tv BBC World News America PBS August 23, 2019 2:30pm-3:00pm PDT
aporting from washington, sophie long. as fires rage in the a international pressure isna building on brazil's president to save the forests before it is too late. huge losses on the new york stock exchange after china retaliates against the u.s. and worth of goods.n $75 billion and we travel to the northern-most tip of norway to see how reindeer herders are being impacted by climate change. soph: for those watching on pbs and around the globe, welce to "world news america."ni t there is increasing pressure on brazil's president to take greater tion to fight the fires ravaging the amazon. the leaders of france d ireland say they will not
support a major eu trade deal with south america unless more environmental leade warning about the widespread impact thesewi blaze have, but president bolsonaro remains defiant, criticizing foreign governments for interfering. reporter: the flames in the amazon continue to rag thousands of fires, almost impossible to control.wo this is thd's biggest rainforest and carbon store, home to 20 million people. theveled to one area fringe of the rain forest, where the flames have devoured huge areas. firefighters in one of the states most affected by the amazonires have been working here for the last two weeks trying to put out the flames, but resources are an issue here, as it is a vast area with few people on the ground, and low
humidity and strong winds add to the challenge, and sometimes the fires spread as fast ao 40 kilometers an hour. the fires threaten many e mes. onmatold us his wife fled while he tes to protect eir land. >> it is a dangerous situation. we have lots of crops here, and everything is burning. i had to move thanimals so they don't burn, o. erreporter: farmers and lo are blamed for starting the fires, as the amazon is relentless cultivation. brazil's controversial right-wing president jair bolsonaro has championed the exploitation of the rain forest. now, tugh, brazil is facing international pressure. european leaders are calling it a global emergency.s brazil'esident has accused them of a colonial mindset, and rking to save the rain forest of interference.es bolsonaro: those countries that send money here, they are not doing it for charity. i hope everyone can undeattand they are doing it because they have a vesd interest.
they want to interfere with our sovereignty. they r are looking fhes under the soil. reporter: it is the amazon's indigenous people who are sufferinthe most. some have been attacked and killed, as loggers and farmers try to push them off the land. >> with each passing day we see the destruction of the lan -- -- destruction advance -- deforestation, invasion, locking.ec we are sadse the forest is dyin at every moment. we feel the climate changing, and the world needs the forest. we need it and o children need it. reporter: as the amazon burns, the world is now paying tention. brazil's president says he may send in the army to help tackle the flames. sophie: for more on the impact of these fires, i spoke to a wildlife biologist and asked for his assessment of the turrent siation. >> well, basically, one of the
most important ecosystems, the biologically richest ecosystem on the planet, is going up in flames right before our eyes. largely this is the result of homesteading, slash-and-burn agriculture, industrial mining. all of this has come togetr to twt up into this perfect extinction storm, which is instantaneously eradicthis biome of life for whiccontains 70% of all life on our planet. what you need to think about, sophie, rainforests as a whole take u5% of the planet's surface, conin 75% of all life . tbrazil is one of the l strongholds for rain forest, but on their present course they are pushing themselves to the point that within a decade, probably 70% of their forests will be gone. sophie: people have described seeing animals dashing out of
the forest a trying to escape. what is the reality for them? how many of them will be able to avoid the flames? jeff: a lot of them will becr vaporized anated in this molten hot example of profound human negligence. i have been there ny the ground imes. my career began in rainforests. i trst went to a rainforest 16. it was my first work as a college student, philanthropic stuff. w i did graduak there. the pilots of my two television series were in rainforests. i would not have theareer i have were it notreor this rkable ecosystem. sophie: the european commission has described the amazon as our lungs, our life-support system.b what is going the impact of this globally? jeff: it is going toa profound and devastating impact that will be felt by generationu to come, b it is true,e, rain forests produce 20-plus
percent of the oxygen that we need to survive. the process of just being a forest makes them a natural carbon bank.er they sequeillions and billions of tons of carbon. not only are you taking nature's way of mitigating climate change, you make them a culprite in the disbecause you are cutting this bank and instantly burning these trees and sending those fumes into the atmosphere as a greenhouse gas. you are tang the solution and making it a manifest of the problem. that's just one layer of it. oen you take, sophie, the impact of the lothis ecosystem and then you mix it with the elements of climate change, the failure of the united states to rightfully take its position as an environmenta global leader,ve been -- we have done horrible things as of late, all of this comes
together to crea this perfect extinction storm. we know that climate change do, n't happen in a vacuat the deforestation of this ecosystem does not happen in a vacuum. these elements conspire together to contribute to one of theon greatest envntal catastrophes in modern human times. sophie: i'm afraid we must leave it t thank you very much indeed for your time. back here in the united states, between watching markets and uiitter today, it has been a wild ride. first came china's announcement that they would be slapping taris on $75 bilon of u.s. goods retaliation to similar moves out of america. then the federal reserve chairman spoke of increasing economic turbulence without any sign of future rate cuts that drew the ire of president trump, who tweeted, "my only question, who is our bigger enemy, jay powell or chairman xi?"
