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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  August 15, 2019 3:00pm-4:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, odc >> nawaz: vening. i'm amna nawaz. judy woodruff is away. on the newshour tonight: barred from entry. israel takes step of denying entry to two members of the u.s. congress. where does it leave the relationship between the two countries? then, crisis in venezuela. ambassador carlos vecchio joins us for an update at a critical moonnt for the embattled na and, parenting by the numbers. a new baby means a never-ending supply of advice, but wh eatually works? one economist it all down. >> i try to go through all of the studies, pick out the ones that i think are most convincing and are giving us something that is closes to a causal relationship. n az: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour.
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>> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: life well-planned. learn more at raymondjames.com. >> babbel. a language learning app that uses speech recognition technology and teaches real-life conversations. >> and by the alfred p. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved economic performance and financial literacy in the 21st century. >> carnegie corporation of new
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york. supporting innovations in education, democratic eagagement, and the advancement of international and security. at carnegie.org. >> a s with the ongoiport of these institutions: and individuals. >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> nawaz: israel is barring two muslim u.s. congresswomen from visiting jerusalem and the west bank. democratic representatives ilhan omar of minnesota and rashida tlaiof michigan are both critics of israel's policy towards palestinians. prime minister benjamin netanyahu reversed his earlier decision visit after president trump
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urged him to deny their entry. mr. trump defended his stance before leaving for a rally in hew hampshire a short time ago:y >> they are nti-jewish and they're very anti-israel. i think it's disgraceful thesa things they'v. you have ltists, this isn't j a one-line mistake, what they've said about israel and jewish people is horrible thing. and they've become the face of the democrat paraw. >>: we'll take a closer look at the impact of today's unprecedented decision after the eaws summary. gibraltar has rd the iranian taasnker it seized month under suspicion of trsporting oil to syria, a violation of international sanctions. authorities allowed the tanker to leave the britishry, defying a last-minute effort by the u.s. to claim possession. iranian foreign miniter mohammad javad zarif tweeted the u.s. request was a "piracy attempt." but he gave no indication that iran would release the british i tankseized in retaliation. in philadelphia, the gunman in
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yesterday's hours-long standoff with police is now in custody. 36-year-old maurice hill has a criminal record that includes firearms chaes. he has not yet been charged. hill fired more than 100 rounds at police as they were trying to rve a drug warrant. anx officers were wounded in the seven-hour ff before hill surrendered. today, the city police commissioner described the harrowing wait. >> for a long time last night, i know our collti hearts were in our throats, not just at that scene, but probably for many pehole not knowinthis was going to end. and i have itto be honest you, in the beginning of that scene, bng there, i did no think it would end nearly the way it did. >> nawaz: the six wounded officers have all been released from the hospital. a coroner said today that the gunman who killed nine people in dayton, ohio earlier this month had alcohotil, cocaine, and depressants in his system. authorities also found a bag of
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cocae in his pocket. police fatally shot the 24-year- old gunman at the scene. scientists say july was the hottest month meas since record-keeping began in 1880. that's according to the national oceanic and atmospheric administration here in the u.s. on average, july was nearly two degrees armer than the 20th century average for the month. a deadly cross-border firefight broke out between indian and pakistani forces today, the latest escalation over the disputed region of kashmir.io te have flared there since the indian government revoked the territortos political my last week. indian prime minister narendra modi defended the status change today, dur celebrations.nce day >> ( translated ): the old arrangements during the cost 70 years uraged secessionism. they gave birth to terrorism and nurtured nepotism. and in a way, they mads the foundati corruption and discrimination stronger. and that is why we had to ensure that the women in kashmitsget their ri and the rights available to the
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tribal communities in the rest of india should also be available in kashmir. >> nawaz: but few attended independence day celebrations in shmir's in city. nearly 4 million people in the indian-administered part of kashmir are in their 12th day of an unprecedented security and communication blackout. >> ( translated ): we are facing a lot of difficulties. we are not celebrating independence day. everything is shut down here. you won't be allowed to go anywhere. everything is locked down. >> nawazthe u.n. security council is set to discuss the tense situation in kashmir tomorrow, in response to requests fm neighboring pakistan and china. back in this country, ere are new questions today about the circumstances surrounding accused sex trafficker jeffrey epstein's apparent death by suicide in a manhattan jail. "the washington post" reported today that the autopsy, which has yet to be made public, found that epstein's neck was broken in several places. such injuries can occur in ade h by hanging or in someone who was strangled.
