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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  January 21, 2020 6:00pm-7:01pm PST

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♪ judy: good evening. on the newshour tight -- >> the most important question e must answer today will the president and the americanfa people get a ir trial? judy: the impeachme trial of president trump. abuse of power and obstruction of congress.the senate opens the we break down the highlights. a world away from idshington, prt trump arrived in switzerland come a touting the u.s. economy and denying thete risks of the crisis. amid a humanitara n catastrophe, agile life for those who survive. peheart break and n northern syria. >> in my village, i used to play with my friends at school.
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my friends were killed in an airstrike and i survived, then came here. judy: o all that and mo tonight's pbs newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided b-- >> on an american cruise line's journey, along the columbia and snake rivers, travelers trace lewis and clark's route. american cruise line''leet of paddle wheelers and riverboats travel through american landscapes t historic landmarks where you can experiee local customs and cuisine. american cruise lines, proud onsor of pbs newshour. >> when it comes to wireless, consumer cellular gives customers the choice. no contract plans give you as much or lite talk, text and
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data as you want, and our customer service team is on hand to help. go to consumer >> bnsf railway. >> fidelity investments. ♪ >> the john s and james l knight foundation, fostering informed and engaged communities. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions. ♪ >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcastingnt and butions to your pbs station from viewers liketh you. ank you. ♪ judy: it has been all impeachment, all afternoon in the u.s. senate. lawmakers spent hours debating the rules that will govere the
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trial ofdent trump. nick schifrin begins our coverage. nick for the first time this century -- >> he will do impartial justice acrding to the constitution, so help you god. nick: t and the thie in 150 years -- keepll persons commanded t silent.nick: the senate launchea presidential impeachment trial. >> the only conclusion will be that the president has done absolutely nothing wng. and that these articles of impeachment do n begin to nick: house intelligencee commitare been adam schiff. >> conduct that abuses the power of his office for personal urbenefit and undermines national security, that invites foreign interference in our democratic process of an election, it is the tfecta of constitutional misconduct justifying impeachment. nick: they questioned whether
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president trump abused his power by pressing ukraine to announce investigations into democratic esidential candidate joe biden . by withholding nearly $400 million in military aid, the ukraine needs in its conflict with rusa, and whether president trump obstrued congress by refusing to hand officials to testify.ocking >> the president places himself above the law. he can't be indicted, cannot be impeached. it makes m himarch, the very evil against which our constitution and the balance of power as it laid out were designed to guard against. nick: 4000 miles away, president trump joined world leaders at the world's premier economic forum. he predicted his exoneration. >> i am in europe because we are bringing other companies into our country with thousands of jobs, millions of jobs in many cases. isso that whole thin total
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hoax. i'm sure it's going to work out fine. nick senators voting on the rules, originay majority leader mitch mcconnell wanted each side to present for 24 hours total across two days. on pressure from pressure from moderates, he changed that to 24 totalours across three days and allowed the impeachment investigation to a -- to be it admitted for evidence. opening presentations for each side, senator's questions, then a vote on allowing additional witnesses. >> it sets up a structure that is fair, evenhanded, t acks closely from past precedents established unanimously. nick: that was echoing by president trump's personal attorney. >> we believe senator mcconnell has put forward duerocess, and alws the proceedings to move forward in an orderly fashion. nick: in 1990 nine at president
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clinton's impeachment, senators approved the process 100-0. this time, the vote is expected to be partisan. chuck schumer accused republicans of manipulating the clinton trial rules. >> leader mcconnel it -- is saying he wants to go by the clinton rules. why did he change them in four important ways at minimum? transparent, less clear and with less evidence echoes -- with less evidence? nick: democrats tried and failed to amid -- amend the rules to subpoena documents andall witnesses blocked by investigators. x the house calls john bolton. the house calls mick mulvaney. let's get this trial started. case.e ready to present our the impeachment was fastest in history and republicans accuse democrats of a rush to judgment against a president thays wanted to
