tv PBS News Hour PBS April 4, 2019 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT
captioning sponsored by newsho productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening. >> woodruff: good evening. i'm judy woodruff. on the newshour tonight: mbers of special counsel robert mueller's team have concerns about the attorney general's summarreof the mueller rt.im then, prary reports from ethiopia point to software problems in the crash of a boeing max jet plus, using behavioral economics to help children undergo .fficult medical treatmen >> we had to figure out like, how in the world are we going to keep him upbeat and optimistic and hopeful, so he can do all the incredibly hard things he has to do to get better? >> woodruff: all that and more, on tonight's pbs newshou
>> and by the al. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved economic performance and financial literacy in the 21st century. >> and with the ongoing support of these ititutions: and individual >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: investigators in ethiopia are blaming the plane-- not the pilots-- for the ethiopian airlines crash that killed 157 people. they said today that a faulty sensor on the boeing 737-max-8 nciggered a nose-dive. the planes have been grounded worldwide. we will explore the findings,
later in the program. president trump has changed course again on his threat to close the u.s. southern border. he initially warned he would act this week, umoess mexico did to halt a surge of migrants. a todaa cabinet meeting, he said mexico now has one year to stop the flows of migrants and drugs. >> we're doing it to stop e ople. we're going to gem a one- drugs don't stop-- or largely stop-- we're going to put tariffs on mexico and products, in particular, cars. if that esn't stop the drugs, we close the border. >> woodrf: in turn, speaker nancy pelosi announced that the u.s. house of represtatives will sue to block the president from shifting funds to pay for a border wall. the house voted today to reauthorize the "violence against women act" over the opposition of the national rifle association. it centered on a provision that bars violent offenders from
owning guns, even if they are not a spouse or domestic partner. most republicans, including congressman ben cline of virginia, argued that ll went too far. >> domestic violence is a problem and we must take action to confront it. it was disappointing that the legs was taken from what was a bipartisan consensus, and turned into a partisan document that nt far beyond the underlying legislation that was allowed to expire. >> woodruff: democrats defended the gun provisions as commone seasures. debbie dingell of michigan warned supporterienot to be buby the n.r.a., as opponents jeered. >> we're not taking away due process. all it does is say, ifne has been convicted, convicted as ey intimate partner, that would not ve access to a gun.
and, if someone has been convicted of stalking-- ( yelling ) you know what? you can't shoudown a woman. >> will be in order. >> woodruff: the legislation now goes to the senate. the house gave final approval today to ending u.s. involvement in the five-year war in yemen. it already passed the senate, but not by enough to override a promised veto by president trump. the u.s. supports a saudi-led coalition in yemen, fighting rebels aligned with iran. thousands have been killed, and millions are facing starvation. in new zealand, police announced today that the accused gunman in the christchuch mass shootings will face 50 murder counts. the 28-year-old australian is also being charged with 39 counts of attempted murder. the attacks last month targeted worshippers at two mosques. australia's parliament has voted to send social media executives to jail, if their platforms ream real-world violence.
lawmakers said it is a response to the attacks in new zealand.nm the gu live-streamed his assault on facebook, and it spread online before being taken down. >> today, we are legislating against the weaponization of social media. re're introducing a tough gime against the misuse and abuse of online platforms. the approach of this government to the online envirois that the rules and norms that apply in the physical world should also apply in the online world. >> woodruff: under the new law, social media and web hting companies could also face a fine of up to 10% of their global revenues. back in this country, texas will now bar all clergy from the state death chamber before executions. that is already the policy i most death-penalty states. the change in texas, announced wednesday, is a response to the u.s. supreme court. last week, it blked a texas execution because officials barred the condemned man's
buddhist spiritual adviser. ohio congressman tim ryand announday that he is running for president.e ne-term democrat from the youngstown area touted hisrk appeal to g-class voters. in 2016, ryan tried unsuccessfully to replace nancy pelosi as house democratic leader. colorado senator michael bennet says he has prostate cancer, but he still wants to join thecr deic presidential field. bennet announced last night that his prognosis is good, and that he plans to have surgery this month. he says he will launch his presidential bid if he is found to be cancer-free. pope francis has named atlanta archbishop wilton gregory to bwa archbishop oington, d.c. he repces cardinal donald wuerl, who resigned last year after being accused of shielding pedophile prsts. gregory promised today to rebuild trust.