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unclear when th autopsy results will be made public. the house judiciary committee issued two new subpoenas today as part of its investigation into the trump presidency. the democratic-led panel isre requestingdent trump's former campaign manager corey lewandowski and former deputy chief of staff rick dearborn testify at a public hearing on september 17. both played significant roles in special counsel robert mueller's report on the president's possible obstruction of justice. a federal court in san francisco has ueld an order requiring u.s. immigration officials to provideood, water and basic hygiene items to children detained at the u.s.-mexico borde a lower court ruling said conditions at the facilities did not meet safety and sanitation standards from a 1997 settlement agreement. the trump administration had appealed the decisionir but the 9thit court of appeals today sided with the lower court. former colorado governor john hickenlooper dropped out of the presidential race today. that brings the number of
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candidates vying for the decratic nomination to 23 hickenlooper said he is now considering a senate bid, fing off against republican incumbent cory gardner who's up for re-election next year. and on wall street, stocks attempted to claw tir way back into positive territory after suffering their worst day of 2019. the dow jones industrial average gainenearly 100 points to close at 25,579. the nasdaq fell seven points. and the s&p-500 added seven. still to come on the newshour: what's next for the u.s. - israeli relationship now that two u.s. congresswoden have been nied entry? heightened tensions in hong kong as china signals the potential for a crackdown. venezuela's opposition ambassador on his country's ongoing political and economic crisis. plus much more.
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>> nawaz: we return to our top story, israel banning two -american congresswomen from entry. in a tweet this morning president trump said israel would show "great weakness" by allowing the congresswomen to enter. he added that the representatives "hate israel and all jewi the president has targeted the two representatives repeatedly, as pt of a four-woman freshman democratic group that's dubbed itself "the squad." tlaib and omar have faced criticism in the past f their statements on israel, which some critics have called anti-semitic, and their support for the boycott, divestment and sanctions, or b.d.s. movement, designed to pressure israel to leave the palestinian lands and recognize their rights by targeting israeli companies, as well as international companies, universities and other groups that invest in israel. in 2017 israeli lawmakers passed a law that can bar entry to people considered advocates of the nternational b.d.s.
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movement, last month the u.s. house of representatives passed a resolution condemning the b.d.s. movement as one that "promotes principles of collective guilt, mass punishment and oup isolation." president trump's stance puts him at odds with rebublican congresousmen, like minority leader kevin mccarthy who was in israel this week. >> speseaking with the ent, he knows there are people who have differences of opinion. i think it would be healthy for e who has that opinion should come just as all these member ss have, , and i feel very secure in this, anyone who comes with open ears, open eyes and an open mind will walk away with an understanding, just as all these members here do, that this bond is unbrkable." >> nawaz: israeli prime minister benjamin netanyahu isn the e of a close ele campaign, and critics say he can't afford to appear weak while facing criticism of israel. now for reaction from a former top iipsraelimat.
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danny ayalon served as deputy foreign minister from 2009 to 2013, and as israeli ambassador to the united states from 2002 to 2006. ambassador ayalon, welcomes ack to the nur. i want to ask you about what the israeli ambassador said last month. he said "the lawmakers would be allowed to visit out of spected to the great alliance between israel and america." that was last month. what changed between then and now? >> i would say two things.t fif all, there was an invitation by the bipartisan delegation, and we have had here last weekasically 70 members of congress from both parties headed by both majority and minority leader, and it would have been much better for them to come then. they refused. not only that, they have decid
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on their own accord to actually ignore israel, too only to the palestinian side. they areponsored by an organization, palestinian one, which supports terrorism, and ih k that by the latest analysis, the reason for this sit was just a clear provocation and really to harm and hurtisraeli interests. >> nawaz: i want to be clear about something, ambassador. you mention they had bn invited previously, you are saying if they had visited with that other delegation th b would han welcome in israel? >> by all means. you know, israel is a fre country. we're a democracy. we are not afraid of criticism. if anything, you know, israelis are the most severe and fierce criti of themselves and of our own government. >> nawaz: you tweeted that the israeli government accepted the u.s. administration's suggestion, their recommendation, and that's what
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led to the ban. so how is this to be seen? is this the israel guy government taking orders from president trump and the u.s.at adminisn on who is allowed in and who is not? >> i believe that the main issue s on the merit of the provocation, however, what added i'm s ture decision, although from jerusalem i hear otherwise, but nobody can deny the president's tweet, once there is a reque from the president of our best friend and ally, you know, the united states of america, certainly you have to heed or you have to take into consideration their request. so i'm sure this was also added into the mix. and you can here invoke a waiver because of what we call national interest. >> nawaz: mr. ambassador, as part of the justiion for denying them entry, president netanyahu said their support for this bbs mwaement part of
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that decision. israel has long held itself a bastion of democracy. doesn't this send the message anyone who is critical of the government won't be welcome? >> there is a differencetw n a criticism and undermining the very legitimacy and existence of a state. d democracies also have the right, i would say the obligation to, defend themselvet this group is just calling for boycotts and sanctions against israel, it's not just criticizing any israeli policy, awhich is fairnd legitimate, but actually they are undermining the very existence. the battle cry of the bds movement is basically from the river to the sea palestinian will be free. if you look at the map, fr the,y isel, there is no room for any other state let alone the jewish state. >> nawaz: let me ask you:ha israealso welcomed people who have clearly used anti-semitic rhetoric in .the pa i'm talking about hungary's
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leader viktor orbaán, also an italian leader. both of them have been anti-semites in some of their litical language. they were welcomed to israel. what's the difference in. >> they respect the country. they promote cooperation with c ouountry. and if they did have anti-semitic references, of course we would not condone itwo and wd call them out. >> nawaz: former ambassador danny ayalon joining us tonight. thank you very muchor your time. >> my pleasure. >> nawaz: for a lawmaker's perspective nowe turn to representative bradsherman, a senior member of theouse foreign affairs committee and a democrat from california. congressman sherman, welcome back to the news 7news "today in newhour. way on the ask you to respond. both congresswomen tlaib and omar would have been welcome with the bipartisan delegation. he saw this visit setup as a provocaouon. what doay to that? >> well, he's trying to put
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rhaps a better face on it, an israeli pride face on it. the israeli government were going to let my two colleagues in until they were pressured by trump. now, it's tough for any country to say they're bepgdg to that kind of pressure, "when: the scientific secrets of perfect timing" you're a tiny country en ou are a tiny country with one friend in the world and youf get that kind pressure, and foreign countries tend to red sox at our executive as the main urce of our power, they don't fully understand the role of congress under our constitution, when you're under that kind of coercive power, you respond to it. the fault here is donald trump, because while he claims to be a friend ael, he is trying to delegitimize isra or at least hurt israel with about half the population of the united states, including those eso support the role of congr its oversight and fact gathering responsibilities.
