tv PBS News Hour PBS April 10, 2019 3:00pm-4:00pm PDT
captioning sponsored by newshourroductions, llc >> woodruff: good evening, i'm judy woodruff. on the newshour tonighthe votes are tallied in israel, prime minister benjamin netanyahu is set to return for a record fifth term in office. then, a scientific milestone-- researchers reveal the first image ever captured of a black hole. plus, our next report from the bottom of the world. the ice in antarctica is melting at an accelerating pace, threatening coastal communities thousands of miles away. >> in areas around some of our biggest cities, new york, boston, miami, whereou've got a lot of development, very close to sea level-how do you defend those? >> woodruff: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour.
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>> sup by the john d. and catherine t. macarthur foundation. committed to building a more just, verdant and peaceful world. more information at macfound.org h >> and witongoing support of these institutions: >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs stion from viewers like yo thank you. >> woodruff: attorney generalll m barr revealed today that he believes u.s. intelligence umencies spied on president s 2016 campaign. he also sa he's reviewing how the counterintelligence investigation into russian collusion began. during his second day of congressional testimony, barr
told a senate panel he wanted to make sure that if surveillance did occur, it followed proper procedures. >> i think spying did occur, but the question is whether it was predicat-- adequately predicated and i'm not suggesting it sn't adequately predicated but i'd need to explore that. i'm not talking out the f.b.i. necessarily, but intelligence agencies more broadly. >> woodruff: barr acknowledged he did not have any specific evidence of wrongdoing. senate minority leader chuck schumer later said barr needed to retract his statement about the spying or provide evidence to support it. and house speaker nancy pelosi told
the associated press shedo n't trust barr. >> i'm very concerned about the statements madby attorney general barr. i think that they undermine our constitution. they undermine the role of the attorney general. he is not the attorney generalal of dtrump. he is the attorney general of the united states. >> woodruff: barr's review is
separate from an ongoing justice department inspector general inquiry into the f.b.i.'s handling of the russia probe. barr said he expects tho results in may or june.s earlier, ahe left the white house, president trump again insisted the muellern investigats politically motivated. >> it was an illegal investation. it was started illegally. everything about it was crooked. every single thing about it. there were dirty cops. these were bad people. this was an thtempted coup. was an attempted take-down of a president. >> woodruf barr said today he'll release a redacted version of mueller's report to the public next week. president trump insisted again today that he won't release his tax returns anytime soon. today was the deadline congressional democrats set for the i.r.s. to turn over six years of mr. trump's returns. the president told reporters
this morning that he wou "love" to release them, but won't while he's under audit by the i.r.s. the treasury department has yet to respond to the request. in israel, minister benjamin netanyahu is poised to serve a record fifth term, after his rival's party conceded defeat. he ran a tight race against his centrist challenger, former military chief benny gantz. netanyahu celebrated his victorr with suppotoday in tel aviv. he'll now become israel's longest-serving lead we'll have more on the israeli election rig after the news summary. british prime minister theresa may was in brussels today, lobbying for another extension on the u.k. departure date from the european union.e ld top e.u. officials another delay would give her mo time to secure a brexit deal that could pass in parliament. e.u. member states held an emergency session to vote on whether or not to grana second
extension. without one, the u.k. is set to leave the bloc friday without a deal. we'll have more on the pivotal vote later in the ogram. new zealand's parliament has voted to ban most semi-automatic weapons and assault rifles. that comes less than a month after a gunman opened fire on two mosques in christchurch, killing 50 people and wounding dozens more. today, prime minister jacinda ardern praised the nearly unanimous vote in wellington. >> i could not fathom how weapons that could cause such destruction and large-scaleat could have been obtained legally in this country. >> woodruff: the bill still requir zealand's governor general, but it's expected to become law on friday. after that, anyone with a military-style weapon could face up to five years in prison. the death toll from a cyclone in southern africa has now topped
1,000 people. the powerful storm ripped through mozambique, zimbabwe, and malawi last month. crews are stl searching for remains of the dead. a cholera outbreak among the cyclone's survivors in mozambique threatens to increase the number of casualties even more. back in this country, acting deputy homeland security secretary claire grady has resigned. caat paves the way for president trump's pick kevinenan, the commissioner of u.s. customs anmeborder protection, to be the acting secretary of homeland security. but it also leaves the acting deputy position unfilled. mcaleenan's departure from customs and border protection means it now won't have a commissioner. the acting head of u.s. immigration and customs enforcement ron vitiello is stepping down friday, leaving a vacancy at the top of that agency as well.
president trump left open the possibility today of sendingon addi u.s. troops to the southern border. he came to that conclusion after listening to stories about migrant crossings at a republican fundraiser in san antonio, texas. some 5,000 active-duty and national guard troops are currently stationed at the border. and wall street managed a modest advance today. vethe dow jones industrialge gained six points to close at 26,157. sdaq rose 55 points, and the s&p 500 added 10. still to come on the newshour: israeli prime nister benjamin netayahu is poised to win a destoric fifth term. european union l hold an emergency session to vote on the u.k.'s request for a brexitio ex the first image ever captured of a black hole, and much more.
