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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  July 4, 2019 3:00pm-4:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening. i'm judy woodruff. on the newshour tonight: celebrations of independence across the u.s., as president trump breaks tradition withnk tas and fighter jets on the national mall. then, examining the , ngest american economic expansion since 19d the warning signs ahead.a plusiceless donation. "making sense" of the long- reaching effects of giving kidneys to complete strangers. >> if i had known someone who needed a kidney, i'm sure i would have stepped up. >> woouff: all that and more, on tonight's pbs newshour.
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at carnegie.org. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions: and individuals. >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: pomp, pageantry and armored tanks.um president creates a different type of fireworks this peurth of july, as the country celebrates this inence day. john yang begins our reporting. >> all of you aspired to be amicans. >> yang: this july fourth, vice president pence wcomed newly-naturalized citizens at a washington, d.c. ceremony,
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where 44 people from 26 countries celebrated their new nation's independence day. meanwhile, in iowa, neighrhood parades became part of the 2020 campaign trail, as several democratic contenders spent the day politicking. senator bernie sanders of vermont took time to speak to supporters at a new campaignou ost in ames. >> what we need is anpr edented grassroots movement of millions of people. that's how we change america. >> yang: in the aptly-named independence, iowa, former vice president joe biden ran along the parade route he also took a jab at president trump's "salute to america" ceremony in washington. >> fourth of july is to celebrate our togetherness. it says, "we the people."th "wpeople," and it talks about honor and dignity. and it's misng that. it's hurting us terribly. >> yang: biden was not the only presidential hopeful who
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criticized mr. trump. california senator kamala harris yesterday in west des moines: >> i don't think he understas. this is america's birthday, not his birthday. he wants to have a military parade. why don't you think about military families? >> yang: and south bend mayor pete buttigieg spoke to ngporters today after marc in a storm lake, iowa parade: >> this should not be a poitical event. nothing about fourth of july should be reduced to politics. i think reducing our nation to tanks and shows of muscle just makes us look like the loud- mouth guy at the bar. >> yang: back in washington, signs of the president's event were in the background during the annual parade. onlookers cheered as a birthday ake for america floated b a giant uncle sam flew overheadt as just blocks away from the military hardware parked in front of the lincoln memorial. besides armored vehicles the white house has arranged for fly-overs by warplanes, including f-35 fighter jets and
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the blue angels. both the white house and pentagon have declinedput a price tag on the event, but the national park service is diverting $2.5 milliended for park repairs. for his part, mr. trump tweeted, "the cost of our great salute to america tomorrow will y little, compared to what it is worth."ws for the pbs ur, i'm john yang. e woodruff: our white house correspondent yamicindor is on the national mall, and joins me now. híllo,çó í0iw presidentko prominent role on the fourth of july and to make sure that therv er&is front and center? on this day we think about ourst y? >> well, the president is -- it's really unpcedented for the president to hold a fourth of july address along military equipment and leaders.en
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the pressays he wants to honor america and celebrate all this military equment he's excited is being made. in the oval office he says tanks e being made in ohio and he wants us to see them. politics are at play. the republican national committee were givinv.out.p. tickets to republican donors. people close to e president will have good seats here. the president is excited about all this, but there's a lot of criticism about the president using the military in this way. i have been talking to former milt officials who tell me it's ntridiculous for the presio essentially force military leaders to stand behind him and next to him. they al said this is really the stuff of dictators, that in russia orseorth kore you military parades like this, but here in america you don't see that. thng said, the president says he is excited to address this crowd. >> woodruff: and, yamiche, you're standing in front of the president, going to be speaking in front of the lincoln memorial, a plaice fraughth meaning, certainly fraught with americano istory. whate know about what the president is going to say in his
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speech tonight? >> well, the presint said he's really going to be talking about the history ofth americarole of america, he said he's excited to speak about all the different military equipment that we have. this is a president who is trying to put patriotism at the center of his presidency. i talked to a retired four-star general, general jack keen. he says th president's intentions are genuine and he thinks the public should get a chance to see the military and touch the military equipment. his point he made is oy 1% of the population served in the and people should be able to get up close and personal. i talked to donald k. sherman of the citizens of responsible ethics in washington, a woch dog group, he says the president is putting special interests above the people, he said that because the republican v.i.p. donors will have better seats an e public and there will be people sitting way far bck listening to the president. >> woodruff: you have been hearing about the cost of this event and how there have been
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some complaints about that. >> there have been -- the biggesconcern from critics of the president has been that he's spending too much money on ths and this is really a waste of common for the president to have a vanity project. i spoke to a d.c. government official. that person told me d.s. han't been paid back for th me $7lion they spent during inauguration fort presidump. eleanor holmes, representative for the d.c. in congress. she's pointed out the d.c. government hasn't been paid back. blame is all around. the president said d.c. is going to get paid back and the other presidents pushed to have that money appropriated to congress. so you could blame other presidents or the president. >> woodruff: other visitors on the mall, what are thetelling you? >> a lot of people have been out since 6:30 in the morning. i play sound of diane atkins, a municipal worker in new york who
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is very excited about this event. >> some people feel this is a dictatorship because iou're bringithe military. actually, no. without military involvement, ve beenuntry would not able to survive as long as we have and the fact he's ourid prt, you know, he is a republican but he's the ovpt every citizen of the united states. so it's not partisa it's nonpartisan. >> we also spoke to alex robby a 26-year-old veteran of the navy, active duty till last year. he disagrees. here's what he has to say. >> i feel it'kind of self-centered. it's not needed. the military is here to guard our national interests, and they're just not needed here. the world already knows how strong we are. we don't need to broadcast that. >> so there are a lot of different opinions and, as you g n tell in some of those scenes, it's rainre in washington but people are still out here. i'm excited to hear the superintendent. we'll have to see how it goes.