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impeach. steal oneen't here to election, they are here to steal to elections. is buried in the small print of their ridiculous articles of impeachment. they want to remove president trump from the blot. nick: the jurors are the senate it would take two thirds of them to convict and remove the they can't speak inside the trial so they visited iker phones outside. democrats said the senate should hear witnesses who didn't testify under a to the house and might criticize president trump. >> i haven't seen anyone under oath who defended him. lots of people defended him not under oath but let's puersome people uath. nick: rublicans criticized the house investigation and nancy pelosi >> we are going to be oir. we are going to job. let me say it again, the house dproceedings were rigged speaker pelosi rigged them. they were as rigged as a
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carnival ring toss. nick: an handful of moderate reeblicans said ty might willing to hear from witnesses, including john bolton, who reportedly called presidentin trump's uk policy akin to a drug deal. >> i think it is important to perhaps other witnesses for the defense and prosecution. the right time for that decision niis after the o arguments. that is the way it was carried out during the clinton impeachment. nick: senators are expected to debate into the eatning and demo are expected to begin the first of their three days of arguments tomorrow. i'm nick schifrin. judy: reviews from both ends of pennsylvania avenue, i'm joined by yamiche alcindor and lisa de lisa was in the room today. lisa, do you, nick was reporting on the change the majority leader mitch mcconnell made early in the afternoon in the
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rules governing the trial. what will that mean going forward? lisa: it is significant in terms of the calendar. let's go over quickly what the gech exactly does. it moves, it allows each side up to three days of presentation. it was just two days and that meant those would be two very long days, going into 1:00 or 2:00 in thew morning. will be shorter days ending in thevening. the change meant any previous gathered evidence will n be admitted as evidence or this trial. that was somethi mcconnell was going to require a vote for. now, the evidence, which includes almost 4000 pages of entered into the record as part of the trial. what does that mean? it means the trial could be a little longer. e schedule going ahead, if they wrap today as we expect, we believe
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this means the next th des will be when the house managers and democrats present their ce for removal of the president. saturday is when we expect the president's team would begin their defense of t president. ey could have up to three days. we aren't clear the white house team, the president's team will choose to have three days. if t dy that will going to next week. after that, senators can ask written questions. that could take a couple days. bottom line, now we have a better idea that this trial could wrap up next week towards the end of next week, but that isnly if they decide not to call witnesses and that is very mu an open question. judy: getting back to what you are reporting, much of today was about whether new evidence should be admitted or whether they were going to depend on just what the house was able to determine in its investigation. how is all that turning out? talk about the precedent for
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that. lisa: both sides are going to say they have their case based on precedent. when you look at the question of wiesses, one thing unique about this trial is the fact that house democrats would have liked to have gotten testimony from several white house witnesses and were unable to ebeca the president blocked them. they are arguing he has that privilege as an executive. however, the issue is the content. they b especially john bolton, and mick mulvaney, have information about what the president was dtong. they wanet it, they believe the senate can compel that testimony. is there precedent for a senate trial bringing in new evidence the house wasn't able to g? there actually is. when you look at the role, it is clear, the senate 100 years ago am a 40 years ago, said each senate determines if they want to call witnesses or not. question is if that is fair and
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appropriate. clearly, the framers, the rule makers for hundreds of years have said the senate has the right to decide this, new evidence or not, it is up to each senate. judy: there is something you could see in the senate chamber weorre watching on televisio online couldn't is the faces of the senators. what were they doing you -- what were they doing? lisa: it is unusual watching 100 senators silent. you could see this was something senators took seriously. all the senators were alert at the beginning. i'm told byaniel bush, and is in the chamber, that there are many more yawns as the day goes on. notesenators are taking but those are the swing senators including tt romney of utah, susan collins of maine, lindsey graham. you can tell who is paying i think that will bear out throughout the trial.