if that weren't enough, he said he was hereby ordering american companies to seek alternatives to china. i discussed it all with mark zandi, chief economist for let's starwith the tariffs themselves. since we came on air, president willthhas tweeted to say h increase f the tariffs he has already announced. how much damage is this having mark: it is grievous. it is very serious. i think this is the fodder for a global economic recession. the global economy already is on the precipice. the european economy is struggling to keep its above water. asian central banks are cutting interest rates. the federal reserve has been cutting rates as well. this is getting to a point where it is going to push e global economy, u.s. economy, into the ditch, into an economic downturn. there is no other way to parse this. it is going to be very, very tough. sophie: if we look at the course of today, one of his tweets set
-- said, "we don't need china, we would be better off without them," and he ordered u.s. multinationals to ditch business with bjing. "our great american companies are hereby ordered to immediately look for an alternative to china." the impact of that was instantaneous on the markets. ma: yeah, for good reason. i ca't make any sense out it. it makes no sense. we are tethered at the hip with the chinese economy and the global economy. o getting around that. there is no way of disengaging without very serious disruption, which means a lot of lost jobs and lost income and lost well. -- lost wealth. we saw that instantaneously in the stock market, the global stock market. this is just not the right way of approaching this. and to what end? i'm really perplexed. does the president think the chinese are going to do the things we nt them to do because we are hitting them over the head with tariffs?
is is an increasingly serious, -- this is an increasingly serious, dangerous path we are on. about jerome powell, he hasaid taken aim at the federaler r before, but questioning whether the chaiis a greater enemy than the chinese president, that is taking things to a whole new level. mark: i can't even -- i can't fathom it. i just don't understand. look, chair powell is in a very difficult spot. d to whati to resp is very bad economic policy, this trade policy. the trade policy is going every o ich way, up, down, all around, and he is tryingep up with it. none of the blame falls on the chair of the federal reserve or the federal reserve. a th doing their job exactly to script. the president is hoping that the fed will bail them out, but these kinds of actions, i don't think anything will bail us out. mae damage will be very serious. sophie zandi, we must leave it there.
thanks very much indeed for joining us.th markk you. sophie: it has been revealed that supreme court justice ruth badered ginsburg has been tre for a cancerous tumor on her pancreas. -ythe r-old is believed to have responded well to treatment for the she joined america's highest court in 1993 after being aointed by bill clinton. for the past week, thousands of syrian families have been fleeing a government offensive in the last oppositionid stronghold ob. hundreds of civilians have been killed after a cease-fire in the arecrumbled months ago. with more on the situation and the people still trapped, here isartin patience. martin: for this young boy, it is probably an adventure, bu for his parents, it is a nightmare. after eight years of fighting, syrians are stl running for their lives.
this the latest exodus in a brutal conflict that has forced rhalf the country from th homes. "there is no humanity," says this man. "it our doomsday." this is what they are fleeing. syrian and russian jets in the last opposition stronghold of idlib. for months, the syrian army, backed by russia and iran, have been fighting rebels, many of them hard-line islam, like the one shown in this propaganda video. the rebels have been pushed out of a strinof towns and villages. once full of life, they are now deserted. but it is the million children who are caught in the middle. this family are packing whatever they can fit in a trunk -- bed
mattresses, a washing machine -r a home they may never return to. ahmed and his family are setting up in an olive grove. he has nine kids, including a two-year-old daughter. -- two-month-old daughter. >> i don't know what will happen in syria. why are all the other countries keeping silent? all ofth them are happy he killing of the syrian people. we seek help from god only. martin: for ahmed and his own last stop.isight not be the with the syrian government advancing, there are fears of a bloodbath. martin patience, bbc news, beirut.: soph you are watching "bbc world news america." still to come on tonight's program, when family is more
than you imagine. the incredible story of a one ung woman, two mums, and a sperm donor. france is marking 75 years in celebration of paris. population fled when the nazis took and oupy the city. many of the city's jewish population were rounded up and ceremonies will be held to mark the moment when theen free troops and allies entered the capital after four years of brutal occupation. a new museum will tell the dramatic story of what happened. reporter: a dark symbol of the past, a reminder of paris' occupation. around 7000 items are on display -- gas masks, pistols, flags. their lessons of the war still relevant today. democracy is something you
have to discuss, protect, and take care of. this meum is absolutely necessary for the knowledge. >> as alliede troops le onwards to paris, an brings great news comparison is liberated. --atparis is led. reporter:o millions took te streets when th allie went into the city in august 1944 . museum is built out of a bunker used by resistance leaders duri the war. in some ways ts is almost like hallowed ground. >> in fact, there is ct emotional asecause we tried to tell the story of how deep underground the liberation. little by little, undercover, the days before this great historic event. reporter: to museum will officialn open o sunday and
that the date german soldiers finally surrendered, the day when occupation became liberati. sophie: a young woman from ohio named julia always knew her mum used a sperm donor. but she only recently discovered she has at least 19 siblings and is sti counting. julia has embarked on a journey to meet them all, a process that has led her to completely fine the idea of family. the bbc's hannah long-higgins tells her amazing story in a new bbc documentary, "my very extended family." >> my mom is about to meet my dad for the first time. i grew up with two moms, kathleen and betsy.