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so trump claims to be a friend of israel, i call him a pseudozionist. >> nawaz: there is a law on the books in israel from 2017 that ahourthem to ban entry to anyone who is seen as a supporter of this bds movement. they ve barred from entry other people before. is it different somehow now because it's two members of congr >> israel has m welcomelim leaders, muslim officials from all over the world, including those who are nominally in support of therab boycott of israel. israel rolled out the red caet for president sadat when he came to jerusalem at a time when hsi country was at war with israel technically ander isly -- and certainly supported the boycott of israel. the israelis made the rights deion, which was to let my two colleagues in. they were forced out of that in a way that is harmful to israel by the coercive pressure of the
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president. but let's al put in context, and i think danny did this well, thiss not your regular boycott movement. i mean, i've got a friend otwo who won't buy a toyota becauseap they want to stop killing whales. they're not trying to force every japanese citizen out of asia and to be killed or somehow drifted into the pacific, but the international leaders of the bbs move. ment are trying not the try to get israel to change this or that policy, but to try to remove every jew from theiddle east, just as hitler wanted a jewish-free europe, this bds groupmi wants a jewish-frele east. >> nawaz: let me ask you about that, sir. do you believe your colleagues have the right to support that bds movement? >> i think my colleagues support changes in the policy of israe
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i have no reason to think that they support the idea of excluding every jew and every israeli from the middle eas >> nawaz: sir, before i let you know -- >> but there are supporters. >> naz: i know your time is limited. i want the make sure i ask this of you. do you worryoday's decision to ban both those members of congress from entry will have an impact on u.s.-israeli relations >>srael has oe friend in the world. it cannot afford to have only one half of one friend in the world. trump is a pseudo zionist who has forced in the name of helping israel, which is most pernicious part of it, has forcetthe israeli governm to take an action which will slightly wkeisraeli support here in the united states. i think we can recover from, th but it clearly is not a day when e israeli governmen was able to do what it had decided to do, which was to admit my two colleagues.
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>> nawaz: democratic ngressman bradsherman of california, thank you very much for your ti. nawaz: calm largely prevailed in hong kong today, but the city braced for more large protests this weekend, as menacing talk continued from beijing. chinese security forces mustered just across hong kong's border, and presdent trump inserted himself into the tense standoff. specintal corresponruce harrison reports from hong kong. >> reporter: soldiers marched amid ya sea of paramilit vehicles parked near the border dividing china from hong kong. chinese military exees wday-- a reminder of beijing's thinning patienceith its territory. it's nsanother warning agait protests engulfing hong kong which target beijing's efforts to whittle away at hong kong's autonomy.
