tv PBS News Hour PBS August 14, 2019 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT
or captioning spo by newshour productions, llc >> nawaz: good evening. i'm na nawaz. judy woodruff is away. on the newshour tonight: the eye the storm. at a moment of relative calm in hong kong, anxiety mounts over how beijing ll respond to the pro-democracy protestors. then, warning signs. the stock market plunges amid a roller coaster of volatility. where is the u.s. economy headed, and what are the concerns over another recession? and, troubled waters. the deadly risk of aam coated drinking supply takes a toll on a neighborhood in the shadow of a coal plant. >> my husband died from cancer. mary ann next door died from cancer. you can't tell me these people, just because they're past 50, it's normal for them to get cancer and die.
that's too many people that have died on my little street. >> nawaz: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour. funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> babbel. a language app that teaches real-life conversations in a new language. babbel's 10-15 minute lessons are available as an app, or online. more information on babbel.com. >> consumer cellular. >> f raymond james.s firm ♪ ♪ >> supporting social entrepreneurs and their solutions to the world's most pressing problems-- skollfoundation.org.
>> the lemelson foundation. committed to improving lives thros.h invention, in the u. and developing countries. on the web at lemelson.org.rt >> supd by the john d. and catherine t. macarthur foundation. committed to building a more just, verdant and peaceful world. mo information at macfound.org >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions: >> this program was made possible by e corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thk you. >> nawaz: stocks went into a odee fall on wall street, after the bond market stoked fears of a recession. germany also reported its economy shrank in the second quarter, raising concerns about a global slowdin. the disappnting economic news caused the dow jones industrial erage to plummet 800 points to
close at 25,479. the nasdaq fell 242 points and the s&p-500mo slipped than 85. we'll take a closer look at the market's volatility later in the program. in hong kong, flights at the international airport resumed a day after tense clashes broke out between riot police and pro-democracy protesters. smaller, peaceful demonstrations continued inside the terminal, with scores of signs calling for democratic reforms and the resignation of the territory's chief executive, carrie lam. we'll have moron the protests' impact and china's response right after the news summary. back in thisre country, revelations emerged today about the two guards tasked with monitoring accused sex trafficker jeffrey epstein's jail cell the night he died by apparent suicide. new reports allege the guards fell asleep ding their shift and later falsified records to cover up their failure to check on him every hur, as required. falsifying log entries can
constitute a federal crime. hureds of child sex abuse lawsuits were filed in new york today as the state opened a temporary window for adult victims to bring their cases to court. a new state law lifts the statute of limitations, giving allegevictims one year, beginning today, to sue, regardless of how long ago the abuse occurred. more than 1,000 people already filed lawsuits against thu catholicrch, including one who called the opportunity to seek justice "historic." >> it is a moment of redemption for-- not just for myself but everybody who's been abused by so many of these people for so long. it's time now to stop it, it's time right now. this is the only chance we get. and thank gd for that chance. >> nawaz: the roman catholic archdiocese of new york issued a statement vowing to "carefully review the claims."
dozens of lawsuits were also filed against the boy scouts of america and other innsstitut including schools and hospitals. at least one woman who claimed she was sexually abused by jeffrey epstein also filewid su. fires raged through a protected nature preserve on greece's second-largesr t island second day. hundreds of residents have evacuated four villaers and a monain evia. more than 250 firefighters are fighting thela fmes by air and land in the dense pine fores greece's prime minister commended their inrk today while ecting the damage. >> we know tllhat wildfires be with us, they will be part of our-- as they have always been, but they've been more part of our daily life as climate change is taking its toll on southern europe. and that is why it is imperative at the european level strengthen the rescue e.u. mechanism, iorder to have more coordination at the european level, to fight incident wlike the on had in greece. >> nawaz: a state of emergency was declared on the island yesterday to free up much-needed
resources. in nep, a government panel recommended new restrictions for climbing mount evest today in response to the deadliest climbing season there in four years. the rules ma proper training and high-altitude experience, and be in good healgth before scal the world's highest summit. the government was criticized for allowing too manytheople to climnear 30,000 foot mountain after 11 clenbers died ormissing this spring. meanwhile, facebook is under fire today over new privacy concerns. this time it's for paying outside contractors to transcribe users' audio clips on facebook methssenger. company reportedly had human transcribers listen to users' private voice recordings to prscide tranption quality control. facebook said the audio clips were masked 'to protect use identities. and it said it stopped the practice a week ago. out of philadelphia, a police
spokesman confirmed several police officers we injured this evening in a north philadelphia shootout in the knife town section of the city. temple university has locked down its health sciences campus. still to coe on the newshour: will the pro-democracy protestors in hong kong face a violent crackdown fr the chinese government? wall street sees significant volatility as fears mount over another recession. a coal pnt and a dying neighborhood: the toxic threat of cancerous waste. and much more. >> nawaz: as the protests in hong kong have become more intense over the past few weeks, the denunciations from beijing have become harsher. an editorial in a chinese communist party mouthpiece today accused the protesters of wanting to foment a revolution, mething they said will not be permitted. the hong kong airport is back up and running, but tensions
between the thousands of pro- democracy protesters who shut it down and hong kong's government are far from resolved. police say at least ave people werrested after days of protests there that canceled 300 flights and at times turned violent. today, police defended their tacticsaand those apprehended will face justice. >> the hong kong police have always facilfuitated peaand orderly protests over the years. but the extremely radical and violent acts have certainly crossed the line, and ought to be most severely condemned. >> nawaz: smaller numbers of protesters returned day to the airport, with signs criticizing cityovernment and at night, hong kong police in riot gear fired tear gas at protesters in the street outside a police station. since early june, waves of protest have rocked hong kong in response to a proposed lwo that d allow extradition of suspected criminals to mainland this leaderless group has sought
