tv PBS News Hour PBS June 4, 2019 3:00pm-4:00pm PDT
captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening. i'm judy woodruff. on the newshour tonight: the president and the prime minister. president trump meets with outgoing british leader theresa may, touting the possibility of a new trade deal with britain, as anti-trump protestors flood the streets for a second day. then, we continue our series of deep dives into the mueller report, with an examination russian outreach to the trump campaign, and what robert mueller was unable to prove. plus, it has been 30 years since china's deadly crackdown in tiananmen square. how has the country changed in the decades since the massacre? >> we lost. and the western world adopted this china policy. they call it engagement.
i just call it appeasement. >> woodruff: all that and more, on tonight's pbs newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been pr by: >> for projects around the house, home advisor helps find cal pros to do the work. anu can check ratings, read customer reviewsbook appointments with pros online at homeadvisor.com. home advisor is proud to support pbs newshour. >> kevin. >> kevin! >> kevin? >> advice for life. life well-planned. learn more at raymondjames.com. >> text night and day. >> catch it on replae >> burning st. >> sharing the latest viral cat! wi you can do the things you
like to do with less plan designed for you. with talk, text and data. consumer cellular. learn more at consumercellular.tv >> babbel. a language program that teaches spanish, french, italian, ndrman, and more. >>ith the ongoing support of these institutions: >> this program was made pussible by the corporation for ic broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs u.ation from viewers like you. thank >> woodruff: president trump softened his criticism of outgoing british primeter theresa may on day two of his state visit to the united kingdom. he said the u.k. will remember her fondly if it successfully exitthe european union. may is stepping down as leader of the conservative party, after repeatedly failing to secure a
brexit dea meanwhile, thousands of protesters rallied against the aesident's visit. they carried sig flew a giant "baby trump" blimp. ew will get the latest from london after thesummary. whe in britain, president trump al said that he is "likely" to impose a 5% tariff next week on all mexican imports to the.s. that is unless mexico does more to stop illegal immiation by june 10. senate republicans have already prrned that they will try to block thident's planned tariff on mexican goods. s.ficials from mexico and the ill hold trade talks at the white house tomorrow. y e federal reserve signaled toat it is prepared to cut interest rates if trade tensions with mexico, and china, threaten the u.s. economy. that triggered a massive rally on wall street, with stocks logging their second best day of doe year. thjones industrial average soared 512 points to close at
25,332. the nasdaq rose 194 points, and the s&p 500 added 59. today marks 30 years since the chinese military crushed student-led pro-democracy meotests in beijing's tian square. hundreds, or possibly thousands of people are thought to have sten killed. today,s in semi- autonomous hong kong held candlelight vigils to remember the victims. but back in mainland china, the ruling communist party censored all mention the anniversary. we will have more on the deadly crackdown's impact, later in the program. meanwhile, china has issued multiple travel warnings to the u.s., claiming that chinese visitors have been interrogated and harassed by u.s. authorities. it comes amid a brewing trade dispute between the two nations. in beijing, china'ministry of
foreign affairs urged travelers to be on alert. >> ( translated ): recently, u.s. law enforcement authorities repeatedly harassed chinese nationals in the united states via entry and exit checks and home interviews. the ministry of foreign affairs reminds chinese nationals and enterprises in the united states to raise safety awareness, take opequate precautions and ly handle emergencies. to woodruff: china's ministry of culture anism issued its own travel alert, citing high numbers of shootings and robberies in the u.s. tie trump administration is imposing new restrs on u.s. citizens traveling to cuba. they include a ban on most viucational and recreational ts to the island, known as "people to people" travel. cruise ships and private aircraft will alsoe prohibited. treasury secretary steven mnuchin said thait is in response to cuba's "destablizing role" in the western hemisphere. rdinal leading the u.s.
catholic church's response to its sex abuse scandal has now been accused himself of mishandling a misconduct case in texas. the associated press reported that cardinal danielinardo, the archbishop of galveston- houston, allowed his deputy to remain in the ministryfter he coerced a married woman into a sexual relationship. the priest also pressured her family for hundreds of thousands of dollars in donations. dinardo is set to preside over a meeting of u.s. bishops aimed at preventing clergy abuse next week. virginia governor ralph northam has summoned state lawmakers for a special session to consider thw gun control legislation. announcement came on the heels of friday's mass shooting in virgia beach that killed ic people. today in rond, northam, a democrat, appealed to the o ate's republican-controlled general assemblyt safety before party loyalty.