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and t, ode rhetoric from top chinese officials again matched the military flex. >> their moves are severe and violent offences, and already show signs of terrorism. >> reporter: but hong kongers are parering for another weekend of demonstrations, which have edvento violent clashes with hong kong police. legal experts are warning hong ovkong'snment may also call on beijing's army garrison stationed in hong kong to intervene. >> if china is permitted to use fohee, i presume it will use force necessary to quell thing. >> reporter: david lampton is a research at the asia pacific research center. >> i think beijing has not decided whether or not to use force, hopes not to, but in the end if it's thatr control from the viewpoint of beijing, i have little doubt they would use the force they think necessary to quickly subdue it. >> reporter: today president trump expressed confidence that
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chinese preside xi would find a solion. and humanely solve the hong kong problem, he can," and today, predicted a "happy and enlightened" ending if xi arranged talks with pro-democracy hong kongers. but hopes for a dialogue may be just that. >> the idea of xi talking to protesters from a chinese pointed of view is an even worse idea, because the chinese have some experience of thatn 1989 when the then-premier talked to the protesters. one of the protesters, the lead one talking with him came in in pajama, humiliated the premier, and that probably even accelerated the move on the protests in tiananmen. >> reporter: as the stand off between china's mainland and
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hong kong stiffens, many in beijing feel it's only a matter of time before their government cracks down. >> ( translated ): the chinese national government will not allow you to dohis. causing chaos like this. you can tell people about your complaints, but if you use these extreme means then in the future you'll run intorouble. >> rporter: some hong kongers are growing weary of the chaos, too. >): what are the core values of hong kong? they are democracy, freedom, fairness and justice! but is it democracy for the onrioters to beat me if i agree with what they sa >> reporter: and the inconveniences, as some residents call them, will almost certainly continue this weeke. a number of demonstrations are planned on friday and saturday, including ralliestf students aneachers. but it's often been the marches through hong ng's streets that descend into violence between police and protestors. and another long march is scheduled for sunday, testing the patience of the local government and beijing. for the pbs newshour, i'm bruce harrison, in hong kong.
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stay with us. coming up on the newshour: a long-denied crisis comes to light: the contaminated water of newark, new jersey. the spirit of the times. faith leaders on the role of religion and racism at a divisive moment. and, parenting by the numbers. what economics can tell us about how to raise a child. the learship and the future of venezuela is deadlocked. oppor sition leadean guaido, whom the u.s. recogni, s as presides so far been unable to oust nichmas maduro. buuro retains support within the all-powerful venezuelan military. the two sides were at the negotiating table until earlier this month, when maduro left in protew st of s. sanctions. joining me now to discuss all of this is ambassador carlos vecch guaido government in washington. ambassador vecchio, welcome back.
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>> thank you for having me. n nawaz: so last week the trump administrattroduced tougher sanctions. i have to ask you, maduro has survived previous sanctions, protest, international pressure, even internal attempts to oust him. do ou think thesenew sanctions will have any effect? >> absolutely. i don't have any doubt that these will put more pressure on the maduro regime and will help to force maduro toacilitate transition in our country. it is important to highlight that these sanctions are targeting the maduro regime. they're targeting the inner arcle of maduro the people who are helping maduro to stay in power. it's not againsten the lands. the second point that is important in my vi this executive order is protecting the venezuelan assets he to avoid the diluting of our nation, to preserve those assets, and also it is important
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to mention that this executive order allows transactions related to food, medicines, and humanitarian aid to the vends -- venezuelan people. so it's putting the pressure wh >> nawaz: at the same time, the sanctions are what forced maduro to say enough a walk away from those talks. the talks offered enough for path forward. is that path now gown? >> maduro has always used negotiations as a way to manipulate th community.nal they have not agreed to anything on those negotiations. so the important thing in my view is to increase the pressure , not internationally, internally, inside of vends la. more than 85% of the people of venezuela are looki a change. we have a legitimate president in venezuela, juan guaido. juan guaido has b mome thet important person in venezuela in the last 2years. >> nawaz: let me ask you about those talks. they are ongoio ng. u think they will lead
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anywhere? even though maduro has left? >> we need to fce them. we need to force them. we need to conquer the power. they will not give you the powere . we aaling with alcan estate. we are dealing with a criminal organation. that is posh to keep in mind. that's why it's important to put morepressure on the maduro regime. >> nawaz: let me ask you about the military support that maduro asks. last month my colleague nick schifrin spoke with maduro's former chief, who has since rather defected to the u. take a listen to what he told my colleague nick schifrin. >> okay. great. >> >> ( translated ): have worked firsthand with nicholas maduro, after telling him abo the eruption i saw, i realized there was no will, too mucil, and too much desire for power. >> nawaz: is there any way you think to takmeaway f that military support toe eventually further weaken maduro? >> that's one example, a clear example, but theyave 200 military officers in venezuela. they have been detained and