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>> woodruff: the weather is threatening, but we are told the president is going to speak within theour. yamiche, you're going to be covering it and we'll come back to you attend of the program thank you. >> thanks, judy. >> woodruff: in the day's other news, a powerful magnitude 6.4 earthquakehook southern california today. it was the strongest quake to rock that area i20 years. it was centered in the mojave desert near the town of ridgecrest, about 15les northeast of los angeles. emergency crews responded to house fires, buileings, and gas s. seismologists in pasadena warned residents to be on alert for strong aftershocks. there is about a 1 in 2 chance that this location will be having an even bigger earthquake within the next fewda , that we have not yet seen the biggest earthquake of the sequence. it's certa that this area is going to be shaken a lot today, and some of those aftershocks
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will probably exceed magnitude 5, which means they will become damaging. w druff: the earthquake forced several california theme parks, including disneyland, to temporarily close some of their attractions. the temblor was even felt as far las vegas, nevada. venezuela's armed forces are sending death squads to murder young men, and staging the scenes to look like the viims resisted arrest. that is according to a new report from the united nations. it said venezuela's government recorded nearly 5,300 such deaths during last year's security operations. the u.n. said it was all part of a strategy by embattled president nicolas maduro regime aimed at "neutralizing political opponent" a boat carrying migrants from libya capsized in the mediterranean overnight. 82 passengers are still missing and feared dead. tunisia, mediterranean seae cident happened off the coast of the tunisian city of
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zarzis as the vessel was en route to europe. the tragedy came a day after a deadly airstrike on a libyan detentn center killed 44 migrants. british marines in gibraltar today seized an iranian oil tanker bound for syria. it was suspected of violating european sanctions. local officials said the u.s. had requested the opn-- a move iran condemned as "illegal."th british territory's chief minister confirmed today's seizure. >> this action aro from information giving the gibraltar government reasonable grounds to believe that the vessel-"-the "gracewas acting in breach of european union sanctions against syria. in fact, we have reason to believe that the "grace 1" was carrying its shipment of crude oil to the banyas refinery in syria. >> woodruff: it is believed to be the first time europe has detained a tanker at sea since it bned oil shipments to syr in 2011. this afternoon, white house national security adviser john bolton tweeted he was gladk
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the had been detained, to prevent regimes from profiting off "illicit tde." davy rains that have battered southern japan forays are starting to let up. but, authorities areaining evacuation orders for more than a million people. they are still at risk for more landslides, after as much as inches of rain inundated some areas over the last week. east one person has died and another is missing. and back in this country, u.s. representative justin amash of michigan announced that he is leaving the republicty to become an independent. in an opinion article he wrote for the "washington post," amash said that he was disenchanted olitics are in a "partis death spiral." the fifth-term congressman was the only congrsional republican to call foroc impeachment dings against president trump, in the wake of the findings in the mueller report. still to come on the newshour: responses to the holiday
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military display on the mall. what is driving the longest s. economic expansion since 1945? a gift like no other. the power of donating a kidney to a complete stranger. and, much more. >> woodruff: we return to our lead story, independence day events herin the nation's capital. putting the military fnt and center on the fourth of july is unusual, but a large-scaleis militaryay has been the desire of president trump for many months. dan lamothe, who covers national security for the "washington st," has been reporting on this and is here with more. dan lamothe, welcome to the atewshour". so, first of all, re we going to see this evening? what's on display? >> so on display ar two bradley fighting vehicles and two abrams tanks. they're both down at the lincoln