>> it is wrong that we now view these mass shootings as the normal. in fact, it is wrong that nc noew gun vioin general as the neal. i will be asking for votes and laws, not thoughts and prayers. >> woodruff: kirk cox, the republican speaker of the virginia state general assembly, called the special session, waasty and suspect," in th of the governor's blackface photo scandal earlier this year. florida prosecutors that say a sheriff's deputy who failed to confront the gunman during the 2017 parkland school shooting in has been arrested. scot peterson faces 11 crimina charges, including child neglect and perjury. they carry a maximum combined prison sentence of nearly 100 years. former white house communications director
hope hicks has agreed to turn over documents related to president trump's 2016 campaign, as part of a congressional investigation. that, after the white house advised her not to share the documents. hicks and former white house deputy counsel annie donaldson were both subpoenaed last month. donaldson waalso directed not to cooperate. e is word that president trump's former campaign chairman, paul manafort, will soon be transferred to the notorious rikers island jail in new york city. he had been serving a more-than seven-year sentence for tax and bank fraud charges at a minimum security federal prison in pennsylvania. but a new yorkudge ordered the transfer, while manafort faces pending state charges of mortgage fraud and conspiracy in new york. and in sudan, thousands of pro-democracy demonstrators protested in the suburbs of khartoum. theyallied a day after security forces destroyed their main protest site in the
capital, killing at least 35 people. today, the united nations appealed to the sudanese military to halt i crackdown. >> ( translated ): yesterday, the situation escalated significantly, and we have seen many deaths and injuries and arrests and detentions. we are very concerned that if the military councildigs in its heels and refuses to speak to the opposition, that the situation will escalate further. >> woodruff: military leaders and pro-democracy activists have been negotiating who would run the country, since long-time dictator omar al-bashir was csted in april. still e on the newshour: how president trump's visit to britain has inflamed a country already consumed by tafighting. thics russian operatives aied to connect with the trump camp during the 2016 election. remembering the mass in china's tiananmen square, 30 years to the day since the cracown. d, much more.
>> woodruff: after theageantry of yesterday's royal welcome in london for president, today was reserved for business, sd a final meeting and pr conference with outgoing british prime minister theresa may. tr white house correspond yamiche alcindor is traveling with the president. >> alcindor: for what will likely be the last time, president trump and prime minister theresa may stood together as headof government. the two have had their differences over the years, but on tuesday, mrtrump saved his most pointed attacks for london mayor sadiq khan. >> he's a negative force, not a positive force. and i think he should actually focus on his job. he'd be a lot better if he did that. he could straighten out some of the problems that he has, and s obably some of the problems that hused. >> alcindor: throughout the presidential visit, khan hasn't been mincing words.
>> donald trump is the poster boy for the far right movement. i think in years to come, by the way, we're going to regret giving this state visit to donald trump. what sort of message d send to friends all around the western world, where they see a rise of nativist populist movements? >> aindor: meanwhile, may pushed back on the president and defended her handling of brexit, which mr. trump has repeatedly criticized >> i seem to remember the e esident suggested that i sue u., which we didn't do. we went into negotiations and we came out with a good deal. >> i would have sued. but that's okay. ( laughs ) i would have sued and settled, maybe, but you never know. she's probably a better negotiator than i am. >> alcindor: the p jsident also s at labour party leader jeremy corbyn. last night, the lawmaker boycotted the ate dinner honoring mr. trump. p day, corbyn joined an anti-
trlly. >> so i say to our visitors that have arrived this week, think on, please, about a world that is one of peace and disarmament. is one of recognizing the values of all people. is a world that defeats racism, defeats misogyny, defeats the religious hatred being fued by the far right in politics in britain, europe, and the u.s. of alcindor: in central london, thousands rotesters marched down closed-off streets. they gathered in a square just blocks fm the president. ( drumming ) the throngs made plenty of noise-- bumr. trump said he couldn't find them. >> i said, where are the protests? i don't e any protests. i did see a small protest today when we came, very small. so, a lot of it is fake news, i hate to say it. >> alcindor: the president also ckighed in on pressing issues
n the u.s. he defended his plan to impose tariffs on mexico over immigration. >> mexico shouldn't allow millions of people to try and enter our country, and they could st it very quickly, and i think they will. and if they won't, we're going to put tariffs. >> alcindor: he also talked about the issue of so-called 5g telecommunication networks. england is using equipment from the giant chinese tech firm, huawei. the united states is concerned that the company is too close to the government, and that beijing could use huawei equipment for spying. the white house has sa it might curtail its intelligence- sharing with the u.k. if it buicks with the company. today, trump walked back that threat. so we're going to have ablutely an agreement on huawei, and everything else. we have an incredible intelligence relationship, and we will be able to work out any differences. >> alcindor: after the press conference, the present and first lady returned to the u.s. ambassador's residence. ont they weren't alone for long. nigel faragee of the bentroversial driving forces nd brexit and the leader of
