tv PBS News Hour PBS June 4, 2019 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT
captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening. i'judy woodruff. the newshour tonight: the president and the prime minister. president trump meets with outgoing british leader theresa may, touting the possibility of a new trade deal with britain, as anti-trump protestors flood the streets for a second day. then, we continue our series of deep dives into the mueller report, with an examination of russian outreach to the trump campaign, and what robert mueller was unable to prove. plus, it has been 30 years since china's deadly crackdown in tiananmen square. how has the country changed in the decades since the massacre? >> we lost. and the western world adopted this china policy. they call it engagement.
i just call it appeasement. t woodruff: all that and more, onight's pbs newshour. >> major funding for the pbs bnewshour has been provid >> for projects around the cause, home advisor helps find pros to do the work. you can check ratings, read customer reviews, an appointments with pros online at homeadvisor.com. home advisor is proud to support pbs newshour. >> kevin. >> kevin! >> kevin? >> advice for life. life well-planned. learn more at raymondjames.com. >> text night and day. >> catch it on replay. >> burning some fat. >> sharing the latest viral cat!
>> you can do the things you like to do with a wireless plan designed for you. with talk, texand data. consumer cellular. learn more at consumercellular.tv >> babbel. a language program that teaches spanish, french, italian, german, and more. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions: ra >> this prwas made possible by the corporation for tblic broadcasting. and by contributioyour pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: president trump softened his criticism of outeoing british prime minis theresa may on day two of his state visit to the united kingdom. he said the u.k. will remember r fondly if it successfully sits the european union. may pping down as leader of the conservative party, after
repeatedly failing to a brexit deal. meanwhile, thousandsalf protestersed against the president's visit. they carried signs and flew a giant "bump" blimp. we will get the latest from london after the news summary. while in britain, president trump also said that he is "likely" to impose 5% tariff next week on all mexican imports to the u.s. that is unless mexico does more to stop illegal immigration by june 10. senate republicans have already warned that they will try to block the president's planned tariff on mexican goods. officials from mexico and the u.s. will hold trade talks at the white house tomorrow. the federal reserve signaled today that it is prepared to cut interest rates if trade tensions with mexico, and china, threaten the u.s. economy. that triggered a massive rally w onall street, with stocks logging their second best day of w e year. the nes industrial average
soared 512 points to close at 25,332. the nasdaq rose 194 points, and today marks 30 years since the chinese mitary crushed udent-led pro-democracy reotests in beijing's tiananmen sq hundreds, or psibly thousands people are thought to have eren killed. today, protein semi- autonomous hong kong held light vigils to remember the victims. but back in mainland china, the ruling communist party censored all mention of the anniversary. we will have more on the deadly crackdown's impact, later in the program. meanwhile, china has issued multiple travel warnings to the u.s., claiming that chinese visitors have been interrogated and harassed by u.s. authorities. iteomes amid a brewing trad dispute between the two nations.
in beijing, china's ministry of foreign affairurged travelers to be on alert. >> ( translated ): recently, u.s. law enforcement authorities repeatedly harassed chinese nationals in the united states via entry and exit checks and home interviews. the ministry of foreign affairs minds chinese nationals and enterprises in the united states to raise safety awareness, take adequate precautions and properly handle emergencies. >> woodruff: china's ministry of culture and tourism issued its own travel alert, citing high numbers of shootings and robberies in the u.s. the trump administration is imposing new restricon u.s. citizens traveling to cuba. they include a ban on most siucational and recreational to the island, known as "people to people" travel. cruise ships a private aircraft will also be taohibited. treasury sec steven mnuchin said that it is in response to cuba's "destablizing role" in the western hemisphere.
