tv PBS News Hour PBS April 17, 2019 3:00pm-4:01pm PDT
captning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woouff: good evening, i'm judy woodruff. on the newshour tonight, one on one with john bolton. we speak with the national security advisor about the trump administration's new sanctions on cuba and more.e n, 20 years after the massacre at columbine high school, what we have learned about mass tragedy in the decades since then. plus, the tourist boom at the bottom of the world. sightseeing trips to antarctica anve taken off, but the surge may add stress tlrady delicate ecosystem. >> antarctica is really the world's last gre's wilderness. continent that is for nature, and i think that's a really important symbol, because so many other places where human civilization has spread to, we have des >> woodruff: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour.
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engagement, and the ement of international peace and security. at carnegie.org. >> and with the ongoing support these institutions: and individuals. >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public bbyadcasting. anontributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: investigan france are pushing for answers tonight in the fire that gutted notre dame cathedral. meanwhile, the push to rebuild has already raised nearly $1ll n, but there are questions about just how fast is feasiblea
o'brien of independent television news has the latest from paris. >> reporter: president macron has come close to staking his presidency on the renovation of e notre dame being complet five years to coincide with the olympics in paris in 2024. after a cabinet meeting today,e ime minister acknowledge the challenges of a five year. time sca >> this is obviously a huge challenge,n historic responsibility. the building endeavor of this generation and for the lonerations that will f france sup to the challenge. the state will be up to the challenge. the mobilization has already started, and this was the focus of tday's council of >> reporter: he went on to say that france would invite arlditects from around the w to submit designs for a new spire to replace the one that fell on tuesday fire.
the company is run by julian le the investigators inside this building all asking the question why did the fire start. as part of that, they'rerv inwing contractors who are walking on the renovation at the cathedral and of particular interest will be the company walking at the base of the famous spire where the fire was most intense. the company is run by julian labrath, his company won the $5 million dee company's corporate vio shows him talking to his staff about the project at time. yesterday, outside the cathedral, he said he was cooperating with investigators and that none of his esiloyees were o when the fire started. >> we want more than anyone else to shed light on th origin of this tragedy.
>> reporter: more details are also emerging about what happened immediately before the fire took hold. a 6:20 tuesday evening, the first fire alarm went off but flames couldn't be located at the time then, 20 minutes later, a second fire alarm was sounded at about a quartero 7:00. soon after that, thelames e completely out of control. today, firefighters today, firefighters confirmed that they were on the scene in less than 10 minutes and explained how close it had come to the entire structure collapsing. >> the fire was spreading near the bell and all the supporte g beams ooeden. if the fire reached the wooden structure, the tower lould have best. from the moment we lost the wers, we would lose the cathedral. of reporter: in the compan heroes, one stood out, the firefighters chaplain, who knows all about storming the gates of hell. during the bataclan terrorist attacks, he also ran in to minister to those dying.
on tuesday night, rushed into the cathedral to rescue the sacraments. >> we had a vision of what hell would look like with cas cascadf fi i'm alone in the cathedral with this atmosphere of fire, burings things, fallingom the roof, i performed a blessing and asked jesus save his house. >> reporter: this evening, at the same time as the fire took hold on tuesday, cathedral bells ran out across europe to remember the 2019 fire of notre dame.f: >> woodrhat report from paraic o'brien of independent television news. in the day's other news, u.s. atrney general william bar has called a news conference for tomorrow morning, 9:30 eastern time, to make public some of the special counsel's russia report. it's to be a redacted version, leaving out grand jury testimony and classified information, among other things. president trump says he may also take questions about the report, after its release.
"the new york times" reports justice department officials and white house laers have already had several conversations about what's in the report. the associated press reports tonight north korea has test fire a new tactical guide weapon. kim jong un called thst an event of very weighty significance. the move comings days after u.s., south koreanand north korean leaders have said they are willing to hold moremm s to resolve the ongoing forel crisis. prident trump the president has vetoed congress' attempt to end u.s. involvement in the war in yemen. lawmakers had argued that a udi-led bombing campaign has killed thousands of civilians and worsened a humanitarian crisis. the president said the resolution would weaken his constitutional authority. the u.s.-backed government in afghanistais under fire for its treatment of war prisoners.