the party by the same name, was spotted on his way to meet the president. before arriving in london, trump praised farage and fellow brexit pporter boris johnson. >> nigel farage is a friend of mine, boris is a friend of mine. thry're two very good guys, interesting people. nigel's had a big victory. vohe's picked up 32% of th, starting from nothing. >> alcindor: their meeting was private, but it's a sign that, mr. trump is aeady thinking beyond theresa may. and, by the end of tuesday, london also seemed to be moving on. >> woodruff: and yamiche joins me now from london. yamiche, how has plutoni navigated this state business? and te me about the meeting with prime minister may as she prepares to step down the leader of her party? >> he has had a raucous meeting a the united kingdom. he took at meghan markle. he said she was nasty because she called him a misogynist in 2016. he did seem to pivot and start
to enjoy the pageantry ofbu inghabuckingham palace. ou met with theresa may and talked a a possible u.s./u.k. deal. he was also mting with supporters of brexit. i think he was trying to mesh his brash brand of politics with his role as a statesman. th woodruff: we have seen e large anti-trump protests pros se london since he arrived. what so you have of the public's reaction to him and this visit? >> emotions have been running high here in london ever since the president landed here. ree most vocal people reacting todent trump were reacting negatively. i heard from a number of people who said they thought psident trump of racist. i should say there were people with "mak america great"ats. they said he should also get credit of being supportive of
brexit. some some ways he had people rileup here in london he always does when he's around the world. >> woodruff: different subject, yamiche, but while in london, the president doubled down on his threat to impotase ffs on mexico. and he had a message for members of his own partye, republicans, if they tried to block that. >> the president said if republicans on capitol hill tried to block the tariffs, they would be foolish. he said he has high approval estings with the republicans and thinks he knows about how to deal with mexico and immigration. it is fortunate note republican lawmakers had a meeting on capitol hill in washington, d.c. cials ande house offi they said they wanted to send a message to the white house. the message is it if it comes to that we think we have the votes necessary in the house and senate to blk the tariffs. we're going to have to see how it plays out. >> woouff: rare for sure. all right, yamiche, continuing toreport on prident trump's visit. thank you. >> thanks, judy.
>> woodruff: we continue now with our week-long look at the details of the mueller report. last night, we explaed how the report explores russia's elaborate meddling i election-- how russia tried to manipulate voters and hack election systems. tonight, we highlight russia's contacts with the trump campaign at the special counsel's office could not find. lisa desjardins and william brangham are again our guides. >> robert mueller lays out scores of russian contacts. from the start, mueller is franb t why-- to see whether those contacts constituted attempted russian interference or influence on the election. and whether these contacts resulted in coordinationitor conspiracy the trump
campaign. >> the conclusion about this es right away. in the very next line mueller writes: mueller reached that conclusion, even though he writes there were numerous links between the campaign and the russians that several people connected to the camplied to his team and tried to obstruct their investigation into their contacts with the russians. >> let's talk about specifics with these contacts, starting wis the trump busin and a big event in russia. in 2013, donald trump takes his miss universeitage tonight moscow. the mueller report points out this is how the trumps got to know a russianreillionand ally of vladimir putin. owned the event hall where the pageant was held. his son is a popr singeo sang at thevent. >> things start moving pretty
quickly. within a few mths, donald trump jr. signs ela priminary agreement with the company to build a big trump tower property in moscow. ivant trump visits the cory in 2014 scouting out possible oocations. then things seem stall. >> until 2015. >> ladies and gentlemen, i am officially running for president of the united states. >> in june mtrump announces his candidacy. r pints out that three months later, a new effort to builds the trump tower in moscow begins, this time led by trump's lawyer michael cohen and developer felix seder. >> on page 59, mueller makes it clear candidate trump knew this was happening. he write but mueller stresses, publicly
candidate trump repeatedly denies any suchi deals. >> i have nothing to do with russia. i don't have any jobs in russia. i'm all over the world, but we're not involved in russia. >> meanwhile, felix seder tells michael cohen he's working with high-level russian officials. he emails cohen sayng: >> the mcow trump tower project is just one source of russian contacts. mueller outlines about a dozen of them inotal. they vary widely. campaign aidcarter page meets with russians and is paid to givea speecin russia. policy adviser michaelflynn gives speeches in russia, and has numerous contacts with the russian ambassador, including a discussion of sofning sancs. foreign policy and national security adviser jeff session
.lso mee with the russian ambassador campaign chairman paul manafort regularly shares internal polling data. and george papadopoulos repeatedly meets with a man who tells papadopoulos the russians have dirt on hillary clinton. mueller gives dates and times often to the very minute. >> another contact point was the infamous new york trump ter meeting on june 9, 2016. that morning, donald trump jr. tells colleagues he has a lead on negtive information about hillary clinton. that lead comes from a source you might remember, a pop singer and his father to iied to putin. one of their staffers pitches the meeting to trump jr. claiming they had dirt on clinton. trump jr. rponds: mueller's report says this dirt from the russians was the two clinton donors had broken russisan law