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nswe will see quest next week on how these senators handle this. that will make a big differenceu it is anal scene. it is hard to descbe but i think it is most like watching a church service from afar. one senator said they thought they would be ok with 12 hours of listening to this testimony, before they actually had to sit in the chamber for two hours. they think may be a shorter session is going to be better. judy: we will certainly see in the comingays. yamhiiche, with change in the resolution around how the trial is conducted come all the push for democrats, by democrats for witnesses, evidence, how is the white house reacting? yamiche: democratic aides are concession by the white house because they are so connected and working closely with republicans and mitch mcconnell. the idea that there will be automatic evidence taken from th house process and put into the senate trial means a lot of
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the things the white house has been saying is unfair and wasn't part of due process, that is going to be given as evidence to the senate and the other thing bolton is a key person here. there are reports the white house isin making planase bolton does plan to testify or does get to testify. he said he would testify if subpoenaed by the senate. that would mean the white house might push for john bolton to testify behind closed doors. it might also mean the white house is try to block witnesses and try to block john bolton in another way. thiss a big deal and a big change on the white house's side. judy: separately, we did here counsel and from the deputy legalns c, his personal attorney. what are we learning about the strategy that the president wants to put forward? yamiche: what we learned today is that the whitese hegal strategy is going to be a long
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game, the same defense president trp has been putting up on social media and interviews, and that is that this was a perfect call, he did nothing wrong, this is about democrats running to undo the 2016 election and wanting to make sure hge doesn't reelected in 2020. thereitas interesting to see the lead white house attorney talking on the senate floor because hou a democra pushing for him to recuse himself. they say he is a fact witness in theuldn't be involved trial. the white house has been pushing for adam schiff, the lead democrat in the trial, that he should b recusing himself. let's listen to what mark short, the chief of staff for vice president miksapence, had to >> we find enormous hypocrisy that in the house intelligence committee, they went through the process in which this white house was denied opportunity to ouhaveel present, denied opportunities to cross examine
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witnesses and bringca witnesses e this has to be rushed as quickly as possible. and democrats today, yep hear senatelicans are moving too quickly. yamiche: a fact check, they say the white house didn't have an or to cross-examine.nt witnesses the white house said they didn't want to be part of the judiciary committee process, so they are angry about the way the process snt but they did have some input in the houe. judy: yamiche alcindor, lisa desjardins, thank you both. joining us now is robert costa of the washington post, host of "washington week" on pbs. i know you have been talking to white house and the hill, about the debate over witnesses. will be called, who isn't. what are you learning? >> beyond the proceedings today, the real debate on capitol hill right now is about witnesses. will democrats okerepublicans ny concessions at this point?
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for now, there is no agreement. summoned -- senate drum debt -- sete democratsaid they want john bolton to testify but reblicans are only moving forward with floating the idea of trading hunter biden for john bolton's testimony. democrats are very resistant to this idea. 't believe hunter bid is relevant to the trial. they haven't engaged in talks with republicans judy: right now, a standoff is what it sounds like. >>is i a standoff but i filed a story for the post and i a workingn a story about how some democrats may want to start to think about maybe cting a deal with republicans on witnesses. s e thing to pay attention to is, could democrgage on a deal, ifot hunter biden for john bolton, some arrangement where republicans would get a witness they want from the democratic side, joe biden, hunter biden, somne related to burisma in the ukraine matter, or not. that is a choice both parties will have to make.
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judy: that brings to mind joe bidenimlf, in iowa campaigning right now while several of his leading rivals in iowa are frankly stuck in the senate for thisri. you have been talking to the biden campaign. what are they saying? ask talking to the biden campaign in the lastou few, it is clear they feel good about their standing in iowa. some senators are in washington, vice president biden is in the hawkeye state talking to voters. they see himoving up in the lls there, even though senator senators -- senator sands and warren have done well in polls. they aren't paying attention to the witness discussion. they don't think republicans are negotiing in good faith, s until this becomes a possibility of a biden family member testifying, they aren't going to engage with it in any serious way. judy: robert costa reporting for from the washington pos thank you.