a united natio report says one-third of captured taliban fighters, and others, have been tortured or mistreated the worst conditions are at prisons in kandahar prince, a taliban stronghold. in indonesia, the incumbt president appears to have won a second term in today's election. joko widodo's victory is a boost for moderate forces over ultra- nationalist and islamist groups. widodo's suppoers celebrated the news in jakarta this evening, and they voiced hope for social and economic progress. >> ( translated ): today'suick count result showed that widodo is leading but no matter who is elected later i hope he will help to bring indonesia forward, reduce the unemployment rate and national debt. i hopeor the best for this country. >> woodruff: more than 20,000 legislative seats were also up for grabs in the election. the latest change in u.s. asyluy poas immigration and civil liberties activists vowing to
sue. g attorneral william barr has ordered that asylum-seekersb will no longreleased on y nd while their cases are pending, even if tow a credible fear of returning home. the ruling does not affe families or children who arrive without parents. meantime, the government of germany is imping rules that make it harder for failed asylum seekers to avoid deportation.mo th focuses on people who have exhausted all legal avenues to obtain asylum. those who receive asylum in other e.u. countries, but try settling in germany, will also be denied benefits. and, on wall street, the dow jones industrial average lost three points to close at 26,449. the nasdaq fell four points, and the s&p 500 was down six. still to come on the newshour: sitting down with u.s. national security advisor john bolton. remembering the tredy at
columbine high school, 20 years later. the u.s. military expands its drone operations in africa, and much more. >> woodruff: as we mentioned earlier, the administration announced a major shift in u.s. policy towards cuba today, part of increased pressure on u.s. adversaries in latin america. american citizens will now be able to sue businesses in cuba operating on land confiscated by the castro regime, which seized power in 1959. 23-year-old law known as "helms-burton" alltsed such lawsbut three previous u.s. presidents refused to tllow the law e effect. national security advisor john bolton was in miami, florida today, to make the official announcement. s and our niifrin spoke to
him earlier today. >> ambassador john bolton, welcom"nback to the ewshour". today you announced lifting -- american ability sue over property confiscated by castro's gime. in the past years, president obama and president clinton maintained the units, why areu ifting them? >> secretary pompeo, mnuchin and others looked at. this we concluded fundamentally that the intent of the framers h lms-burton to give justice to americans whose propey had been confiscated was a good purpose and that this was the time to do it. so recognizing other presidents didn't want to do it, we proceeded, as president trump has, other presidents didn't want to move the american embassy in israel to jerusalem, but we did that.
i could go on with the list.th k this is clearly the right thing to do. justice for americans whot property wase bin the castro regime is long overdue. >> european allies i talked to in the last day said this publicly they are concerned that these are effectively secondary sanctions on eursean compan to do business in cuba and latin america staffers from george w. bush's national security council and h.r. mcmasters staff, your predecessor, told me this opens a pandora's box of lawsuits, could gum up the courts, may paen drag in comes you're not intending to target. how do you respond to those criticisms of republican former staffers and u.s. al >> i think they're badly mistaken. with respect to our allies, we have been engaged i diplomatic conversations for a substantial period of time here. e think we've ma clear by the way secretary pompeo broe ht down thwaiver period from six months to 45 dayto days, everybody was on notice that
this was coming. nobody shoulutbe surprised abo it. it's not a question of secondary sanctions, it's a question of who gets to take advantage ofca stolen ameproperty. i can't wait for the lawsuits when these companies get up and say, but we should continue to benefit from the stolen property without having to pay compensation for the lossethat ericans have undertaken. and as for gumming up the courts, listey mguess is that, for major american companies, major european companies, there may wbe lawsuits filed and settled out of court, that's often the natupo of complex cote litigation. >> you said today that the "monroe don strick" is alive and well. even u.s. allies you're working closely with especially in regards venezuela consider that language a kind of cloak for u.s. ianerventio as one put it, imperial arrogance in the western hemisphere. do you understand why even u.s. allies might bristle at some of
that language? >> well, i tnk many u.s. allies in this region, in this hemisphere, those clost to us, welcome the u.s. leadership here under president trump to keep foreign powers from extendingth r influence, particularly in venezuela, which is what i was referring to when i saithe monroe doctrine is alive and well. it's intended to throw a shield around th hmisphere. it's worked for a long time, and i think it's an impctortant ne to keep in mind as we work for the objective that president trump h eks here, whs the first completely free hemisphere in human history. 're not embarrassed by that. >> what do you say to those people who call it imperialist? >> you know, the united states has never been an imperialist power. we're not starting now.nt what we s to prevent others with imperialist aimsv from taking antage of weakness of the corruption and thortain nature of the chaz
