>> narrator: tonight on "frontline"... the man accused of the worst crimes in rope since world war two. >> this is really what i came here for. this is the geral we've been waiting to arrest all these years. >> narrator: general ratko mladic, one of the most ertorious figures from wars in the formugoslavia, finally goes on trial. >> the man accused of being the butcher of bosnia shows no remorse for the victims... >> narrator: filmed over five years. th exclusive access to the prosecution and defense. >> all the evidence says that our client is not guilty. and that's my firm belief. >> narrator: and the wes who came to testify. >> i told my dad, "no, i don't want to go without yo" my uncle says, "get up. you will survive."re
>> when mohan 1500 people are murdered in a short time. and thousands more - starved, degrad, tormented. the word for those crimes is genocide. >> narrator: tonight... "the trial of ratko mladic." >> frontline is made possible by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.by anhe corporation for public broadcasting. major support is provided by the john d. and catherine t. macarthur foundation, committed to buildg a more just, verdant and peaceful world. rie ford foundation: working with visio on the frontlines of social change worldwide.on addi support is provided by the abrams foundation, committed to excellence in urnalism. the park foundation, dedicated to heightening public awareness of critical issues.jo th and helen glessner family trust. supporting trustworthy journalism that inrms and inspires. the heising-simons foundation:ow unlocking dge, opportunity, and possibilities.
>> a u.n. tribunal will imminently deliver its long-awaited verdict in the war crimes trial of former bosnian brb military commander ratko mladic, known as tcher of bosnia. >> narrator: november 22, 2017, and the verdict at the trial of the bosnian serb general ratko mladic is about to be delivered. >> mladic is accused of ordering hee deaths of thousands of bosnian muslims in town of srebrenica. >> some of the victims were as young as 12. others older than 60. >> any last minute thoughts? are we ready to roll? >> we've got this, yh. >> okay everybody, we're going to court. ♪
>> the international criminal tribunal for the former yugoslavia is now in session. >> we are sitting today to deliver the chamber's judgment in this case. the accused, ratko mladic, stood trial for 11 counts of crimes allegedly committed in his capacity as the commander of the main staff of the army of the bosnian serb rep between the 12th of may 1992 and 30th of november 1995. the indictment charged two counts of genocide and five counts of crimes against humanity. mely prosecution, murder, extermination, deportation, and the inhumane act of forcible transfer.
♪ (explosion, rapid gunfire) >> narrator: throughout the wa90s, a series of brutal rs rageacross the former yugoslavia. (screaming, explosions) (car honking, people shouting) some four milliopeople were displaced. an estimated 13000 were kill. nth mounting evidence of war crimes, the unitations established a court to bring alleged perpetrators to justice. >> this will be no vic tribunal-- the only victor that will prevail in this endeavor is
the truth. >> narrator: 161 suscts were eventually indicted. more than half would be found guilty. some would be acquitted. others would die beforbeing prosecuted. (man speaking foreign language) with the capture of slobodan milosevic and radovan karadzic, two of the most senior political figures accused of war crimes, general ratko mladic became the court's most wanted. among his alleged crimes, mladim was accused ofterminding the genocide of 7,000 muslim mennd boys in srebrenica, considered e worst atrocity in europe since world war ii.om (w weeping) mladic had gone into hiding when the war ended and was on the run for 16 years >> on behalf of the republic of serbia, i announce that today we
arrested ratkoladic. >> police in serbia have arrested europe's most wantedsp war crime t. >> narrator: mladic was extraditedo the hague to face justice. it would be e last trial at the international criminal tribunal for the former yugoslavia. >> the chamber will now give its verdict. ♪ (footsteps echoing) >> for tomorrow i'll be standing here where the podium is.