>> woodruff: we return to israel, and benjamin netanhu's apparent victory. john yang is covering the election for us, and tonight he's in tel aviv. >> yang: after a nail-biter of a night that saw both israeli prime minister benjamin netanyahu and his challenger, re gantz, declare victory, israelis awoke this morning to near-final results showing tanyahu's likud party and gantz's blue and white, both center-right, each winning 35 seats in the 120-member israeli legislature, called the knesset but including ats of minor parties aligned with likud, netanyahu appears to have a clear advantage of as many as 65 seats-- a majority. and late today, gantz conceded defeat. >> it's a total victory forny neu. >> yang: aluf benn is editor-in-
chief of the israeli newspaper ha'aretz. w >> the not enough netanyahu fatigue. teviously all those who voted for gantz, they to oust netanyahu but it wasn't enough to make him leave his job. >> yang: president trump was among the world leadngs offering cotulations. >> so, the fact that bibi won, i think we'll see some pretty good action in terms of peace. >> yang: in the streets of tel aviv today, voters engaged in a national pastime: expressing their opinions. bike store manager ronen friean voted for netanyahu. >> ( translated ): i feel that something great was done in israel. the public has spoken >> ( translated ): i'm glad about the outcome. because i think bibi is doing an amazing job. >> yang: psychotherapist talia haim voted for the once-powerful labor party, which was aligned with gantz. >> i'm really upset. i'm really sad. think that we really needed a change and that once again it's staying the same.
>> yang: software engineer w sajaer voted for gantz, and holds out hope for netarsahu¡s coalition part >> i would like the coalition to be people who care about the country meaning leaving the right and left wingxtremists out and probably the hasidic jews as well. the election gives lts biggest share of knesset seats since 2006. analysts say that simplifies netanyahu's coalitiobuilding and makes his government relatively stable since a single, minor party will not beb to bring it down. analysts say re-election allows netanyahu to say he has a mandate to fight looming corruption charges. >> he can argue that the israeli public, owing what the charges are, knowing what he supposedly did to break the law, despite that voted to keep him in office. in other words, keeping netanyahu in office is more important than enforcing the white collar criminal law on the
country's top politician. >> yang: following netanya's pledge to begin annexing the west bank, the results highlight the israeli public's rejection of the two-state solution to the palestinian nflict. tal schneider is diplomatic correspondent for the israeli financial newspaper, "globes." >> we keep hearing the two state solution coming from european allies and from the u.s., but if you start to talk to the pple on the streets, they will tell you most of them we don't believe in a palestinian state ever. >> yang: trump administrationy officials ey will release their peace plan soon. while israeli voters kept their prime minister, they also gave a platform to a new lead fighting against him. >> the results represent a significant accomplishment for gantz, a first-time caate, and thrust his new party into the role of e opposition. the role of opposition leader could be a new and unfamiliar one for gantz, who was tatanyahu's army chief of staff. >> it's not an eas for someone with zero experience in
politics. he was in the military where yos reach your goa from giving orders. not from negotiations like in polics. >> imagine to yourself, he has rmo chief of staff with him. like, two other chief i.d.f. one was also a defense minister. and this respectable, honorable group will just have to start writing bills and laws bottom up. and i mean, it's not going to be, it's going to beun for reporters because they're going to make lots of mistakes but it's not going to be easy for them. >> yang: for now, netanyahu is headed to a fifth straight term as prime minister, and poised to soon surpass founding father david ben-gurion, one of the naon's founders, as the longest serving leader ever. for the pbs newshour, i'm john yang in tel aviv. >> woodruff: unlikely as it sounds, we now have an image of
that invisible space anomaly, a black hole, a cosmic abyss with gravity of such intensity that nothing, not even light, escapes it. a team of astronomers made the image public at a press conference in washington, d.c. this morning. we start our report tonight with this background video from thenc world scfestival and oficed by its co-founder, brian greene, professor physics at columbia university. it's the latest in our weekly science and technology series, "t leading edge." >> about 100 yeans ago, albert in gave us a new description of the force of gravity in which gravity exerts its influence through warps and curves in the fabric of space and time. just a couple of years later, karl schwarzschild, he was a german astronomer, who was stationed n the russian front during world war i and charged with tackling artillery trajectories, he somehow gets ahold of einstein's manuscript
and realizes something amazing. if you take a spherical object and you squeeze it down to a sufficiently small size, cooreination to eins math, the gravitational pull will be so enormous, that nothing will be able to escape, not even light. and that is what we mean by "a black hole." now, when einstein caught wind of these results, he didn't believe it. he didn't think that these objects would actually be out there in the universe. and yet, in the ensuing decades, theoretical developments began to mount, showing that black holes were the inevitable outcome of massive stars that had used their nuclear fuel, undergone a supernova explosion, and the resultulg core have no ability to withstand the pull of gravity, and would collapse down into a k hole. in t observational case it also began to mount. studies of the center of our milky way galaxy showed stars whipping around the center atsu