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we turn now to several individuals who have extensive exterience working in the se and in the house. martin, the democratic senate senatese -etary from 1995-2000 eight, a 30 year senate veteran who set next to tom daschle during president clinton's impeachment trial. he is a senior advisor at prime policy group in washington. elizabeth was the republican senate secretary from 1995-2001. she is a 26 year senate vetera who sat beside trent lott during president clinton's trial. shes principal at congressional global strategies. margaret worked on the senates foreign relati committee01 2013 as deputy chief counsel, then as democraticl chief cound deputy staff director. margaret was an attorney at the department of state for 10
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years. shes government studies fellow at the brookings institution and a senior editor atr. law f and john worked for congressman tom coburnreblican of oklahoma, during the clinton trial. he is a gop consultant for morris hill strategies. he worksco oressional campaigns and works for corporate and nonprofit clients. hello to l of you. you have been with me during our live coverage today. we appreciate you sticking around. what i want to get a sense from you, i will start with you, marty, what do you think was accomplished today? we saw the majority leader mitch mcconnell pull back a littlee n les that he had wanted to employ. what did we learn from that? will that materially change what unfolds? >> time will tell. what senator mccnell is, is pragmatic. he believed -- he realized he had to make those changes. he heard from his colleagues that he headed -- had to make
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those changes and they would be ok if he did. he went on to the first vote today and it was aintrictly partvote. right now it looks like he is in good we will see ho votes go today and maybe into tomorrow, but the key votes wiur next week after people have had a chance to give their arguments, both sides, and we vote with the democrats to call witnesses. judy:ch elizabeth, we saw m mcconnell pull back a ttle bit , then we whw the vote on her documents should be subpoenaed from the white house and theote was along party lines. >> i think we expect to see several more of these. unfortunately or fortunately, they will all be party line and, eventually, prior to the close of businessoday, hopefully we will get to see the actual vote on the rules that will outliul the next hanf days leading up to and including the
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quesoning timeframe of the nators. it is important for viewers to know that the last time they did in the clintonmpeachment, there were 150 questions from various senators. that is important to get to that, notnt just the state between the two lawyers and the legal team, toheaveenators ask the questions and may be at that point, is there a need for more evidence, more witnesses echoes that is the way it went during the clinton trial and that is what the majority leader is trying to get through today as long as the day may be. judy: we know they are trying to settle the rules questions today. there was another, they were debating the last time we were atable to pantion to the senate floor, they were debating another motion, or rather amendment by the minority, by the democrats, asking for a subpoena of state department documents. we expect that will go along a partyline vote as well. if it is all par tline, what
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dot tell us? >> ig tells us this proceed is really turning out along party lines, just as in the house, it was largely a partisan procoks. it is g like it is now going to be largely a partisan process in the senate, as ll. it is hard to say exactly where we will be at the end of 24 hours, potentially, of arguments by both sides, questions, 16 hours of questions from senators to the parties. it is hard to say, but now, what sides are kind of drawing lines of where they are, what their arguments are going to be, previewing some of their arguments that i'm sure we will see again. in addition being an argument about process,t was also a preview of the substantive arguments we are likely to see going forward. judy: john, partyline so far as far as we can see, and yet as elizabeth said, there will be an
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opportunity for questions. could that tell us something different? >> the vote that already happened was 53-47. that means they are 20 votes short of removing him from office. even if mitt r sney aan collins vote for additional witnesses, that motion still wouldn't carry. we haven't seen any movement or shift from where we were at the beginning of theay. judy: to college additional witnesses, you need how many votes? >> 51. judy: we know that is possible. it would take a few republicans to join with democrats for that to happen. we know it is a possibility. >> at this point it isbl pro unlikely. there has been lots of focus on john bolton. john bolton is a wildcard. the former national security adviser who has been allegedof at the centehis matter. the may ne things that are
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favorable to democrats necessarily. he may come at a cost of having someone likhunter biden nor joe biden testify. it is not a clear-cut win for democrats to get witnesses. judy: i want to talk to all of you, ask you about some of the issues that have come up today. one of them, marty, is executive privilege. you heard it fm the president's attorneys that we don't have to share information, it is within the president's prerogative to keep confidential privileged conversations, privileged and convert -- and confidential. >> every administration tries to wrap themselves around executive privilege to protect them selves from intruve congresses. at -- but the supreme court in the nixon trial ruled the body politic, the good of the country
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overwhelmed that. we will have to see. ion't inc. much will change, -- i don't think much will change, the votes arere tbut it will be interesting if three republicans vote or witnesses. will the chief justice want to hear witnesses? judy: if it is a, then if >> to 50.from 47, -- executive privilege ise m intimate a subject. judy: margareanito ask you about that. >> for the vwership, you saw a lot of arguments back and forth on both sides talking about ecutive privilege. i saw the parties talking past each other almost. executive privilege is a constitutionally based privilege the constitution.the supreme co. privilege, ted the supreme court has also said.