mr. peron will be sat next to me, and then arthur will be sitting at the end. >> so, when i walk in tomoow, everyone is going to be here, pretty much? >> everybody will be here. >> even the dense... >> the defense will be here, and mladic will already be in the courtroom. >> okay. >> and he does have the two security guys on each si of him. the big thinto remember when you come in is a deep breath. >> yes. yes. i'm a little bit nervous. (laughter)me it brings mories back. >> the first witness that's testifying is an extraordinary young man who was 14 at the time, elvedin pasic, and it's a crime that occurred in 1992, anr itrs the crime committed in srebrenica in 1995. and we've decided to call him first beuse it really demonstrates the way mladic approached war and his ibwillingness to commit te crimes. e >> that's thpublic gallery behind you there.>> he will just tell in his own words what happened to him and his family. >> and my wife is going to be
somewhere in the back room? >> yes, yes. >> okay. >> yeah, she'll be back, right behind you. >> okay. >> what's your impression of his recollection? >> rock solid. yes,es. my impression is he... when he goes back in time he remembers it exactly as he experienced it. >> he says he's nervous but he... he looks okay. he looks just appropriateus level of nerss that you'd expect and i'm sure that'll be gone after the first few minutes in court. >> i agree. i think as soon as he, um... you know, sits down and starts talking, i think he'll be fine. ♪ >> narrator: ratko mladic is facing 11 charges, including two counts of genocide, considered the most serious crime under international law. >> peter, will we go? >> narrator: the prosecution must prove his intent to destroy in whole or in part the non-serb
population in bosnia. the defense insists he innocent and never pticipated in or ordered any crimes. >> this is case ip0992p, the prosecutor versus ratko mladic. >> thank you, madam registrar. mr. groome, is the prosecution ready to make its opening statement? >> it is, your honor. >> then you may proceed. >> your honors, four days ago marked two decades since ratko mladic became the commander of , e main staff of the army of republic of srpse vrs. on that day mladic began hison full participan a criminal endeavor of ethnically cleansing much of bosnia. the world watched in disbelief that in neighborhoods and villages within europe,
civilians were targeted for no other reason than they were of ethnicity other than serb, their land, their lives, their dignity attacked in a coordinated and carefully planned manner. the next time i address you about the evidence in this case will be at the end of the trial. at that time, when i come before you again, i will ask that you give the people of bosnia what they have waited so long for-- the truth about what ratko mladic did to that beautiful and complex land. ♪ the truth about wh ratko mladic did to bosnia's people. ♪
>> is the prosecution ready to call its first witness? >> your honor, the prosecution is ready to call its first witness, mr. elvedin pasic. >> i solemnly declare that i utll speak the truth, the whole truth, and nothinghe truth.nk >> tha you, mr. pasic. pleasee seated. you will now first be examined by ms. bibles, who's counsel for the prosecution. >> thank you mr. president, your honors. good afternoon, mr. pasi could you tell us the size and ethnicity of your village? >> my village, hrvacani, was 100% muslim and approximately a hundred houses. >> i'm drawing your attention to may of 1992. was there a religious occasion celebrated in your village? >> yes, we were celebratinour holiday, bayram. the first day we went to the mosque, i s excited, as being a little boy. on our second day we were
attacked. (gunfire) the bombs and, uh, the shells started landing in our village. (explosions) (mortar whistling, exploding) ♪ we were instructedo form three lines and to lay down in this puddle of mud and water. um... i was laying day down next to... my dad was on my left-hand side, and my uncle was on myha righ side-- and as i was chying down they ordered us to-- all the women andren-- to get up. and at first i didn't want to get up because i was afraid to separate from my dad
and he told me to get up. i told him, "no, i don't want to go without you." t (whispering): he says, "." i said, "no." and my uncle insisted. he says, "get up, you will survive." (catching breath) since i'm reliving and going back to this, i had a dream about my dad last night. for the first time i was able to see his face. i'm glad because most of the dreams, the nightmares that i have from the personal experience, i was always tryingh to rim. but i saw his face last night.
between serbs,uslims, and croats following his death in 1980, the country began to fall apart. (jet engine roaring) (loud explosion) >> yugoslavia, a country at war with itself. ever since croatia and slovenia declared their independence, a nation of six republs is being dismantled by apparently unchecked force.it no feared that the buffer republic of bosnia herzegovina could become the next theater of conflict. (gunshot) >> violence has broken out in the republic of bosnia herzegovina after its population vod at the weekend for independence from the rest of yugoslavia. 43% of the republic's population are muslim. 31% are serbs and 17% are croats. the muslims and croats support independence, the serb fiercely opposedo it. >> last night the serbs proclaimed a breakawayublic inside bosnia, and today their
leader radovan karadzic said they'd have to make their serbian ate whatever the cost may be. (explosion) there is chaos and anarchy, no functiing central authority, and the united nations headquartered here is apparentlo powerlesntervene. (explosion) what remains of the bosnian stvernment has declared a ate of war. (explosions) >> enter general mladic. >> he's the scourge of sarajevo, the chf warrior of the serbs. he's called ratko mladic. he's a man who has no doubts, only a total assurance that he'e right,orld's wrong, andth his people have been slandered. >> mladic: ki
>> mladic: >> well, general mladic is my eighth client in front of thed tribunal, s obvious this is the most important case in my career. my memories from the war were of course horrible. i had parents on doboj. it was serb-held territory, but bombed and shelled every day. my parents were protected by general mladic and his soldiers. and he would tell me always, "your parents live in doboj thanks to me." >>arrator: while in hiding
general mladic suffered a heart attack and two strokes. his lawyers say they will not allow him to testify due to hiss "dimd physical and mental state." mladic himself considers the tribunal to be illegitimate and biased against serbs. om >>: >> we of course would have preferred having another trial starting already, many, manyar before and you are for sure right. when he... when he arrived inha