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memorial, they will be right near the president as he's speaking, assumedly. there's been some confusion, but they're not all tanks, is i guess the short statement there. in addition to that, we're looking at a relatively robust air show ieverything goes according to plan -- b-2 bombers, f-35 fighter, f-22 fighters -- a pretty lengthy and impressive list. woodruff: this is something president trump has wanted for a long time since the beginning of his term infice. >> yes, this goes back to him appearing in france angsee the b bastille day celebration. we had a discussion about this being me normal day, then veterans day, and it made it as far down the line as this. we won't have the big militaryra he initially envisioned, but the air show that assthiated
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hat and the vehicles on the ground is what it ended up. >> woodruff: what has been the reacti from the pentagon and people in the white house is this. >> the pentagon is in a pretty tough spot, i think. they have largely been muzzled, really. they have said very little this week. they, in many ways, have been told not to talk and to let the president and the white house do the talking on this one. i was told they wand the element of surprise in this show. so doing things like explaining at this would look like or what would be involved hasn't really happened, at least on the record. >> woodruff: i was just going to say, but resistance up untilo nohe sort of grander display the president had wanted. >> i've heard very mixed stories on that, so i thnki- and i think partly because of the limited communication coming out of the pentagon. there was the impression earlier in the we that a lot ofthis was all last minute, that the pentagon wast n board but
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reluctantly carrying it out. over time, it sounded like the pentagon was on brd, especially with the air shows out of this.s discussint back to february and march, but really a lot of this in terms of what was discussed and how they were allowed to talk about it complicated it. >> woodruff: you haven't had aar confirmed secrof defense since last december, how does that complicate it? >> it complicates it in a couple of ways. i think, one, people in unifo are often hesitant to step out rtisan,y that looks pa that there's a long tradition in the military of trying to avoidi po. so you usually rely on your civilian leadership to be the one talking at that point. we've had two acting defse secretaries since christmas, really. so we've moved into a snituat where you have a brand-new acting secretary who, you know, has yet to go before his confirmation hearings.
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>> woodruff: right. and, you know, how you go aboutalking about that or not, there's been very little frome actingretary this week. >> woodruff: finally, we saw the list of who's going to be there from the military. several members of the joint chiefs are not going. there are several leading military officials who will bu thera number are not going. what does this say to you? >> thasnicially caught my eye because i -- this inicaally ht my eye. i wondered if it was a protest. it's more loistic. july is a common time for vacation. t the chairman of the joint chifs will be there and i tnk in a lot of other ways they were looking to get sort of a senior representative from search service front and center. >> woodruff: but you are going to be covering it tonight? >> y, i will be out there >> woodruff: dan lamothe, thank you very much. >> thank you.
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>> woodruff: the numbers are p mainitive, but for many americans, the math does not always add up. the u.s. is in the midst of the longest economic expansion since after world war ii. william brangham examines that long progress and the potential dangers ahead. >> reporter: as america celebrates its independence, it's a time to recognize some good economic news. july marks the 121s 121st consecutive month of economic growth, that's dating back to president obama's tenure, coming right after the 2008 financial crisis and thet grcession and continuing all the way through president trump's time in office so far. moreover, the unemployment rate is today at a 50-year low but by other measurement, it's been an uneven period. wage growth is better of late but lags historically. the wealth gap between the rich and the poor has grown to near record levels since the recession. some perspective from two economists.r
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heatucher is the president of a d.c. baased thinknk and matthew slaughter is the dean of tuck school of business at dartmouth, served on the president's council of economic advirs under former president george w. bush. welcome toyou both. >> thank you. >> woodruff: mathew slaughter, i don't know if you can calea eleven a streak, but this is a pretty remarkable economic streak this country has been on. what do you tribute this to? >> it really is a record streak and i can one of the major credits goes to federallerrer serve. going back ten years we were still in the deps of financial crisis, there was a great instabilitof america's banking system. charmen bernanke and yellen took historic steps to change th nation's balance sheet that stabilized the financial system.