regimes in venezuela. that's what we had in mind. >> reporter: russia has i intervenn venezuela in the last couple of weeks. a ship of security services sent to venezuelto prop up maduro and to send a message to the u.s. it can't intervene in the bern hemisphere. what message are you trying to sendy csidering u.s. military options, for example, conducting navigation operations and visiting ports near venezuela? >> well, i not going to get into any specifics. president trump has been clear right from the outset in venezuela that all options are on the table, and we're not going to talk about what we might do, or not going tok tal about what we might not do. it's for maduro to worry about wh the united states is capable of, and it's also to make it clear, we value the protection of the 40 to 45,000 american citizens in venezuela. we don't want to see any har come to them. the fact is i think, with respect to russia, china ande
others, re already hedging their bets in venezuela. they've done certain things that we object to, but i think they understand, if they're not careful and there is a peacefuln transif power to juan guaido ad the opposition, that they need to watch how they behave and their actions with respect to maduro, or their very sucetantial debts they've f on the maduro government could be in jeopardy. that's something they need to chink about, i believe. >> i want to sw little bit to north korea. the president th other day used the phrase "a step by step approach" when it comes to north koreer help me unand this, what steps does north korea have to take in order fo the u.. to take reciprocal steps and whatt woulse reciprocal steps be? >> i think this is a very familiar part of american foign policy. we need to see the strategic decision and the conduct necessary to eliminate north korea's nuclear and ballistic missile programs. this is a subject that
president trump and south korean president moon jae-in discussed extensively when president moon was at the white house last week. it's something that we're ormmitted so. we've seen north not come lerward and accept what the president has ca"the big deal," but that possibility relanes maines outhere, and it's why the president is still willing to he a third summit with kim jong un. >> you used the phrase strategii de, then the big deal. so, obviously, you are inspecting north korea to give major -- expecting north korea to give major concession up front before th u.s. makes concessions, relieves oanction. soyour allies in south korea say that's not going to work, that there needs to be, as the president himself said, a step by step approach. wh's wrong with making a small step and asking north korea to p?ke a small ste >> the president made it clear the's not going to follow negotiation strategies that have failed in the past, so he has
shown to the north koreans first entlyngapore and more rec in hawaii the kind of economic future that could be in store , for north kor they take the decision to give up their nuclear weapons. that door remains open. the president, as i say, is perfectly prepared to have a third summit. so now i think we'iting on north korea to see if they're willing to take advantage of the president's offer. >> to extend the metaphor, why should north korea trust the united states? why should they, so to speak, walk through the door and know you won't slam it hind the >> well, i think president trump showed how determined he is to try and get to the big al by his decision to walk away from a bad deal in hanoi. so, really, the potential is there. i don'know how predent trump can be more forthcoming in his efforts to have a good relationship with kim jong un. he sends him pictures, he sendse him l, happy birthday to kim jong un's grandfather on hia
birthday oril 15th. really, this has been a full-court press by the president, and we'll wait to see what kim jong un does. >> ambassador john bolton, national security advisor. thank you very much for yo >> thank you. >> woodruff: and a news update on the north korean test claim we reported arlier, u.s. officials are telling the "newshour" that they do not believe anylathing wanched in the air. instead, they believe thatko north a conducted a test on the ground. north korea maintains a robust missile and nuclear program. >> woodruff: with the 20th anniversary of the columbinema high schooacre days away, that school and hundreds of other denver schools, were closed today due to "credible" threats by an 18-year-old woman. today, law enforcement officials
say the woman was found dead from an apparent suicide. in a moment, lisa desjardins will speak with two people whose lives were profoundly altered bd the tr but first, we hear from some survivors di in the upcoming rocky mountain pbs documentary "ripples of lumbine," many are still struggling with physical andio emotl scars. bi i was a senior when col happened i saw one of my friends die and everyone else shot around me. >> my name is heather martin and i was a senior in ic99. i was baed in the choir office. there were 60 of us in there for out three hours. >> i'm frank deangelis, former principal of columbine high school >> my name is maci hall. i was in the colbine high hool library. >> my name is lance strickland. i was shot five times atmb coe high school. ou somewhere 35 surgeries
that first year or two years felt like i was getting surgery every other month. i was having something done just got to a point in 2001 where i fod out i was going to be dad and was trying to pay my own bills. live out on my own it was too much at that time mentally and physically to keep up with surgeries so i stopped. >> i don't remember freshman or sophomore year, or junior year, don't remember graduating, i remember columbine, i mean definitely there is survivor guilt which i felt i still feel its palpable it's real why didn't i put myself in front of gun. instead why didn't i roll my body over lauren why didn't iwi pull gina ou me, more of like a punishment because i
wasn't injured i was angry at god upset why am i still alive? why didn't i get hurt? why am i still here? g >> into this cycle where it was on repeat all i could think about is how bad it was for me, how horrifying it was, images of the shooting were pretty clear, the violence of it, seeing people maimed and hurt and dead those things took a while for them to leave i was very depressed very angry couldn't get over the fact that i'd gone through something and i