to build on 2014 pro-democracy demonstrations known as the "umblla movement," when hundreds of thousands took to the streets againshaa proposal toe the city's electoral rules. ♪ ♪ beijing took control of hong kong from britain in a 1997 handover; under hong kong's so-called "basic law" that followed, china guar some political independence, freedoms and democratic elections in hong kong under a set-up known as "one country-two systems." protesters ainccuse beg of trying to undermine that framework. china's ruling communist partyue continits tough talk against protesters today, and bashed them through state t >> ( translated ): we express our strongescondemnation of this near-terrorist act and express our deepest condolences to the injured mainland compatriots poand hong kong ce officers. >> nawaz: beijing also agacain cused the u.s. of being the "black hands" behind demonstrations. president trump tweeted
yesterday he "can't imagine why" anyone would blame the u.s. for the problems in hong kong. earlier yesterday the president tried to chart a middle ground between protesters and the beijing government run by the man he's called a good friend, president xi jinping >> it's a very tricky situation. i think it will work out and i hope it works out for liberty, i hope it works out for everyone, including china. i hope it works out peacefully. i hope nobody gets hurt, i hope nobody get killed. >> nawaz: in congress, some expressed outright support for the protesters. house minority leader kevinca hy wrote on twitter last night: "america stands with hong kong." today, the u.s. state department issued an advisory for travel to hong kong. meanwhile, beijing in recent days released video of armored personnel can rriersute to the border of hong kong. and new satellite images ainear to show ese security force vehicles in the city of shenzen, on the
border. soith chinese forces amassed on the border, tough talk from beijing, androtesters not backing down, what now? for that, we turn to kenneth lieberthal. he was senior director for asia on the national security council staff during the clinton administration. he's now professor emeritus at the university of michigan.pe and minxi is professor of government at claremont mckenna college.ri hes extensively about china. and welcome to you both. minxin, i want to start with you. is the fact the protesters have lefthe the airportenned tense moment has died down does that give you hope things overall are dying down? >> yes, this is clearly a turning point, i think the protesters have committed an unforced error and they have recognized this. so they should be -- the should be a period of deescauntion. what iown is what the government will do. if the government takes advantage of this period and
starts arresting more protesters or even charging them, then we can see a return of the protesters. so things are still quite flui:. >> nawundreds of protesters have already been arrested based on what you've heovd from thenment so far, what do you think the chinese government will do? >> nawaz: the hong kong government has arrested them and it's up to the hong kong government to decide whether to charge those who have been arrested or whethero prosecute those who have been charged. so this is up to the hong kong government. what the chinese govement wants to do really depends vernmentthe hong kong go can maintain control of the situation. a few days ago,ai it cey seemed that the hong kong government was losingts grip. today, i'm a bit more relieved. >> nawaz: nneth lieberthal, how do you assess where we are right now? >> i agree that there is a moment here that possibly could be seized to find a way forward and get us out of aondrum that could otherwise produce a
tragedy, but i thinkthat way forward will require first an initiative by the hong kon, g governmeto my mind, likely including a willingness by the chief executive carrie lam to step down. some outreach to the major constituencies across mcto form some sort o tf commissiono review what's happened and carry out necessary investigations an give their opinion. essentially a long-term trust-building process that can ease tensions and stop a situation where radicals -- you know, the most radical elements amondemonstrators a seizing the initiative and, frankly, moving beyond what i tnk beijing can possibly tolerate. >> nawaz kenneth lieberthal back to you, but when you hear how the chinese government h been speaking so far, they're labeling this terrorism, calling thers protesriminals, you see the troop movement and
buildup, the colorio revol comparisons now, does it sound like they're laying the groundwo for some kd of intervention? >> they are laying the grouwork for an intervention but i think they strongly prefer not to move in with force they really want the hong kong government to get on top thof . to the extent the hong kong government fails a -- to find a way to do that, i think we'll see increasing use of force. i don't think we'll see 1989 is in the cards. the world has changed and hong kong is not a student movement in beijing 30 years ago, but we could see a lot happen that would do tremendous damage to hng, to china, to u.s.-china relations and to the region. >> nawaz: if those steps n lieberthal laid out and you see a ratcheting up of tensions on both sides, you were writingyo about this said it seems to cl careening toward a
devastatinax, are you worried there would be a ten amin crack down? >> china will celebrate the 70th anniversary of the people's republic. it is is very important, and the chinese government would like te an uneventful celebration. if, for example, this sntinuation of t hard line position from beijing, at least rhetorically, and then the kinds of things laid out fail to take place at the concessions made by the hg kong government, we can see a return of the protesters, very close to the celebration of the 70th anniversary. >> nawaz: are they really goig to wait 45 days? if the protests continue, would they wait that long before on?ing acti >> it's a very difficult decision for the chinese government to make. i think this is really their last result. they're not going to act until
hong kong is paralyzed. suppose there were another s generike that paralyzes hong kong, that might force beijing's hand, but we're quite far away from that point so far, nneth lieberthal, some of the language leads us to believebe ing views this as a existential threat, if they continue, they will in som way be forced to affect do you see ut that way. >> is this yes, i do, but the question is, when they're forced to act, that doesn't necessarily mean to have a large number of troops move across the border from pla in the streets, et cetera. you could have a declarationy the hong kong government of a state of emergency in hong kong, some curtailment of civil libertie, stronger actions by the hong kong police and judiciary escalate to potentially ing the beijing p.l.a. garrison in hong kong to be a presence on the strts.