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tortured. we havein been h contacts with many middle and lower ranks of the institution. they have venezuelan. nay are sufferinhe same people that all united people are suffering. at the the day, they will part the people of venezuela who are looking for a change. it is imporennt toonles that we cannot look at this as a ngngle event. we have been clim mountain every single day, moving forward. we're very close to the peak. i don't have any dutt that we'll conquer freedom again. >> woodruff: to that it's been going on for so long. talks do continue. are you concerned e longer this goes on maduro can run touted clock until maybe regime change as an inttesoes away in the international community. >> we need to keep our determination and also outside pressuzuela with the we have created. >> nawaz: do you think you can keep that up? >> absolutely. when you're fighting for freedom, you never lose
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momentum. will prevail. i'm fully confident, because the majority of people in venezuet ri now are looking for a change. in my view we are in an irreversible process of change that. change will come. 'm fully confident that we will prevail. >> nawaz: is full regime change the only acceptable outcome. would you accept a new election in -- >> what we want to do is thresoe political crisis, which has been created by maduro. >> nawaz: doesha tinclude maduro? >> the only way to resolve this is putting an end of the dictatorship. it's the only way to resolve that, otherwise the power structure will stay. we need theou take mad of power. we need to set oa transitinal government. an we need to call for a free and fair election in venezuela. that's to resolve the political crisis in our country. this is ourroposal. that's why we have been asking for the support of the international community. >> nawaz: in the meantime, i ashave to you, i have been on the border between venezuela and
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brazil. i tve met some ofse families who traveled days without eating, carrying their children and whatever else they can. their children have only ever lived in this state as it is right now. they're they will suffer for the rest of their lives, what is yourth message t the longer this takes town fold? >> this is a man-made disaster. ey have more than four million venezuelans to get out of our country looking farr future. maduro has created the largest refugee crisis this con nentd, and if maduro continues in power, it will be the first veone in the world, more important than the syrian refugee crisis. so we n my message to them is that we are looking for a change in venezuean, and we'll to set a transitional government in venezuela, and we would like to restre a democratic system so that we will have the conditions for the return of all venezuelans to cover our country. that's my main message. andles that we need to understand that maduro is a threat not only against even
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venezuela but against the entire world. if we want to have political stability in the region, we neod freegain. >> nawaz: ambassador carlos vecchio, thank you for being here. >> thank you, amna. >> nawaz: worries and anger over contaminated drinking water are growing by the day in newark, new jersey. a case that echoes the water crisichs in flint, an, high lead levels have been found in many newark homes. city officials wave distributed r filters since then. but the e.p.a. now says those filters may not be effective enough. that warning came after a handfteul of samples showed lead levels are well above the e.p.a.'s standard of 15 parts per billion. the e should be distributed to many residents. the matter now being fought in court, which lisa desjardins will discuss in a moment. but first, our collgues at njtv have covered the reaction
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in newark. here's brenda flanagan. >> reporter: ebony williams says she installed a pur filter cartridge from the city of newark on her kitchen faucet just a couple weeks ago. it's already blinking redand she wasn't able to get free bottled wate handed out by the city. the mom of two is deeply concerned about lead in her water after tests showed these filters failed in two other houses. officials are now planning a much broader survey of homes kith filtered water. have you had th tested for lead? >> i'm taking them today to williams street - instead of getting in line for the water, i'm gonna get in line for the lead test. >> if a parent is concerned their child's been lead-exposed, they should get their child tested. it's the only way to know for sure, if there's been exposure. the long term consequences both developmentally and neurologically are really staggering and irreversible. >> reporter: newark started distibuting filters last november, after officials learned lead from corroded service pipes was leaching into water supplied by the pequannock system. the c oity's hand more than
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38,000 pur filters but never tested whether they were working properly until this july and august because they're nationally-certified and endord by the e.p.a. residents are confused. >> at this point, it feels like it's a band-aid they're using to lull erne to think everything is okay. but it isn't enough. if the pipes need to be replaced, let's do that we're paying for water. i'm a homeowner. we're paying for watewe cannot us >> reporter: pequannock's water system connects to 14,730 lead i service linesnewark. administration sources say there's no evidence of systemic failure; perhaps it was a bad batch of filters. t they won't know until they further tests, and they're now developing a survey protocol. the e.p.a. ordered bottled water to be distributed in the meantime, but the first delivery from new jery's emergency management stores apparently displayed an expired "best by" date. th held up distribution for a few hours even though the f.d.a.