felt the world owes me something. >> desjardins: joining me to talk about the lasting impact oa that horrifi coni sanders father david sanders died in the shooting. he was a business teacher and coach of two sports at the school. he was the only adult killed, as he ran through the school warning students to flee. and david cullen, covered the shooting as a reporter and spent ten years writing a book about ot, entitled "columbine." thank you to youfor joining us. coni, i want to start with you. it's been 20 years since thisoo ng and, today, you were under police protection because of a threat from a potential shooter. i want to know, what are your thoughts this week about the shooting? >> we fully expected that there would be some threats. this is the sad price that we've paid over the la, st 20 yeae fascination with columbine has led us to a sad reality that this type of thing is going to
happen, and i was grateful forw nforcement's willingness to help me feel a little bit more safe until the resolution of that event. >> how is the community handling this annryiverconi? >> i think that the community is peful that we are headed to something different, that afteri 20 years of t about that day, we're really looking forward to our ceremony on saturday, that we're calling a recommitment and tryin turn april 20th into a day whereth community does access service and really look forward to how we can take columbine from being a tragedy to being something everybody can learn from. but, you know, at the end, it's still a very, very difficult time for a lot of us. >> david, you were there. what were your memories of that e y, especially through ns r 20 years later? >> there were onorts of injuries, and i sort of apoll
jetcally called an editor i worked with and said its probably nothing but i'm going out there, and i didn't know where it was. i knew the general direction and drove in that direction. when i saw the helicopter circling to the south, that's when first my stomach clinched. i was, like, wow, this is horrible, and then i just drove toward those helicopters. >> it was different at that time, right? because no one expected students to have died, and police wereso waiting for one to turn emselves in. >> completely, they surrounded the building. there was an intesting phenomenon, i got there in the first hour and i was at a place called the col where parents were told to rendezvous and the kids were mostly there and everybody was talking about what might happen and they kept opping their sentences. i realized there was a weird moratoum and unspoken understanding no one was going to say the word death or ah clude to the fat someone might have died, and it became obvious
when one mom sidf they find those killers -- ando she stpped in mid sentence, and thrirp dirty looks all around, like, don't hu dare say tat out loud. i was, like, wow. so no one wanted to accept the idea that this might actually be murder, and i wouldn't go there myself in my head. i wasn't sure it was going to be murder until 4:00 when the sheriff announced them and the world kind of changed, and that's when the world did change beca e we weren't readyto accept anything this horrific, even the people there. and i don't know, coni, about at your house, but at the library, i'm curious, i know you gatherem with yom, but no one was going to that place. >> cony, what was going on at your house? >> i remember my employer, somebody i was working with drove me home and i couldn't figure out whthey'd need to drive me home. everyone knew it was significant but me, that immediate denial. when i got to my mother's house,
i walked in and everyone wa on their niece in front of the tv because the helicopters, the media, they were zooming in on the school, and we saw people running out without their shirts . it wasn't till later we found out those were the students that were using thetoir clothinry to stop dad's bleeding. and then they zoomed in on a sign that was in the window that said, one bleeding to death, and i just remember my mom being so upset and sayaning, i believe -- i mean, that poor student. and it wasn't until later we found out that sign was written for dad. even at our house, nobody would acknowledge that mbe he was dead. my mom kept saying he was hiding somewhere in theschool and, although we suspected he would not be hiding aywhere in the school because that was not part of his character, we had heard that he was st in the foo and we had heard that he was transported to a hospital. went to those hospitals. it wasn't until the next day that he was confirmed to be
dead. >> coni, i'mo sorry for you and your family that you went through this, and i also find i remarkable what you've done with your life. you are a therapist who works with those who may have viont tendencies, trying to divert them from violence. i'm wondering whot your thughts are from both sides of this problem. what do you think it is that iggers this kind of violence and what can prevent it? >> i thi a sense of hopelessness is one of the key factors in people becvioming ent, whether it be violence towards themselves or violence towards others. one of the things we've learned is support is so important in any person's life, because if they have a support system, there's somebody to notice that they just hopped on a plane from florida. there's somebody to notice that this person is shop aping f gun. dave, you know, some people also talk about the amount of shootings that have happened since col "the washington post" found it amazing to me, nearly 200,000