>> i cannot undo the past,ut i sincerely believe that together we will not merely address the moments where we've fallen short or failed outright, but we will model for all the life andou teaching olord, jesus christ. >> woodruff: ggory will be the first african american to leade shington archdiocese. he is to be installed on may 17. the church of jesus christ of latter day saints today repealed two rules that targeted gays. the rules banned baptisms for the children of gay parents, and made same-sex marriage grounds e r expulsion from the faith, widely known as rmon church. the rules were adopted in 2015. the church said today it still opposes gay marriage andti reships. president trump confirmed today he plans to nominate herman cain for a seat on the federal reserve board.
cain formerly ran "godfather's f pizza" and r the republican presidential nomination in 2012. and, on wall street, the dow jones industrial average gained 166 pots to close at 26,384. the nasdaq fell three points, and the s&p 0 added six. still to come on the newshour: concerns over the attorney general's summary of the muelle. repo an official report on the crashed ethiopian airlineset. a syrian city tries to move on after the harrowing fight to remove isis. and, much more. >> woodruff: members of special counsel robert mueller's team are reportedly frustrated by the summary of their conclusions prepared by attorney general william barr and released last
week. rosalind helderman co-wrote the story for the "washington post," and our capitol hillli corresponden dejardins is here as well. and lisa desjardins who is our capitol hill correspondent., slaind helderman, to you first, tell us what your reportin was -- is from the folks who are part of the t muelleream. >> sure. well, our understding is that there is some, i would say, frustration or maybe distress on the part of some members of the special counsel's team that the the barr smmary letter, which came out about a week and a half ago now, did not, in their vew, adequately convey all the nuance and complexity of the 400-page report that they wrote. to be clear, there not giving interviews and they're not altting out public statements, but they are re, for the first time in the two years
since they were appointed, talking witriends and associates in a way that some sense of how they view the current tuation is emerging into the public sphere. >> woodruff: ros, is this ae majority of t mueller investigative team or a few or how would you characterize it >> i don't know that we have a great sense of that and, you know, it's important to note that what we're hearing is from secondhand sources, peoe who have spoken to members of the team. we have not heard fro bob mueller himself. the special counsel's office has a spokesman who rarely combumens sometimes comments on issues and every news organization in the country has gone to him today to a him for a comment about the reports that have comh out last n they have declined to comment, not to cofirm nor deny them. so this is a moment where there was sort of this vacuum t by
the attorney general, indicating, last weekend, that he was providing the principal conclusions of the report nowbe and woulorking, he said, expeditiously to get the ful report out in a public way. but, in this time period, while we're all just waiting, this vacuum is being filled. you have the pre out there claiming total exoneration, and bew these claims that may there's a little bit more to the story than we know so far. >> woodruff: south fair to say that these are people who believe that the conclusions awn by the attorney general are softer on theth presidenan they believe is accurate in terms of what the report itself found? >> yeah, that's our understanding. we're also reporting that,th apparentlyspecial counsel's team as part of their report actually wrote summaries of their own, summaries to each art of chapter or section of the repord that there's a
view among somtemembers of the that those were written intentionally to be easy to release. not that nothing would habee to redacted, but that the nredactions were obvious could be made quickly so that their summarize could be released publicly quite quickly, and there's distress on their part that there is this sort ofl lo time where all we've got is barr's sort of summary of their summaries as opposed to, you know, the report that they spena lot of time and a lot of effort writing to that we could hear from them in their own words. now, the attorney general's office has pushed back on that a little bit today, but that's our understanding of the special counsel tea >> woodruff: and, lisa, you're talking to people on the hill. what are democrats sayg, how are they reacting to this? >> if there was distess tohe mueller team, this was a spark adding to the suspicion for democrats in the congress, officially in the house. let's look at a leter that chairman to have judiciary committee jerry nadler just sent, actually, in the a last
couple of hours to the attorney general asking for those summaries that we just heard ros talk about hat sh's reportinger were part of the mueller report specifically written by mr. mueller, and that's what jeer nadler wants.ke i chairman nadler when he thinks he would issue the subp hna that he ns the authorization to. do he said he thinks it could be coming soon. he did not rule out this week. >> woodruff: but he's pushing to try to get this, knowing -- >> he wants this report, and i think they're going to issue that subpoena before we geto whateverumentation we're going to get from the attorney general because they want to beh on record as saying congress wants all of it before they geta whatever torney general releases. >> woodruff: two other quick stories i want to ask youo abut, and ros one of these isorou. "the washington post" reported in the last day or so about who at the white house received scpt clearances -- security clearances over the objection of those who normally clear those.