enormous speeds, that the only explanation for the object that could exert the powerful gravity respsible fohat motion would be a very massive black hole, perhaps four million times the mass of the sun.s and perhe most convincing observational evidence to date actually comes from gravitational waves. when we receive the fst ripples in the fabr oicf space lack backin 2015, the ly explanation for the pattern of those waves was two black es very distant that collided, setting off this tidal wave in space that we were able to detect. >> woodruff: and brian greene of columbia university joins u now. so, tell us, it's clear from what you just were reporting, scientists have known about black holes, suspected about blacholes for a long time. what does it mean that we now have an actual photograph of one? >> well, now, we know for the first time that they are actuallyreal, that einstein's mathematics describes a real
monster that exists out there in the universe, where mass is crushed at such a fantastically small size, that the gravitational pull exceeds anything that tht we he ever encountered anywre else in the universe. so it is a wonderful moment of confirmation.le >> woodruff: ss look at that picture again. the black center and the expred yellow sickle, if you would, and tell us what we're looking at here. >> yeah, so the center is the blackness, the black home hoel. that's where the name comes from. and the light that you see around the edge of thack hole, that ish light tat is emitted by hot gas as it swirls around the black hole, and just before it falls oveger the into the abyss, it emits light that is able to swirl arund and ultimately reach us. now, you're looking at a black hole that is 53 million light-years away, in a galaxy called-87. so that reddish-orange light has been traveling toward us for about 53 million years. and, yetthis wonderful team of
astronomers has been able to capture those photons and recreate the image, reeate the environment there which they originated thir journey. >> woodruff: so now that the scientists, the astronomers have this image, what do they do next? what are the next questions about a black hole? t >> welre are so many questions, but, briefly, we really want erto undand what happens when something falls over the edge of a black hole? einstein gave us one story, but it did not take into account quantum physics. so theenext stp of the journey is to really understand how the laws of the small quantum mcics meld with einstein's law of the big, his generoral the of relativity. and these kinds of images may take us the next step toward finally understanding how to marry those two theories together. >> woodruff: does this change what children will learn in elementary school about space? >> one day, i think it absolutely might, because gravity is the moimt rtant force governing the largest
things in the universe. and whee n wn finally take images of gravity in the mos extreme environments-- those are ristsnvironments we theo love. those are the laboratories where can push our theories to the e limit. and when we can finally take imagery in those do mains, it ultimately will probably find its way into the textbooks. >> woodruff: and remind us again, how close to earth is the nearest black hole? >> well, we know one the center of our milky way galaxy, whs 26,000 light-years away. so it's not as though these things are right next door. but it's wondrous that we can build machines that can take a photograph as if they were nearby. i mean, how amazing is it that the black hole that was 53 million light-years away looks like it's something that is right out there that you could >> woodruff: and, finally, when people hear, read about something that can suck everything around it into it because of the powerful forcesgr ofvity, do people on earth have anything to be afraid of
when it comes to a black hole? >> wel it's a natural thought. no, we have nothing really to be afraid these are just wonderful laboratories in which we can push our understanding. in fact, i would turn it around. you know, we live in this fractured world. and how wondrous is it that 100 scientists on four continents using eight radio telescopes in their wor n allows every citizen in planet earth to look up and recognize that there ar these deep, fundamental truthsth transcend everything that divides us. to me, that is the real message of this breakthrough. >> woodruff: that's a wonderful way to look at it. brian gree, thank you very much. columbia university. we appreciate it. >> thank you. f: >> woodre continue now with our series from antarctica. the ice-covered continent is
being transformed, in part, by climate change. antarctica's ice, which contains nge vast majority of freshwater on earth, is melt an accelerating rate.an william am and producers mike fritz and emily carpeaux traveled there and have this report on how coastal communities all over the world could bempacted. it's part of our occasional series of reports, "peril and promise, the challenge of climate change >> brangham: for acafar as the eysee, antarctica is covered by thick sheets of ice. in some places, that i several miles deep. th massive continent, as b f the u.s. and mexico combined, has for millionsars, been home to some of the most breathtaking ldscapes of ice on the planet. what you can see behind me here is a very good cross-section of a glacier in antarctica. and what you see with all those different layers-- that is hundreds and thousands of years of snow and precipitation