the cainal leading the u.s. catholic church's response to its sex abuse scandal has now en accused himself of mishandling a misconduct case in texas. associated press reporte that cardinal daniel dinardo, the archbishop of galveston- houston, allowed his deputy to remain in the ministry after he coerced a married woman into a sexual relationship. the priest also pressured her family for hundreds of thousands of dollars in donations. dinardo is set to preside over a meeting of u.s. bishops aimed at preventing clergy abuse next week. virginia governor ralph northam has summoned state lawmakers for a special session to consider atw gun control legislation. nnouncement came on the heels of friday's mass shooting in virgia beach that killed 12 people. today in richmond, northam, a democrat, appealed to the state's republican-controlled general assembly to put safety
before party loyalty. >> it is wrong that we now view e mass shootings as the normal. in fact, it is wrong that we rmew gun violence in general as the new . i will be asking for votes and laws, not thoughts and prayersir >> woodruff:cox, the republican speaker of the virginia state general assembly, called the special session, "hkety and suspect," in the of the governor's blackface photo scandal earlier this year. florida prosecutors that say a sheriff's deputy who failed to confront the gunman during the 2017 parkland school shooting in s been arrested. scot peterson faces 11 criminal charges, including child neglect and perjury. they carry a maximum combined prison sentence of nearly 100 years. former white house
communications director hope hicks has agreed to turn over documents related to president trump's 2016 campaign, as part of a congressional investigation. that, after the white house advised her not to share the documents. hicks and former white house deputy counsel annie donaldson were both subpoenaed last month. donaldson was also directed not to cooperate. ther trump's former campaign chairman, paul manafort, will soon be transferred to the notorious rikers island jail in new york city. he had been serving a more-than seven-year sentence for tax and bank fra charges at a minimum iacurity federal prison in pennsylv but a new york judge ordered the transfer, while manafort faces pending state charges of mortgage fraud and conspiracy in new york. and in sudan, thousands of pro-democracy demonstrators protested in the suburbs of khartoum. they rlied a day after security forces destroyed their
main protest site in the capital, killing at least 35 people. today, the united nations appealed to the sudanese military to halt its crackdown. >> ( translated ): yesterday, the situation escalated significantly, and we have seen many deaths and injuries and arrests and detentions. we are very concerned that if the military council digs in its heels and refuses to speak to the opposition, that the situation will escalate further. >> woodruff: military leaders and pro-democracy activists have been negotiating who would run the country, since long-time dictator omar al-bashir was omsted in april. still toon the newshour: how president trump's visit to britain has inflamed a country already consumed by infighting. the tactics russian operatives ded to connect with the trump campaigning the 2016 election. remembering the massacn china's tiananmen square, 30 years to the day since the crackdown. and, much more.
>> woodruff: after the pageantry of yesterday's royal welcome in london for president trump, today was reserved for business, and a final meeting and press cosherence with outgoing bri prime minister theresa may. our white house correspondent yamiche alcindor is traveling with the preside. >> alcindor: for what will like be the last time, president trump and prime minister theresa may stood together as heads ofovernment. the two havead their differences over the years, but on tuesday, mr. trump saved his most pointed attacks for london mayor sadiq khan. >> he's a negative force, not a positive force. and i think he should actually focus on his job. he'd be a lot better if he did that. he could straighten out some of the problems that he has, and caobably some of the problems that he'ed. >> alcindor: throughout the presidential visit, khan hasn't been mincing words.
bo donald trump is the poster for the far right movement. i think in years to come, by the way, we're going to regret giving this state visit to donald trump. at sort of message does send to friends all around the western world, where they see a rise of nativist populist movements? ed alcindor: meanwhile, may puack on the president and defended her handling of brexit, which mr. trump has repeatedly criticized. >> i seem to remember the u.esident suggested that i sue the which we didn't do. we went into negotiations and we came out with a good deal. >> i would have sued. but that's okay. ( laughs ) i would have sued and settled, maybe, but you never she's probably a better netiator than i am. >> alcindor: the presi jnt also tooks at labour party leader jeremy corbyn. last night, the lawmaker boycotted the state dinner honoring mr. trump.