and laundered money, but the russian representative can't directly tie that to clinton campaign funds. thtrump tower meeting ends with trump's son-in-law, jared kushner, calling it a waste of time. >> but they decide, no for two reason first, mueller can't prove that erump's team knew they were acting ially. it is against the law to take oolitical contributions from foreign natinals. and, two, the value of the information may have been too low to prosecute. >> this brings us back to mueller's main conclusion in teis part report, that despi these varied contacts, the evidence was insufficient to show chat the trumppaign coordinated or conspired with ruteia. mueller that collusion is not a specific offense, that the actual crimes are conspiracy or coordination. >> one more thing, mueller
heints out investigators couldn't get allinformation they wanted. donald trump jr. never agreed to interview. the same with several key russians. some witnesses lied to investigators initially. some campaign aides deleted their texts. and mueller states the president's written answers were inadequate. mueller specifically says it's possible this missing information could shed new light on the investigation. >> that's the end of our look at volume one. there is, of course, a lot more thishere, ande encourage everyone to read it. we've got a link to it on o website, as well as to our extended timeline about the russia investigation. tomorrow, we'll start looking at volume two of mueller's report, which deals with the question of obstruction of justi ce >> woodruff: stay with us. coming up on the newshour:
the retired u.s. navy admiral william mcraven to discuss his book "sea stories." and, create expression flourishes behind prison walls. 30sears ago today, hard-lin ntlitical leaders in the chinese governrdered the military to crush protests centered in tiananmen square. the protests had been the longest and largest in modern e inese history. the uprising, and oody crackdown, has had a profound impact on china and its relations with the rest of the world. but, as nick schifrin begins our coverage, there was little sign of that today in beijing. onight, on the site of one of modern history's bloodiest polical crackdowns-- (♪ chinese anthem ♪) >> schifrin: --the flag raised, the anthem played, and the tourists filmed. there was nothing out of the ordinary today on beijing's tiananmen square. and that's how the chinese wanted it. but while chinese police ensured
a quiet day... ♪ ♪ ...in hong kong tonight, letivists held a somber caght vigil. in taipei, taiwanese president tsai ing-wen led a prayer for the dead, and in a nearby cafe, wu'er kaixi re-lived the 1989 protest he helped lead, and the crackdown he survived.>> eijing city was under siege, and there was a massacre. there is no other word to describe. >> schifrin: may, 1989. for weeks, pro-democracy activists filled tiananmen ituare, fighting to improve human rights and pal participation, and end n rruption. they esed with a statue of liberty, the goddess of democracy. but overnight into june 4, the people's libation army rolled in to crush the protest. dse statue was toppled, and hundperhaps thousands, were killed that night... ( gunfire ) ...and the next day. a phalanx of soldiers unleashed fire, clearing the square and forcing students to run for their lives. athey carried the wounded way they could. but so many could not escape ickly enough.
by then, the world was watching: >> we devote the remainder of the nehour tonight to the stunning events in china. >> schifrin: on june 5, the emwshour aired a story from beijing by itn's j thompson: >> as the full horror of the bloodlettingegan to sink in, residents wandered the streets, numb and outraged. >> i can hardly find any words to speak. >> but the slaughter goes on unabated. we visited hospital morgues piled high with bodi they're running out of space to store the unending processing of victims. a schifrin: but on june 5, the force of million-man army, was, for a moment, stopped by one man. tank m became an icon of resistance. he won that battle in that moment, but the war went on for days. this is june 7: >> the troops carriers bristled with machine guns. there were frequent bursts of fire as they cleared the way ahead. at one point, they sized down at least four bystanders.
on the pavement, yet more beijing citizens were left in pools their own blood. >> schifrin: yesterday, secretary of state mike pompeo a statement saying, "we salute the heroes of the chinese people who bravely stood up 30 years ago." the chinese embassy responded, saying "whoever attempts to patronize and bully the inese people, will never succeed. they will only end up in the ash heap of history." which is where china wants these images to die. ina also uses them as a warning. as police guarded tienanman square today, a pro-communist party newspaper wrote, the crackdown was a "vaccine agast future turmoil," an anniversary that actually guarantees stability. and we explore the impact of tiananmen on today's china, with minxin pei, professor of government at claremont mckenna college. 30 years ago, he was a student in the u.s. and a democracy activist. o he also appearthe newshour on june 5, 1989. an orville schell is the director of the center on u.s.- china relations at the asia
society, and was in beijing during the protests. welcome to you both back to newshour. minxin pei, i'll start with you, days.e back to those the protests weren't only in beijing. ssthey were acrobout 200 different cities. the government was divided on how to respond. the army tried to get in beijing, and couldn't even reach there in the days before. how existential were these protests as a threat to the chinese government? >> i think that ment, that hovement came very close to overthrowinge chinese communist party's rule. because the rty, as you said, was itself divided at the very top, and millions and millions of protesters were protesting around the country. and the country was really on the brink of a revolution. os orville schell you were in tiananmen on days ahead of the crackdown. what were these protesters, students asking for? s d how high were their hopes?