stacking up, one on top of the other, and slowly exerting pressure downward on tho layers of snow. and that's how a glacier is formed. but antarctica's ice is now increasingly being threatened, and most researchers believe it's because of climate change. according to one recent study, the continent's ice is slipping away six times faster than it was 40 years ago.ct >> anta is now losing 252 gigatons of ice per year. >> brangham: glaciologist joe mcgregor is part of the team at nasa's goddard space flight center that's studying antarctica's ice. using radar and lasers, they measure the thickness of the ice and how its moving. they can ao measure whethere the ic growing or shrinking. help me understand what that means, 252 gigatons? >> a gigaton is a billion metric tons of ice. second, and when you do the
math, you wind up wi antarctic ice sheet is out of balance by more than three and a half swimming pools per second. >> brangham: let me make sure i get that: every second, three olympic sized swimming pools worth of ice idisappearing from antarctica? >> yes. when considered, on average, over a year. >> brangham: just to put that in perspective, in the amount of time it takes to watch this story, antarctica will shed more wathan new york city uses every day. the warming that many believe is causing this ice loss varies in different parts of t continent. here on the antarctic peninsula, the long branch of land coming on the northwest corner, warming has been especially pronounced. at the vernadsky research station, which is run by the ukrainian government, teorologists like oleksandr poluden have been keeping some on the longest-term temperature records on the ctinent. while it's warmed and cooled at different times, poluden says the overall trend here on the peninsula is clear:
>): you willt tice that the temperature doesn't tend to increase all the time. there are some fluctuations over it becomes evident that over about 70 years, the average-r yend temperature has increased by 3.5 dberees. >> it'ming clearer that parts of antarctica appear to b unstable, and sing ice much faster than we expected. >> brangham: michael oppenheimer is a climate scitist and professor of geoscience at princeton university. he says this ice loss will only accelerate sea level rise, which happens for two reasons: one, a warming atmospre warms the oceans, and warmer water expands and rises. secondly, warming also melts ice and glaciers all over the worldo sending water he ocean, a problem that's increasing in antarctica. >> so ultimately, if we lose all the ice that's vulnerable to a warming of only a few degrees, we're talking about a very, very, very, big sea level rise >> brangham: the most recent u.n. report predicts a foot of
sea-level rise this century if we continue burning oil and gas and coal at our current pace. but a growing number of researchers believe that because of the emissions we've already put into the atmosphere, that prediction understates the threat. >> essentially, the continent's warming from below and also, you know, from above. a >> branghaxandra isern oversees all antarctic sciencefo the national science foundation, who, for the record, is a newshour underwriter. she says that in west antarctica, two huge glaciers-- pine island and thwaites-- arens ered at risk of collapse. >> certainly there's some eresearchers that study p islands and the thwaites glacier that feel that it's be sufficiently destabilized that o won't be able to recover. >> brangham: michaenheimer says, if just one of those glaciers winds up in thecean, sea levels will rise five times higher than the u.n. predicted. >> the current estimates are that if the thwaites glacier in antarcti were to totally
disintegrate into the ocean, that ultimately, sea level rise would rise by something like five feet. in areas around some of our biggest cities, new york, boston, miami, where you've got a lot of development: homes, buildings, infrastructure, roads, right up by the coast. how do you defend those? but how would bangladesh protect itself? it's got many hundred ofiles of coastline. it's all right at sea level. you can't build a wallo protect that whole coast. there's actually nothing that can be done. >> brangham: that's millions of people that are going to have to move. >> right. there are 150 million people in bangladesh and probably a few million are going toave to move.e and where they going to go in such a densely populated country? and there's already strife when ople try to move. they try to move into india? people get killed trying to do that now. what's going to happen when you have a few million people that alof a sudden try to move? it's not a pretty picture. >> brangham: part of the reason antarctica's aciers are
threatened is that they've been losing some crucial protection. many glaciers form what are known as ice shees-- huge platforms of ice-- some as wide as texas and hundreds of stories tall-- that grow out over the ocean, and they help hold their much larger glaciers up on land. they hold it back and not let it slide into the sea. >> so you can imagine a piece of ice the size of texas. pretty thick. it's going to slow the ice as it tries to flow into the ocean. >> brangham: robin bell, of columbia university's lamont- doherty earth observatory, has been studying antarctica's ice for over 20 years >> they are essentially acting as a bouncer in the bar, leaning up against the door and keeping the ice from flowing into the ocean. >> brangham: but as the atmosphere keeps warming, majorn ice shelventarctica have also been collapsing. in 2002, the larsen b ice shelf, the size of rhode island, completely disintegrated. these are satellite imes of it