llday, corbyn joined an anti- trump >> so i say to our visitors that have arrived this week, think on, please, about a world that is one of peace and disarmament. is one of recognizing the values of all people. is a world that defeats racism, defeats misogyny, defeats the religious hatred being fueled by the far right in politics in britain, europe, and the u.s. ro alcindor: in central london, thousands of psters marched down closed-off streets. they gathered in a square just blocks from the president. ( drumming ) the throngs made ple noise-- but mrtrump said he couldn't find them. >> i said, where are the protests? i don't see y protests. i did see a small protest today when we came, very small. so, a lot of it is fake news, i hate to say it. >> alcindor: the prehedent also
wein on pressing issues back in the u.s. er defended his plan to impose tariffs on mexico immigration. >> mexico shouldn't allow millions opeople to try and enter our country, and they could stop it very quickly, and i think they will. and if they won't, we're going to put tariffs. >> alcindor: he also talked the issue of so-called 5 telecommunication networks. england is using equipment from the giant inese tech firm, huawei. the united states is concerned that the company is too close to the government, and that beijing could use awei equipment for spying. the white house has said it might curtail its intelligence- sharing with the u.k. if it t icks with the company. day, trump walked back that threat. so we're going to have tely an agreement on huawei, and everything else. we have an incredible intelligence relationship, and we will be able to work out any infferences. >> ador: after the press conference, the presidenand first lady returned to the u.s. ambassador's residence. oft they weren't alone for long. nigel farage, the
ndntroversial driving forces behi brexit and the leader of the party by the same name, was spotted on his way to meet the president. before arriving in l trump praised farage and fellow brexit supporter boris johnson. >> nigel farage is a friend of mine, boris is a friend of mine. they're two very good guys, very interesting people. nigel's had a big victory. he's,icked up 32% of the vote starting from nothing. >> alcindor: their meeting was private, but it's a sign that, sa. trump is already thinking beyond theay. and, by the end of tuesday, london also seemed to be moving on. >> woodruff: and yamichem oins me now fndon. yamiche, how has plutonium navigated this state business? and tell m about the meeting with prime minister may as she prepares to step down a the leader of her party? >> he has had a raucous meeting in the united kingdom. he took a at meghan markle. he said she was nasty because she lled him a misogynist in
2016. he did seem to pivot and start to enjoy the pageantry ofin buabuckingham palace. a met with theresa may and talked abou possible u.s./u.k. deal. he was also meetng with supporters of brexit. i think he was trying to mesh his brash brand of politics with e s role as a statesman. >> woodruff:ve seen these large anti-trump protestss in london since he arrived. what sense do you have of the public's reaction to him and this visit? >> emonnons have been ng high here in london ever since the president landed here. the most vocal people reacting to president trump were reacting negatively. i heard from number of peopl who said they thought president trump of racist. i should say there were people with "make america great" hats. they said he should also get
credit of being supportive of brexit h some some wa had people riled up here in london as he always does en he's around the world. >> woodruff: different subject, yamiche, but while in london, the presidentoubled down on his threat to impose tariffs on mexico. and he had a message for member of his own party, the republicans, if they tried to block that. >> the president said if republicans on capitol hill tried to block the tariffs, they would be foolish. he said he has high approval ratings with the republicans and thinks he knows best about how to deal with mexico and immigration. it is fortunate note republican lawmakers had a meeting on capitol hill in whington, d.c. with white house officials and they said they wanted to send a message to the white house. the message is it if it comes to that we think we have the votes necessary in the house and senate to block the tariffs. we're going to have toee how it plays out. >> woodruff: rare for sur. l right, yamiche, continuing to report on president trump's
visit. thank you. >> thanks, judy. >> woodruff: we continue now with our week-long look at the details of the mueller report. last night, we explain how the report explores russia's elaborate meddling in election-- how russia tried to manipulate voters and hack election systems. tonight, we highlight russia's contacts with the trump campaign ind what the special counsel's office could not lisa desjardins and william brangham are again o guides. co robert mueller lays out scores of russiaacts. from the start, mueller is frank about why-- to see whether those contacts constituted attempted russian interference or influence on the eletion. and whether these contacts resulted in coordination or conspiracy with the trump
campaign. >>he conclusion abou this conspiracy comes right away. in the very next line mueller writes: mueller reached that conclusion, even though he writes there were numerous links and the the campaig russians that several people connected to the campaign lied to his team and tried to obstruct their investigation into their contacts with the russians. >> let's talk about specifics with these contacts, starting with the trump business and a big event in russia. in 2013, donald trump takes his miss universeitage tonight moscow. the mueller report points out this is how the trumps got alow a russian billionaire and of vladimir putin. he owned the event hall where the pageant was held. his son is a pop singer who sang at the event.