american students havesc experienced aool shooting since columbine. you have kept in touchi wth columbine survivors and families like coni. i'm wondering what you have learned about the way this trauma lives 20 years later. what does it look like? >> last april, ent to columbine a couple of times and stayed with one of the english teachers -- i hope it's okay with me saying thiswas staying at his house. ihen i landed just before the anniversary, i weno a text saying i'm going to be a little late, i was in a ntr acci and i'm okay. he was, like, oh, my god. then i talked to his wife who i know well the next morning and he said he's in an april fog. his car sat there about three days in his driveway because he didn't want to deal with it. so it lingers and manifts in weird ways that you wouldn't expect. >> coni, iant to finish this
interview talking about your dad. he is someone -- he ran into the cafeteria. he did not flee the scene. st ran into the cafeteria and warned hundreds odents who were in the path of the gunmen, saved those lives. he didn't leave with them. instead, he went further into the school to warn more students, and that's whehe was killed. what do you want people to know about your dad >> i want people to know that hn wa ordinary yet traordinary person all at the same time, and it amazes me howu many people into that were inspired by him while he was alive that, although he saved hundreds of kids from that cafeteria that day, and we only' have 12 studeames to read because of him, he was a wonderful dad to myself and my sisters. he was an incredible grandpa. he was a great husband. he's just -- he was just a goo
person. he loved to influence students and young athletes and get people to help turn their lives around if they were struggling, and i try to carry on that legacy by helping pele who are struggling in their own lives that need support and kind of need a coach thasays, hey, i understand that life is hard, what do you need right now? do you need a hug? do you need somebody to talk to? and, o, r and over aga hear from people that were students of his for4 years, he was a teacher, and so many of them have talked about how he influenced them and he encouraged them, and i just want everybody to tfe a part o david sanders with them and just move forward with kindness. >> i feel certain our viewers will take that piece of your dad with them. coni sanders and david culn, thank you both.
>> woodruff: stay with us, comi up on the newshour: the environmental cost of tourisin antarctica. plus, steve martin and martin short give tir brief but spectacular take on success in show business. over the past several years, the united states military increaser itence and broadened its mission in africa.e one plere that expansion is best seen is niger, part of what's known as the "sahel" region of africa. the u.s. air force has built ahu new base there, from which it launches drone aircraft.bu as in other hot spots where drones fly, in niger those operations areontroversial. special correspondent mike cerre was grand rare access to the base. >> as shocking of the deaths of four soiers ambhed in niger in 2017 was the revelation that
nearly 800 american military personnel are stationed in niger. siondrone watching the mi from above was not armed. they are now, and u.s. is expanding its drone operations in niger. the deserts parating north africa from west africa can be forbidding. but for ugglers, human traffickers and, more recently, n-state terrorist organizations, the remote expanses can also be inviting for moving fighters pod wea freely through the region. much to the concern of genal thomas walhauser, the commander of the u.s. forces in afica. >> one way to character niger would be is they have been a good partnerdn a very, very ba neighborhood. >> agadaz, agadez, the traditnal desert crossroads and trading outpost in central niger is about to become t new hub of expanding the u.s. military's drone operations in the african nation. here in the middle of the desert
is where the u.s. is constructi its newest drone base, now that more drone missions are originating out of africa than the middle east. estimated cost, $110 million and counting. the decision to build the base was made more than five years ago, while making mali was under siege. according to ambassador to niger, eric whitaker. >> i think it's in our interest to help a willing patners such as niger to fight them here watrather than forced to fight >> reporter: there are no flags or signs at this heavily fortified sert base outside of agadez, niger. the pentagon simply refers to it as "base 201." when it's completed by the end of the year, it will be the largest installation ever built by air f military's newest outpost in the fight against a variety of extre use the desert to smuggle weapons and people into west africa. >> you have boko haram and
groups coming down from libya into mali, the and other groups come down from libya into northern mali that whole border with algeria is a problem for the government of niger. >> reporter: the u.s. has been operating drone miotions out of r base in niger's capital since 2013. and the c.i.a. is also believed to be using another drone base in northern niger. buthe military wants to consolidate its drone operations at this w base that is both at this new base with less commercial air traffic restrictions and closer to the terrorist threats in africa's sahel region south of the sahara connecting west africa with central >> starting up from nearly nothing in the middle of sub- saharan africa is daunting. >> reporter: major conner riley is in charge of the air force runway construction crew, currently doing a six month tour of duty working days and nights, as dictated by the extreme heat,
dust storms, delays in heavy equipment repairs and having to locally source gravel and asphalt. this 6,000 foot runway is for the drones flying around the clock missions, as well as for the much-larger supply planes inbound from europe that are a the base's lifeline for everything from new personnel and spare parts to fresh food and ma >> you're in such a logistically isolated pla the middle of a country that's twice the size of texas and it's all dirt roads to get to the next bicity. >> reporter: like most construction projects, this one is well over budget and schedu but they've had to deal with some unique contingencs. the air force won't say how many drones like these will be based here. like other u.s. drone operations, once airborne, they will be controlled by pilots two continents away back in the