the last year, his health situation was far from perfect. it'sery, very difficult to measure the extreme importance of the arrest of mladic.ok we were g for him for 16 years. t en he arrived, it was a few days after his lroke. he arrived as very sick man. today i think his situation is much, much better but we will see what happens. we have a lot of staff working extremely hard tmake sure that this case can advance as fast as possible. >> okay, good afternoon.to i wanted jusave a quick meeting today just to kind of touch base on the preparation. things are starting to pick up speed now. i just want to make sure we're organized. >> the two senior trial attorneys are very experienced they're working at this tribunal for many, many years. dermot is somehow the coordinator, more the organizer, and peter mccloey, we call him sometimes mr. srebrenica because he has done a number of srebrenica cases. >> the sound is very important on thione. it sounds perfect.et
>> i'm up prty much at maximum. t t's where we want to be. >> okay. >> narrator: peter mccloskey is in charge of prosecuti the srebrenica genocide. he and his team will try to prove that general mladic ordered the murder of over 7,000 muslim men and boys in 1995. mccloskey's already won convictions against several o bosnian seicers for genocide in srebrenica, but he inbelieves the mladic was command of the operation. i've prosecuted some of hisge rals and some of his commanders, but nothing like having the man himself. mladic is the guy that's rlly hands on in the face of themu ims and ordering the murders directly. >> mladic: >> and i put this with the rder, his first calling, "calm down, calm down," and then he's
calling them... >> okay. >> so, i put that segment in, where he's calling... >> where it should be. >> yea where it is logically. (man shouting) >> zoran is helping me with the clip of a muslim man-- is it ramo? ramo. >> ramo osmanovic. ... the serbs are making him call to bring other muslims out of the woods and he's calling his son nermin. >> can you check nermin and his father, where they were found? >> can you imagine howd it is to call your son and thenur they kill yoon? they promise you that they will save them because if they surrender they will be all safe. so he's caing son, son came
and... >> i was just asking the vestigator to give me the details of which mass grave they were found in so that i can telo tht that. >> if i watch too much of it, i... you know, it's... it still get... it gets to you. (keyboard keys clacking) i got here in the fallf 1996, and i was meeting survivors at the refugee camps and getting k w them and hearing their stories. at the same time, on the same missions i was with the investigator and we would travel into the republic of srpska with a humvee escort, borrowed ovels from the local police and start digging in this disturbed soil to see at was under this disturbed soil, because we suspected they were mass graves. and sure enough, every time we
found one of these places, wed fody remains which were of course the... we understood the loved ones of the people we'd interviewed the day before. i've been so close to this work for so long, and so close to the victims, it becomes rather difficult to deal with the carnage. there's a certain darkness that comes over me when this thing starts, especially when the victims are here. (birds chirping) (woman exhaling) (water flowing from hose)
>> after this ominous remark about revenge, mladic's troops captured and systematically murdered thousands of srebnica men and boys. >> a human tragedy is unfolding in the eastern enclave of srebnica. bosnian serb infantry have effectively outmaneuvered the thun and taken control of town. resistance was reported to be minimal. >> the town was supposed a be a
safe haven protected by the omoral and military forcethe world community in the shape of the un. there are hundreds of hundreds of people, around probably 20,000 or more surrounding the dutch battalion compound and everybody is fleeing the city.la (crowd cring) >> after overrunning srebrenica town, the serbs surrounded the un base nearby at potocari where up to 40,000 refugees have gathered. ♪ >> the bosnian serb commander in chief, general ratko mladic, justified the attack, stating it was to rout muslim terrorists and to demilitarize enclave,on an operatihe added, that the un had failed to cplete. >> a senior un official here today said that there was
nothing the un can do at the moment short of going to war with the bosnian serbs, and that is very much not on thagenda. (i istinct chatter, wailing) (crowd clamoring, baby crying) >> man: >> this se involves two horrendous crimes-- the forced moveme of the muslim population together with the mass murder of thousands of bosnian muslim men and boys all amounting to the eliminaon of the muslim population from srebrenica and genocide. mladic was present in tocari on 12 and 13 july, while the
it's messy. nke part where i am asking questions, i thit's going to seem actually very short, surprisingly. and i think that you've probabln old this already, but mladic will also be in the courtroom sitting up behind his lawyers. we hope that he stays quiet anda listens beuse he should hearto what you have say.so >> the reawe called saliha osmanovic is because she decided on the 11th of july that she had to leave with her family from srdrenica, otherwise she wo be... she would be killed by the serbs, and this is... this is the ethnic cleansing, this is the forcible transfer count. and so that's the first thing we bring t with her. >> her situation was all of aen sut is not safe for us to be here in our home anymore. >> okay, well there'.. there's fleeing the fighting, which is normal, and we'd all do that whenhe shells started. >> right, yes. >> was there anything indicated in her mind, anything else besides just fleeing, shells
fallg? >> well, and it's not just shells falling, it's a sense of being... what she communiced at least was, "i as a muslim amb not going safe here." not just "i might get caught in some random... random crossfire." she actually said, "yeah, it was safe if you wanted to ge your throat slit." >> how are you doing? >> not too bad. >> (speaks local language) >> (speaks local language) t i can t too. okay, i'll see you in there in a minute. (ramo shouting on vio)
>> (sighs): mrs. osmanovic, do you recognize the man that's featured in that vid >> you state that you went to potocari on 11 july. did you go to potocari from the to of srebrenica? >> up until the moment that you boarded the bus in potocari, do you feel like you could have ayed in srebrenica if yo wanted to?