>> ts a movement that lasted over seven weeks, so by the time it moved a few weeks down the line, they'd accrued l so or ofinrde, workers. ind i think the thing which is so sing about being there then was that-- i mean, t was a sense of invin scibility thehow they were on the crest of some major, major change after decades and decades of a kind of an only incipient democratic movem and, indeed, before the people's liberation army came in t first time, where they were byopped in their tracks in the streetundreds of thousands of people, there wass t sense, asinxin suggests, maybe this time there would be a dynastic change.'s thhat make mead it so shocking when they moved in the
next timelaith gunsing and showed they really meant business. >> the next time they moved in, ofourse, was the anniversary we're marking today, en hundreds, perhaps thousands, we killed. mine xin, did they understand or misunderstanpewhy thesele were protesting and why they were so upset? di i think at the beginning they not understand what the students were demanding, even though the students made their demands very, very cleaedly. they wanore freedom to govern themselves. they wanted a free stude union. they wanted the government to call them patriots, rather than troublemakers. these were very moater demands. but toward june 4, the government, the leaders apparently had a different idea.
they thought they had to make an example of tis prodemocracy movement. they wanted to show that the chinese government, the chinese communist party means business when it says it would not tolerate any challenge to its power. orville schell, you've written about this recently. a wase late 80s, chi opening up, was reforming. did tiananmen close the door to those major political changes that could have happened? >> i think it really did. that is part of the tragedy, never m the bloodshed, was that the very hopeful period of admittedly halting and sometimes confusing political reforms that maed the 80s. and it was a stunning time. i mean, every single day, something happened which took your breath away. you couldn't believe that this country that had justome out of the cultural revolution would allow some of the things it allowed. but i think the party learned and they learned with a
vengeance when the demonstrators filtd square that this was the result of o much openness and reform, and they better begin to crack down. and i think, also, they felt deeply,l deepy humiliated by having all of these students sitting in the middle of the middle of the middle of china and beijing in tiananmen square. >> let's fast forward today about what orville schell just said, the rty thinking they had too much openness, that they had to crack down e those lessons that today's communist party still look back and believe that they've learned and so, therefore, are continuing that crackdown today? >> oh, they've learned quite a few lessons. one of them they've learned is that whenever they see signs of ouble, they have to crack down immediately and very forcefully. and that's why in the last 30 years, there were hundreds, if not tens of thousands of
rge-scale protests. none of these mushroomed into anytng remotely close to tiananmen square movement. lee other lessons they've ned that, to counter western inberalism, they've got to cultivate se nationalism. and that's why over the last 30 years, you saw this enormous increase in chinese nationalist sentiments. and other things they've learned, they must prevent the rise of liberals within the chinese communist party. and that's really the lasting tragedy of tiananmen because in the last three decades, we've seen moderate technocratic reformists, but we've not seen seybody within the chine communist party championing political reform the way the leaders in 19 did. >> orville schell, we just heard i mention chinese nationalism. we have seen chinese attacks on
muslims in western china being thrown into what thehine call reeducation camp. is that part ot a legacy of wha we saw in tiananmen? >> in a certain way, i think it is. there's kind of a deep auspiciousness of any ethnic group or oization or religion that owes fealty to something other than the party. and in the caseof the tibetans, inibet they have a very clear sense of ethnic identity, and a clear sense, also, that they deserve greater autonomy, if independence. and so this is very saditious to the chinese communist party which has one claim still tofa . it's not marxism. it's not revolution or class struggle. it's the unity of china, to ke china unified. so this puts tremendous premium on keeping the centrifical
forces, who do have tendencies who want to be omre autonomous, in line. >> minxin pei, orville scell, thank you very much to you both. >> thank you. is >> woodruff: i strike that made seal team six-- a covert special operations unit-- a household name. they stormed a compound in pakistan, killing osama bin laden in 2011. admiral william mcraven oversaw the mission. he now details his 37 years in the navy in a new book, "sea stories: my life in special operations." admiral, thank you very much for joining us. this book is about much more than the raid to kill bin laden
it's about your growing up as a son of a career armyir corps officer, choosing to go into the seals, the training you went through, getting into all kinds of scrapes as a boy guarding saddam hussein. but i guess my first question is where did this physical courage come from, this lack of fear? >> i'm not sure it was a lack of fear as it was this sense of adventure. i grew up, as you point out, in a military family. my father was a fighter pilot during world war ii. hanging around that greatest generation, these men and womenw the children of world war of children of the depression. all the men wen and fought in world war ii. and i would listen to their stories. and, you know, their stories were-- they were pineiant. they were funny. they were inspiring. sometimes they were a little
