed sensors at strategic locations, a van that can detect even very tiny amounts of methane, infraredpe cameras to i pipes, and a drone outfitted with a small laser. they say the priority is avoiding natural gas explosions and itt cost-effective to fix every leak. >> there are some leaks that it's been eith very difficult to go after. it cost a lot of money to go after, but more importantlio we need to tize safety first. when we find leaks we need to fix them in a reasonable amount of time. >> reporter: in the aircra, aviris has spotted methane leaks in socal pipelines that the company has repaired. proof there is the value of this
type of survey, but after all, just a narrow snapshot of a poobal problem. so the team is prosing a similar instrument be launched into space. they think methane mitigation id a go place to start stemming greenhouse gasses.in d the obama administration, regulates were enticed boy that argument. >> reporter: during the obama administration, regulators were enticed by that argument. the department of interior and the environmental protection agency had imposed rules forcing gas and oil producers to detect and repair methane leaks. >> with today's executive action i am taking historic steps to lift the restrictions on american energy. >> reporter: but the trump administration has tried to reverse all of that. facing pressure from industry, which insists the regulations impose too great a financial burden. but this might seem surprising. >> reporter: congress and the
federal cots have offered contradictory votes and rulings on the obama-era rules. the net effect, much of the regulations remain in place, for now. but there is no scientific debate that reducing the amount of methane in the atmosphere can make a significant d greenhouse gases. in the seemingly insurmountable fight against climate chge, methane may be the low hanging fruit. for the pbnewshour, i'm miles o'brien, in burbank, california. ou>> woodruff: in our "new shares" tonight, ohio artist christian faur is making his mark using art supplies normally ampioned by children, to create perfectly pixelated portraits and other creations. it's also part of our "canvas" series. >> so i've always done art when i was littlebut i've also always been really interested in the science and math. i usually come up th ideas that are somewhat masochistic. i don't know why but, like, i
have this idea in my head, and then i need to accomplish it. and i to work or not.s going whether it's like, you know sewing human hair onto anla umbrr just doing something that's you know ridiculously, like, labor intensive. i mean, you know, sticking shredded paper back together to form an image or, you know, stacking 20,000 crayons. one christmas, i had been repackaging the crayonmy daughter and it just kind of clicked in my head that these were the perfect shape. i came up with an idea that, maybe i could use a mosaic to see if i could get some photorealism out of it. and from that me on, i've been creating these crayon pieces. inngially, i did look into u crayola crayons for my first piece, and i find that they only made, like, a 128 different colors, for the most part. they were expensive.i uld buy them they were $1 apiece. mae material that they wer 'st of was paraffin wax. so it's a wax thot going to hold up over time. and then finally nobody buys
light crayons. so when you bought a box of them everything was dark. evercolor is important, so i had to make crayons from scratch. after working on the computer, i'll finally get, like, when i call an indexed photraph which is a photograph that has aai cenumber of swatches or colors. and those swatches or colors is what i'll use to cast the batches of crayons. then it's just a matter of assembling based on the map thar te, and then, when it's assembled, i'm able to then flip it around. and at that time, it's usually a little bit of work to fix certain elements, even though everything is usually looks photo-realistically correct. there are, like, elements that you sometimes need to enhance. sot'll pull crayons in and until it looks or feels right. even though when you see the pieces in the end, they feelng like you're se you're
seeing something that feels very photorealistic. the closer you get to it, you realize there's just not that much information. ngur brain is actually fil in all that information for that work. i have been working with the crayons for more than a decade now. as long as i'm able to create and have fun as an artist, i think i'll be good.t you know, i dosee myself running out of, like, ideas anytime soon. >> woodruff: and a note before we g it is the job of journalists to stay focused on our work even when the sries we cover involve terrible violence and loss of life. we are more than accustomed to doing that. but i want to share that this has been a particularly painful few days-- between the plane crash in ethiopia, the pictures y members grief-stricken at the crash site; and today's massacre of muslims in new zealand, again marked by weeping family members. n all of us at tshour are committed to doing our job, but we end this week with heavy hearts, and i want to thank each y colleagues for keeping going through it all. that's the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff.
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hello, everyone, and welcome to "amanpour & co." here's what's coming up.n killing sprees our streets from london to chicago and points in between. i speak with two a youthctivists about proven solutions to prevent this kind of murder. >> i think we're finally getti to the point where the elephant isn't in the room. the elephant is in every room in america. >> author lori anderson opensp to alicia menendez and speaks about the reality of sexual violence. plus -- >> human beings are the only species that deprive themselves of sleep. >> getting eight hours of sleep is no joke. author matthew walker tells me why our lives may depend on it.