u.s., conducting the missions by remote control. >> drones have been flying in niger really since 2013. that decision was made years ago with regards to the ability to provide intelligence to the sahel countries and with regards to our ability as the united states to take a look at the threats that were forming in that part of the sahel. have the groups involved here such as i.s.i.s. and al quaida are franchises, and they have spread from one country to the other. >> it's legitimate threat but also an exaggerated threat. terrorism is nothe greatest national security threat the niger faces. it really is povey and internal corruption. >> sally booker is also concerned about the new base being a magnet forn icreased terrorist activities in the area. h >> that makes it very mu target for those who would oppose a u.s. interest, but also those who may be opposed to the nigerian government who can use the presence of the u.s. as
target to try to undermine the government. >> while construction is still underway this year, major kyle yates' security atachment is responsible for protecting the american personnel and equipment, but it will be up to the nigerian forces to protect the base once completed. >> we do training and engagements with them on a daily basis. that's really just to make sure that we can operate with them on the same page. >> because it is sisolated, base 201's first line of defense depends on the acceptance andth protection o local community, something military civil affairsvereservists been cultivating with tribal leaders and the locals by helping them with solar powered war wells and other humanitarian missions. most of the locals we wee able to speak with independent of the government and military said they are hopinthe new base can make up for the economic fallout from niger's and the e
union's recent clamp down on the lucrative human smuggling trade to europe. >> i think it'san verygerous blurring of the lines when the pentagon and the u.s. miitary start getting involved in the development activities in africa. it's public relations, as theyd, acknowledge, aes, it may benefit a particular village, but that is not a developmentgy strahat's going to succeed in addressing the crushing poverty that niger faces. >> welcome. this is about how all the rooms are that we live in. >> afor the more than 300 servicemen and women stationed here in this air conditioned tent city for six months at a stretch without any r&rs, the air force is shipping inall the food and flying in fresh produce fromurope. >> may family knows i'm in africa. they have no clue where i am. i prefer not to tell them because you see stuff on the news and surroundings countries, et cetera, and there's no need to worry them.
>> the u.s. is financing and building base 201 under a th10-year lease agreement niger and the base ult implunges to the nigerians, fore howelong the american military is thee tnant. for the "pbs newshour," mike saray near agdez, niger. >> woodruff: now, to our continuing series "warnings from antarctica." it was the last of theeven continents to be discovered, and it wasn't until the late 1950's miat any tourist ever visited. but now, it's be a popular destination. william branghamnd producers mike fritz and emily carpeaux traveled there and have this report on how tourism has thus far shown little impact on antatica's pristine vironment, but why there is also growing concern about the influx of more and more people. >> brangham: welcome to the
tourist boom at the bottom of the world. it's a front row seat to a remarkable show: majestic humpbackhales, frolicking fur seals, an army of rious, charming penguins. all that, framed by a backdrop that defies description. nothing but miles of mountains, glaciers and icebergs as far as the eye can see. the icy continent of antarctica "hot"-- a record 50,000 people came last year. g.q. magazine recent said "now is the time to go." the "new york times" said, "forget times squa, ring in the new year right here."at >> the mtraction of the area is just, it's a place where people are irrelevant. people just don't count. you're coming here purely as a visitor. >> brangham: david mcgal has led over 120 trips te antarctica foocean expeditions, a
canadian tour company promotin"" environmentally-conscious travel." these are trips where the scenery comes with equ helpings of science and history. this is definitely not budget. trav it's about 12 to $20,000 per person for this two week cruise: that includes kayaking, hiking, and motor boat excursions by day, white tablecloth meals and lectures from scientists and naturalists by night. mcgonigal's job is to keep the roughly 140 passengers, who have come from around the world, safe and satisfied. >> some people are just down here for the history, and so you've got to nd some historical elements to deliver. some people just want wildlife. some people are really just down here for the ice. now it's a matter of juggling that all around and then trying to pull together a plan.>> rangham: the journey starts at the southern tip of south
americ infamous drake passage, home to some of the roughest seas known to man. two days later, the ship finallh crosseantarctic circle, one of the southernmost latitudes on earth. >> this sort of place, it deepens your understanding of the world, but also of yourself. >> brangham: hermione and jon hern made the trip from no england. she's a child and family therapist, he's an anglican priest. >> the beauty of it, and we wanted to come and see it, either before it disappeared or we disappeared >> we are probably spending more on this holiday than we've spent on our holidays in our entire lives. >> brangham: is that right? >> i think so. y >> branghauf hashim retired almost 20 years ago. he was a marketing director for shell oil in malaysia. he convinced nearly 50 of his iends and family to join him on this trip. what are you doing here on the bottom of the earth?