>> things start moving pretty quickly. within a few months, donald trump jr. signs a prelminary agreement with the company to build a big trump tower pperty in moscow. ivanka tmp visits the country in 2014 scouting out possible locations. then things seem to stall. >> until 2015. >> ladies and gentlemen, i am officiallyunning for president of the united states. >> in june mtrump announces his candidacy. mueller pints out that three months later, a w effort to builds the trump tower m inoscow begins, this time led by trump's lawyer michael cohen and developer felix seder. >> on page 59, mueller makes it clear candidate trump knew this was happening. he writes:
but mueller stresses, publicly candidate trump repeatedly denies any suchs. deali >> i have nothing to do with russia. i don't have any jobs in russia. i'm all over the world, but we're not involved.n russ >> meanwhile, felix seder tells michael cohen he's working with high-level russian oiaic. he emails cohen saying: >> theosow trump tower project is just one source of russian contamucts. eller outlines about a dozen of them in tal. they vary widely. campaign aide carter page meets with russians and is paid to give a speech in russia. policy adviser michael ynn gives speeches in russia, and sas numerous contacts with the russian amdor, including a discussion of softening sanc foreign policy and national
security adviser jeff session also meets with the russian ambassad campaign chairman paul manafort regularly shares internal polling data. and george padoulos repeatedly meets with a man who tells papadopoulos the russians have dirt on hillary clinton. mueller gives dates and times often to the very minute. >> another contact pointas the infamous new york trump tower meeting on june 9, 2016. that morning, donald trump jr. tes colleagues he has a lead on negative information about hillary clinton. that lead comes from a source you might remember, pop singer and his father who is tied to putin. one of their staffers pitches the meeting to tmp jr. claiming they had dirt on clinton. trump jr. responds: mueller's report says this dirt om the russians was the two clinton
donors had broken russian law and laundered money, but the russian representative can't di cctly tie that tolinton campaign funds. the trump tower meeting ends with trump's son-in-law, jared kushner, calling it aaste of time. >> but they decide, no for two reasons. first, mueller can't prove that trump's team kne they were acting illegally. po is against the law to take tical contributions from foreign nationals. and, two, the value of the information may have been too low to prosecute. >> this brings us back to mueller's main conclusion in this part report, that despite these varied contacts, theev ence was insufficient to show that the trump campaign coordinated or conspired with russia. mueller notes that collusion is not a specficffense, that the actual crimes are conspiracy ori
cotion. >> one more thing, mueller points out investigators couldn't get all the information they wanted. dona trump jr. never agreed to an interview. the same with several key russians. some witnesses lied to investigators initially. some campaign aides deleted their texts. and mueller stes the teesident's written answers were inadeq mueller specifically says it's possible this missing information could shed new lihet on investigation. >> that's the end of our look at volume one. e is, of course, a lot more this there, and we encourage lieryone to read it. we've got k to it on our website, as well as to our heextended timeline about russia investigation. tomorrow, we'll start looking at volume two of mueller's report, which deals with the question of obstruction of justice. he woodruff: stay with us. coming up onewshour:
the retired u.s. navy admiral william mcraven to discuss his book "sea stories." and, creative flourishes behind prison walls. 30 yea ago today, hard-liners political leaders in the chinese government ordered the military n crush protests centered tiananmen square. those protests had been the t and largest in modern chinese history. the uprising, and the bloody crackdown, has had a profound impact on china and its relations with the rest of the world. but, as nick schifrin begins our coverage, there was little sign that today in beijing. >> schifrin: tonight, on the site of one of modern history's bloodiest political crackdowns-- (♪ chinese anthem ♪) >> schifrin: --the flag raised, the anthem played, and the tourists filmed. ere was nothing out of the ordinary today on beijing's tiananmen square. and that'sow the chinese wanted it.