>> stojanovic: >> what is being described asde rtation by the prosecution in relation to srebrenica was a humanitarian evacuation that was agreed too by all sides. ismy goal with this witneso see if i can link up certain parts of her written testimonyid to footage that we have of the actual events that she seems to be describing. we hope to show our client dineral mladic acting in a very humane light pro food and
water to the civilians that were located there. i'd like to move now to your statement where you talk about an encounter with general tadic, and when he said t first the women and children could go, and you all moved towards the buses and trucks. i would like to take a look at a video to see if this accurately depicts the incident you're lking about. >> mladic: >> the demeanor of general mladic, is it similar to or different from the demeanor of general mladic during the encounter th you remember with him?
you y now follow the usher. >> osmanovic: >> i don't see how you did... you were just wonderful. (translator speaking) thank you. >> danny really shook her. w although s a victim, and when you have a victim in front of you, you have to deal wither the victim very nicely, very softly. but still he was capable of shaking her. we have the instruction from the general to say sorry to a victim, and i never do that. t's not my job. or he instructs t, no. my job is to cross-examine. i'm a lawyer, i cross-examine. if you want to apologize, write a letter. ♪ >>
hundreds of bodies believed to have been killed byerb forces have been found in a mass grave in bosnia in the prijedor area.kn >> they ew this grave existed for years, but bosnian serb witnesses kept silent about its location.s >> the ghost the missing still haunt the villages here and the graveyards still wait for the dead. this discovery could bring an end to that waiting and ing evidence of war crimes that can no longer be hidden. >> narrator: it's late 2013, and ommass grave has been discovered on the site of theica iron mine in prijedor, northwest bosnia. in addition to srebrenica, mladic is accused ofide in prijedor and five other municipalities.pr ecutors believe that the tomasica mass grave could
provide important new evidence to support this second genocide charge. >> once you stripped off the top layeof earth, did you, at that stage know that there were likely to be bodies there? >> we could see the changes in the... >> in the earth? >> wneed to strip the ground so to get to this yellow... >> and this is the actual... >> grey clay, yes. >> okay. >>ethen because air couldn't c through thaty, bodies are well preserved. >> and do the pathologists think that because of that soft tissue that they can indings about cause of death and... >> exactly. o >> oh, gooy. and a lot of this was organizede by trmy itself? >> army and the police. and the police, yeah. >> and the local police.
♪ ♪ >> i must say one thing-- just looking around here, it's just so masve. and to think that all of this was dug up and bodies we put in here, and people were bought here and executed here, and then there's tons and tons of earth that was then put on top of it, it beyond anything that i' ever dealt with. ♪ >> prijer was the first place to be ethnically cleansed with secious serb atrocities.
>> we're very upt to see outright murder, burning people to death in their own homes, dragging them out in teet and shooting them at point blan. rars >> omaka concentration camp, ethnic cleansing at its most grapc.of thousands muslims in scenes chillingly reminiscent of the holocaust. ♪ ♪ (machinery humming)
>> and you can see the different states. >> yeah. >> also over there, that'll be solid. >> yeah. >> what kinds of injuries are you finding, the ones that you can determine an injury? >> it's mainly high velocityns gut. >> to the back of the head, or... a lot ofthere's qui targeted ones. >> oh, yeah? >> there's a skull over there which, as you see, is being reconstructed and all this shattering is typical ofoc high vy injury. once it's all put together, there's still quite a lot ofvi goodnce you can... we can see from it. he and you can see the tragedy of it, you know, wn you look around.cl i meanr that these are not soldiers, these are women, there are even somech dren over there, and this is just an outrage that these people were... were killed in the way they were killed and
dumped in a... at the site that theyere dumped. in terms of the case, it's so imrtant because in terms o proving that they were murdered by people that are accountable mladic, we need to have that evidence. e prosecution will seek to tender this newly acquirede. tomasica evide >> narrator: the court must now decide whether to allo prosecutors to use the new evidence from the mass grave. >> ...revealed in tomasica will be relevant to the chambers' consideration of count one in the indictment of genocide. >> narrator: it could take the judges several months to reach a decision. ♪ >> to establish genocide in prijedor, i have to pve beyond reasonable doubt that mladic had genocidal intent.ds in other wthat it was his intent to physically destroy in whole or in part the muslim
population in prijedor. that's a pretty high burden. it's a pretty difficult thing to do. but we have some features of tomasica that give me hope that we just may succeed. our early investigations are indicating now that the vrs wa directly involved, that they requisitioned e mining equipment, the diggers, the bulldozers, the dump trucks to dig this msive hole and to bury these bodies, you know, 24b to 30 feow the dirt. pe it's that kind of direct involvement with r to the things that happened, that were done by people under his control, that once and for all establishes beyond reasonable doubt that what happened in prijedor constituted genocide d nothing less. or >> narrator:oth the prijedor and srebrenica genocide charges, the prosecution mustdi prove that mwas in command and control of the troops that carried out the llings. in the case of srebrenica, they
>> so do you find, as a military person, general mladic's presee at this meeting... do you find that to be an exercise of command? >> yes sir, he's the commander of the army of the republic of srpska. everything that he does or everything that he does not do as the commanders an exercise of command. th >> he's not pullintrigger. we don't have him standing at any execution site. but we have to show that he is in command of the troops that lyare doing it, and he's f aware of what is going on and in fact ordered it and began the whole process, which thes evidencery clear on. >> general dannatt, from a
purely military perspective, is general mladic responsibleor the conduct of his subordinates in srebrica? >> well, it's clear to me that he exercised a large measure ofc persontrol as to what was going on. he was known to be a big character, and therefore what he said and what he ordered, people were likely to do. >> this crime was carried out in a military fashion with military troops and military transport under orders. so we have what we call the insider witnesses, members of esmladic's main staff thatfy about how the military hierarchy works. one of the foremost of those is general milovanovic, who was mladic's deputy commander. >> in mladic's absence, when you're servingn the capacity of deputy commander, did you