you know, there are a whole series of things you can do sh of havingnks moving across the border, and i think they will more likely try to increase the pressure step by step, but i very much agree with minxin, this is a ry difficult situation and no one knows exactly what the politics are in beijing among the leadership that will inevitably play a role in how this is handled there. >> nawaz: what is at restake or the chinese government? how is beijing assessing this? >> it's authority in hong kong because the beijing government is seegeg this challs not a challenge to hong kong government but to the authority th chinese government. >> nawaz: so we've seen what president trump has had to say so far. is there or should there be a role for the.s. in all of this? >> if there should be a role, the role should be very delicate, quiet. i think one thing tpresident trump can do i pick up the phone and have a
quiet conversation with esident xi jinping and urge him not to intervene. >> nawaz: kenneth lieberthal, what do you make of this? how should the u.s. be acting, if at al at this moment? >> we should be making suggestions about how to move forward in this situation to maintain p clearly, if this goes off the rails, it will be enoously damaging to u.s.-china relations, among other things in the region. >> nawaz: minxin pei and kenneth lieberthal, thank you very much to y both. >> thank you. >> nawaz: today's 800-point plunge on waisll streeust the most recent swerve for a stock market that had very recently been hitting cord highs. jeffrey brown reports that the high level of volatility has investors large and small on edge and loorsking for ans >> brown: president trump's trade and tariff wars, maj
slowdowns in the economies of germany and china, the prospect of further actions by the federal reserve, and more. it may be august, but national and global events are impacting markets and, maybe, the economy overall. neil irwin, eseninomics correspondent for the "new york times," joins me now. nice to have you back. >> thaors, jeff. >> rr: big drop in the market today. you see several things going on. let's start with the trade and tariffs. w is that moving markets? >> we've seen a bit of a deescalation of the trade wars id the last couple of days as the prt has backed around one round of tariffs that were supposed to go into effect. >> brown: which should be good. >> but tt was only partially pulling back two weeks ago. this trade war is bigger than a dial you can twist. it's affecting the overall economic relationship between the world's two largest economies. businesses worldwide are having to adapt and adjust and they're nervous about investing in the future given that backdrop. >>eporter: do we see actual
damage already or is this about fears look ahead?th >> i u.s. economic at thea, it's pretty mild. you see the evince the investment sector is slowing down, business investment is weak in the last few months, but not a catastrophe for the u.s. economy. so far the u.s. economy seems to be holding up. the question is what's going to happen in the future. >> reporter: and when the president pulled back yesterday on the latestariffs or at least postponed them, was that perhaps as seeing this te it might affect consumers or why do you think he did that?hi >> yeah, i this round of tariffs is going to affect consumers 10% on basically all chinese imports including toys, eople are buying in the christmas season. they didn't want to do that. the thing, is you c't really go back again. sometimes this idea of escalating global economic r fair, once that's in place, it's not so much the details of any one tariff, it's what's going to happen to the relationship overall and what does that mean for the future. thatporter: so there's on the one hand, but you're seeing this as part of something
much bigger, deepe a slowing, a weakening,erhaps a sig of recession? what points to that? >> what hapened today is called an inversion of the yield curve. the yield curve is interest rates on the treasury bonds fo different time periods. you're seeing lower interest rates on longer-term than shorter-term bonds. all that means is investors worldwide cion to be p in an expecting slower growth, weaker growth, lower inflation, lower federal rate cuts, that's the impression we're getting from global bond investors. >> reporter: why are they so pessimistic? >> the a slorpown in the european economy, geopolitical tensions. you have tensio between china and hong kong, you have a very complex situation where theen re world economy and the world political system seems to ragile state y so it doesn't take much to undermine growth. >> reporter: now the president clearly seeing what's going on, he put out another tweet today,