what did you learn about that? >> right, well, there'isbeen tory in the last few days about this whistleblower, a 18-year employee in the white house who reviews white house officials for security cleaornces. she redly told congress she made a list of 25 white house officials or people who came through their office that she or heher officials had expressed concerns aboutir security clearances and they were ultimately given clearances by the boss of the office. she had talked to congress specifically about someone who was referred to in publicly released documents as senior white hobee official none. we are now reporting senior white house official number one is indeed jared kushner. he was given his top secret clearance on may 1, the very same day ivanka trump was also given her security clearance. this whistleblower indicated that theceons about his background had to do with possible foreign influence,
issues around personal conduct and personal finances. >> woodrf: fascinating. quickly, lisa, another effort on the hill to get the presint's tax returns. what are you hearing? >> spent a lot of time talking especially to democrats. ey issued this reuest from the house ways and means airman under law, he has the authority to request anyer taxp filings. the question is whether they get back with him. amocrats expect not to r anything and have to keep sending this letter. this is an issued that could eno up irt. >> woodruff: it goes on and on. lisa desjardins, roslaind helderman, thank you very much. >> thank you. >> woodruff: the first report into the ethiopian airlines crash came out today, and it found that a computer software system on the aircraft,ec sud of playing a role, did, in fact, contribute to the
downing of flight 302. william brangham looks at thosed preliminary gs and the questions that still remain. >> brangham: the trouble began on flight 302 within minutes of taoff. according to ethiopian investigators, a faulty sensor called "the angle of attack"-- you can see it here in thisbo ng stock footage-- gave incorrect data that the plane was pointed dangerously upwards d might stall. that data set off this software system, known as "mcas."st the mistakenly believed the plane was stalling in m mid-air, aed the nose of the plane downward. but the plane had not stalled. in fact, ethiopi officials said the pilots tried following boeing protocols to turn the plane upward. but, the plane was pushed downward four times, according to the report. >> the crew performed all the procedures repeatedly, provided by the manufacturer but was not able to control the aircraft. >> brangham: in a statementoe today,g c.e.o. dennis muilenberg acknowledged the
software system appeared to play a role in the ethiopian crash, and in the crash oa boeing max jet last fall in indonesia. the software, he said, was responding to erroneous sensors in both cases.ed he plehe company would soon complete a software update and fix. "we remain confident in thesa fundamentaty of the 737 max," he said. "when it returns to the skies, it will be among the safest airplanes ever to fly." our own miles o'brien is back tonight to walk through this news. miles, the report indicates that ware tried to push th nose of this plane downward four es.ferent tim you're a trained pilot. can you help us understand what that mus ibe likf you're flying a plane and you know this software is now trying to frce your nose into the ground, that tug of war seems almostin unimle to me. >> yeah. it's kind of horrifying, if you think about it, wliam.
pilots are trained to deal with what's called runaway trim, meaning the same device that affectthe aerodynamic surfaces, which this particular system does, kind of takes off on you, and what you do is you disconnect it. in thisase, however, not only did the system have way more authority than that and continued to kind of struggle with the pilots, but when they disconnectedt, as they were instructed to do so, the manual system, thttle wheel which sits beside the captain, didn't have enough authority, enough purchase for them to overcome all the aerodynamic for cms on thntrol surface. so they did everything by the book, but it wasn't god enough. >> and as th ethiopian officials today said, these pilots did everything boeing instructed us to do and, still, there was thgeis tra. what does this mean for boeing going forward? >> well, they have a big prem and a fundamental problem with this aircraft, and it goes rig t
to tart of this system. it begins with an aerodynamicwi proble the aircraft, changing the way the engines were placed on the wing,a changing they it flies, using software to cover over that problem, but relying on only one sensor to feed that. it's sort of a garbage in, garbage out scenario that computer people talk abut. should have had mulls approximately sensors given the fact it s critical. on top of that, part of this boeing fix they're working on is reduce the authority of this system, so it doesn't have this kind of monster effect on the control system and is not in -- operating in a repeated fashion, gettingnto this tu of war with the crew. all of these things should help. woodruff: we know eing has made the promises they're going to fix this software and address these problems.uc thisas on another point i tow you have focused on in the past which is hoe f.a.a. certified this plane was okay tt fly this software system as
it is. how do you see that going forward? >> well, i think we all imane that, as a manufacturer of an airliner begins the design process of buiaflding an air that their inspectors looking over their shoulder along the way and signing off on things. but there isn't enough resources in the f.a.a. to do that, so the f.a.a. over the years, and this has gone on for quite some timee not ent thing, has given a lot of authority to thefa maurers themselves to self-police. now it is, of course, in the interest of the manufacturer to produce a safe aircraft that doesn't fall out of the sky, but whenever you're in a competitive business such as this and you're rushing to get an aircraft to market, and you're trying todo make a bucing that, and you're trying to do it in a way that makes it easiorerhe airlines to do it and they don't have to recertify or retrain their pilots, the temptation to cut corners is there. >> miles o'brien, thank you so much.