i really don't miss having a dad, because they completed a different area of me. >> this is the family. [laughter] >> i always knew i was aydonor-conceived. >> we were imagining you 18 years from now meeting this guy. we wted you to like him. >> i don't think i ever imagined there could be so many siblingsu i t if i'm lucky i will find one or two. i thk we are still trying to feel around and figure out how we are family. it's completely uncharted territory.
sophie: as i mentioned, hannah the story, and i spoke with her a little while ago. thanks for joining us. t us in the picture as to what the rules are for people like julia when they want to track down the donor and their siings. hannah: it depe situation, but in julia's case, she grew up knowing that her mothers had used a sperm donor, and her mothers intentionally used a kno donor program. that means when the child turns 18, they have the option to have theperm bank release their information to other donor offspring and the opti learn the donor's identity. when she did turn 18, she chose to find out if there were others out ere. sophie: she did find out and she went to meet some of them. what happened? hannah: this was a fascinating journey to film and follow along.
julia at one point in the documentary goes to meet up with three of her diblings, a term used to describe a donor sibling, and they met in a park in upstate new york. they all live in different states, and they flew into this park. julia had prevly met one of the diblings before, his name is george. the other two she had never met. it was really endearing to watch as ty connected and hugged a instantly started comparing hand sizes. they have similar shared expenses from growing up as donor-conceived cldren. there was one profound moment for me to watch as samantha, one of her diblings, a double donor-conceid person, which means her mother used a donated egg and sperm to cive her. this is the first time in herme
life she evea blood relative. let's take a look. strange sort of hong. know, a it was like someone i should have been hugging throughout my childhood but never did. i wish i could've told younger me aut this day. sophie: amazing. what about the sperm donor? how does he fit into this story? hannah: his identification number is 1317. his name -- you learn his nameen in the docry. he had met several of the donor siblings. he did me in til julia's mother betsy forhe first time. for julia, this is the first gical mom and dad were in the same room at the same time. it was fascinating to see the interaction and watch as betsy, julia's mom, and her dad exchange parenting ts, and to watch julia take it all in.
it was for her, i think, a pretty surreal experience. to hear what he has to say about it, you want to watch the film.o ie: i look forward to doing so. thanks so much for coming to tell us about it. hannah: thanks for having me. sophie:ou can watch the remarkable documentary, "my very extended family," on bbc news this weekend. it will be shown on saturday and sunday at times on your screen. now, few places have experienced the effects of climate change quite as intensely as th arctic. in the north tip of norway, warmer temperatures pose a challenge for reinpoer herders. one solution, to mine pper for new technologies, may make things worse. our correspondent james cook report james: a chief at the top of the world. he herds reindeecelike his ors before him. but now the chief and hisda hter are worried about the future, a copper mine which they say will disrupt their animals
and damage the environment. >> this is life-changing. if this becomes reality, that makes the chance of survival impossible, economically and mentally. at my age we can manage somehow, but the young, they are in a dark, dark time. james: exploration is already underway. the norwegian governas approved the mine, and the e minister in charge says ed for copper outweighs the disruption it will bring. beautiful, but fororhe atic is norwegians, it is a place we actually le. if the world doesn't have more copper we won't be able to build more windmills and have the huge shift to electrical cars we need. james: the government says marine life here will be otected by strict environmental standards.
>> this is only half-size -- james: but for the fishermd in the fjere the debris will be dumped, those assurances do not hold water. >> if they start mining, we cannot eat therab, if we catch it. i think all the crab will die in this area. james: there was a mine here once before, but that was years ago, and it, too, divided opinion. this time, the bs argues that his company will revitalize an area that has been struggling economically. >> we estimate that mining itself with people working every day at the site, contractor and us, will be 15employee and then there will be addional employees -- teachers, kindergarten, etc. herders, that does not sound
like a future full of promise. >> it is like they are just taking more and more land. it's mining, it is power lines, it is wind power. we are so attached to lands d nature, and when you cut that contact, what is left? james: the fight for this land and this fjord may be a case for s,at is to come for all of as the world realizes that shifting to new technology to tackle climate change does come with a cost. .mes ok, bbc news, norw phie: i am sophie long. thanks for watching "world news america." announcer: funding for this presentation is made possible by... the freemafoundation; by judy and peter blum-kovler foundation,
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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening. i'm judy woodruff. t newshour tonight: tariffs, tweets and turmoil. president trump's thto china sends markets tumbling, as the embattled chair of the federal reserve warns that tradtensions could weaken the economy. then, black skies over brazil. accusations, international outrage, and calls for action, as the amazon burns. and, from anecdote to analysis. getting to the bottom of how u.s. foreign aid actually works, to help lift people out of extreme poverty. >> i was really struck by how little ty knew about whether they were generating an impact. and there really was just