>> spending my children's inheritance. >> brangham: they know this is happening? >> yeah, that's one of them over there. got my daughter here as well, so it's bonding time. each time i come here, i've been here four times now, i will never tire of looking at icebergs and penguins and the scenery. it makes it all worth living. >> brangham: in addition to all the wildlife, the ship visits historic sites, like this abandoned british scientific base from the 1950s, as well asc ve bases: 11 scientists from ukraine work and live here year roun and the tourists can sample thea homemade whisk with glacial ice at one of the southernmost drinking holes in the world. visitingntarctica until latively recently was a trip no human had ever made. >> it's absolutely incredible that our seventh continent, our newest continent, was discovered less than 200 years ago, changing what we understand about the globe today.
>> brangham: katie murray is a polar historian who works for e ocean, teaching visito about the earliest antarctic explorers: like britain's james cook, or the ill-fated race to the south pole between robert falcon scott and roald amundsen, or perhaps the most famous antarctic adventure story: ernest shackleton's dramatic" endurance voyage" several yrs later. we talked to murray in theat ship's movie t: >> it's quite incredible actually that 100 years after the heroic age, just over 100 years since scott and the lar party died on their return fromn the south poleyou've got these great stories of endurance and suffering, we can now come to antarctica effectively for fun. >> brangham: this record number of tourists coming here has been growing steadily since the 1980's when just a few thousand made the trip every year.
>> when the soviet union collapsed, the soviet fleet of ice-strengthened vessels became available and people realized they could actually charter those and bring those down. that was what started the whole rush in the 1990s. >> brangham: today, more and more tour companies are rolling out new fleets of luxury ships capable of navigating these icy waters. the arrival of more and more visitors to antarctica is also leading to concerns about their impact on this priecine ystem: >> antarctica is really the world's last great wilderness. there's no permanentonuman populahere. it's a continent that is for nature, and i think that's a really important symbol, because so many other places where human civilization has spread to, we have destroyed the environment. >> brangham: claire christian is the executive director of the antarctic and southern ocean coalition, a washington, d.c. based advocacy group. she believes tourism has so far been a force for good, galvanizing people to care about a continent that is thousands of
miles from home. right now, tourists only visit the antarctic peninsula,ecause it's the most accessible and most scenic part of thehr continent, buttian notes: it's also a region stressed by toimate change. how many more vi can the region handle? >> so right now there we may not be able to see a lot of effectse but if you sy have a sharp increase in the number of people who are visiting a small colony every day, that might start to have an impact. >> brangham: remember: antarctica has no government. no nation runs this place and currently, all tour groups are governed by a strict, but voluntary, set of regulations. for example: only one ship at a time is allowed at designated sites. there are rules about how many people can go ashore, and how close they can g to wildlife. one ocean expeditions mandates all tourists vacuum and clean their gear before going ashore, so no foreign seeds or dirt end up on land.
all returning gear gets a similar scrub every day. but invasive species have already taken hold. this moss is from the arctic, a trace amount somehow made the 12,000 mile trip. and there are also concerns about wildlife: two of the three penguin species on the peninsula are in decline, researchers believe its being driven in part by a warming environment. given that, are all these human visitors an added stress? you see all that reddish brown material on the ground behind ? that's all penguin guano, or penguin poop.no only does it give this whole area a unique aroma, but scientists have been measuring the stressmones that are released into the guano at places where tourists sh up, d where tourists never go, and for the penguins, so far at least, it doesn't seem that the presence of tourists are causing them any problems. andrea raya rey is a nanservation biologist based in ushuaia, argenti, a city where
the bulk of all antarctic tourism begins. ya rey says that while tourism is showing little impact thus far, she worries about the estimated 40% grstth in the in. >> tourism puts an extra pressure on the ecosystem. one ship, it's okay. two, okay, three. but 10 at the same time pointing at them? it's stressful. >> brangham: is also a concern shared by those within thery tourism indu >> it's going to be more a matter of just, how do you manage the numbers when there's just nowhere left to go and u've got more ships comi down. >> brangham: as for visitors liey jon and hermione roff, feel incredibly lucky to have seen the wonders of antarctica up close. but they admit that they are worried about their own impact. >> there is a growth of tourism that does leave a mark, however careful we are, it leaves a mark.
it's a very difficult balance, i'm really thrilled that we've come. i hope not too many more peoplec wie, you know? >> brangham: for now though, there is no sign this tourist boom is slowing.th fopbs newshour, i'm william brangham on the antarctic peninsula. an>> woodruff: steve marti martin short met more than thir years ago on the set of and according to them, the legendary comedians have been nearly inseparable ever since. they sat dowwith brief but spectacular host steve goldbloom to talk about their latest touring special, "w you see them, soon you won't." >> this is a standard now on all the interviews. the moving sideways camera. >> yeah. >> but i always find it odd toeo cut to s who's not, who'd be talking into camera. >> but you know, you've always struggled. remember when you struggled with the talkies when the talkies came in rows.