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what the house managers are saying is, this president asserted such a broad notion, such an absolute notion almost of executive privilege so as to obstruct the work of congress. that is the basis for article two, the second article of impeachment. they are talking about it in a different way on both sides. it is a little confusing, but that is the heart of it, house managers saying it is not such an absolute privilege that there are no documents and no witnesses. it is aimited privilege. that issi how other pnts have used it, as a limited privilege. this president is using it ite n unliway and that is unacceptable. judy: elizabeth, how much of the debate, a question that is likely to be in coming days? >> i'm guessing not much of a real debate. they talk past each other and many of them are not lawyers. i think it is going to bn ically come d, is it fair?
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you say it is not, i say it is and basically break it down. that is the way today's debate has gone. judy: speaking ofs, fairn john , the democrats keep saying, if you are saying we are going to have the arguments and when the arguments are over, then we are goin to have a vote whether there should be evidence or witnesses, someone say that sounds like putting the cart before the horse. >> what republicans are saying is, iis the houses responsibility. when they bring impeachment of their case. they need to bring the white house lawyers argued repeatedly today that it is not the senate's job to redond relitigate what the house failed republicans are ma the point tat nancy pelosi withheld articles of impeachment for 33 days, whichndermines her threat against the constitution to have president trump in office. judy: marty, what about that? the cart before the horse, you want to characterize it tt
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way. >> in 1999, the resolution adopted 100-0 pretty much lighted up to say -- the same way. you had 24 hours, 16 hours, a motion to dismiss, a house manager motion to call witnesses. mcconnell is correct in sayin he has tried to replicate that as far as that is concerned. we will see how that goes. judy: you are sayinthat is not strong argument for democrats to make? how do you see that? >> i think for americans watching, the important thing to keep in mind is the respective roles of the house and senate. the house ha the sole power of impeachment. as lawyers, wes think of that the indictment phase, gathering enough evidence to say, has something happened? is there enough to think something has the trial phase generally, the senate has the sole power to try
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the impeac nent. th woumally be where witnesses would be called and fleshed out. i think intuitively, someone will have to record --econcile what we think a trial is here. if the president's team and republicans are going to say we can't have any new witnesses because th is not the senate' role, it is odd, at odds of o wt we thias a trial in the senate. i think the republicans and the explained why it is improper to call witnesses or get new documents. >> also, in 1999 in the clinton impeachment, even the presidento himself had sa for a deposition. everyone at the white house set down for depositions. in this case, you have the white house stonewalling subpoenas, whereas in the clintonth administration all went out as witnesses. >> let me add to that, this is the fastest trial in history.