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has sted there's no limit to bottled water's shelf life. >> i came at 10, they told me, after 11. now iey'm back after 11, told me, after 1. so it's like all of this run- around. >> reporter: city officials are urging residents to run their water. that helps distribute the new anti-corrosion chemical, which should be working by year's end. williams worries about her younger son's lead levels. >> it's very hard for him to concentrate on certain things and the symptoms i've been reading up on lately-- he's following that trend. >> desjardinsthis all led to e start of a federal court hearing today. the natural resources defense council brought the lawsuit, accusing the city of tawark and the of new jersey of violating safe drinking water laws. the n.r.d.c. says bottled water must be distributed for all the erty's 285,000 residents
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anothember of the nrdc team on this story, michael hill, was in the courtroom and joins me now. michael, newark has acted essentially because they were sued. take us to the courtroom you were in today. i heard the judge had some very stro sng words. really did. and this really boiled down toda to corrosion control at the treatment facility. the experts or the environmentalists say it's not working well and it had been leading to very high parts per billion to lead being founin several homes. three of them, 18 parts per billion in one home, 56 parts per billion in one home, and 246 parts per billion at a home in newark, that's 16 times highe than the e.p.a. actionable level. now, the expert more for thety says, wait a minute, those levels are high because coosion control had been n issue. those issues are being resolved. we're seeing lead levels me down because of better and more stable treatment of water there. so what's the recommendation for homeowners caught up in the middle of this? the experts for the city says,
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well, just flush you water 15 to 30 seconds at the tapand the experts for the environment said that's woefully too low. he suggests five minutes, d he says that really depends on the forceful flow of the water.t' ifa slow force, five minutes may not be enough. if it's fast f mce, twoutes may do the job. quw, the judge did have some very pointetions. as a matter of fact, some points today, she took over questioning from both of thys attor because she wanted answers about the effectiveness of the corrosion control ann some simple things, lisa, such as is the water safe for bathing? is it safe for washi clothes? is it safe for washing dishes? is it safe for food prd aration o forth. the expert for the enviyeonmentalists sai lisa, it certainly is. >> nawaz: michael, let me get a couple more question on this. we've seen this story continue to pop up in city after city across the cotry. we know tens of thousands of people right there at least will be affected. with you talk about something
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else i saw your story, what appears to be an opening rift, rich versus poor and communities of color over this issue. >> for so people i certainly is. i had a conversation with the new jersey sierra club director this week talking about this issue. we've asked some lawmakers, as well, if this were taking pce perhaps inmont clair new york westfield new york short hill, some ubof thebs surrounding newark, would those suburbs still be dealing with this kind issue, we're talking about two, three decades down the road. a lot of the answers t come up are absolutely not. the sierra cl says the new jersey department of environmental protection is responsible for making sure that the water is clean, that it' of good quality in new jersey, and it really should be on the mrefront of trying to geey to resolve this issue in newark, which is so widespread. th d.e.p. commission we understand was for new jersey was actually in washington, d.c., meeting with the head of the e.p.a. today. lisa?
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>> reporter: michael, one question briefly, how long do you think citizens will have al with unsafe water? is it clear? >> it is not clear. these corrosion control i have to be resolved, and then there is a plan under way right now inewark. it is kind of piecemeal some describe it, an eight-year plan, $75 million to replace some of these lines that are going from the street into individuals ho, the homeowners, of course, on those lines. it is matter of funding, buat there i program under way, but some people say that needs to be expedited, and, in fact, what newark needs for this issue is a marshall plan. lisa? >> reporter: michael hill on this important story. thank you, michael. >> nawaz: during times of dirnsiveness, people often to faith leaders for guidance.
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jeff brown spe to two such leaders about how they see their roles in the currenpolarized political landscape. >> brown: some lead verse been mbng-time forces in national politics and a of evangelical lead verse been vocal supporters of the current administration. others tento seek out what they consider key moments. late last month leaders at the washington national cathedral released a very direct public message labeled a response to the p it reads in part, "as faith leaders, we serve at washington national cathedral, the sacred space where americahe g at moments of national significance. we feel compelled to act. after two years of presidentan trump's word actions, when will americans have enough? one of its authors joins us now, bishop marianne budde leads the episcopal diocese of washington. also with us to talk about the role of faith lead centers this political climate, richard lan president of the southern
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evangelical seminary. welcome to both of you let me start with you, bishop budde, why did you start to speak out and why not? >>ry 2 cou has become accustomed to speaking up each day to aaily barrage from president trump via social media, often abusive, slanderous and dishonest. these last few weeks, however, we felt thate had crossed a threshold of rhetic that had become dangerously racialized. first with his insults to the four women from the house of representatives, insinuating they did not belong in this country, and second wh his critique of representative cummings,insprehis attacks to the entire district of baltimore that he represents. he -- we wanted to say two thing first, this low level of political discourse need not be our normal for america, and
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second, the presint's words matter, and words such as the ones i cited have dangerous potential to encourage others, both to speak and then to act with condoned violence. that's why we spoke. >> brown: richard land, you have supported the ent on many policies. do you distinguish the policies from what bishobudde is referring to as a dangerous rhetoric? >> ye you know, if you look at the polling, 8 2% of white evangelicals voted for president trump, and if you talk to them, i would include myself among them, probably 80% of that 82 3-bgere not voting so much for the president as they were voting against mrs. clinton and against mrs. clinton's policies. i think that distinction is ma. in fact, i have told the president that he was my last choice in the primary. i wince when i read the tweets. i have said, i wish that s
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twitter had a clutch and an editor. >> brown: you wince, but bishop budde is calling for something much stronger. why not speak out about the implications or impact of such statements? >> i disagree with a of the interpretations of are evidence budde. i think at this parcular time we need to be as religious leaders not so much accusing people of racism or xenophobia as seeking to talk to each other, not at each other, and not in an accusatory way, an seeking to lower the temperature and lower the rhetoric. i have condemn racism my whole life, and by the way, i'm old enough that i have known real racists, an i know donaldrump not a racist. whairks is your response, bishop budde?