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credit, first and foremost goes to the fed. i think the scal stimulus congress had in 2009 and the years after that helped a bit ae , and i think a third force was just the natural healing of businesses iamerica toegain some confidence to be more aggressive in terms of capital investment and also hiring americans that brings us to this real amazing point of pretty much full employment today. >> heath boo shakers what would you add to that? >> that's a great list, certainly the actions of the fed and recovery act passed in 2009 when obama took office certainly had a really large effect. t i do wa note, though, that while we have this very strreong very for a very long period of time, there's really an opportunity now to sit back and look at some of the underlying fundamentals of the economy that haven't been doing as well, and i want to make sure that we focus on that because, while the aggregate numbers, aggemregate oyment flow and aggregate growth has been, you know,stead for many years w, and we haven't actually seen the same kind of income gains across
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families all across the economy. sothose aggregate numbers really do mask this gwing inequality and income and wealth and acfoss different kinds families across the united states. the strength of the economy now provides an opportunity to sit back and say, okay, we can look at the ponopoly of economic policies and figure out, you know, with a strong economy and a lot of money flowing to the economy, what we could be doing to address these fundamentals. >> reporter: wage growth, while it has tipcked u in the past in the recent past, is still sluggish over the last period of time. economics n1 tell us that whe there's low unemployment, employers have to, you know, rae wages to hunt for the scarce workers, but we haven't seen as much of that. why is that? >> heather's exactly right. we have too poor wage growth for far too many woers and families. we've seen wage growth pick up the past couple of years for
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most workers in america. a lot of that is building ba boast wages from the early years in the depths of the recession. so part of it is the healing of the labor market, for a lot of americans, they're baslyic getting back to inflation adjusted terms to where they were before the financial crisis and for some a lonr riod. but a fundamental challenge our economy has been facing has e quite slow growth in what economists call laborvi produc, so that's the foundation of sustainable growth, that proverbial rising tide, that combined with forces like globalization and technology innovations raising the demands for very skilled workers, that combination has been we've had far too slow growth in wages for far too many american workers their families. >families. >> reporter: heather, we care about the number of jobs and actual number of people working, but the quality of the jobs alsr matters, whe as an employed person can actually support my family on what i'm
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getting paid. by that metric, how is the economy doing? >> i thinkatthew and i are in agreement, the economy on the one hand is doing well, but itee hasn'tworking for many families and too many families are still stcuggling to over from the depths of the great recession. so jobs are created but not created at the pace of wage growth o would expect given low employment ad given the level of profits flowing through the economy and given the level of incomes flothwing tse at the very top. so you have this, on the one hand, the economy is increasingly benefiting those at ve top of the income spectrum while, for thast majority, you're not seeing those gains be broadly shared in terms of income growth. so the job q qualityestion is really fundamentally a challenge, i think, in terms of evaluating the course of this recovery. >> reporter: mathew slaughter, what heather and you weret talking abfore is this issue of inequality between the rich and the poor, beten those that have and don't have as much. this is a perennial politicale
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is well, we seeing rising up in the presidential race, already. what is the practical harm? i understand, if i look at wha a c.e.o. making a thousand times more than his workers make or her workers make, that looks terrible, but help us understand what theñr practical harms of unequality are. >> sure. i think one of the biggest practical harms is not the inequality per se, but when yout looktoo many workers, over time, their adjusted earnings and net worth has been falling, actuallyco so the hars where people, as they're aging through life and their families change and h the children, what they're seeing is their ability to make this savingsnd investments they'd like to make for children's case e educations, buying homes and preparing for tirement. they're not doing as well as they used to be doing or hoped to be doing, and in an increasing number of cases, they're not doing as well as their parents in eartilier
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genes were doing. that's the real challenge. the biggest disappointment in the recove t, isoo little conversation in policy movement in washington, d.c. to build the ls for american workers at all levels, to build more ladders of oppornity so people in the families are gaining the skills that they need to thrive in this increasingly dynamic global ecotemy. >> rep heather you said we have this rich, wealthy economy, let's take time to address some of the structural problems you and mathew were talking about. what are those things? if i put you in a policymaking position now, what would you urge the president, federal e economy atd large to do to address that? >> certainly. well, the first thing i would do is make sue, when we measure economic progress, we're measuring it across families. we're digging in, understanding these trends. two, we need to understand and do more to address the ways inuality obstructs, subverts and distorts the processes that lead to growth. a couple of caes in point.
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first, we know there are reams of economic evidence that show investments in early childhood are some of the most important investments in future productivity and can help workers with families parts that it in the labor force, yet we're not making the investments our economic competitors in universal childhood, universpr k and safe and enrichedch dcare, because we haven't created the tax revenue to do that, yet we have all this moner flowing gh our economy. why we've made the decisions to starve thera fegovernment of the revenue it needs at the time we're exeriencing enormous growth instead of making investments in ourno eco. that's one of the ways we're seeing the negative inequity ving the downward pull today and in the future. >> reporter: what would you do from a policy perspective to address the fundamental problems? >> build a life-long opportunity for americans in all critical