another blast at the fed chairman and referred to him as clueless jay powell. where is that coming from? >> if president trump wants to blame the feryd for eing bad happening in the world marks and economy -- and the feds hav raised interest rates four times last weir year, already taken back one of those, there's evidence they overdid it last hear and raised rates too m given where the global economiy is but you can't hold the trump administration blameless, they throw bombs in the global trading system in ways that are disruptive. you talk to c.e.o.s and look at earnings reports, the trumimp stration clearly has part of the responsibility. >> reporter: we've t tked about maes the uncertainty unsettles markets, right? >> yeah, if you're a c.e.o. andt tryidecide whether to invest or hire people or build a factory, youon't know what the world economy is going to look at in a year because of the chaos thatna emates from
washington and other capitals in the world as well, that affects business and what the happening in the markets fects that more and more. >> reporter: it is true some numbers look good, iob markets okay and wages are up. so is everybody sort of parsing all these numbers? >> the u.s. has been the calm in the storm. the u.s. is basically sound even with the turmoil ove what we're seeing in markets this month seems to be suggesting that could change. it doesn't have to be a recession, but the risk of one is higher than a month ago. >> porter: and briefly before we go, what is it about august? something about everybody is supposed to be relaxing but a lot of things are happening in the economy and market. >> we seep keying 2011 happened in 2007, happened in 1998. one explanation seems to be a bunch of traders are on vacation, soless liquidity in markets, wilder swings. it may be coincidence but in august is the month where global
markets seem to melt down. >> reporter: all righir neil n of the "new york times." thank you very much. >> thanks, jeff. >> nawaz: stay with us. coming uon the newshour: the crisis is already here. climate change and the warming of america. reevaluating president reagan in light of newly released audio recordings. and keeping alive nativeer amican traditions at an international folk art festival. coal ash is an especially bad and dangerous byproduct of our dependence on coal and fossil fuels.er now he years, a number of communities have dealt with coal ash spills that have turned into emergencs with real public health concerns over what's seeped into the water.c in some ples, utilities have been pushed to adopt tougher standards. but as miles o'brien reports, some residentsnd activists say the power companies are fighting changes that could help protect publ health. it's part of our regular segment on "the leading edge" of science
and technology. >> reporter: this is the well water?>> his is the well water. >> reporter: and this is 2015. at the kitchen table in her home of 41 years near charlotte, laura tench showed me t official notice that rocked her world in 2015. the rth carolina division of public health recommends that your well war not be used for drinking and cooking. what's it like when you got a notice like that? >> scary.w you don'nt to turn on the spigot. >> reporter: her well water was more like a witches brew-- among the frightening ingredients: cancer causers hexavalent chromium, ten times the state safety threshold and vanadium, almost 30 times thendard. she anher family had no choice, forced to rely swaely on bottler for nearly three years. >> i would not allow my children to take a tub bath. they had to take a quick shower, no luxury. >> reporter: look far to find the suspected source of the contamination:
the 62-year-old allen steam nt.tion coal fired power p it sits right next to the neighborhood, and right in the middle of a raging national debate over what to do about the toxic remnan lt behind after the coal is burned. what's leftover is ash, and in addition to hexavalent chromium, it ctains arsenic, mercury, thallium, selenium, lead and more. there are 16 million tons of coal ash here at allen. duke energy spokesperson erin culbert gave me a tour. what are we seeing here? what's all around us? >> well, really as far as the eye can see in all these' directions, were looking at coal ash. >> reporter:e the ash dukergy creates today is either used te make concretd wallboard or kept dry and stored in lined landfills. but for decades, duke and other utilities mixed the ash with water and sent a steady stream of the toxic mix, into deep unlined pits, with no barrier between the ash and the
groundwater. in all, duke owns 23 coal firedn in five states, 14 in north carolina, whe they store about 153 million tons of coal h. 101 million tons of it sitting in 23 unlined pits. >> this was certainly decadesre behe u.s. e.p.a. was in place and before today's regulations that would rruire those lis. so, most of the ash basins that we operate were constructed at n liners weren't required. >> reporter: each year, u.s. utilities generate 100 million tons of coal ash, one of the laest industrial waste streams in the country. >> it took me a long time to get over the angiter ohat duke knew this and they didn't do anything they were supposed to. they were supposed to be responsible. >> reporter: given the unknowns abouncer and the latency between exposure and symptoms, it is all but impossible to conclusively connect the toxins to a particular illness in one individual.