>> youe welcome, william. >> woodruff: it has been nearly two weeks since the trumpec administrationred the end of the isis caliphate-- the islamic state that spanned an area in syria and iraq the size of england. its capital was the syrian city of raq. the battle to oust isis was brutal, and the destruction enormous. there are signs of life in the city, but as special correspondent jane ferguson reports from raqqa, it is, in many ways, a city of the dead, after isis defeat. >> reporter: no place embodies the devastation of the war against isis more than raqqa, the islamic state's foer capital. the city that isis prized so dearly, devastated by a u.s.-lep bombing gn to take it from them. cyear and a half after those bombs stopped, ty is in ruin little more than a grey
expanse of smashed concretdo wn below, yasser khamis drives a ermbulance through the city, but this no one here left to save. hs teams now collect the dead, u and he takesto a recently discovered mastrgrave. >> ( slated ): we were surprised by the number of bodies there. people came to us and told us about this grave. lathis land is agricultura. it belongs to people, and the owners want it back. so we are removing the bodies. >> reporter: this quiet, tree- orned field became a grave more than 400, khamitells us. it's a last resting place for both isis fighters and their victims. here they lay together, side by side in death. t ( translated ): the people who were beheaded city were brought here. isis didn't allow the families to know ere they buried them, because they said they were spies and agents. >> reporter: after so long in the ground, it's hard enough to
tell woman from man, man from child, let alone innocent from guilty. in the end, that all fades, alongside the bodies, leaving just small piles of bones. >> ( translated ): even the bodies of the fighters, we bury them with the proper rights. we don't see any difference. our work is humanitarian. it's bigger than saying, "this a a fighter and this civilian." >> reporter: back in the city, teams are still pulling more bodies from the ruins of buildings destroyed by theai strikes. in this building, a family says a loved one is still buried. these men wrestle lumps a concre steel, to find whatever remains of the people who were at home here when the bombs hit. their tools, no more advanced than what you might find in a garden shed. ov 4,000 bodies have been discovered so far, they tell us. in june 2017, e campaign to drive isis out of raqqa was
launched. u.s.-led coalition a-strikes hammered the city, and american- backed syrian fighters on the ground fought house-to-hse in bloody battles. by the time it was over, four months later, the city was destroyed. it's only by walking through neighborhoods like this that yol can grasp the cost of the war against isis-- in particularly, raqqa city. this neighborhood was a residential one. these, apartment buildings. in the distance, upper-middle class homes. the reality is that we will likely never know how many civilians died in this war; how many bodies around here will never be pulled from the rubbleg maife bearable for the survivors is leila mustafa's mission. she is co-chair of the raqqa civil council. the people waiting in her office are in desperate need of just about every public service, from power, to running water, and
housing. under isis, she would never have owed this kind of public leadership role. yet, isis remains, hiding amid the rubble, threatenyone who works with the government. re ( translated ): ts proof that there are sleeper cells. and there are suicide operations by isis against civilians. and many assassinations have happened. this is a clear indication that isis is still here, in secret. >> reporter: a few streets over, tucked away in raqqa'sldest book store, men gather to find drlace in friendship. most of their ch now live in europe, but they prefer to stay here. raqqa is their home. ahmed khabour established this bookshop as a teenager in 1957. both he and store survived isis, but only just. book burnings happened twice, he says, and the group didn't approve of his selection of poetry and romance.