believable, but they were always stories of courage. as a young boy gwing up around these courageous men and women i think th instills a certain courage in and you that's one of the reasoimented to join the military. >> woodruff: there's a mystique, of coursne, aroud the seals and the training they go through, and you write about how very hard it is, how most of the men who go through it don't make it. what sets apart the ones who do from the ones who don't? >> it's really very simplale. training really doesn't have a lot to do with how big and how strong and how fast are you. there's only one thing you have to do in seal training and that is not quit. so e one thing that defines nierybody that goes through seal tr is that they didn't ring the bell, as we say. they didn't quit.ll and that's rey what you're trying to find in the young seal students. because in the course of your career you'rgoing to be cold, wet, miserable. you'll fail often as a result of bad missions, bad training. and we need people that canth
perseverugh all of that. while it is important to be physically fit when you go througtraining, you find out very quickly that your background, your soc status, your color, your orientation, none of that matters. the only thing thamatters is you go in with this purpose in sind and this-- the thought that you are not going to quit no matter what happens. >> wbadruff: let's go to the bin laden raid. when those 24-- i think it was 24 men-- went off on those two helicopters, what worried you the most? >>what worried m the most was the unknown. th we didn't know whether compound, where we thought bin laden was, we didn't know if it was boobyped. we were confident we could make our way from afghanistan. we had look td at all intelligence. we figured we could get back the pakistani integrated air defenses and get to the compound. knew once the guys got to the compound they were going to be successful. what we didn't know was, was bin
laden wa ring icide vest? we had seen a lot of times in iraq and afghanistan, the guys who had gone into compods to get high-value individuals and s e compound exploded because it red. this is one thing we couldn't determine ahead of time, and that was the thing that probably rried me the most. >> woodruff: i want to ask you about several things involvi foreign policy. president trump is today in great britain meeting with the prime minister and other things. my question is this is an administration that's had some tense relations with our european allies. how important is it, based what you saw as a military officer, for the u.s. to have those strong relations with allies ocan the u.s. it alone? >> no, the u.s. can't go alone, and i thesk our alliare critical, not just with the europeans but all sectors in the world. nato, in particular, of course, is an incredible alliance we've had since the e of world war
ii has that shaped not only the european theater but the world. e cannot live without nato. when you take aok at what the nato forces did, particularly after 11, they invoked article 5 of the nato charter which says an attak onne is an attack on all. but i will tell you it h nothing to do nmy opinion, with the nato charter. it really had to do with the fact that we were frien. we were allies. we had been there for the europeans aftei,r world war and they remembered that. so, you know, nato went with us to afghanistan. the brits, of course, came with us to iraq. we have got to have thos alliances. they are incredibly important to us. >> woodruff: iran, the trump administration has been raising the alarms about iran, beefing up u.s. military presence there. was it the righ thing to do? has it benefited the u.s. that this administration decideto pull out f the iran nuclear agreement? >> yeah, well, i wasn't in favor of pullouinof of the j.c.p.o.a., the iran nuclear agreemen and while it wasn't perfect,
certainly, i do think that it kept a little bit of the iranian desires in check, certainly, it was going to push out their ability to build a nuclear weapon for some years. and i think that was a good. but i'm not particularly concerned about iran. the president doesn't want to go to war in the iran. the iranis certainly don't want us to go to war against them. we've been dealing with the iranians for decades. the only concern i have with iran-- and i thinkr inteim secretary shanahan said it well the other day, is a miscalculation. if the iranians miscalculate and think they can come after us, or if you happen to get ae rogu iranian naval officer that y cides to get too close to the fleet or somebat decides to take a shot into the green zone, that would be a miscalculation on the part of the iranians, and it would not end well for them >> woodruff: you served several american presidents. we are upon the next presidential election. what are the qualities that
americans shouldook for? >> well, i had the great good fortune of working with george w. bush in the bush white house right after 9/11, and of course i was one of president obama's commanders. aise said many times, i didn't agree with eithe or presiden a lot of issues, but what i found is they were both men of grea integrity and great character, and certainly as a military officer, while you may not agree with the policy, it is much easier to follow the commander in chief when you know they are men of greaterharaor great integrity, and you believe that they are doing what they think is right fothe country. so i would offer whoever is going to be eleced in 2020 or ttoever the candidates are, character rs. integrity matters. and if you don't think so, then you have never led an organization. because let me tell you, thadership does start a top. and if you have a bad leader at the top, it will affect the organization absolutely. s:leader needs to be driven by