but laura tench is surrounded by cancer. she lost her husband jack to the disease last year, and many of her neighbors have similar stories. >> they call the street in front of me, cancer street. john died first and he is gone. my husband died from cancer. mary ann next door died from cancer. you can't tell me that these people, just because they're past 50 it's normal for them get cancer and die. and there's too many people they're ing on my little reet. they're killing us. >> duke energy responded with the highest level of c. we offered to provide bottled water for those folks while we were continuing too more testin >> reporter: coal ash and its consequences burst into public consciousness in 2008, when an earthen dam at a power plant in kingston, tennessee collapsed - sending more than a billion gallons of ash-tainted waterr into a riv. this caught attorney frank holleman's attention. >> we're using 21st century
technology to take pollutants out of the smoke stack, and ther using 14th century technology to dispose of the ash and the pollutants we pull out of the smoke stack. it's the most dangerous, and the most primitive way you could store this toxic industrial waste. >> reporter: so holleman, the southern environmental law center and local activists began a decade long battle to end the reckless dumping. they started suing utilities to comp them to store the coal ash in a safer manner. it was a david versus goliath struggle: duke energy, which towers over the charlotte skyline, is one of the largest electric utilities in the u.s., a monopoly witbimore than $2ion in revenue. and yet the plaintiffs won, again and agteain, repy forcing utilities to dispose of coal ash in dry, lined landfills in virginia and south carolina as well as north carolina. >> ultimately, the duke energy
operating companies in the state pleaded guilty 18 times to clean water act crimes and remained on criminal probation today. >> reporter: in north carolina, the tide turned fully against unlined coal ashthits in 2014. 's when a broken pipe at a duke energy power plant caused a huge coal ash spill into the dan river. it prompted the first state law regulating coal ash storage later that year. virginia and illinois followed and so did the environmental protection agency. but the trump epa has loosened the rules and extended the deadlines. then in september 2018, high water generated by hurricane florence csed a coal ash spill at sutton lake near wilmington north rolina. in april, state regulators uppe the anlling duke that all the remaining unlined basins must be excavated and moved to dry landfills. the state has asked you to do .? >> they ha
>> reporter: and you're appealing? >> we respectfully disagree with their position. hat a one size fits all is the wrong approach. >> reporter: duke agreed tli excavate 22 d pits and move the ash to dry, lined landfills. but the compy is refusing to pdo the same at nine others, including here at allen. instead, the drain the water and cover the ash with soil and a liner. capped in place. >> some of the common denominators around the tes that we propose capping would involve sites that are not at risk oflooding from the adjacent water body. in all of these circumstances, the water flow is goinaway from neighbors and would not have the future opportunity to impact their drinking water wells. >> reporter: on our tour of allen, culbert showed how the comp.y reached that conclusi to be sure the coal ash is notin migratg, there are 200 groundmo watenitoring sites around thplant, and routine testing on the river. but tracing toxins from coal ash
is a complex task as many of them, including hexavalent chromium, occur naturally. at duke university, geochemist and coal ash expert avner vengosh has developed a test that measures not one chemical, but an array of them, in samples to identify meif it from coal ash or not. the whole mixture an to a chemical fingerprint. >> it's not black and white. weo see evidence for contamination in shallow groundwater, but we have not seen the arrosival of of contaminants into drinking water wells. it could come anytime. it still may be happening in some places, >> reporter: despite the ambiguity, vengosh says coal ash needs to be treated as hazardous waste. treat it in the w we actually manage hazardous waste in this country. we put it in a system that is isated and there are technical solutions to do so. it's only a matter of, first,
awareness and then economics. >> reporter: t multi layered liners and the excavation of the coal ash are expensive. at the allen site,uke energys estima excess of half a billion dollars and two decades to do the job. capping in place is a lot cheaper and faster: 185 million dollars and less than nine years.we >> iave to excavate all of these ash basins, that takes a lot of money, billions of dollars away from cleaner investments in renewables and her types of technologies. >> we know the solution. it's a shame that people were ever exposed to these risks but it's a shame if we don't stop these risks as soon as we reasonably can. >> reporter: laura tench and her neighbors are now attached to the municipal water supply. but that does not change their view of duke energy's responsibility. at this point you want duke to do the right thing, so what is the right thving? >> they to have these things lined. we have ben told to take care
of the environment and we're not doing it. everyone is responsible not only duke but we're responsible to make sure th care of.being taken we need to stop using coal. it's the bottom ne >> reporter: she is practicing what she preaches-- installing solar panels on her roof not long afterur visit. she looks forward to using clean power, and sending less money to duke. for the pbs newshour, i'm miles o'brien in belmont, north carolina. >> nawaz: now, a secon environmentl story on a much larger scale. scientists have warned frequently that we need to stop the planet from warming an additional two degrees celsius abovpre-industrial levels to avoid catastrophic problems. a new analysis of temperature data by "the washington post" finds many major areas across
the united states have reached or are already nearing that two degree mark. it also found significant variations across the country. chris moey from "the washington post" is here to lay out how some parts of the u.s. are being impacted more than others. chris, welcome to the "nnkshour". >> tou. great to be here. >> nawaz: it's a sweeping analysis, looking across decades and decades of data. ll me how you came to know what you know. >> we set out to just look at some hints that i seen in scientific studies and other places about some parts to ha the globe warming much faster than others and there being some impacts, strar dramatic, in these places, and we said can we, you know, look at this more widely and, sure enough, we can. n.o.a.a. has a great complete data set for the united states down to the county level ba to 1895 all the way through. that's what we looked ad at and sure enough there are hot spots
acss the lower 48 states. alaska is warming even more, but across the lower 48 there are some dramatic areas. >> nawaz: what did you find across the lower 48, pat snrns. >> yes. one to have the most striking patterns is the northernorder the country from roughly montana all the way to maine is, you know, repeatedly high levels of warming compared to what's below it, and if you were to look at canada, you would see thatontinuing. so it's something about northern land areas are warmingasr. we think this has something to do, probably, with the winter season and with snow melting faster than bare grounds exposed and exposing more solaris radiation, ts a process that scientists think will play out on climate change and given what we're seeing with the pattern having to do with the harth, we suspect that's it is. there are other hot spots as well but that's one to have the ggest patterns. >> nawaz: temperature data is one thing, but what does that 1 or 2 degrees celsius change mean on the ground?