>> ( translated ): they would take this and cut it in half and thrown it on the fire, directly. in the street in front of the book shop. they wld throw them all on the fire. i told them, "i am going to the mosque, so do what you want." y as i was walking on the the mosque, i told myself, "all of syria is destroyed, why should i care about t books? em do what they want." >> reporter: here, we meet dr. mohammed al izou, the director of raqqa's museum. he takes us there, just across the road.dr trouble founal izou before exis came. their predecessorsemist rebel groups, took the city in eu2013, and came for the ms precious antiquities. >> (in translated ): i camhe morning to the museum and found it full of fighters. they were lding guns. when i entered, i saw the display cabinets on the ground. there was nothing in them. everything has bn stolen. i asked them what happened, and they told me tshut up. in that moment, i felt dizzy. i couldn't see. i walked out here, and when
started to walk my legs buckled. i had a stroke. it was the shock. i have been director here for over 15 years. taking care of this museum is like taking care of my own chil i knew all the artifacts. every single piece. i documented them all, piece by piece. >> reporter: a 4,000-year-old carved stone lays discard outside the building, too heavy to bother stealing. inside, the building is just a shell. holes in the walls where display cabinets were once filled with ancient gold coins, statues and pottery. was this your life's work? >> ( translated ): yes. i documented 6,000 pieces here. when i was in a town near here,y ere selling the stolen tablets. i had written the number on thaa et. when i saw it, i couldn't believe it. ked them, "where is this from?" and they said "raqqa." i asked where in raqqa, and they told me to leave. they had a gun. >> reporter: once isis came,he they destroyedittle that
mained, smashing the faces from carvings, and turhe museum into a fast food kebab restaurant. they couldn't prize the mosaics off the walls, so they remain, damaged but still beautiful. dr. izou insists on taking us upstairs, limping slly, so he n show us all that is left there. the remnants of decades of painaking archeological digs thrown down like garbage. the 4,000-year-old pottery. isis made it a trademark to try to erase a history that came before them. someone just gathered them up and put them in the old ser coof
gus. like the rest of this city, there is now so little left to restore. yet, life here endures. every day, falafel is fried, bread is baked, and ch play in the park. a spark of hope and colorth againsdull grey rubble this war left behind. but many of the city's people are still in refugee camps beyond the city. e destruction here is to great to sustain them. the city too damaged to heal just yet. for the pbnewshour, i'm jane ferguson, in raqqa, syria.
>> woodruff: today, the north atlantic treaty organization turns 70 years o, and nato's foreign ministers met here in washington. they endorsed a package of support for ukraine, whichtes still the f europe's only active war. here's nick schifrin. >> schifrin: 70 years ago today rld's longest-running military alliance was signed into existence, and president truman vowed nato uld not be a threat to the soviet union. >> there are those who claim that this treaty is an aggressive act on part of the nations that ring the north lantic. that is absolutely untrue. >> schifrin: but today, as it did 70 years ago, nato is takinp opposed by what is now, russia. and nowhere is that more obvious than ukraine, now five years into a war between the ukrainian litary and russia-backed separatists. late last year, russian ships rammed ukrainian ships in waters both navies are legally allowed to use. anrtoday, nato announced ma steps to support ukraine, ofincluding more presence nato ships,ore surveillance of the russian navy, and more training of ukrainian troops.
that is in addition to $250 million of assistance in the u.s. defense budget, including radar systems,efurbished coast guard cutters, and tactical vehicles. and to talk about this, i'm joined bkurt volker, former ambassador to nato, and now the special representative for ukraine. welcome to the "newshour". >> thank you very much. why is it in thst u.s. inteor n.a.t.o. to support ukraine which isn't, of course, a n.a.t.o. member? >> first thing, n.a.t.o. is a defensive alliance prtecting its members, as president truman said, and when you see a conflih going on in europe,e country's borders are being vie whraitd, that is something that should be of concern to n.a.t.o. we want to see eure and everyone's sovereignty is respected, where people are securenside their own countries. russian aggression against ukraine was a threat to the securi of europe as a whole. >> but n.a.t.o. as a whole has not been unified over ukrai. you have front line states in the east, you have wanted to be more aggressive against russia. states like germany, france,
u.k., perhaps the u.s. who wants to be a lit tle moreutious. is n.a.t.o. really doing enough to have an impact on russia's behavior in eastern ukraine? >> two thoughts. first, i think it's not quite fair to say n.a.t.o. has not been unified on ukrai. this week n.a.t.o. foreign minister approved a black eecurity for n.a.t.o. in t black sea that bolsters ukraine. there has been unified european union and u.s. sanctions on russia because of theirn invas in ukraine. some countries like the united states have provided lethalns deequipment, some haven't, but there's generally a unified approach, also then to implement my understanding agreements and tohnstituteir integrity. >> a flip side says the u.s. and n.a.t.o. is doing too much and the the question is why should the u.s. risk provoking russia over ukraine, again a nonn.a.t.o. member, and ukraine that, as president obama put it, russia would always care about