three thingis it moral? is it legal? is it ethical? those are three litmus tests for every decissn a leader to make. in you fail to use that litmus test, you're creathis organization that is a house of cards and it will collapse. good leadership requires good integrity. >> woodruff: last, you also worked with joe biden when he was vice president of the united states. your take on him. >> well, i like vice president biden a lot. one, he is ve frank. she is very warm. he is-- i mean, he is a guy that will embrace you, you know, personally in a way ith- that's hard to miss. o u know, he's great around. i will leave it up to the american people to decide whetheor not he should be the right candidate. but for whatever it's worth, i like vice president biden a lot. >> woodruff: admiral william mcraven, the book is "sea
stories: my life in special anoperations." you. >> thank you very much. >> woodruff: and we will be back y ortly with an inspiring of st how art connects victims of violence with inmates in prison. but first, take a moment to hear from your local pbs station. it's a chance to offer your psupport, which helps kee programs like ours oair. >> woodruff: for those stations staying with us, our nt story explores ways virtual reality can help advance medicine. catwise has this encore rep from our "breakthroughs" series >> reporter: a quiet jrney through a scenic woodlands, a dangers leap between two
buildings, a touof the international space station. lifelike experiences made possible these days through the lenses of virtual reality headsets. the technology, now used to battle evil, was first used re than 20 years ago to help patients overcome phobias. since then, virtual reality use in the medical field has come a long way. >> also, v.r. allows you to practice modern surgical techniques any time, anywhere. >> reporter: a growing number of medical schools are using v.r. to help students practice operating room skills, to engage ct realistic patient interans, and to learn the intricacies of the human body. enme hospitals are now using v.r. to counsel pa about complex interventions and to nhelp reduce stress and p during difficult procedures. here in oakland, cals.ornia, the u. benioff children's hospital is among the first in the country to take pediatric
patients and their families on a virtual reality tour of their own brai >> straight down to it. and, actually,id you want to rab it? >> reporteghly three dozen patients, ages six to 18, have taken the virtual tour pri to having surgery for cancer, epilepsy and several other disorders. the technology, which generates a virtual model of a patient's own anatomy from c.t. and m.r.i. scans, was developed by a startup called surgical theater. >> mom and dad s me? we're going all the way inside jade's brain. >> reporter: the family's tour guide is also their neurosurgeon, dr. kurtis guste. >> i tell people all the time, as i'm preparing for surgery scrolling through m.r.i.s, if only i could shrink myself down to this small, and insert myself into this space, and just take a look around. and that's effectively what you rn do with this technology. >>eporter: dr. auguste has
en performing brain surgeries on children for more than a hecade. often had to convey complex information using plastic brain models, 2d images, and even paper and pen. >> and then i have the same conversation using v.r. it's just like the clouds part, had they have this epiphany, like, oh, that'syou were talking about. it still kind of gives me goose bumps, because these kids, they just really engage with it. >> reporter:he virtual worlds of video games are a welcome distraction r jake levin, a 15-year-old from reno, nevada, who often has more serious matters on his mind. jake has epilepsy. he's been having almost daily seizures, like the one in is home video, since middle school. recently they have prevented him from playing his favorite sport, basketball, competitively. but jake and his parents finally have some hope, an upcoming surgery to remove a small area
of his brain causing the seizures. before then, they were anticipating their first virtual reality experience. >> when dr. auguste mentioned it to us, i jt thought that was so cool. as strange as it sounds, i want 's see the piece of tissue thaused all these problems. >> i had one buddy who kept texting me, saying, have you flown through your brain yet, have your flown through your ain yet? >> reporter: that day finally u rived. >> hello, how are ys doing? nice to see you. rlcome, welcome, welcome. orter: dr. auguste began the session by showing the family a rendering of jake's head, with electrodes that were isplanted several weeks before to determine whereeizure activity was occurring. >> you can see how w strategically place all these electrod. >> reporter: then it was time to go inside. >> you guys think you want to fly for a little bit? everybodstrapped in here? keep your arms and hands inside uge ride at all times. ( er ) >> reporter: after orienting the family in the new space... >> okay, good, now, stop for a
seco, mom. look over your right shoulder. >> oh, yes. >> okay, good. and then, jake and daddo you see mom and me? all right, good. so, here we are. >> reporter: dr. auguste led them to the trouble spot. >> all these electrodes here, these turquoise little dots, quiet, quiet, quiet, quiet, until we get to here, until we d t to electrode number three. anis is the source of your epilepsy. >> reporter: the red, orange, and yellow dots represent the elecical activity causing jake's seizures. >> the good news here is that this is very, very safe. it's actually the preferential place to be for brain surgery. ex reporter: while still oring, i asked mom and dad what the experience was like. >> it provides a visceral atperience compared to looking d models. it's just incredible. it's just amazing. >> i was excited about it, but this was like ten times better. >> reporter: as for jake? >> it's so much cooler thaa deo game. i'm feeling much more confident utan i thought i would. >> reporter:irtual reality