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stages to build skills so they can thrive in the future and start where leather was, there's 25 million children today inn america betwes 0 and 5 and the research is overwhelmingly clear that the prvate and social returns of the early childhood investments are really large. soart by building that source of investmen for every child in america regardless of the family or neighborhood in which they live. i then look at high school graduates that don't go on to laar about 3 million young college. adults that graduate from high school but only about half we on to a four-year college. so for every one of the ones that didn't go a four-year college, i'd build opportunity for them to earn at least a two-year degree to be funded at public supports and look broadly at m aerican labor force. there's about 100 million workers in the labor force that don't have a college degree. we hear from them and comni about the need for upscaling and reskilling. magine if we had life long
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earning credits to allow them and their companies to build skills for them. it's those kinds of public investments that heather points out that whaven't been maki in america in a creative g scally responsible way and that's what's go address the anxiety we see in american families about concerns about opportunities. >> reporter: math view slaughte heather boucher, thank you both very much. >> tha you. >> woodruff: there are me than 100,000 people in this country waiting for a kidney transplant, and the median wait times more than three years. a nobel prize-winning economist has a solution: kidney transplant chains. it starts with a donor giving to a stranger, with nothing guaranteed in return, and the momentum builds from there. here is an encore look at paul solman's story of two donors wht eered to start a chain,
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saving multiple lives. it's part of our weekly series, "making sense." >> emotionally, i'm feeling a oottle bit anxious. >> knock, knock, gmorning. >> reporter: that was barbara sine back in october, minutes before surgery at saint barnabas medical center in new jersey. >> scary! >> reporter: sine, a 53-year-old mother of two, works at a prep school, teaches spin classes on the side, is healthy as a horse. her operation was 100% elective. and yet, lifesaving. it was all due to a story on npr. >> i actually brought my husband in the car. i made him listen to that i podcast and therview. and i said, i have to do this. and... and i still to this day get very emotional. >> reporter: so that was youak >> on the "fomics" broadcast, so it feels good to be a part of this. ar reporter: turns out, ba sine, and those like her, are key players in a medical revolution, and economics nobel laureate alvin roth deserves much of the cred. as a market expert, he'd
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been puzzling over how to increase the number of kidney transplants. dialysis keeps patients alive while they wait, usually years, for a deceased donor kidney. or, if they're lucky, a kidney from a living donor who's a good biological match. and then, al roth says he heard about two spouses chattig in the waitom of a dialysis clinic. >> "why are you here?" "i'm waiting for my husband.ul i give him my kidney, but he has blood type b and i have blood type a." "oh it's a fun thing-- my, you ow, we're just reverse." >> reporter: so the wife with blood type a gave one of her two kidneys-- we can live with just one-- to the other spouse, and her blood type b husband got a kidney from the person she'd met in the waiting room. but roth saw a way to go beyond two couples swapping two kidneys, by using computer algorithms to create donor- recipient chains-- matched for blood and tiue type, even for age.
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>> it turns out there are a couple hundred people a ye s in the unittes who want to give a kidney to someone, who don't have a particular patient in md. we've learned how to use them to start chains of transplants, where they give a patient donor pair and the donor in that pair gives to someone else, who gives to someone else, gives to someone else. >> reporter: and all this because of just one non-directed donor, like barbara sine. >> i think prior to this, if i had known someone who needed a kidney, i'm sure i would havepe stup. but i don't know anybody. so i can just kind of throw it up there to fate and let iland where it may. >> reporter: what's different about you? s i mean, itunusual to have someone altruistically give a kidney. >> i'm a hospice volunteer. i foster animals. so, i think this is kind of a continuation, maybe, at a different level. >> reporter: 26-year-old eric walano gives blood regularly. >> i actually just finished up my fourth gallon. >> reporter: takes a homeless man he's befriended to lunch. >> wgo to five guys sometime
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>> reporter: walano too is a non-directed kidney donor. >> so, about a year and a monthc ago, i went tority organ donation gala type thing. and i turned to my parents and it was like, kidney donation. n do that. >> reporter: and they said? >> and they said, you're crazy and probably a little bit drunk.li , what if, god forbid, something happens to my other kidney down the road? and then, a month later, was in saint barnabas... >> reporter: ...undergoing rigorous physical and psychological evaluation. he was cleared to donate, and gave a kidney in april. but, to whom? as the months passed... >> i was in a little bit of a funk. i was like, ahh, why am i a little bit sadder today? what am i missing? >> reporter: because it was a feeling of irresolution, or, not having been acknowledged. >> that's perfect. yeah, you hit the nathe head. >> reporter: and you weren't getting anything bk. >> and i didn't get anything back. >> reporter: meanwhile, the waiting list for cadaver kidneys-- 2,500 people at saint barnabas alone, 100, more nationwide-- keeps growing,
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growing faster than deceased donor organs come in. >> we'll do approximately 170 deceased donor kidney transplants, but we'll add 400 or more candidates to that listw so we hat we're in a losing battle. >> my hope was down here, and every day was darker and darker. >> reporter: 39-year-old rosario davi was on dialysis for over a year. >> i could do 10% of what i used to do physically. mentally, that demon's on yourhe shoulderhole time through this proce. >> reporter: but last april, eric walano sent davi's demon packing. >> angn' on earth. i know what else to say. ( cheers and applause ) >> reporter: and in december, walano finally did get something ck, when he was allowed meet his kidney's new owner, and the entire transplant chain his gift had set in motion. but after rosario got eric's kidney, his wife tara also gave to a complete stdunger: michael in california. >> you're such a blessing to do what you did, to sacrifice what you did. and i'm very grateful. >> reporter: michael's wife sandy gave a kidney to eduard cardenas-rios.