more than the u.s. would? e> well, i think what we car about is for people to be able to be free, to have democracies, to be securen their societies, and so, the russian there is- - the russian bear has taken a chunk out of ukraine, and what we would like to see is ukraine be able to get its territor back and be able to be safe and secure within its own borders. this is not a threat to russia, not a poke to russia. it's about ukraine being a sovereign country that has a right to its own security.ai >> youyourself ukraine needs to get better in order to resist russian interference, corruption, of course, being the top of the lis >> mm-hmm. you had a recent scandal where members to have they national securuncil were siphoning money. now a frontrunner in the presidential election, ithat a person around who ukraine can e coalesce? >>ve an election similar tot what we've seen in france, brexit or even the united
states. it's a candidate who established himself as against theve establishmensus the incumbent president who is daying that, you know, i've worked hard, me accomplishments, we have more to do. the ukrainian republic has a choice, do they want someone going against establishment or someone who has dne more on reform than anyone else in the past 20 years and stood up to putin. >> the incumbent? yes. so they have this choice in front of them. what's great about this is this is a truly democratic election. we don't know how this will come out. w t's to stop pre sident vladimtin from testing him or changing the status quo. >> we can assume based on russia's bhaimp up till now they will continue to test whoever is the president f ukraine. they've invaded, taken territory, they keep the fighting going. you see all kinds of propaganda,
sputniks, cyber attacks, the wholntoolbox is o display in ukraine. >> are they manipuleling the tion? >> they're trying to and kind of, you know, like in a lot of countries, the russians are involved, but at the same time, it's very hard to mess with people's own sense of their own interests, and i'm not sure they had an impact in the first und, i'm not sue they will have an impact in the second oround. kurt ver, former ambassador to n.a.t.o. and special representative for ukraine, thank you very much. >> thank you for having me. >> woodruff: as part of the n.a.t.o. anniversary coverage,lk nick schifrin with the foreign ministers of greec >> schifrin: and as part of our nato anniversary coverage, i talked with the foreign ednisters of former adversaries greece and north mia, for their first-ever joint interview. you can watch that on our website, www.pbs.org/newshour. >> woodruff: now: incentivizing seriously ill children to comply with their medical treatment. our economics correspondent paul solman looks at a program created by a not-for-profit foundation, called hope for henry.
and we should note, our executive producer, sara just, o sithe foundation's board. the story is part of our weekly series, "making sense." north macedonia. >> 11-year-old ariella loves to dance. >> tap, jazz, hip-hop, ballet. >> reporter: she's been at it since she was two, but lately she's spent more time in hospital wards than on dance e oors. >> i htype of cancer called ewing's sarcoma which is a bone cancer. >> over the st two years, stein has been medicallybo arded. >> the type of chemo called cyclophosphamide, and irinotecan which is another type of chemo o. i had a bi surgery on my leg. i would say that's hard. >> ariella's mom says kids, even when life depends on it, often resists horrible treatments. >> you're not going to be able to say do this because you have
to. >> how did you sleep this weekend? >> a critical question for hospitals and parents aike, how to get a kid t teather such assaults and that's where the path to super do you remember better comes in, a behavioral economics program to help kids comply with traumatic treatments in which they earn play cash redeemable for prizes. ild life specialist kelly. >> t kids identify challenges'r thfacing in the hospital, whether swallowing pills, going through radiation treatments, chemotherapyanything that the child or teenager identifies as difficult. >> where do you want t put your sticker? >> and we co up with the amount of hope for henry bucks that they earn. >> the kids are asked to pick their stiffest challenges, stick them on a super hero theme gameboard and decide how many game bucks they deserve for complete them. >> the goal is to help thctm become e in their care and giving them that conoln what they have to do because they are
so o of control. >> they are doing radiation on my spine no and that goes through my guts and makes my stomach huforts sometimes and i just feel tired and nauseous. >> how are you? the pediatrician is testing the impact to have the program. >> the question fundamentally is does that sort of incentive or reward system help children feel better? are their symptoms bet their emotions different? are their experiences of discomfort diffent? >> the h thoughtcies -- the hypothesis -- >> that it somehow makes it more dlerable for the child a parents. >> he's magical.e rogram helped ariella and family. >> every time she went through soething difficult, gett bucks and said, that was horrible, but look what you can do, is really helpful. >> super path already in ten hospitals and opening in five
more this year is run by d.c. nonprofit hope for henry, inspired by hendbry golg whose rare and genetic disease required a bone marrow transplant at age 5 and months en the hospital. >> henry's world w from tech no color to tecohnocolr to black and white. we had to figure out how in the world are we going to keep him optimistic and up beat and hopeful to do the incredibly hard things he has to do to g better. >> henry's mother came up with an answer in his hospital room. >> i looked in the corner and i was, like, whyoat dknow? there's a magic closet in the corner and, henry, i bet you if you take that big pill or uif yo let them stick your finger and test your bod that that magic closet will have a treat for y you. >> almagic clock et was set up