does have its skeptics. >> right now, virtual reality ms a lot of hype behind it. >> reportehigan state g iversity's marisa brandt has been studyrtual reality trends for the past decade. >> i think that there's a lot of potential benefit, but we don't want to be prematureg bout it solvlot of problems. te we want this to be a caring nology, we really have to make sure that it's something that's for and helps connect people, not something that's used to disengage. >> reporter: dr. auguste agree he's been consulng-- for free, for now-- with the company that designed the technology. but he says his patients are his first priority. >> first and foremost, i'm a surgeon. i am the advocate of this child. i'm not an advocate of this technology. those of us on the front lines, the innovators, the ones who are introducing this technology, have the most responsibility to usld on to the things that make uman beings. the face-to-face contact and being able to read someone's
physical cues, are they comfortable, are they not? that's so important. >> reporter: just days after his brain tour, jake's surgery went smoothly. he's recovering now and hoping to be seizure-free and back on the basketball court by next for the pbs newshour, i'm cat wise in oakland, california. o >> woodruff: a gromothers who lost their sons and daughters to homthide are taking r powerful message of loss into state prisons. the hope? breaking down the watween victim and offender. iee inmates,o moved by their stor respond in a surprising goy. from kpbs in san dmaya trabulsi reports. it's part of our ongoing arts and culture series, "canvas." >> reporter: at centinela state
prison just outside of san diego, these women, called mothers with a message, talk to inmates about what it means to lose a child to murder. >> it took me like two days to get over, just, her message, her story, just feeling her staring at me. it was, i felt it, it, it hurt. and then, that's when we came together and we said, what can we do? what can we give back? >> reporter: the inmates formed a committee across racial lines and organized an auction of "art from behind the walls," with all >> the guys from centinela state prison b-yard donated all their art, and all the proceeds go to mothers with a message. >> and next thing you know, black, white, brown, it didn't even matter what race, they were coming together for a good cause. >> reporter: the aucti took place in a donated space in downtown san diego, where the awmates' pen and pencil
gs, their pastels and watercolor art lay displayed on tables. d in 1992, i shot and kil man in his home. r reporter: matthew conant served 25 years cond degree murder. aggraduate of the mothers with a meworkshop, he now speaks about what he learned. >> i know that i killed somebody, but i didn't know him 't a person. i didn know him as a human. and so, when these mothers come in, it gives you an idea of what really you took from somebody. (♪ rapping ♪) >> i said, let's do it. >> reporter: maria moore is married to one of the inmates who organized the donation. she reads from a letter written by the men at centinela state prison. >> "we now know that we have the power to asst in the healing process, by displaying true remorse, and by living amends." >> and if that's even the first time somebody in the prison had done something good, that feeling that they get, they're going to start chasing that. and the next thing you know, that life is changed.
hed they are going to get out of prison and tre going to go home and they're going to become a productive member of society. ecthat's how that ripple e works. >> reporter: all pieces of art were sold. proceeds that will be donated to the families of new victim hto y lp pay fdstones, burial clothes, and mortusts. a symbolic token to acknowledge the life sentence still being served by those left behind. for the pbs newshour, i'm maya trabulsi in san diego. >> woodruff: we thank you for that report. l the newshour online right now, new, inventguage often grows behind prisons walls, out of necessity and creativity. we look back at the vivid history of prison slang on our website, www.pbs.org/newshour. >> this evening the u.s. house of representatives passed a atbl ould give more than two million immigrants in thi
country path to citizenship. that includes so-called dreamers. the bill is expected to fail in the republican-controlled senate. dye white house has alrea threatened a veto. and that is the newshour for tonight. lim judy woodruff. join us , and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us at the apbs newshour, thank you, we'll see you soon. >> major funding for the p b newshour hasn provided by: >> abbel. a language app that teaches uaal-life conversations in a new la, like spanish, french, cerman, italian, and more. >> consumeular. >> financial services firm raymond james. >> home advisor. >> the ford foundation. working with visionaries on the frontlines of social change worldwide. >> carnegie corporation of new
york supporting innovations in education, democratic engagement, d the advancement of international peace and security. at carnegie.org. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and individuals. >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc
hello and welcome to "amanpour & company." here's what's coming up. president trump arrives for a rare royal statesit, soaking up the pomp and the pageantry. we talked to the former u.k. ambassador to the united states on the future of this special relationship now that trump has thrown his weight behind brexit, deal or no deal. plus -- >> they will do anything. do you hear me? >> one of the most important directors of her generation, ava duvernay, joins us. ho her series when they see us delves into the case of the "cenal park five." then an escape