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>> how are you feeling? >> i'm feeling very well, yes. i was on dialysis for seven years. g >> oh . ( crying ) to be able to give it to someone who needed it so much, it just makes me really happy. i >> cust say something to her? >> reporter: eduard's sister, ines. >> he has a life to look forward to now. and it just means everything to me and my family, i just wanted you to know that. >> well, eric, just take a look and look what you've created. all of these people's ves have been changed. >> bigger family. >> reporter: meanwhile, barbaray sine h to meet her mcipient. >> i know that a about my age got my kidney. >> reporter: would you be more ond more happy as a functif whether or not more and more w
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peope in your chain? >> well, yes. i mean, i think the more people who are helped the better. the idea that i can help 10, 15, who knows! reporter: and bottom line, that's what makes this tear- jerker an economics lesson as well. >> altru some of the economic incentives that other goods do. if you can do more good with a dollar, yore more likely to give a second dollar. >> reporter: okay, you can't give a second kidney. but you can sure do a world of good giving just one. ndthis is economics correst paul solman, reporting from new jersey. >> woodruff:n our "bookshelf" tonight, a conversation with arthur brooks, who was, until is month, the president the american enterprise institute, a conservative washington think tank. i spoke with him recently about his latest book, "love enemies." he started by explaining how he me to study the science behind a concept as old as the scriptures.
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>> what really set me on this beat was reading an article about something called mote of attribution asymmetry where twio sidea conflict both believe they're motivated by love but the other side is motivateby hatred. this leads to implaquable hostity and we find many ameran politics a same level that we see between the palestinians and the israelis and thiss the reason we have a standoff, nobody's persuading anybody, we need a new solution. >> woodruff: so the animosity between the palestinians and israelis is what you're saying exist between ordinary americans. >> mm-hmm. >> woo when did differences, which is part of democracy, become contempt, which is part of your title? >> this has been going bang is decade or sout exacerbated since the 2016 election where people don'tust disagree, they treat each other dismissively, where thet person is worthless. this comes from where eve leaders who treat each other with content. leaders in a capitalistic
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culture tend to be downstream from what we're seeing. we're beating manip by media and politics and even academia where we're told it's okay to hate our emies. >> woodruff: it's the media and all of us? >> it's clear 893% of americans hate how we've b. that doesn't mean we agree. a we shouldnee because we have a competition of ideas, that's a good thing. but the other 7% are getting rich and powerful and famous or justatisfaction bytting followers on social media saying it's okay to hate each other. no one's ever persuade bid insults and immoral to hate each iticalbecause of pol disagreements. >> woodruff: you write in great detail through the boot abamples of how people relate to each other. but some of the disagreements people have and have had today are fundamental. they're over values or issues oh life and deabortion and so
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on. these are not things people can suddenly say, it doesn't matter to me. >> these are big issues.u it's e. sometimes some people ask me. what about people whoe dserve any contempt or people who say hateful things. my question is do you wanto exile that person or put them in jail? of course not. i'not a horrible person. so how is your hate working out to make someone act or think differently? you have zero percent chains with that modus operandi. >> woodruff: yo hear someone saying i don't want to do with anything who ia racist or believes in communism. there are, again, fundamental value differences between peopl and i gu question is don't people have a right to say i don't want to have anythg to do wth that? >> we can absolutely do that. we form communities where we don'associate with other people, but in point of fact, the greatness of the united stes is persuading each oher and making progress in terms of our values and the only way i can that, if i' firmly
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convinced my ideas are right, are by showing love to other people and especially love when i'm treated with hatred. i get that's a hard thing to do, but i show the science in this book that if you want toth persuade, it'sonly way. martin luther king used to say you can only redeem a man when you love a man. if you want to b happier, science shows you will be happier if you answer contempt with long heartedness and have a shot at bringing more unit, which is what we want. it's a win-win. >> what are practical steps you believe we can take to have ss contempt. >> one of the first things i suggest is people stop being used by the outrage industriald complex litics and media even on college campuses wherewe e being taught by leaders where we're taught it's okay. when you hate, someboe is profiting. it's important to look at people on ourwn side who are telling us to hate and stop reading the
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column, stop watching the show. people should be watching the "newshour", not the shows actually firing up their hostility. it's not helping us at all. t'e second is to look for contempt because tan opportunity to persuade and be happier. to go out looking forre haso we can answer for love. i give examples on how to do it. it's a solution-based book. it shows the how-to on how to do it. >> woodruff: you started out talking about the responsibility of our leaders setting anpl ex >> right. >> woodruff: president trump is clearly part of this. >> for sure. >> w cdruff: canhange happen while our leaders are setting an example emselves of contempt? >> in a democratic society, in a capitalist culture, our leaders actually are followers. they tend to be a consequence, not a cause of our actions. they affect us and affect our culture, to be sure, but what's happening in democratic societies and with democratic ease elections that leaders see parade gong down the street and they jump out in front of it to be a leawar. if w something bert, each one of us needs to take a