breaking into hundreds of pieces. as predicted, the glaciers that larsen b anchored up on land, began accelerating towards the ocean. and then, two years ago, the evis bigger larsen c shelf, is it from the air, developed that miles-long this shelf, which sits in front of the thwaites glacier, is also and part of the brunt ice shelf is expected to break off any day now, releasing an iceberg that'll be twice the size of manhattan. there's still me debate over whether human-induced warming is the only thing causing these changes. antarctica has lost ice many times before, and that also caused the seas to rise. researchers are now trying to determine how much warmth it takes to cause truly catastrophic sea level rise. that glacier you see behind me connects up overhat peak to the massive west antarctic ice sheet. and all of those layerof snow
and ice, built up over hundreds of thousands of years, contain a remarkable history of earth's past climate. >> it's ke a tape recorder, a 10,000 foot tape recorder in places. so scientists have drilled ice cores through the layers as far down as they can get, and then they analyze those layers. >> brangham: glaciologist robert mulvaney, that's him in th black cap, works for the british antarctic survey. he and a small team have been drilling over 2,000 feet down into the ice sheet, pulling outh e ice cores. >> what we've been trying to do is recover our climate record over the last 120 to 140,000o years to tryderstand how our climate might change over the next hundred years or so as the climate responds toea ind carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. >> brangham: the evidence from these ice cohes, and many , indicate that when the earth's clliate was just a le bit warmer than it is today, the world's oceans were h over twenty feher.
>> at two degrees warmer clite gave a sea level rise of about six to nine metres more than present. >> brangham: given that there are still so many unceies over how serious sea-level rise will be, and over what time span it'll occur, michael oppenheimer argues that there's still time to act and to prepare. >> it doesn't mean we should throw up our hands and run. let's start thinking straight about how we're going to help pele. how we're going to help countries deal with the outcom because it's not going to be pretty, it going to be expensive, and it's going to be disruptive, if we don't get our act together, now. >> brangham: this year, teams from several differentations are studying the thwaites glacier, trying to determine whether it's past the point of no return, and if so, how soon its ice could end up in then. for the pbs newshour, i'm william brangham in antarctica.
>> woodruff: as we reported earlier, the official death toll in mozambique topped 1000 today, after last month's deadly cyclone. the needs of many in the nations affected are enormous, and amna nawaz speaks now with a man who's helping to lead that crisis response. >> nawaz: the united nations called it one of theiest storms on record in the southern hemisphere. cycle idai ripped across southern africa nearly one month ago, destroying thousands of homes, leaving tens of thousands of people homelessssand turning e swaths of ground into inland oceans. the full scale of th devastation is still unknown. a final death toll, officials worry, may never be known.ar two million people were in the cyclone's direct path, hitting malawi, zimbabwe, and mozambique, the country hardest- hit by the storm.an
that is where executive director of the world food programme, david beasley, cently visited to see firsthand the scope of the damage, and plan for a responseh thsays will several months. he joins me here now. welcome back to the newshour. >> well, it's good to be here. thank you very much. >> nawaz: so you have visited countless disaster nes. what did you see on the ground here? what are the most immediate needs?th >> when we hi disaster zone, it was quite remarkablee beca had helicopters coming in. in fact, we couldn't deliver foods for the first few days because there was nothing availabe. we had to take our helicopters, use them to really pull off the top of buildings, out of trees. it was a catastrophe. all the roads were shut shutdown, bridges were out, no electricity anywhere in the country. so now, now, three weeks later, we have scaled up tovo about er 1.1 million people that we are supporting. but here's the prolem-- not only has a quarter of a million homes been destroyed oredtrs a n
itself. but the crops. almost two million acres harvest gone. and for the next crop, for the next harvest. so an entire year's woth of food is gone. so we are in a desperate we need $175 million just for the next three months to keep peopleac live. t s stage, we've got about 40%. so we really are grateful to be here to let thepeople aroun the world know that we need help, and we need it now. >> naz: let me ask you about the u.s. response. the state department had a briefing yesterday. the u.s. ambassador to mozambique said so far the u.s. has donated about $fourth million worthf immediate goods. is that enough? do you need more. >> we will need more. and other countries a beginning to step up-- the university of north carolina, a german others. so we're hopeful. and the cyclone cameand gone, butlet damage is there. in today's worldl it's al about brexit, brexit, brexit, trump, trump, trump. i'm like whoa, we have people dying ovee here.