>> we look at new jersey because it's about 1.9 celsius and rhode island is 2 2. we went to a lake in new jersey and it's great way to tell the story because, 100 years ago, this was sort of this winter wonderland where people would ice skate, ice fish,y t had giant winter carnivals and skaters and ice boats, ice saing, plus it was an ice factory and they chopped up the ice, there was so mu of it, to ship it to new york because there were no refrigerators, so they would use the ice to keep things cold for large numbers of people. and now, the lake very hard to even hold ice fishing contests anymore. e lake is overgrowing with weeds that are being helped almeg by the wr temperatures and had a dangerous algae room which occurs more frequently when temperature rise so it's a giant change that's happened. >> nawaz: it's a giant change when you look at over 100-plus
years. have people on the groundeen noticing change, too? >> yes, you go to the lake and sa h whatpened? they say we don't have those winter anymore, can't do the pastimes, the ice fishing. some areas still can do it because the weather varies a great deal, but across new jersey winters change the fastest and you see all the effects related to winter, so one of the things that happens is you get different growths of wees in the lake, you get pestse that to die because the winter was too cold for them. they now come upne and visi places, and, so, you have the pin --new jersey is infested wie southern pine beetle and they're destroying the trees. ticks are a phenomenon acrossrt the ast and a lot of agriculture paths are on the move. a lot of big changes. >> nawaz: l of the hot spots, alaska stands out to you. it's been warming faster than any other part.
>> sure. >> nawaz: what are you seeing. it's the arctic. the arcti is in a class of its own. people are surprised to learn it's in the lower 48. alaska is 2.2 celsius, but there are parts of alaska like the north slope that are way, way above that. >> nawaz: you note if your article that global warming doesn't apply itself across the globe, certainly not in the as., sore there parts of america that don't feel this at all? >> the sou stands t as not having warmed in the 120-yearod pet all and even in mississippi and alabama, it's cooling. it has to do with air pollution in the middle ofhe centur and natural variability of the climate. they are actually warming the last 50 years but that gets outweighed by the pryer part of the period so they e up wit nothing, so it's a variable picture. >> nawaz: within this o country, there are two different stories when it comes to how people are experiencing climate change, obal warming, how does
that affect the the national conversation? >> it is difficult because it affects people's perceptions in ways of different on the other hand, because there are 71 counties and some are very populated, we have 10% of the population in those counties, so it's a national story. ute impacts will be playing o in a lot of regions. we've got rocky mountain regionc southeifornia, we've got the whole northern stretch. it affects a lot of different regions, just not evenly. so it hink that iis the united states as a whole that needs to be paying attention to it, not just some parts. >> nawaz: but the fascinating report is how stunning and sweeping it is, available at "the washington post" now. chris mooney, thank you so much for being here. >> great to be with you. >> nawaz: a recently unearthed audio recording of ronald reagan from 1971 has raised questions about the former president's views on race.
lisa desjardins takes a closer look now at the comments made nearly fifty years ago, and reagan's com >> desjardins: in the early 1970s, ronald reagan was governor of california, and already a national name in republican pitics. on the morning of october 26, 1971, reagan called up president nixon at the white house. >> hello? >> mr. president? hope i didn't get you out of bed. >> no, i'm... ( laughs )s: >> desjardheir 12-minute chat was captured on president nixon's white house tapes, and was released in full by the national archives just last month. it includes governor reaganlu using a racistto describe a group of african diplomats at the united nations. >> last night, i tell you, to tch that thing on television, >> desjardins: reagan was reacting to this u.n. session the day before, where the u.s.
lost major votes over the rise of china, and whether communist china should be seated as the official chinese delegation. beijing won with a coalition of nations that included many developing nations. the result led some, including the tanzanian delegation, tot buto celebration. for historia reagan's reaction to that moment is a new data point. h.w. brands is a reagan biographer, and professor at the university of texas at austin. reagan's 1971 words to nixon surprised him. >> i read his diaries, i read his letters,ha 't heard him say anything like this. so i was frankly curious and a bit puzzled. reagan wrote two memoirs and in both of themoi he made a of the fact that his father jack reagan had taught him and reagan's brother to not engage in discrimination because jack the father was irish-- aicirish cath and he himself had suffered discrimination. so he made a point to his sons that this is not the way you should behave.