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lei think other pe have said that, the house trial. i think it was 78 days, the house had their play in this. and all but the last six, the president couldn't call witnesses, he couldn't cross examine abody, couldn't ask for documents. thf is the polar opposite what happened during the clinton file in the house of representatives. his legal team was involved every ngle day. it smacks a little bit of unfair , coming from the house. you have senator mcconnell literally mirroring how the senate resolution was done previously and it was 100-0. that is where we all are with it. judy: dferent circumstances but some similarities and we will thread our way through those in coming days. thank you all, john, elizabeth, marty, margaret. we will see you again tomorrow. you can jn our ongoing coverage of the senate trial for
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the remainder of this evening. check your local listings for you can watch online on our website or youtube. tomorrow, wednesday,hen the trial resumes at 1:0p.m. eastern. ♪ judy: while the impeachment washington, the president turns his focus to touting the american economy. he flew to europe for the annual meeting of the worlda's business economic elite. rlryan reports from switzed. >> in the alps am a f months awayrom the election, the president took his campaign to switzerland. >> mr. presidetr, with your l getting underway, why is it better to be in davos than washington? >> we are meeting with world leads,he most important people in the world, and we are
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bringing back tremendous business to the united states. we are here. the other is a hoax, it which hunt and it is disgraceful. we look fward to being here. >> president trump addressed just over 1000 of the world economic forum's delegates. >> when is spoke at t forum two years ago, i told you we had launched the great american come back. today, i am proud to declare that the unite states is in the midst of an economic boom the likes of which theseorld has neve before. >> mr. trump spent most of his speech touting his administration's economiar achievementsing that brging about a blue-collar revolution. sexn three years in my administration, 3.5 million people have joined the workforce. 10 million people have been fted off welfare in ss than threars. >> before the president arrived, news crews were on thewl pro but
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not for him. making her second appearance,at swedish cle activist greta warning participants not much has changed s>>ce last year. ur house is still on fire. you're in action is fueling -- youri naction is fueling the flames by the hour. we are telling you to act as if you loved your children above all else. >> in his speech, presidentap trumared to take aim at the 17-year-old. >> to embrace the possibilities of tomorrow, must reject the perennial prophets of doom and their predictions of the apocalypse. >> this is the 50th year world economic forum in doubles, most of -- inav. most ofba them are gsts. the president discussed trade with three of them, from packs
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it- kistan, switzerland and the eu. the presidensays he is confident he can strike another deal and if not, he will look at slapping tariffs on european cars. >> w expect to make a deal with europe. we had a good talk but if we are unle to make a deal, we will have to do something, because we have been treated very badly as a country for many years on trade. >> the u.s. trade truce with china last week relieved many. trade wars unsettling.f more some, like this nobel prize-winningmi eco, disagreed with the president's portrayal of the economy. >> unemployment is low but the employment rate, the fraction of the working age population that is actually working, is much the mischaracterization of the statof the american economy american is doing was very
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stark. given all that, it is not a surprise. i have been going to davos for 25 years. this was the most lukewarm reception to a major public figure that i have ever seen. >> in an unusual twist, local newspapers officials uncovered an apparent russianperation by two posing as plumbers. they suspect they intended to bug before him. russia called this absurd. when the t president returns the world economic forum tomorrow, reminders of hisou want be far away. ukraine's president, who the president has been accused of ki for information on joe biden, will also be here. ♪
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vanessa: goodvening, i'm vanessa at newshour, filling in for stephanie sy. we will return to the program after the adlines. e impeachment trial continues as democrats and republicans continue to debate whether the documents and witnesses before both sides present their the white hous they are not ruling out introducing a motion to dismiss the impeachment trial charges. in other news, an outbreak of viral pneumonia in china spread to thenited states. federal health officials confirmed, a seale area man brought the virus back from central china. he is hospitalized in good condition. washington governor jay inslee urged the public not to overreact. >> there isn't a risk level that would suggest people should be doing anything differently than they normally would. like i said, this is not a moment of
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high anxiety. we should all do exact what we always do, which is, this is flu season, so we wash our hands, we cover our mouths when we sneeze. vanessa: airports in several major cities are screening arvals from china. meanwhile, in china, the government announced wednesday morning the death toll grew to nine, with over 300 confirmed cases. ere the outbreak began, city workers sprayed disinfectant, and the mayor pledged to contain the virus. north korea is warlong it no er feels bound to refrain from testing nuclear weapons and long-range missiles. the regime today blamed washington for ignoring a year-end deadline to make progress on a nuclear deal and ease sanctions. a north korean official at the u.n. says his country may seek what he calls a new path. m member of iran's parliament has offered a $3 million bounty to anyone who kills president