weyour help, and we need it now. we're hopeful but we need another $75 million just for the next three months. and then you've got the next nine months as we reconstruct, rebuild. because we still have children standing in water. the water was 33 feet high. rtain villages are jut completely gone. no electricity. malaria, cholera kicking so we're not out of the storm yet on this thing. a lot more work to be done. >> nawaz: there is also now a concern about a second we of disaster, right. there's the water-borne illnesses that often follow, seasonal illnesses, a cholera outbreak, malaria e utbreak. lks on the ground equipped to contain that? >> yes. we brought in immediately 100 of our best personnel. n have over 240 of our personnel on the ground spread throughout the country because w we're getting access. we're rebuilding roads. we brought in engineers. we're bringing in the ply,nicians for water sup electricity, the things that are necessary. but this is a massive area, a so without electricity, you can't get clean water in a lot
of these areas. malaria will kick in. cholera is already beginning toi di so we're doing everything we can to get the vac supplies, as well as trying rebuild the power structures, working with the u.n., as well as other countries in the region. >> nawaz: there's another parin of the worlhich your teams are on the ground and another worrying cholera outbreak theat, in yemen. four years of war there have just had unimaginable consequences for millions of people, mostly women and children. our own jane ferguson habeen on the ground reporting. she's been capturing some of these heartbreaking images of children caught in the middle and starving. what is keeping your teams onfr the groun being able to get the food and aid to these children? >> yemen is the eath's greatest catastrophe. literally, a nation of 30o million ple, 20 million people food insecure, 12 million people on the bri of starvation. and we are doing everything we can to get access we need the funding is now coming in to the degree we need. but access is a critical dynamic
and issue that we face every single da. there are people in harm's way, trying to get food out into the hinder lands where the people that need it. we say to all sides in this war, "don't let these innocent beople ictim to this conflicts." the only way you're going to solve the proem in yemen s end that war. it needs to be ended. >> nawaz: that access, i should mention, is because of the insecurity. the violence has been thescalating. saudi-led coalition air strikes continue. there were just two this morning. i want to ask you about this. the u.s. congress has taken an unprecedented step, the most serious step they've taken, they voted to end u.s. military assistance to thei- sad effort there, the war there. with the u.s. pulling on the, that will help you to do you job, to get the aid where it needs to go? >> well, we'll let the liticians make the political decisions about war and conflict. we say, look, do not let innocent people suffer as a result olf poics. there are children whose lives are in danger, children dying as we speak. give us the support, regardless of your politics. give us the support we need and
summit doesn't mean just money. it also means access. we have to have access, unimpeded access by all sides to make cerin that we keep people alive and give them a brighter future. >> nawaz: one other incredibly h yourituation in wh teams are on the ground in venezuela, a country already in trouble before. the power struggle, exacerbated conditions. you have severe shortes. a mass exodus of people. meanwhile, aid trucks are stuck at the border. do you have any any indication that your aid will be able to make its way in anyme soon? >> i wish we could talk about something good, but there's another country, a region in crisis. so we are summiting about half a llion people outside of venezuela for those who cross into columbia, ecuador, and other regions. and we aroe talkingw with both sides, hopeful to have the access we need to make certainen that the innchildren and people do not geit policized so that we can help support the people there. it is a-- it is a vey difficult
situation. but we're making, i hope, some headway. >> nawaz: you believe there could be some movement soon, the aid could make its way in? >> i hope so. >> sreenivasan: and that the power struggle you mentioned bere nicolas maduro and juanai do. >> we're talking to both sides. >> nawaz: david beasly of the world food programme, thank you very much for being here. ts woodruff: the united states is battling one ofargest measles outbreaks in decades with 465 cases confirmed natn- wide and 78 new cases in the last week alone. new york city has become a particular hotspot with 285 confirmed cases since last fall. f of those have been hospitalized, fiveem in intensive care. the outbreak there has centered in ultra-orthodox jewish communities in brooklyn where opposition to receivingcc
ations runs high. yesterday, new york city mayor bill de blasio declared a public health emergency requiring anyone who has not be vaccinated to receive one or face possible fines. for more on what the city is cing, i am joined by dr. oxiris barbot, commissioner of new york city's department of health and mental hygiene. dr. barbot, thank you very much for talking with l,. first of aring us up to date on the situation there in new york. >> so, as you mentioned, we currently have 285 individuals who have contracted the illness after having it declared eradicateeradicated in 2000. it's the largest outbreak that we've had since 1991. and with this public health emergency, we want new yorkers, especially those in brooklyn, williamsburg, to take seriously the fact that measles has significant consequences, and