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different path. i started this off as an institutional book. i wound upriting a book at how each within of us can individually be ater person. that's how we get it. it's true democratic and republican leaders today have a big problem of treating otr ople with contempt because that's what they believe their secret to success is. let's make it not the secret to their success and you will quickly see a dife fere behavior among journalists, among other members of thein media, cer among politicians, academics, leaders, people who actually get followers on social media, they'll fall in line. >> woodruff: you make it sound easy. >> it's hard, and hardest thing, of course, is to conquer one's own self. i've talked about th a great deal with his holiness the dalai lama who has been a teacher to me and he says conquer yourself. are you the master or the slave of your own feelings? and that's the real challenge is not changing all of society. the real challenge is saying am i strong enough to conquer my
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own heart? >> woodruff: arthur brooks, the title ofhe book is "love your enemies: how decent people can save america from the culture of contempt." th>>k you. hank you, judy. f: >> woodraseball, hot dogs, apple pie-- all amerelan staples werate. country music captures the sound of the united states, but when it comes to tio, the voices we hear are more often male. jeffrey brown has this encore report onashville's gender imbalance, and what's being done ul address it. it's part of our r series on arts and culture, "canvas." ♪ ♪ >> brown: this is the sound of monday nights at the listening room, known in nashville as a
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"writer's round," where singer- songwriters learn to hone their craft before a live audience. ♪ ♪ but this one is different, and rare: an all-women showcase, in a city dominated by male voices♪ ♪ turn to a country station today and this is what you're most likely to hear: ke bryan / blake shelton ♪ keith urban / riley green/ ♪ florida georgia line/ ♪ n and shay ♪) >> brown: in fact, in 2017, only around 10% of billboard's top 60 country songs were by women-- a number that's actually fallen in recent years. and it was that persistent disparity that led procer todd cassetty to found this all- female showcase, called "song suffragettes." ♪ ♪ >> we thought if we create a erfemale-only weekly show a
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lot of these women can come play their songs, try them out, see what the responses are, meet like-mind creatives, that they would benefit. ♪ ♪ >> brown: kalie shorr one of them. originally from maine, in 2012 she graduated high school early so she could move to nashville to pursue her dream. >> my first concert ever was the dixie chicks, with michelle branch opening, and i was nine. and i just remember looking at them and being like, that's what i want to do. ♪ ♪ >> brown: in 2015, shorr had a hit single in "fight like a girl"-- a song discovered here at the listening room, and played on the sirius xm station "the highw ♪ ♪ it was an anthem for an issue she's become outspoken about-- the lack of opportunities for young women in country music. but, ironically, that experience
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only highlighted how bad the problem was. >> it was doing all this stuff and getting all this traction, has, you know, millions of streams, and it sold really, reallk well. and i into a couple of major labels and had them look me in the eye and say, we can't signnother girl right now. we already have one. >> brown: "we can't sign-- we already have one." >> yeah. and it sous unbelievable. d you know, i would look at the guys who were getting signed and, you know,'d have higher >> brown: for many in nashville, the lack of women's voices on the air came to a head in 2015. that's when a country radio consultant named keith hill told a trade newsletter tha maximize radio listenership, women should be like "tomatoes" in a larger "salad" of male artists... never played back to back, and never more than out 20% of the mix.
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those comments confirmed what many had long suspected-- that the lack of women on country radio was by design. >> it's kind of historically, kind of an accepted practice, thatf you play more women on your radio station, listeners will turn the channel, and your ratings will go down, which will affect your revenue. and it's-- as long as i can >> brown: but you're saying it's perceived economics. yodon't buy it? >> there's no research. there's no hard research to prove this. >> brown: the backlash to the remarks became known as "tomatogate," and galvanized women across the industry to speak out about theirs experien sexism. including at this monthly forum called "change the conversation." each month, songwriters, performers, producers, industry veterans and newcomerstly women, but men, too-- gather to share stories. beverly keel helped found the group.
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she's a journali and professor of recording at middle tennessee state university. >> i wrote a column in the "tennessean" about it d said, look, you know, the problem's at country radio, because they're not playing women. and then you have a chilling effect, because country radio is still the driver in country music. so if country radio doesn't play women, labels don't sign women. female songwritersren't going to get signed as much. you won't see as many female oducers, and so on. >> brown: i mean, is it sexism? is it economics? percved economics? >> i think it is long-held beliefs. i think at it's sexism. tiere's institutional sexism. there's just tra, there's cultural norms, but you'd think we'd be past this in 2019. i hink it's just as frustrating to radio as it is to anybody else. >> brown: that's r.j. curtis, incoming head of the country radio broadcasters, a non-profit group that helps promote the music. >> look, this is a multi-layered situation, and it's ( bleep ) up
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all over. >> brown: he's beeattending the change the conversation meetings, and wants people to recognize that this problem isn't just with radio, but with the entire industry pipeline, from talent scouts to publishers to labels. >> if you looked at the rosters of most major labels in town here, think you'd find that the ratio about a 4-to-1 male to female, in terms of artists on that roster so there's just fewer of them coming at radio for airplay consideration. >> brown: if you're a woman ndo's concerned about this they're hearing you say, well, it's thecosystem-- that would be frustrating. >> very frustrating. >> brown: right, because then it's like, if everybody's to t blame, nobody blame. >> yeah. i can see their frustration. i definitely hear that. >> brown: we reached out to multiple country radio stations for comment, but none sponded.