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another opportunity is to speak in a way, as richard land suggest, so try to ler the temperature. >> first of all, i would say the president of late a indeed throughout his presidency has done almost everything in h power to divide the country. and while i understand and agree with reverend land that we need to be talking respectfully with each other, in a sse, ifeel as a white american christian leader that it's my responsibility and the responsibility of others to acknowledge he damage that has been done and not just with the rhetor, but with the policies themselves. you see the rise of white supremacist groups who have complete freedom in their own mind to do what they say because of the psident's actions, and for him to come out afterward and to sasthat he d not condone hatred is -- it rings more than hallow irk let me letc richard lae in, because it is true that you have never been
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try about speaking out about policy, so why make this disshug between speaut forcefully on policies you believe in but not speaking out and suggesting we should tamp down when it's a question of rhetoric that, as we just heard, can have rl implications? >> i said that people should tamp down the rhetoric on all sides, and by the way, i hold deligious leaders to a higher standard than i holitical leaders. and i think religious leaders need the tamp down the language and the implications that people who support trump areacist. that's dangerous. it's inaccurate. and it's mccarthyism in reverse. itti proj of mccarthyism to say, if you support crump and you support his policies, then you're being a racist. it's implied that youe a racist. that's simply not true, and i would hope the people who are aying it know that it's not true. >> well, i would like to -- may i say something? >> i support donald trump primarily because he has been pro-le.
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irk bishop? >> i think there is a real distinction between calling someone a racist, whi is a personal viewpoint vis-a-vis another person, and acknowledging that we have systematic racism inhi country that works against and keeps ctain people out of the benefits that others have. and so i am not calling the president personally racist, but i would say that his policies and actions contribute to the systematic racism of this country. >> brown: i started with you, bishop, so richardh land, te last word. >> yes, we have racishim in country, but we're a lot better than we with. the black unemployment rate is lower than it's ever been. the hispanic unemployment rate lower than it's ever been. the president is doing enterprise zones in inner cities, and he's done priso reform. >> brown: all right, richard land and bishop marianne budde, thank you both very much.
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>> thank you. >> thank you both. >> nawaz: raising a child is complicated and can be confusing, with advice available just about everywhere you turn. one economist and mother actualldug into the data to help parents make informed choices about raising their little ones. business and economics ondent paul solman has the story. it'sart of our series, "making sense." >> we've got to go to swim. yeah, we do. ( toddler screams ) >> reporter: raising kids, as every parent knows, is a constant conundrum. >> yum yum yum! ( toddler cries ) >> reporter: punish! no, be patient! the advice out there is more abundant than ever. ( toddler cries ) >> reporter: but each pmsenting tip so get turned on its head by the next one. how many of you have been conflicted about-- seriously conflicted-- about information you've gotten about raising your kids?
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every single one. >> people will just come up to you ol n the street and tu ways that you're doing it wrong. >> reporter: health economist emy oster has taken a more scientific apprch. once she became pregnant, she began applying her statistical skills to the data. the result was the bestseller, "expecting better." nooka mom of two, in the bo "cribsheet," she applies her economics training to everything from breast-feeding to discipline, to help parents make data-drivices. >> the skills that we have in data analysis are just really crucial. so to give an example, something so we're interested in the impacts of breast-feeding on, say, kids' i.q. >> reporter: and there is evidence,r supposedly idence, to suggest that if you breast-feed, your kids will have a higher i.q. >> yes. the issue with basically all of ose studies is that the choice of breast-feeding is not something people make randomly, on a whim. it's a-- it's a considered
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choice, and it happens that it also differs a lot across groups. so, more educated moms, richer moms, married moms, you know, people who are broadly what we'd say "higher socioeconomic status," are more likely to breast-fe. so, separating the impact of breast-feeding on i.q. from the impacrt of all of the ot differences on i.q. is really hard. >> reporter: but oster looked at a study of siblings in which the feme mother breast-fed one baby but did not breas the other. it showed no statistical difference in i.q. >> i rotry to go h all of the studies, to pick out the ones that i think are most convi uncing and are givi something that is closest to a causal relationship. >> reporter: but one of the most robust findings around breast- feeding, at leastiss i read you, educing the mother's risk of breast cancer. >> yeah. there are some effects on the baby that do seem to be supported in the data. reductions in gastrointestinal problems in the first year, while the baby is being breast- fed. reductions in ear infection, reduction in rashes, and then there there's actually a pretty
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sizable effect on breast cancer risk for the m. on the flip side, many of the claims that people make about the lon breast-feeding for infants, like reductions in obesity later in life, reddtions in other iseases later in life, improvements in i.q., those don't s the, in the best data. n reporter: comedian amy schumer became a ter reading "expecting better," and interviewed oster on her salty podca keith":e girls, one >> i think what most pregnant people are interested in is, can i drink? >> you shouldn't have a lot. one small glass a day in the second and third trimester. >> melon-flavored mad dog? >> no, definitely not. >> reporter: oster's mild drinking "okay" was actually denounced by doctors, who say no amount of alcohol is safe while pregnant. and now, "cribsheet" has been criticized by the american academy of pediatrics for uerselling breast-feeding. >> but i haven't actually been