have the authority to issue an order to anyone inhe vrs? >> milovanovic: >> was there any period of time which in your view the commanding control structure did not function as intended? rn >> good g, mr. nikolic. >> momir nikolic is a very rare witness. uihe's a guy that has pledy to very serious crimes in srebrenica, been sentenced to 20 years in prison. as
>> i've been in trial for not st this year and last year, but all the previous years. it feels like i've beein trial for 12 years straight. the one thing that i feel is exhaustion. c this week rt i have recalled a particularly gruesome account of a serbianommander that said, "today we liquidated a young man who was in the woods without any food" and then that's when i sualize this hungry kid without a weapon getting captured, telling his story, and then being horribly killed. then it stopped me from asking any more questions for a
>> nartor: the defense does not dispute that killings took place in the srebrenica area.bu they say that mladic did not order them and was not technically in command of his troops at the time. >> mr. kenjic was called to confirm the alibi that explains that movements of general mladic from 14th of july until 17th of july 1995 whileng srebrenica kilhappened,
and throh this witness we want to, among other things, prove and explain that general mladic has nothing to do with those killings. ♪ mr. kenjic drove mr. mladic from sbrenica to belgrade on the 14th. we have meetings that he had with internationals, we ve his visit to his daughter's grave on the 15th. we have 16th wedding, visit to military medical academy, and we have his return to the 17th. mr. mlad did not have any means of communication. by was outside the area an serbian military law at that time, he was not in co i'm 100 percent sure that there is nothing that can touch that alibi.
>> as you si now, do you remember on that day, the afternoon of 14 july, which route yoactually took? >> kenjic: >> were you aware at the time large numbers of muslim soldieri and ans were fleeing the srebrenica enclave and it crossed that road and were still in those woods all around that ea where you're driving? >> kenjic: >> as you drove past the nova kasaba area, did you see any large pits bng dug near the side of the road?
>> kenjic: >> at the time that you were in konjevic polje with general mladic, did you hear a information that there were hundreds and hundreds of dead and dying muslims at the kravica warehouse at that time? >> kenjic: >> so, did you have any information about the other prisers, roughly 800 to a thousand at the nearby petkovic school, the nearby rocevic school, the pilitca cultural center and the kula school? did you hear about any of those thousands of prisonerswere in those schools at the time you're driving by that area? >> kenjic: ng
>> noturther, mr. president. >> thank you. >> (sighs) the evidence suggests that mladic is up to his chin in blood. two hours after leaving the people near kravica, a thousand people are murdered and within two to three days of leaving the people along the rest of the road at nova kasaba, they're all murdered. so, he... by his forces, by h forces und command in a very organized and systemic way that could have onlyeen done when... from orders issued from the top. it wasn't anyone else's troops that did this. >> kenjic:
>> war has torn this country apart. towns, neighborhoods, even families are divided bhatred. >> to be on the wrong side of the ethnic frontline in bosn is a terrifying experience, whoever you are.op these are serbs fleeing, they say, for their lives. they said they wanted to escape n friendly territory because serbs in a villar them had been massacred by muslim troops. >> today, hundreds of serbs attended a funeral for 39 of their men and women in a village seized by the muslims earlier this yr, and recaptured by the serbs last week... ♪ >> mladi
osa mladic: >> man: >> bosa mladic: >> man: (laughter) >> for me he's a hero probably because he's my dad. ifeven for small things in he was so dedicated that you should do something right, and never lie. he despised lies. he always told me, "you should te me the truth and nevertheless how difficult the truth is because if you lie to me, i will not know how to help you."
maybe we had different temperament. i'm more calm than he is he is a very good person, but he can explode, he can burst. but the values i openly declare are his values. ♪ i'm sorry for every victim but i cannot accept his guilt. i cannot accept what i don't believe is true. if i believe it, then i would accept it. eet i can't accept because the other side has afor me to do it. >> narrator: back in the hague, prosecutors are continuing to build their case, asy await the judges' decision on whether to allow the evidence from the tomasica mass grave. >> the big news obviously in the last month, we've gotten all
the expert reports in. doctor clarke has found 96 percent of these bodies hadt gunsjuries, and 80... i think it's 84 percent, the cause of death was actually due to a gunshot wound to the head or to the trunk of the body, which is higher ty mass grave he's seen. so it's a ve compelling report for us in terms of showing what the cause of death ntwas, and showing the vio nature of the deaths here.k >> we came bth very interesting documentation... >> it's always kind of anrt unn task when you set out to investigate in the middle of your case. so it's very satisfying that this evidence is coming back to demand justice from mladic, you know he, he participated in burying them, he thought they would never be found and here we are. the industrial nature of tomasica really adds a new dimension of proof to our case with respect to genocide. ♪
♪ >> narrator: during a break in the excavation of the tomasica, mass grae president of the tribunal comes to pay his respects. >> thank youll for being here with me today on this somber day. it is very difficult for me to speak at this place where everyone stands face to face with the horror that man can do to other men. my it is ery strong hope that the work of the tribunal will offer some measure of consolation to those who have survivedand to the families of
those who did not survive. more broadly, i hope the work of international courts will promote reconciation and healing in the region. but may i add one personal anrd-- this place has a very, very special reson for me personally because it looks a little bit like the place in a quar not far from a city whe i spent my war years, in a city called czestochowa in poland, where my mother was killed. g localreter speak language) and so this means more to me than the order of international law. me >> my nas satko mujacic, i was in the former camp omarska, and actually it's due to me and some other people that mr. meron is here. we actually mehim on the 28 october in the hague and
during this meeting i invited him to visit tomasica. i even said, "you shouldmell genocide." ue mr. meron and his colles would call it with the name it deserves, genocide, then i hope that somehow for victims it will be what we expect. we really need justice to be done. let's just s the facts. ♪ t >> magda, we start30 or 10:00? >> 9:30. >> 9:30 is your speech. >> well, we've put you in the second row. >> that's fine. >> because... >> that's fine. >> yea so on display i'm afraid. >> yes, but on the side. >> yes, it's on the side with easy access so you can go and...