in each hospital henry visited stocked with his favorite toy. >> yeah! batman action figures! >> batman action figures of every variety and he would earnr him for ag to his medical plan. in his mind, that made all the difference. >> really? incentivization. it's hard to imagine how much people going through transplants tellto endure, but i can you, because i was henry's mom and prime nurse, he would tke 26 medications a day. >> oncologist ashasd was one of henry's doctors.de >> he imself a superhere o and superhero can fight stuff. he could fight whatever he was confronted with. >> henry fought for two years. he died at age but the program he inspired promises payoffs for i've run in the treatment ecosystem. >> number one is compliance so
that the child or the patient is taking their medicine. number two, that the parents are less sressed out and the staff is less stressed out. >> dr. david ash who studies behavioral economics interventions in halthcare. >> we all know money is a motivator. color fill is not the only green catalyst. money does matter.a >> not to bed hearted here but hasn't money been shown to backre as an incentive? >> turns out in a lot of these experiments the amount of money isn't important. it's how you deliver it, whether it's exciting or a kind of thing. it's almost the way to keep score in a game. h that's henry and girlfriend bela. re's mom is now the c.e.o. for hope for henry. >> when i talk to people about the program, inevitably they ask about the correlation behoween for henry bucks and u.s. dollars. doesn't every sin kid wanted a brand-new computer or ipad? yes, that's what i would have thought. i would have thought if i were
playing, wait a second, they're letting set the price. >> kids don't game the system. kids want to codpe an get through their medical treatment and get so far along the path to super do you remembe -- super dt they're back home. >> ariella stein puts her hope for henry bucksui towards a bear gift cards. >> i go to local hospitals and give out the bears to kids. >> making other kids happy makes me happy because i know how they feel. >> helping others motivates her to stick with her own treatment. >> a lot of times i don't want to go to radiation. i think, well, if i do that, i can give a gift card to make other kids happy because that' what i usually get gift cards for. >> interest shad thinks th program has long-term benefits as well. >> the long-term benefit for me as a pediatric onologist is th child will have less ptsd. i've seen many families who
vdivorced and separated, ed away from home. i've seen risky behavior in childhood cancer survivors. i've seen young girls get pregnant early only because to have the stress that they had to go through. >> moreover, economic benefits. i think what you spend up front transtes into tons of savings down the road. children who have all the support around them have w stays in the hospital and fewer complications. her matt davis hopes to have his dayton the program by earlier next year, but erica stein's testimony about daughter ariella suggestions what he will >> she is very silly, sassy, goofy kid and that hasn't changed at all. >> even though she's back in the hospital, recovering from complications after a bone marrow tra this is economics correspondent paul solman.
>> woodruff: it has been more than ten years since a series of coordinated terror attacks rocked mumbai, india. just last month, the f.b.i. added a pakistani man named i sajid mir most wanted terrorists list, in connection to the attacks, and the alleged mastermind is still free. but the sties of those who survived it, live on. amna nawaz sat down with the cast and director of "hotel mumbai," a feature film thatke a vivid and visceral look at the siege that shook the world. it is part of our ongoing arts and culture series, "canvas." i >>n mumbai, multiple bombings and gunmen -- >> the 2008 mumbai attacks paralyzed an entire city and half thworld raed for three days. the story is now told on the big screen in "hotel mumbai."
across multiple attk sites, over 160 people were killed, including staff at th lury taj hotel, a mumbai landmark wherdirector anthony maras centers his story. >> a lot of terror attacks,dd quite and they're over and we're left dealing with the aftermath. tcause of the dynamics oe situation in mumbai in those three days were such that the police response took a number of days. it was up to ordinary people ton protecanother and to protect themselves. >> someone's coming! nazanin boniadi place zar a wealthy indian socialite stating at the hotel with her fam >> she went into the situation with someone who came from privilege and a gold spoon in her mouth, then she's supposed to kick off her shoes and do whatev it takes to surve not only herself but her family. in that sense, i think this film
is not about hollywood heroes the ones we're used to seeing on screen, it's about the everydayn heros, the o that we think we can't be ourselves. >> upstairs -- dev patel plays arjun, one of the everyday heroes. >> i hope you sty and i'l feed them. >> my character comes from islamists, and to work as aac of hope with success, is something someone would talk about with pride. it's confronting. it sheds light on the cate system and the wealth where people throw their lives away in service of others is beautiful, but also would that happen in other parts to have the world? i don't know. >> the staff of the taj hotel, these are peoinple, familie many cases, husbands, wives, children outside the hotel, they eir own lives. >> there is no shame in giving.