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and whether radio is the driver of this marketplace, or just another victim of decisions made at other levels,here say it's past time for solutions. >> i don't know what caused it. i don't know who caused it. and we don't want to just put the blame on country r and change the c versation is not interested in finding blame or pointing fingers. we just want to find a solution. >> brown: one answer: new streaming platforms, social media and touring to connect directly with audiences, circumventing radio. ♪ ♪ radio disn country is a relatively young, mostly streaming station based in los angeles that's found an audience by playing mostly women in its mix. ♪ ♪ and prominent artists such margo price and kacey musgraves-- who just won four grammys, including "album of the year"-- arecc ding despite a lack of airplay. ♪ ♪
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meanwhile, in nashville, forums like change the conversation and song suffragettes are bringing women together to help one another. ♪ ♪ >> i think in the past five, six years that i've been in town, i saw this aitude shift even within myself. it was like, she's not your competition. she's trying to do the same thing you're doing, and that's great because, like, you know, y and loretta were best friends. you know? and dolly and emmylou and all that. like, women can support each other, and i think they're more successful when they are. >> brown: for the pbnewshour, i'm jeffrey brown in nashville,
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oodruff: we return now t the celebrations on the national mall. president trump took the stage or the lincoln memorial a time a. here's a bit of what he had to say: hello, america. as we gather this evening in t, joy of freed remember that all share a truly extraordinary heritage. together we are part of one of the greatest stories eer told, the story of america. it is the epic tale of a great nation whose people have risked everything for what tow is right and what they know is true. is the chronicle of brave citizens who never give up the dream of a better and brighter future, and it is the saga of 13 separate colonies that united e form thst just and virtuous republic eve conceived. on this day, 3 years ago, our founding fathers pledged their lives, their fotunes and their
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sacred honor to declare independence and defend our god-given rights. (ches and applause) >> woodruff: our yamiche alcindor is still on thehe national mal in washington and she joins us again. yamiche, it's raining. that explains the water and thse ld in front of the president. tell us what more he's saying. >> well, the president reatay ed about the history of america. he talked about american inventors, theending of slavery and civil rights. he said the nation is stronger than it's ever been, a ittle bit of the "make america greatai again. the critics still point out the republican national committee got tickets to thevent while the democratic national committee did not. the people still close to the president are still the people eith the best views of him, but it is open to th public. >> woodruff: yamiche, you're saying the speechs directed to american history, speaking about the reasons we celebrate on this day. >> exactly, judy, and the president has reoally stuck talking about what makes america great in his mind and that is
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all the different tthat america can do. g also said he would like to put the american f mars some day. he's talking about astronauts and really inme soays celebrating the history of america. he hasn't been talking about smocrats or republicans, n't been talking about his campaign. instead, he's rely inspiring people to clap because he's just talking about great american heroes on both sides of the aisle including nonpartisan figures. >> woodruff: we know the president isoing to be introducing military leaders there on the stage with him. is he still planng to do tat? we know that that is an unusual aspect of thi celebration.july >> reporter: one to have the most unprecedented things the president did was me this speech next to military equipment and next to military leaders. he did point out and talked about each branch of the military. he also said he's looking c forward ating the space force and getting that off the ground. so the president has ben lking about military leaders. critics say this is the stuff of dictators. the president said this i his way of celebrating the military.
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>> woo ydrufiche alcindor reporting from the lincoln memorial covering president trump and cee bration there. thank you, yamiche. >> thanks, judy. >> woodruff: and on the newshour online, we hope you're enjoying family, friends and food today, so we have tips about how to prepare, cook and clean up your summer feast safely. we are a full-service newspr ram. that and more is on our website, www.pbs.org/newshour. and that is the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. join us online, and again here tomorrow evening, with david brooks and karen tumulty. for all of us at theve pbs newshour, great fourth of july and see you soon. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> babbel. a language real-life conversations in a new language, like spanish, french,
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german, alian, and more. babbel's 10-15 minute lessons re available as an app, o online. more information on babbel.com. ce consumer cellular. >> financial serfirm raymond james. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions >> this program was madeco possible by thoration for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewersyou. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc captioned by ♪media access group at wgbh
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♪ hello, everyone. welcome to "amanpour & company." this week we're dipping into tha archiv looking at some of our favorite interviews of the year. here's what's coming up. >> a different kind of prime minister. i speak to iceland's down to earth left-wing leader about her ique style. then, a serious conversation with a funny ma craig ferguson from hosting the late late show to writing a memoir, riding the elephant expect and the first at poet lau of the united states. 25-year-old sits down with our alicia menendez. ♪ ♪ uniworlds

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