>> exit strategy. >> no. we don't want an exit strategy. >> narrator: the president is in sarajevo to give the keynote spch at a conference to ma the tribunal's 20th anniversary. however, the tribunal has recently acquitted several high-ranking figures, and this ups angered many victims g d some people, naturally, some of the victims, wot always be happy about each and every one ofur judgments. i'm very sad if there are judgments, from time to time, when people are unhay. (chattering) but if our agenda would be to please people, we would not be a court law, would we? (crowd chattering, person coughing) >> woman:
satisfied the victims. perhaps it is a mission impossible. perhaps no international criminal tribunal can satisfy all the victims from all the differencommunities. but, please, look at the picture as a whole. let t two or three acquittal about which u aren't happy, take you away from the whole vision of incredible achievements which have been made. our job is not yet done and i'm sure that one day, even the greatest critics of the tribunal will join with me inhe seeingositive.
>> it's a real joke to ask from us, to be prepared. it's not possible. simply not possible. and it's... i don't think it's good example for any kind of justice, let alone international justice. we probably need at least as many lawyers as the prosecution has. we need as many investigators. we have only a couple of them and the osecution has the whole system. it is a real fight in between david and goliath.ef >> narrator: tense will now try to argue that mladic's troops were not even present at tomasica. but they need witnesses to make their case.
>> that's exactly what i was raid of before... before we came here, that we might have many good talks but not witnesses. my humble opinion is that at this moment bosnia does not need shows for public as tomasica because it's just a show and it's just prolongation of bosnian agony. we should bury our dead and we should move forward, and having wounds reopened all the time cannot help reconciliation. these are killing fields.
>> in-in world w ii? >> yes, yes. (birds chirping) er to uand bosnia, its conflicts from '90s, you have to know what happened during the world war, the second. if you do not understand jasenovac, where we are here now, you cannot understand the conflict in bosnia. >> narrator: during world war ii, yugoslavia was occupied by the nazis, and serbs were put in concentration camps. the nazis were supported by croatian fascists and some muslims sympathetic to the fascist caus now, years later, the defense is trying to argue that the
historic persecution of the serbs should be considered in e case against mladic.in >> every se family lost its member due to that genocide committed against serbian people. t eye for an eye is not allowed as a defense in fr this tribunal. but there was revenge, and you could not control everybody who was armed during the war. so it was not something that you uld blame general mladic and to blame serbian leadership that it was organized. tomasica can be excellenty, example, actuaf revenge. it can be excellent exame of continuation, this bosnian bloody story. it happens certainly in this area, and it happened before, and i'm afraid that it could happen in the future. i hope not.
let there be no doubt that serbz in bosnia-ovina had to defend themselves for their very survival. the bosnian muslims and croats had threatened the survival izready as part of the nazi forces that terr and killed serbs in jasenovac and other deh camps. thus, general mladic cannot be held responsible for the acts of persons not following his orders, but engaged in uncontrollable acts of private revenge by locals... d >> tense says that thees atrociti against the serbs wd the serb populace to be full of hatred at to exact revenge on the muslim pulation. from our perspective, it's a rather absurd defense cause of the clear organization and the logistics that went into a huge mass grave. they were adic's armed
forces, very well organized.is so, ind of evidence attracts sympathy to the serbian cause and perhaps to general mladic, but in the end, it doesn't amount to any kind of a defense. >> welcome, everybody, to the 80th week of the mladic trial. officially, on the record, we are on the 333rd day. in terms of events in the trial... where's ed? there he is. ed filed the tomasica motion last week right on schedule, thank you very much for doing that. >> hello, rebecca, how are you? >> i'm good. >> so, i'm here to turin my plates. >> yes. >> and then the... >> the papers? >> and the papers. >> let's see if you havehi evng.. justyeah, that's the one. then, if you can, it's to
fill out the checkout form. >> okay. >> narrator: after two-and-a-half years on the mladic trial, dermot groome has to leave the tribunal for family reons. >> it's difficult to... certainly to leave at this stage in the ce. i've invested an awful lot in the case, and to see the tomasica filing thout my name on it, it definitely hit me in a way that i didn't expect. it's a bit melancholy, but i guess that's part of, ving a position that you've loved and have had for a very long time. a >> perhaps the most significant addition since we've had the last team meeting is that alan tieger is here, and i know alan has a couple of words that will impact the team. >> it's of course my pleasure to be on board. i simply look forward to working with each one of you. t i homeet with all... it's an extraordinary responsibility and pronal privilege to lead this team for this casat this point in the
tribunal's existence. my parents were both survivorsll whose virtentire families were murdered during the holocaust. and no... no survivor truly escapes that. so, i could see the, the visible effects of those crimes every day. this feeling of anger and halplessness and impotence you grow up with, and i osrtainly felt that when i met and worked with victims in prijedor. (man chanting prayer in distance)
>> mladic is charged with seven different massacrethat took place in about a six-day period in prijedor munipality in late july 1992. more than a thousand peoplin prijedor went missing during the course of about those six days. nobody's ever been convicted of genode here for what happene in 1992.ny in prijedor orere else.