>> desjardins: when reagan launched his 1966 bid to become california governor, his 30-minute ad showed two sides of thking. one was "get tough on crime," at one point comparing violent areas to jungles. >> the only thing that's gone up more than spending, is crime. our city streets are jungle darks after >> desjardins: the other was soaring rhetoric about equality. >> those few who chose to walk with prejudice, will walk alone. never again, should any parent know the heartbreak of explaining to a child that he is to be denied some of the od our country has to offer, because in some way he's different. >> desjardins: brands has his own theory about the new audio, that reagan's slur was an attempt to sway president nixon, who is now known to have made rast comments, privately. >> at least part of it, reagan is using, i think, this language operationally-- to try to move nixon in the direction he wants nin to go. >> desjardins: but other historians disagree deeply about the new audio.
>> so, my reaction was a little bit of surprise but not shock. >> desjardins: historiansond harvard asciate professor leah wright rigeur is thinking of the long debeaate over rn's view of black america. under reagan, african americans saw poverty and incarceration rise. historians have debated why. >> now, we actually have a broader context about ronald reagan-- one wherein he is using racial slurs and that he is, you know, he is talking about black people, and in this case africans, in a pejorative and negative and regressive sense. so now wt we have to do is reconcile that prejudice witroh ld reagan's actual policies and programs and the things that he did on e ground. >> desjardins: reagan's record offers much to examine. he stressed states' rights during his 1980 presidential campaign, a phrasessociated with small-government philosophy but also with segregationists. >> i'm trying to prevent discrimination with this iina of
eliminatquotas. >> desjardins:e fought affirmative action, decried those with welfare benefits as gaming the system, and increased prison rates for minorities. all, he argued, as part of slimmer, safer government that encouraged people to stand on their own feet. reagen did ethe voting rights act for 25 years, though he initially tried to soften some of the law's protections. and, while he was reluctant ti establish a al holiday to celebrate martin luther king, reagan did ultimately signsl leion to do so. >> let us not only recall dr. king, but rededi tte ourselves commandments he believed in and sought to live every day. >> desjardins: for some,sike h.w. bra, reagan disdained discrimination but focused on other policies and problems. >> reagan never pretended to be a hero of civil rights. he really did believe that laws that were made at the state level were generally better than laws that were made at the national level. reagan was a small government consvative. >> desjardins: but, in leah
wright rigueur's assessment, it's more soing up his policies against his messaging... >> it's morng inain in america. >> desjardins: ...like reagan's iconic 1984 "morning in americ"" campaign ad, which shows many different faces of americans. >> under the leadership of president reagan, our country is prouder, and stronger, and better. >> over the course of his career, reagan and his strategists adand hisers figure out that one of the most politically powerful and insuting things that they can do is actually use the language and symbolism of inclusivity and tolerance ens they are having different kind of conversations with aud snces like whitherners around states' rights that ha traditionally held racialized and discriminatory meaning. >> desjardins: both historians note that other modern presidents also have complicated histories on this subject. consider president lyndon
johnsonyn. >>n johnson grew up in texas which is a state of the confederacy.on and lyohnson had to deal with all sorts of rampant racists in texas. and when he was speaking to them he spoke a language that they could understand, a language that e wouldn't speak in public a language they wouldn't speak in other contexts. but he was also one whivis very effeat getting people to go along with him. >> we have somebodhnlike lyndon n on tape saying all kinds of awful things abouacrace, sayingt things, saying discriminatory things, saying sexist things. we also know that during his presidency, he is instrumental in really forcing congress to pass the most comprehensive civil rights bill the nation had ever seen. and so all of those things can be true and coexist at the same time. >> desjardins: the renewed debate over president reagan and race comes as he has become a botouchstone for leaders i parties. last month democratic houser
speancy pelosi referred to some of reagan's pro-immigrant words to rebuke president tmp. >> he is denigrating all of thec newcomers the to our country in completheopposition toeautiful words of ronald reagan in the last speech that he made to the country as esident of the united states. >> the doors were open to anyone with the will and the heart to get here. >> desjardins: reagan, the great communicator, knew the power of words. now there is even more debate over how he used them. for the pbs newsdiur, i'm lisa ns. >> so we may be, always, free. >> nawaz: every summer, masterro artists fromd the world gather in santa fe, new mexico. the international folk art market showcases art that preserves cultural traditions and brings economic opportunities to poor
communities worldwide. special rrespondent kathleen mccleery has our start of "canvas," our ongoing arts and cuure series. >> reporter: in her rural new mexico studio,ative american jewelry maker mary louise tafoya slices the raw materials that will form intricate mosaicys inor necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. >> i'm wearing a piece right now, you see. a lot of people think they're painted. and i tell them no, they're not painted. they're inlaid with natural stones and shells. >> reporerr: h husband, lorenzo, helps, sanding, grinding, d polishing. tafoya's work is exhibited in museum shos and galleries throughout the southwest and beyond. prices start at $35 for a small pair of earrings, and can go up to $4,000 for large necklace. still, being invited to the world's largest folk art market came as a surprise. >> i was amazed. i was excited. i said, me. little me.