but while chinese police ensured a quiet day... ♪ ♪ ...in hong kong tonight, activists held a somber candlelight vigil. in taipei, taiwanese president tsai ing-wen led a prayer for the dead, and in a nearby cafe, wu'er kaixi re-lived the 1989 protest he helped lead, and the crackdown he survived. b jing city was under siege, and there was a massacre. there is no other word to describe. >> schifrin: may, 1989. for weeks, pro-democracy activists filled tiananmen square, fighting to improve human rights and pol participation, and end porruption. they eved with a statue of liberty, the goddess of democracy. but overnight into june 4, the people's liberion army rolled to crush the protest. , e statue was toppled, and hundrerhaps thousands, were killed that night... ( gunfire ) ...and the next day. a phalanx of soldiers unleashed fire, clearing the squand forcing students to run for their lives. they carried the wounded any way they could. but so many could not escape quicy enough.
by then, the world was watching: >> we devote the remainder of the newsho tonight to the stunning events in china. >> schifrin: on june 5, the newshour aired atory from beijing by itn's jeremy thompson: >> as the full horror of the bloodletting ban to sink in, residents wandered the streets, numb and outraged. >> i can hardly find any words to speak. >> but the slaughter goes on unabated. we visited hospital morgues piled high with bodies. they're running out of space to store the unending processing of victims. >> schifrin: but on june 5, the force of a million-man army, was, for a moment, stopped by one man. tank man became an icon of tsistance. he what battle in that ment, but the war went on for days. this is june 7: ri>> the troops carriers bled with machine guns. aere were frequent bursts of fithey cleared the way ahead. at one point, they sized down at least four bystanders.
ij the pavement, yet more g citizens were left in pools of their own blood. y schifrin: yesterday, secret state mike pompeo released a statement saying, "we salute the heroes of the chinese people who bravely stood up 30 years ago." the chinese embassy responded, saying "whoever attempts to patronize and bully the chese people, will never succeed. they will only end up in the ash heap of history." which is where chi wants these images to die. but china also uses them as a warning. as police guarded tienanman square today, a pro-communist party newspaper wrote, the crackdown was a "vaccine again future turmoil," an anniversary that actually guarantees stability. and we explore the impact of tiananmen on today's china, with minxin pei, professor of government at claremont mckenna college. 30 years ago, he was a student in the u.s. and a democracy activist. he also appeared on the newshour on june 5, 1989. and, orville schell is the director of the center on u.s.-
china relations at the asia society, and was in beijing during the protests. welcome to you both back to newshour. minxin pei, i'll start with you, days.e back to those the protests weren't only in beijing. they were across about 200 different cities. the government was divided on how to respond. the army tried to get in beijing, and couldn't even reach there in the days before. how existential were these protests as a threat to the chinese government? >> i think that moment, that movement came very close to overthrowing the chinese communist party's rule. because the party, as you said, was itself divided at the very top, and millions and millions ofrotesters were protesting around the country. and the country was really onth brink of a revolution. >> orville schell you were in tiananmen on thoss ahead of the crackdown. what were these protesters, the
students asking for? and how high were their hopes? >> this is a movement that lasted osr seven weso by the time it moved a few weeks down the line, they'd accrued all sorts of oinary people, workers. ind i think the thing which is so striabout being there then was that-- i mean, there s a sense of invincibility that somehow they were on the crest of soorme m, major change after decades and decad of a kind of an only incipient democratic movemen and, indeed, before the people's liberation army came in the first time, where they were unopped in their tracks in the streets byeds of thousands of people, there was this sense, as minxin suggests, maybe thisme here would be a dynastic change.ha that's make mead it so
shocking when they moved in the next time wit guns blang and showed they really meant business. ou the next time they moved in, ofse, was the anniversary we're marking today, when hundreds, perhaps thousands, were killed. mine xin, did they understand or misunderstand whl these pee were protesting and why they were so upset? no i think at the beginning they di understand what the students were demanding, even though the students made their demands very, very clearly. they wanted more freedom to vern themselves. they wanted a free student union. they wanted the government to call them patriots, rather than troublemakers. these were very moderat demands. but toward june 4, the government, the leaders apparently had a different idea.