opis is the last trial hearing, so it is the lasrtunity. and i think all of us feel some sense of historical obligation to make sure that it's recorded here what happened, and general mladic's responsibility for it. mladic h firm command and control over the vrs and subordinated bosnian serb forces throughout the ethnic cleansing campaign in prijedor municipality, through killg more than 1,500 muslims and detaining thousands more in utal and inhumane conditions. what you see on this next slide is those villages which are most .elevant to the cleansing campaign in prijed as you see, many of the communities i've just been talking to you about, by 1993, genuinely, literally, chillingly no longer existed. >> karagic:
>> mr. hanson, were you calledst upon to assi in the exhumation at the tomasica site in 2013? >> yes, i was. >> and did it reveal the presence of graves, and if so, how many? >> yes, three separate graves. >> were you able to determine how much time may ha transpired between the deposits of bodies? >> exact timings, no.he however,odies were very well preserved, and this is consistent with a burial quite soon after death. >> sir, what did you observe asn the most frecause of death? >> i found tt the vast
majority of the people in this mbavesite had been shot; a surprisingly high of shots were to the head. a very common finding was a bullet wnd, bullet injury to the back of the head. >> what can you tell us about the clothes found on the bodies exhumed from tomasica? >> the clothing was just ordinary clothin some people had suit jackets, some people had work jackets or dungarees, but it was mostly rt of casual clothes. >> man:
>> man: >> karagic: >> wn, in a community like prijedor, more than 1,500 people are murdered in a short time, thousands and thousands more starved, degraded, abused, humiliated, tormented. when most of their homes areye dest when their mosques are reduced to rubble, and when they are scattered to an impoverished exile, the intent to destroy that community and prevent it from reconstituting itself is unmistakable.
>> mr. marjanovic, you'll now be cross-examined by mr. traldi. mr. traldi is counsel for the prosecution. >> thanks, mr. president. good morni, sir. can we have 65 terr 31041?ze do you recoghe people in this photograph? >> marjanoc: >> who's the man on the far right looking away from the camera? >> marjanovic: >> and person immediately to your right hand, with the mustache, who's that? >> marjanovic: >> the man next to him, in the tie? >> marjanovic: >> and the man next to him, on the far le? >> marjanovic: >> all four of y worked at rcr libya before the war right? >> you and mr. balaban were serbs while mr. paunovic a mr.
zahirovic were muslims? now, mr. paunovic and mr. zahirovic, have you ever seen either of them after the war? >> did he know what was happeng in prijedor? yeah, of course. it's very hard to start with 50,000 muslims in yourwi municipality up with six a couple of months later-- 6,000-- and then virtually none by the end of the war, and miss that. it's, it's too large a change in the composition of the people
that you interact with every day. and he would have been in downtown prijedor, where he lived, when one of the neighborhoods there, s grad, was destroyed by the vrs. downtown have been i prijedor, where he lived, when the room three massacre at keraterm occurred. of course, he knew crimes were being committed. ah, nobody could have missed that. whether he knew about this gve specifically... if he didn't, it would haveul required a wilttempt to avoid knowing what was being done on his property and the crimes general mladic and his forces committed. now, when you said, sir, the less you knew, the more you wouldn't worry... you say that because you didn't want to know what the military
♪ >> the evidence of gen presented in this courtroom for the last four-and-a-half years was clear, comprehensive, and unassailab. we have mladic in the dock answering for his crimes. ♪ >> history will judge if jtice was done and seen to be done. the defense does not deny that d,unfortunate crimes occurut
those in no y can be connected to general ratko mladic. ♪ >> there is no credible evidence linking general mladic's presence to any of the alleged killing or execution sites. we should all agree that he sits ghhere innocent before us now. >> the time has come for general mladic to be held accountable for those crimes against each of his victims and the communities he destroyed. it would be an affront to justice to impose any sentenceos other than thesevere available under law.