how did i ever get up there. >> reporter: the couple reent months cing more than a hundred items to bring to santa fe. each july, those chosen flock to new mexico's capital. this year, more than 170 from 52 countries. they were welcomedparade around the city's historic plaza at the start of a three-day celebration of global art and culture. >> reporter: stuart ashman is the market's c.e.o. >> please say saalam to ethiopia. >> this is a recognition on the world stage, if you will. this is the major rtagues of folk. and there are hundreds if not thousands ofer native an jewelers, and she got picked. >> reporter: the tafoyas live on the kewa pueblo, also known by its spanish name, santo domingo. ore rural community of about
3000 traces its hito ancient people who inhabited this part of northern new mexico more than 800 ars ago. >> i grew up with it. >> reporter: tafoya's tribe has long been knlrown for its je her designs are inspired by her ancestors. preserving cultural e ritage is onason artists are chosen to attend, says ashman. >> everything has to bma ha. must be rooted in tradition, whether it's the tradition as it was done 1,000 years ago or whether that tradition has evolved. >> reporter: quality and are key.ity a rigorous selection process results in only the best being select . >> everybowho is here in santa fe for the first time, will you pleanase up? >> reporter: newcomers like tafoya attend training sessions before the market begins, and get tips on how to tell their story to potential buyers, from high end collectors to shoppers looking for the perfect gift. consultant karen gibbs leads the effort. >> customers are not here just to buy a product. they want to buy product that
has a story to it, that has a" why" behind it. >> it's just what comes up from here. >> reporter: tafoya exchanged stories with a gold filigree jewelry maker from sardinia and a bead worker from the maasai tribe in kenya. >> i'm learning a lot, this is something different for me. >> i have fiwive peopl me. >> reporter: when the gates open, crowds flood in. over the three-day weekend, about 25,000 people visit this andmade art. this is the 16th anniversary of the market, and the first to include u.s. artists, among them mary tafoya. >> it's an international art fair, folk art fair. ew could you not include united states, how could you exclude the united states when there are so many incredible artists here. >> reporter: but you did for 15 years. >> the real reasons that u.s.- born artists have opportunities that people from these other countries don't have. >> reporter: a stroll through the maze of booths feels like a trip around the wod from paintings done with sticks by aborigines in central australia, to magic carpets
woven in uzekistan's ancient city of bukhara. rais year's hono chair is aba mandela, activist and 37- year old grandson of the south african leader. >> it's not just about new mexico, right, it's about the world. >> reporter: at a south africa booth, mandela checked out retro eyewear inspired by traditional zulu beadwork.t >> wm seeing here is a celebration of the diversity of humanity. wh you come together, we'll be able to eliminate our weaknesses. >> reporter: the artists take o hoaverage 85% of their sales. unlike many festivals held across the country on summer and fall weekends, this one promotes social changf e, and 90% othe artists filter proceeds back home to provjoid, empower women and revive traditional crafts. market officials say the sales have touched the lives of more than a million people worldwide. >> some of these people make more than a year's saly in a f eken
and so obviouslyu have a great deal of prosperity, you come back and you share that. >> reporter: the tafoyas see the market as a way to give back to their community, too, using s to motivate up and coming pueblo artists. >> i think that's kind of what we want those artists to see. go the extra mile, s what you can do on your own. >> you know, show your talent and don't be afraid of it. >> reporter: market goers spend more than $3 million over the three days.t r ashman, a purchase here is more than a financial transaction. >> art absolutely connects people. and transcends all of those issues that divide people. that's really the ultimate goal. you can say this is what world peace looks like. >> reporter: or perhaps it's a small start. for the pbs newshour, i'm kathleen mccleery in santa fe, new mexico.
>> nawaz: join us tomorrow online for a livestream of the annual forum of the harvard university hutchins center for african american research. this year's theme: "divided we stand: can we overcome?" starting at 5pm eastern. weu can find a link to the livestream on ousite: www.pbs.org/newshour. and that's the newshour for tonight. i'm amna nawaz. join us online and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us at e pbs newshour, thank you and see you soon. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has bn provided by: >> ordering tangout. >> finthe west route. >> talking for hours. >> planning for showers. >> you can do the things you like to do with a wireless plan designed for you. talk, text and data. consumer cellular. learn more at consumercellular.tv
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