it's presentsible. >> woodruff: so an emerwagency ordenecessary in your view. >> yes. you know, and n'e didtake this decision lightly. we started working with the communities in terms of excluding children who were exposed to measles from schools, and that didn't do the trick. we worked with schools in terms of issuing notices of violations, and even-- and most importantly, we worked with the community todispel any myths and undo aniv negor wrong information they had because they'd gotten it from anti-vaccine communities. and so, we did see that since the beginning of the outbreak, we have been able to get overw 8,000 rkers in that community and one other that have high numbers vaccinated. and so we see that eas posit proof that our efforts are working. but the reality is that people are still getting the measles,
and there's edre that we ne to do. >> woodruff: what about since you issued this order yesteay e, people complying now? >> you know, i think it's too early to tell. and we have certainly had a lot of inquiries about how we're going to enforce it, what people should do, and, you know, the most important thing that we want people to kw is that we will work with any and all individuals who have concerns, questions about want vaccine's safety, to reassure them that i the vacci safe. we want to make it easy for people to be vaccinate vaccinatn three days of being expe osed, beca don't want it to come to having to issue violations.ke we want new yo, especially those in williamsburg, to get vaccinated and feel good about getting their children vaccinated. >> woodruff: well, that's what i wanted to ask you, because i know through tht community, there runs a strong belief against vaccitions. so how are you persuading them
that they're safe? >> we have beeworking with community-based organizations, health care providers in that community, and most importantlye faith-leaders. and in addition, we have taken out several ads in yiddish newspapers. dsave done robocalls to over 30,000 househ we have done direct mailings in yiddish to these households. and we have made offers of meeting with any and all groups to dispel any myths about the safety of the v.x., ando reassure them we want to make it easy to get the children vaccinated. because the reality is, measles is so incredibly contagious that we wao nt tximize the number of people vaccinated and feeling it. abo >> woodruff: are you prepared eye mean, first of all, how are you enforcing this? and i know there's a time limit. i think you said in stthe fir you expect this done in the next 48 hours or so.d but if peopl't comply, are
you prepared to require-- toop force to have vaccinations? >> so this order applies to individuals who develop measles or are exposed to individuals who have measles, and they, themselves, are found to be nonvaccinated. again, the emphasis is going to be to help them beome vaccinated within three days. and the reality is th if, indeed, someone, despite all of our eff torts, refus be vaccinated, then we will issue violations, which will be $1,000 for each instance. so, f r example, ia parent has a child who develops measles, they're unvaccinated, they refuse to beccinated, for every child they have, it will be $1,000. >> woodruff: and i read that jail time is part of this.ri is that? >> you know, we haven't talked about that. and, again, we wilevl aluate every situation on an individual
base, because the hasis here is to support parents in making well-informed decisions that are going to help keep their children safe and healthy, and beyond that, ensure that we maximize the number of individuals across the entire community that are immunized. because it'sanimpoto note that there are some individuals who can't get vaccinated. so, for example, infants younger than six months of age can't b vaccinated. and we have had situations where, unfortunately, there have en infants who have dveloped the measles, have ended up in the hospital, and have ended u needing care that really could have been prevented by individuals around them becoming vaccinated. >> woodruff: d oxiris barbot, who is the new york citm cosioner for health and mental hygiene, thank you. >> thank you.
>> wdruff: tonight european leaders are literally burning the midnight oil, trying to avoid an enomic catastrophe. it is past midnight in brussels, and 28 heads of government are negotiating whether to give the u.k. an extension on its departure from the e.u. >> there is some breaking news and nick schifrin has the story. ring atu.k. has been st a a deadline 48 hours from now, without an extension they would crash out of ofea the eur union amid warnings that that crash would cause a recession. justn the last few minutes, there's been word that there might be some breathing room. the negotiations are going on right now in brussels where we find amanda sloat, former deputy assistant secretary of state and way senior fellow brookings institution. we are getting word that an extension has been granted or at least the european europeans had on an extension until october 31. they're talking to the prime minister, theresa may, rht now. what more details do we have? and why octob 31?