>> can't i just make my face? >> i had to work on my voice. >> now don't keep looking at him at the green tape. >>h just relax. one, two, three. it's hard to make a career in show business, possibly even harder to sustain a career in show business. did you ever think that you would be relevant for this long? >> i guess he's talking toe. >> and let me say what an honor it is for me to be standing nett he man who is standing next to that man. (laughter) >> seeing your work together, it amels like it commands the attention in theway like an oscar's monologue commands attention. and then you slow things down and you become reflective. tell me about the design of your special and your tour? >> this was a reth moment for f us when we were totally
rehearsed. we've done the show a 100 times. everything was just in its beautiful little comedic place. >> you know, it was a n progress as we developed it. >> and still is. >> i mean there would be timeee we'd think, should we cut the chat? t doeshe chat slow it down?" and someone else would say, "no, no, no, that's like havi dinner with you guys." >> steve, the banjo helps slow things down a >> yeah, let me get it. >> no, no, no. he just-- he just mentioned it. >> steve -- steve, what is your relationship to the banjo? martin, what is your relationship to steve's banjo? >> i dated steve's banjo for many years. >> i started playing in the '60s. i've been playing for 55 years. i know i should be better. we're in show business but i have another life as a musician. and you have a whole other set of friends that kind of levels you out. it's really nice. that's why you're unlevel. >> in the show that i saw last year, it seems like there's an honest mistake. steve, you say grinville, martin, you say greenville and you say, "you'd te steve, if you were having a stroke, wouldn't you?"
and it looked like, an uh, is thatar real mistake? there real mistake? >> no, no. yeah, yeah, yeah. it was a mistake. >> totally yeah. >> we will never intentionally make a mistake because that looks phony.au i think thence smells it. but, if something happens, we exploit it. >> in your work togethft- handed compliments play a big role and you talk about a lot of them. what are some of your favorites? >> one of the great things about touring around the country with marty short, ao paparazzi. >> well, that landed good. >> the crew's been instructed not to laugh. >> just like our audiences, that must be what happens! >> there is a martin short on twitter but it's a nutist in london. you're not on twitter? >> really? 'r i'm not. >> okay steve, yvery good at twitter. >> i stopped. i thought it was too dangerous. >> just that you might say something that would offend people? >> you can say the most innocuous thing and suddenly, you're in the news. >> martin, does jiminy glick allow you to say things that you wish you could say in real life? >> one time i was interviewing edie falco i asked her a question. i said"what was it like
starting off as a young actress?" and she started answering and i went, "shh, just because i ask you a question doesn't mean i need an answer." and she said she used to be shushed as a kid and it an electrical shock in her. >> faux flattery plays such a character in your role and your work together and your appearances on talk shows. for this moment, if you could look at each other and pay each other just a genuine compliment. >> we can't do that. >> can't do that. >> i'll tell you. i've said this before. you are great singer and you use it exactly right. i've heard you talk about it.t "no, i don't w sing a serious song." but when we do, do our comedy songs, they're so beautifully sung and i've worked with karen carpenter. i've toured with her who is an amazing voice, an amazing d instrument, every night u have this kind of amazing instrument because you really sound like k>>en carpenter. hank you. >> don't gthere. i don't have anything. sorry. sh hi, i'm steve martin. >> and i'm martit.
>> and this is our brief but spectacular take on... >> ...our fabulously popular and undeserved success. >> woodruff: on the newshour online, we'll have full coverage rrow of the release of t redacted mueller report. in the meantime, read our guide on what to expecou that's aweb site, pbs.org/newshour. and that's the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. join us online and again here for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and see you soon. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> text night and day. >> catch it on replay. >> burning some fat. >> sharing the latest viral cat! >> you can do the things you like to do with a wireless plan designed for you. with talk, text and data. consumer cellular. consumercellular.tv
♪ hello, everyone and welcome to "amanpour & company" from dublin. here is what is coming up. the world weeps for notre dame as hundreds o pour in to rebuild. ♪ [ singing ] why it is s cherished and global reaction including from speaker of the house nancy pelosi. my exclusive interview with the most powerful woman in washington. she's here in dublin with a stern warning for btain about brexit and the good friday peace agreement. plus -- >> a drug dealerad become my identity rather than something that i did. and never wanted that to become