they thought they had to make an example of this prodemocracy movement. hoey wanted to that the chinese government, the chese communist party means business when it says it would not tolerate any challenge to its ower. ille schell, you've written about this recently. in the late 80s, china was opening up, was reforming. did tiananmen close the door to those major political changes that could have happened? >> i think it really did. that is part of the tragedy, never mind the bloodshed, wa that the very hopeful period of admittedly halting and sometimes confusing political reforms that markedthe 80s. and it was a stunning time. i mean, every single day, something happened which took your breath away. you couldn't believe that this country that had just com out of the cultural revolution would allow some of the things it allowed. but i think thear learned
and they learned with a vengeance when the demonrators filtd square that this was the result of too much openness and reform, and theyetter begino crack down. and i think, also, they felt deeply, deepy humiliated by having all of these students sitting in the middlof the middle of the middle of china and beijing in tiananmen square. >> let's fast forward today abouthat orville schell just said, the party thinking they had too much openness, that they had to crack down. are those lessons that today's communist party still look back and believe that they've l and so, therefore, are continuing that crackdown today? >> oh, they've learned quite a few lessons. one of them they've learned is that whenever they see signs of troue, they have to crack down immediately and very forcefully. n d that's why ie last 30 years, there were hundreds, i
not tens of thousands of large-scale protests. none of theseoo mushrd into anything remotely close to tiananmen squareovement. nee other lessons they've lethat, to counter western liberalism, they've got to cultivate chinse nationalism. and that's why over the last 30 years, you saw this enormous increase in chinese nationalist sentiments. and other things they've learned, they must prevent the rise of liberals within t chinese communist party. and that's really the lasting tragedy of tiannmen because in the last three decades, we've seen moderate technocratic reformists, but we've not seen anybody within the chinese communist party championing political reform the way the leaders in 1980 did. >> orville schell, we just heard pei mention chinese nionalism.
we have seen chinese attacks on muslims in weste b chinang thrown into what the chiese call reeducation camp. is that part of aegacy of what we saw in tiananmen? >> in a certain way, i think it there's kind of a deep suspiciousness of any ethnic group or organization or ligion that owes fealty to something other than the party. and in the case of the tibetans, in tibt they have a very clear sense of ethnic identity, and a clear sense, also, that they deserve greater autonomy, if not dependence. and so this is very saditious to the chinese communist party which has one claim still to fame. it's not marxism. it's notl revoution or class struggle. ep's the unity of china, to ke china unified. so this puts tremendous premium
on keepi the centrifical forces, who do have tendencies ino want to become more autonomousline. >> minxin pei, orville scell, haank you very much to you both. >> you. >> woodruff: it is a strike that made seal team six-- a covert special operations unit-- a usehold name. ey stormed a compound in inkistan, killing osama bin lade011. admiral william mcraven oversaw the missio he now details his 37 years in the navyn a new book, "sea stories: my life in special operations."ra ad thank you very much for joining us. this book is about much more
than the raid to kill bin laden it's about your growing up as a son of a career army a corps officer, choosing to go into the seals, the training you went into all kinds of scrapes as a boy, guarding saddam hussein. but i guess my first question is where did this physical courage come from, this lack of fear? >> >> i'm noture it was a lack of fear as it was this sense of adventure. i grew up, as you point out, in mymilitary family. ather was a fighter pilot during world war ii. hanging aroutd that grest generation, these men and women that were children of world war i, children of the depression. all the men went and fought in world war ii. and i would listen to their stories. and, you know, their stories were-- they were pineiant. they were funny. they were inspiring.