>> that's correct. so it's almost 1:00 ere. leaders have been meeting for nearly seven hours wit may.eresa what we are hearing now is that they are prepared to offer an extension until october 31. the significancof that date is that is when thero new an commission will meet. french president emmanuel maclyn was certathe most hard line coming into these negotiations, and our und reports coming out of the room is that he was up against the vast majority of other membern statesrms of insisting on a short extension, whereas many of thers were sympathetic to a long extension. he had two primary focuses in terms of maintaining the integrity of the working of the e.u. institutions. the first requirement, adich the u.k.een prepared to meet, was to hold european parliament elections at the e of may if it hadn't reached an agreement until then. the secwond thing macron as quite focused on was wanting to ensure that the commission was able to function,n
particular, was talk about removing the british commissioner. so given what we are understanding from these relts, which as you saie now being presented to prime minister may, it seems that french president ma on in terms of getting a shorter extepsion, but perlightly longer than what he was initially hoping for. there's also an expectation that there will be a review mechanism in june to see whe ire the u.k.s in terms of having held these u.k. elections and whether it is on tra to leave by the end of october. >> schifrin: let's zoom out a little bit here for people just to understand this moment. we had this deadline, 48 hours from nofr, warning the i.msm p.f. that there would be a two-year recession, least, if the british crashed out. bottom line it's british wilol not cras on friday, but they still don't know what ngbrexit is exactly goio be. there is still no agreement from the british side yet, is there? >> absolutely. an extension is simply a delay. it is not a deal. and soll the chge now is still, as it has always been,
for the u.k. toreach an agreement. theresa may had announced last week that she was going to begin holding cross-party talks with labor leader jeremyorbyn. those talks have been continuing. they do not appear to be going partularly well in ter of moving tornadoes an agreement. if they do reach agreement, the question is going to be whether it will hold and be ratified by both of their parties. if that dsn't succeed, theresa may says she will have a party hold a series of votes in appearing various options on the way forward, two seies of indicative votes and still is no closer to reaching majority agreement. >> schifrin: we lost you just for a second there. just to zoom in.er a may is talking to jeremy corbyn, the labor leader bwhat kind of brexit that they could agree on. theye trying to make an agreement on two main things-- ed softer brexit, some kind of staying inside the european customs union. and ming up with possibly second referendum. is there any sign of compr fise on thndamental fact that
the brits still have to agree on what form of exit will be? in>> i thit's going to remain quite complicated. the two leaders seem to be having negotiations in good faith, but te problem is that there are splits within both of their partin . jeremy cors long been advocating a softer brexit in cirms of continued partion in the customs union. this is going to be anathema to the had brexits in theresa may's party as well as her mainstream members. the secondary issue will be the second refendum. jeremy corbyn himself is not super enthused about this. there is splits in the party tween those whon't support him if he does and those who won't support him if he doesne . estion will be what sort of compromise agreement can they reach? ll it just be a customs union, a customs union with the secon referendum? even they can reach agreement between the two leaders will what they produce have enough votes tually gain majority support in material?
>> sreenivasan: amanda sloat, we'll have to leave is there, former state department brookings senior fell oh, thank you very much. >> woodruff: finally tonight, highligh music.ew voice in folk j.s. ondara was inspired by bob dylan as a teenager in nariobi, kenya. and nearly a decade later, he'sh now living iu.s. and is out with his first album this spring. we caught up with him as he kicked off a tour at the songbyrd cafe, in washington, s part of our ongoing ar and culture series, "canvas." ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ >> i knew that i wand to be a folk singer when i was about 17
years old and discovered folk music through bob dylan. my name is j.s. ondara and i'm a folk singefrom kenya. i was born in nairobi, kya. i'd grown up listening to all these rock songs and i was familiar with th song, "knockin' on heaven's door," and i was quite confident it was a guns n' roses song. and i was having this fight with a friend who said it was by this guy called bob dylan and i was like, no, it's not. so we made a bet and i lost the bet, but by losing the bet i discovered dylan and fell into this rabbit hole of folk music.
coen i was 17 and i found folk music and made thicience al, dream really to move to america and try to find a career as a folk singer, i tried everything to try to make that happen. you know, i appliefor schools, i applied for jobs and nothing really worked for years. i came tamerica through the green card lottery. with this card you can be resident in america, you can move to america, you can settle in the country and have a life there. when that happened it randomly felt as though it was some kind of manifestation of destiny. with this record, tales of
america, contemplating about the times that we are in in america. contemplating about how i fit as an immigrant in the times in america.yo know, contemplating about the american dream.at oes it mean for someone who's no does that contrast to the actual experience of being a resident in america? ♪ ♪ ♪ and so i hope in some way to breathe life to the idea of the
american dream because perhaps it's something that people are losing faith in. i hope in some fashion that through the life and through the tales to rejuvate this idea, and not just for americans, but i think for people all around the world. ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ ♪ >> and thank you. ( applause ) >> woodruff: beautiful music reminding us again that music rehes all the way arnd the world. and that's the newshour for tonight.oo i'm judyuff. join us online and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and see you on.
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hello,everyone, and welcome to amanpour and company. here's what's coming up. as israel votes, egypt's president goes to the white house and strong men rule across in africa. we speak to former british ambassador and the "new york times" reporter who wrote a defining account of the arab spring. also ahead,re as pdent trump purges top homeland security officis, i ask former counter terrorism and security czar richard clarke about the impact. >> plus. >> deep in myn heart, w see this landscape, i think there is a problem. >> the effect of climate cnge aker t down with the fil and mountain year david