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aagble to get them to eon discussing the merits of the evidence. i'm definit i also think that we can all read the evidence together and it would be great to have those discussions. >> reporter: oster doesn't shy away from other chakeed topics, lileep and the decision to skip the crib and co-sleep in a family bed. >> on the one hand, you'll have people telling you, like, this is the natural way to sleep. this is how everybody has sorpt fillions of years. >> reporter: family bed. >> that's how your kids will be attached. aitnd also 's easier, and everyone will get more sleep and it's grea and then you have on the other side sort of sometimes very, very harsh rhetoric arou "you shouldn't do this." so there was an anti-co-sleeping ad campaign, whicshowed pictures of babies in a bed with a giant knife. wo reporter: and that's because you would-- the kid get smothered. >> yeah. i think that it's dangerous, like a knife would be dangerous. when i dug into the data, i think that on the one hand, it's-- it does show that the safest way to sleep is not with your baby in your bed, that there are some risks t co-sleeping. ootn thr hand, if you do
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this and sort of, as safely as pdsible, which means in a with parents who are not smoking or drinking or that has relatively few covers, there probably is some excess risk, but it's-- it's-- it's small. it's, you know, on the scale of the kinds of risks that you're taking all the tye, by putting our kid in a car. >> reporter: still, the american academy of pediatrics d es not recommd-sharing. ( crying ) sleep training, or letting your baby "cry it out"ugs another f subject. oster found it so tough, she had tano let her hutake charge. >> i just left the house. jesse just did it. >> reporter: really? >> yeah, i lt. >> reporter: where'd you go? >the bar down the street. (ug lahter ) >> reporter: sleep training is a bear for parents. 't babies feel abandoned when left to cry? mightn't that prevent them from b not according to the data, says oster. >> kids, righafter they sleep rain, they will sleep better. and the parents will sleep better also, and so when we look
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at, you know, randomized evaluations that studthe impacts of sleep training on parental satisfaction or maternal depression, we actuall ee pretty big effects. >> reporter: yeah, one thing you emphasize in breast-feeding and in sleep training is the effect on the mother. >> we've sometimegotten into a place where it seems like we're saying, anything you could do that even anyone has ever suggested could have any tiny good effects on the baby, you should do that, even if it is infinitely costly for the family. >te> reporter: says most o renting decisions boil down not tright against wrong, but osts against benefits, comprehensively weighed, and including personal preferences. >> particularly the question of, like, stay at home mom versus working mom sometimes feels like the kind of crux of the-- of the mommy wars. my read is that the best data suggests it does not matter for the kid whether you work or not. and so i say, like, okay, here are some things you can think about in a decision, like what is the best for the kid? what is going to work
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logistically for your family? au nd also what do nt? i decide to work not because i have to, but because i think thamat's what works for myy. >> reporter: and after a while, taking care of a kid... >> would not be for me. i love being with my kids, but you know, the marginal utility diminishing. you know, the first hour is great, the second hour is pretty good. y, like, hour four, i'm ready to go to work. tplhat's hard for pto say. like, somehow as a parent, there's a sense that you should be like, "oh, i just my dream is to spend everkmoment with my ." that's not my dream. i love my kids. they're the best. but my dream is not to spend every minute with them. >> reporter: i would say probably the majority of working women, it's not so much that they like the job. it's economically, they have to. >> yeah. like, if you have more money, more resources, you can make more different choices about parenting, and we have sort of gotten into a place where sometimes we're arguing about, you know, who's the best kind of parent, around these pretty minor things that don't matter. and i worry that it distracts us from thinking about, how can we make better policy for poor
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families in the u.s.? >> reporter: like paid family leave, for exampl >er> it'sclear that there are benefits, including reductions in infant mortality, from having paid parental leave, that is not accessible to a lot of people in the u.s. >> reporter: in the end, by mining the data and making her results broadly accessible, economist/mom emily oster has one overriding objective-- to make parenting just a bit less stressful than it inevitably is. ( toddler screams ) for the pbs newshour, this is business and economics orrespondent, parent and grandparent, ovul solman in ence, rhode island.
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>> nawaz: on the newshour online that's on our web site, www.pbs.org/newshour. hond that's the ne for tonight. i'm amna nawaz. join us online and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and see you soon. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> babbel. a language learning app that uses speech recognition technology and teaches real-life conversations. daily 10-15 minute lessons are voiced by native speakers and are at babbel. babbel.com. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions
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>> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadconting. and byibutions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc captioned by media access group at wgbh cess.wgbh.org >> you're watching pbs. >> you're watching pbs.
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hello, everyone. welcome. here's what's coming up. >> you're tired and poor and can stand on their own two feet and who will not become a public charge. >> are they rewriting the rules on legal immigration too? i asked caesar vargas, the first undocumented immigrant admitted to the new york state bar. then -- >> we hope some day to get this good. ♪ >> watch chinese work ethic crash into americanworkers' rights in american factory. a we get peek at the first film project picd byetflix by the obamas. >> i think

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