sometimes they were a little unbelievable, but they were always storieof couge. as a young boy growing up around these courageous men and women i think atinstills a certain courage in and you that's one of the reasonsented to join the military. >> woodruff: there's a mystique, of course, aroud the seals and the training they go through, and you write about how ry hard it is, how most of the men who go through it don't make what sets apart the ones who do from the ones who don't? >> is really very simple. seal training really doesn't have a lot to do with how big and how strong and how fast are you. there's only one thing you have to do in seal training and that is not quit. so thone thing that defines ngerybody that goes through seal trais that they didn't ring the bell, as we say. they didn't quit. and that's reay what you're trying to find in the young seal students. because in the course of your career you're going to be cold, wet, miserablel you'll ften as a result of bad missions, bad training.
and we need people that canro persevere h all of that. while it is important to be physically fit when you go through aining, you find out very quickly that your background, your soc status, your color, your orientation, none of that mrste the only thing that matters is you go in with this purpose mind and this-- the thought that you are just not going to quit no matter what happens. >> woockuff: let's go to the bin laden raid. when those 24-- i think it was 24 men-- went off on those two helicopters, what worried you the most? >> what worried me the most was the unknown. thewe didn't know whether compound, where we thought bin laden was, we didn't know if it was booby trapped. we were confident we could make our wafrom afghanistan. we had looked at all the intelligence. we figured we could get back the pakistani integrated air defenses and get to the compound. i ew once the guys got to the compound they were going to be
what we didn't know was, was bin laden weasung ide vest? we had seen a lot of times in iraq and afghanistan, e guys who had gone into compounds to get high-value individuals and e compound exploded because it was wired. this is one thing we couldn't determine ahead of time, and that was the thing that probawoy ied me the most. >> woodruff: i want to ask you about several things involving foreign policy. president trump is today in great britain meeting with the prime minister and other things. ad question is this is an nistration that's had some tense relations with our european allies. how important is it, based on what you saw as a military officer, for the u.s. to have those strong relations with allies or can the u.s. go it alone? >> nonthe u.s. go alone, and i think our alliances are critical, not just withthe naropeans but all sectors in the world. , in particular, of course, is an incredible alliance we've had since the end of world war
ii has shaped not only the european theater but the world. we cannot live without nato. when you take a look at what the nato forcedid, particularly nter 9/11, they invoked article 5 of to charter which says an attack on one is an attack on but i will tell you it had nothing to do nmy opinion, with the nato charter. it really had to do with the fact that we were friends. we were allies. we had been there for the europeans after world war ii, end they remembered that. so, you know, nato with us to afghanistan. the brits, of course, came with us to iraq. we have got to have those y liances. they are incrediportant to us. >> woodruff: iran, the trump isadministration has been ng the alarms about iran, beefing up u.s. military presence there. was it the right thing to do? hait benefited the s. that this administration decided to pull out of the iran nucle agreement? >> yeah, well, i wasn't in favor of pulling out of of thea. j.c.p.the iran nuclear
agreement. and while it wasn't perfectai cey, i do think that it kept a little bit of the iranian desires in check, and certainly, it was going to pushut their ability to build a nuclear weapon for some years. and i think that was all good. but i'm not partlaiy concerned about iran. are president doesn't want to go ton the iran. the iranians certainly don't want us to go to war againemst we've been dealing with the iranians for decades. the on wy concern i haveh iran-- and i think interim secretary shanahan said it well the other day, is a miscalculation. if the iranians miscalculate and think they can come after us, or pp you n to get a rogue iranian naval officer that decides get too close to the fleet or somebody that decides to take a shot into the green zone, that would be a miscalculation on the part of the iranians, and it would not end well for them. >> woodruff: you served several american presidents. we are upon the next presidential election. what are thel qities that
americans should look for? >> well, i had the great good fortune of workiting george 9/ bush in the bush white house right afte, and of course i was one of president obama's commanders. aise said many times, didn't agree with either president on a lot of iues, but what i found is they were both men of great integrity and great character, and ceilainly as atary officer, while you may not agree with the policy, it is much easier to follow the commander in chief when you know they are men of great character, or great integrity, and you belreeve that theyoing what they think is right for the country. so i would offe whoever is going to be elected in 2020 or whoever the candidates ar character matters. tegrity matters. and if you don't think so, then you have never led anor nization. because let me tell you, leadership does start at the top. and if you have a bad leader at the top, it will affect the organization, absolutely. a leader needs to iven by