i have been here 35 years. this is my home. i'm staying, too. >> i'm stayingtoo. me, too. some have made it so safety beyond the peret where they sepherd guests to safety and turned around and went bac side this hell to protect on another and their guests. >> i love you so mch. armie hammer plays david, husbd to is a rare, stuck inside the hotel. >> this feels like the first person point of view and spective of what it's like to be in the hallways when it went >> hammer was compelled to join the cast a decade after watching the actual attacks unfold on the news. >> i remember empathizing for the people who were there whoyt couldn't do ng to save these people and the peoxe who wereperiencing it. >> for months preparing, the
movie was a chance to dig more deeply into the stories trapped in the taj. >> the guiding light was the research we followed over a 12-month period, into many guests and survivors both at the attacks of the taj and many other locations. we had over 3,000 pages of transcripts from the trial of kasab, who is the sole surviving gunman. >> but it's maris' minute-by-minute gripping depigs of the attack that raiessed ons about the need for a fictionalized version of the real events and kerns about humanizing the attacker. >> i did feel a huge sense of responsibility in the depiction to have the gunmen. to me it's a question of definition. if by humanizing you mean we're trying to justify their actions, if humanizing mens we' trying to understand to an extent, you know, what drove them to this, then, yeah, if it wasn't the ten young men who were there, it would be another ten or another sin. >> the film's te resides
not just in the suspensionful g themesmen hunting down fictions but the interactions between those fighting to st alive. patel's character wearing a traditional turban is pet with suspicion by a guest hiding in the same parof the hotel. >> in this hotel, you arey guest. if it would make you feel comfortable, i will take it off. would you like that? >> yes. there. it was your idea to make sure that the sikh. >> i went to the hotel and saw a orkh doorman and waiters, that can make it a e potent character. >> it's important to remember
it's not just -- there were hindus, christians and muslims that were attacked. the example set by these truly heroic people, never threw a punch, never fired a gun, are heroes, despite the fears, and it's one the world needs to hear now. >> what is it that you hope people will get from the story? >> i hope they get what i got out of it. tuat i walkeday from the film feeling was gra. it's going to make me cry, but gratitude be alive, grateful for the loved ones i have in my life. and to live every day in the moment. our differences don't define us. really, we have so much more in common at the end of the day than we would like to believe. but i feel like i'm better for having been i the film. >> "hotel mumbai" is in theaters now. for the "pbs newshour,"'m amna
nawaz in new york. >> woodruff: in tonight's "brief but spectacular," musician andrew bird has created eld recordings in a diverse range of places. he is known for pling the violin and a unique songwriting style. his latest album is "my finestrk et." it's also part of our "canvas" series. (whistling) ♪ >> i like to go into an environment and, without a pre-conceived idea of space, i play through the harmonic series and find which frequencies are giving me the most information about that space. it's a key element and it's like
a common thread through all my music over the years, is playing to the room. (whistling) >> this project i've worngd over the years called echolocation, i go into extraordinary environments and startpr ising and find, say, in a canyon in utah, i'll may c-sharp and say, oh, that's theote, that's the note that's telling me the most about whre i amnd will tell the listener where they are. ♪ i take the field recordings home and build a record around it. i did one in the l.a. river under the hyperion bridge, i did one in thhedles in marin and one in an aqueduct in
lisbon. so far, all of them involve water and oftentimes standing in water when i'm playing. i come in like i'm a blind bat, you know, trying to echo locate the space. it's more of a musical curiosity at first. ♪ yoknow, iwent through a period of intense isolation in my late s. so i moved into a barn in western illinois and lied the for five or six years. that's wht i recommend to younger musicians that are trying to figure out, oh, mybe should go to where the music industry is. maybe you should, but if you really want to offer something interesting to the universe, maybe try isolating yourself, if you can handle (singing) ♪
>> you know, now like having people around me when i'm writing. my friend lost his nt teeth and he was whist thing breathing in, which is not easy, so i was impressed. yeah, it's just a funny filter to have yoour songs cming as you'reriting them coming through another human being that you've creed. (singing) ♪ my name is andrew bird and thisy is"brief but spectacular" take on playing to the room. >> woodruff: and th is the "newshour" for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. thank yoand we'll see you >> woodruff: and that is the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. thank you and we'll see you soon. >> major funding for the pbs hour has been provided b >> babbel. t a language apphat teaches real-life conversations in a new language, like spanish, french, german, italian, and more.
>> consumer cellular. >> financial services firm raymond james. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.g
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