the defense finished presenting their evidence in cember 2016. the court had sat for 530 trial days and heard from nearly 600 witnesses over four-and-a-half years. the judges took 11 months to reach a verdict. >> we're returning now to the trial... >> we're back live now in thed hague, the unitions war crimes... >> an international war crimes vecourt in the hague is deng its verdict... >> you're watching continuous coverage of the verdict in the trial of ratko mladic... >> just to remind you thatl genetko mladic had asked for a bathroom break, effectively, about 35 minutes ago. >> we're still trying to assess exactly what is going on here. we assume is is just a temporary pause... >> the n1, the bosnian, bosnian tv reported that apparently he had some medil issues. so, they are doing the medical check-up. >> if he has a medicalhing now, it's not a coincidence, is it? r
>> he turn in his face, you know? usually when he turn red in hisa , this is the sign that his blood pressure is high, and for him, this is a life-threatening situation. >> okay, the medical officer wanted to speak to the cardiologist, but now it seems like we're going to be resuming. >> mr. mladic's blood pressure t was read thres during the break. the first reading, i believe, is 175 over 96. the second reading done by a nurse was 180 over 80. according to both the american ulart association and the united kingdom cardiova association, that is called hypertensi crisis. under those circumstances, the defense asks that your hors either halt these proceedings or we waive reading of the summary and pronounce your judgment so that we can lessen the risk of further harm to mr. mladic's health.
>> mr. ivetic, the doctor's advice we got is that the situation is not such thatl mediasons would prevent us from continuing. mr. mladic wants to consult with counsel, i take it. if he does it in such a way that no one can hearour voice, and sit down, please. >> mladic: >> mr. mladic, sit... mr. mladic, sit... . mladic, if you... >> curtains down.ml mric will be removed from the courtroom. >> okay, it goes on. >> narrator: with mladic watching the proceedings from a holding cell, the judges preparv totheir verdict on the 11 counts against him. they begin with count one, genocide in prijedor and the other municipalities, an
count two, genocide in ebrenica. >> the chamber finds ratko mladic not guilty of count one, genocide. guilty as a member of various joint criminal enterprises of the following counts: count two, srebrenica genocide; count three, persecution, a crimety against humani count four, extermination... >> and t judgment, the verdict in the case of ratko mladic, the former general of the bosnian serb forces, has just been handed down. he was found guilty of t of the 11 charges against him. o charge of genocide, he was found not guilty. w >> narratole the court ruled that mladic was not guilty of genocide in prijedor and the other municipalities, it did
find him glty of ethnic cleansing there, and determined that his troops had been present at tomasica. >> the crimes committed rank among the most heinous known to humankind, and include genocide and extermination as a crime against humanity. for having committed these crimes, the chamber seces mr. ratko mladic to life imprisonmeur. (mmuring) (people talking softly) (clamoring) >> well done. >> well, guys let's be happy for
a moment. i think that's a great result and a great team effort. >> the word "life" keeps resonating in my head, and had there been anything but that, i would have been very, you know, very angry. >> but i, you know... >> after an amazing long road to hear that word, "life"... >> life sentence, life. ol>> yeah, that tells the story. now i'm ready to quibble about the... (all laughg)e. about count on the way i understood it, it was just substantiality away from a genocide finding. they didn't find that met all the legal elements for genocide, but they recognized the effect of the ethnic cleansing campaign in prijedor. >> guys, many, many thanks. we are the winning team. >> the defense team considers this judgment to be erroneous and there will be an appeal, and we believe that the appeal will correct the errors of the trial chamber. >> we saw each other five to
n minutes after the verdict. my father, he said this is all a lie. so, we refuse this sentence. this is great injustice done to serbian people in the first a plac my father was a symbol of this fight for the freedom of sbian people. >> to this day, not a single serbian victim was protected, nobody was eveaccused of it, and you are asking serbs whethet they accept thbunal as impartial. no, they don't. they will never do so. >> over the last couple of hours, we heard a detailed reassessment of the evidence that had been heard inside this cobehind me, evidence which at times magnified the brutality of some of general ratko mladic's crimes.
♪ >> mladic's crimes have nobeen recorded in history. during his trial, the court hearfrom 4,500 people who bore witness to the killings he ordered. it took a quarter of a century for their voices to be heard, for their dead to receive some justice. ♪ so, what do you think? how do you feel. >> i am very happy now. >> is it over? >> not really. i'm happy. >> is it justice?. >> y
>> go to pbs.org/frontline, for more reporting on ratko mladic and the war in bosnia. >> this case involves two horrendous crimes, all amounting to the elimination of the muslim population from srebrenica and ge. >> then visit our watch page where you can see more thanro 200 line" documentaries. connect to the "frontline" community on facebk and twitter. thte sign up for our newsletr at pbs.org/frontline. >> i put my life on the line. my country won't let my husband live here. >> it's difficult to live without my family. >> you can't cross. i don't want to take that chance. how many hoops do you have to jump through for your family to
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>> as a young public defender, i remember ts case when i was in court and i was representing a young father. gl and he was a sdad taking care of both of his kids and supporting them. he was charged with drug possession and charged with violating his probation. and the judge found that he violated his probation. the probation departmentju recommende that he do some community service.e but the junted to send a message, and he threw the book at him and sentenced him to two years in prison. and i told the judge that he had two young children. and the judge looked at me and said, "call the orphanage." i'll never forget that. and my cent took his car keys and he threw them to me and he said, "can you pk up my kids