three things: is it moral? is i legal? is it ethical? those are three litmus test for every decision a leader has to make.se if you fail tothat litmus test, you're creating this organization that is a house of cards and it will collapse. good leadership requires good integrity. >> woodruff: last, wou also ed with joe biden when he was vice president of the united states. your take on him. >> well, i like vice president biden a lot. one, he is very f she is very warm. he is-- i mean, he is a guy tha will embrace you, you know, personally in a way -that i that's hard to miss. you know, he's great to be around. i will leave it up the american people to decide whether or not he should be the right candidate. but for whater it's worth, i like vice president biden a lot. >> woodruff: admiral william
iey. from kpbs in san, maya trabulsi reports. it's part of our ooing arts and culture series, "canvas." >> reporter: at centinela state prison just outside of san diego, theseomen, called mothers with a message, talk to inmates about what it means to lose a child to murder >> it took me like two days to get over, just, her message, her story, just feeling her starin at me. it was, i felt it, it, it hurt. and then, that's when we came together and we said, what can we do? what can we give back? ac reporter: the inmates formed a committess racial lines and organized an auction of "art from behind the walls," with all >> the guys from centinela state arison b-yard donated all their and all the proceeds go to mothers with a message.
>> and ext thing you know, black, white, brown, it didn't evre matter what race, they coming together for a good cause. >> reporter: the auction took place in a donated space in downtown san diego, the inmates' pen and pencil drawings, their pastels and watercolor art lay displayed on bles. >> in 1992, i shot and killed a man in his home. >> reporter: matthew c served 25 years for second degree murder. a gruate of the mothers with message workshop, he now speaks about what he learne >> i know that i killed somebody, but i didn't know him as a person. i didn't know him as a human. and so, when these mothers come in, it gives you an idea of what really you took from somebody. (♪ rapping ♪) >> i said, let's do it >> reporter: maria moore is married to one of the inmates who organized the donation. she reads from a letter written by the men at centinela state prison. >> "we now know that we have the power to aist in the healing
process, by displaying true remorse, and by living amends." >> and if that's even the first time somebody in the prison had done something good, that feeling that they get, they're going to start chasing that. and the next thing youw, that life is changed. and they are going to get out of prison and they're going to go home and they're going to become a productive member of society. that's how that ripple effect terks. >> rep all pieces of art were sold. proceeds that will be donated to the families of new vi fims to arlp p headstones, burial clothes, and mortucosts. a symbolic token to acknowledge the life sentence still being served by those left behind. for the pbs newshour, i'm maya trabulsi in san diego. >> woodruff: wthank you for that report. on the newshour online right now, new, invented language
ssten grows behind prisons walls, out of ney and creativity. we look back at the vivid history of prison slang our website, www.pbs.org/newshour. >> this evening the u.s. house of representatives passed a bill that would give more than two millioimmigrants in this country a path to citizenship. that includes so-called dreamers. the bill is eected toail in the republican-controlled senate. the white house has already threatened a veto. and that is the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. join us online, and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you, and we'll see you soon. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: babbel. a language app that teaches ngal-life conversations in a new ge, like spanish, french, german, italian, and more. >> consumer cellular. >> financial services firm raymond jame
>> home advisor. >> the ford foundation. working with isionaries on the frontlines of social change worldwide. >> carnegicorporation of new york. supporting innovationsemn education,ratic engagement, and the advancement of international peace and securi. at carnegie.org. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and individuals. >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc
maria shriver: perhathe gre. is the human brain in only the past few decades, scientists have made incredible leaps in our understandi. and we are just now unraveling the secret of how the brain can change throughout our lives, leading to incredible transformation. merzenich:dee have this new tanding that theon pers that is within us is actually a product of change that occurs within our lifetime. this is new science. it's one of the great discoveries of our e, because it has the potential of giving everyone a better life. gyou've been given tht. that's what brain plastici is. seidler: the brain is adaptively changing, modifying, making new connections, in some cases