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trp. e lawmaker represents the home province of qasem soleimani, the general killed by a u.s. airstrike earlier this mth. indication if it supports the threat on president trump's lifeof a new caravaigrants has been stopped along mexico's southern border. hundreds cross the river from guatemala on sunday. irxican troops blocked the way. monitored by police in helmets and body armor. most were sent back to their home countries. back in this country, thecr des 2016 presidential nominee, hillary clinton, went after vermont senator bernie sanders, her former rival and now a leading 2020 contender. she told an upcoming hulu documentary that, quote, nobody in congress likes him, nobody wants to work with him. he got nothingone. tonight, clinton walked back her comments, tweeting that deheating president trump is top priority and she would ultimately support any democric nominee. the u.s. supreme court put up a
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-- put off a new challenge to obamacare. the justices declined today to grant a fast-track review apreventi decision before the november election. lower court ruled that t entire law invalid after congress gutted the individual two major auto recalls are in the works in the unid states. toyota says an electronic glitch may prevent aiags from deploying in almost 3 millionin carsuding corolla, matrix and avalon models going back to 2011. honda also wants to replace potentially ngerous airbag inflators in 2.4 million older vehicles. the 2020 census kicked off today in a remote town in alaska. the census traditionallytarts in rural alaska because the u.s. -- since the u.s. bought the territory from russia in 1867. that is because it is easier to travel to interior alaska before the ground thaws.
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the census will begin in the rest of america in mid-march. two former basebl players were elected to join baseball's hall of fame today. rek jeter, the longtime captain of the yankees, came within one vote of being unanimously chosenand larry colorado rockies pe the first inducted, made the cut by six votes in his last year of being eligible. oustill to come on the new with judy woodruff, heart rick and hope amid the humanitarian tragedy of northern syria, and how the polaroid camera predicted our instagrammable world. ♪ bs>> this is newshour from weta studios iington and in the west, from the walter cronkite school of journalism at arizona state university. judy: the war in syria has been
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waged for ourost nine years, and claimed millions of lives. last refuge of man syrians opposed to the assad regime. in the northeast, kurdish forces are dealing with a new reality that includes far fewer american allies. nick schifrin has this update. nick: in this camp, the mud is ic the morning walk to get water is through what seems like permanent puddles. fe is defined by the mud. it is where boys will be boys, ere little girls in flip-flops try not to slip, hanging onto tents that have become their homes. they are the displaced families who fled because this was the last place to flee to, theen displaced chilho have seen things no adult should have to see. >> we were displaced to this camp because of the airstrikes and missiles
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there is too much mud. there isooo s. in my village, i used to play with my friends at school. my friends were killed in an airstrike and i survived, then came here. nick: in is camp, children become caregivers. they heat their hands on a teakettle area this family has lived here since may. >> it is very difficult to walk because of the mud. the tent doesn't whether the cold war the storms. we don't have proper stoves for heating and as you see, the conditions are terrible. my children are always sick because of t cold. nick: nearby, this woman tells us she fled her home as it was bombed in the middle of the night. >> it is too much cold and mud here. getting sick all the tim i pray w' won'be flooded because of the rain. my fear is we will get flooded and drown. i hope i won't brown and die in the flood -- drn and diane the
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flood. >> i have gone to see real multiple times and this is the worst i have seen in terms of th inability of the international community to themmodate the needs displace nick:ag this doctor in ch returns to his native syria to he filmed these scenes. this capas doubled in population in the last six months. russian and syrian jets followed refugees to italy. there is supassed to be a fire but the airstrikes are relentle. in december, at lea 60 five children were killed or injured. they are trapped tween the ougime and russia from the and the closed turkish border in the north. hundreds of thousands are settling close to the border, but turkey has 4 million refuge already and it's doors are locked, says turkish president erdogan. >> thest cease-fire e conducted in a way to prevent 400,000 people from reaching our borders.
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pl>> for those pstill in idlib,rv they need to e th airstrikes and illness. in the camp, the doctor treated who he could. >> everybody had some respiratory issues. some of them had asthma, pneumonia. of course,ad everybody psychological trauma because of the displacement. nick: many milies have been forced to flee theri airsts multiple times. nlocal humanitaria group set up tents under a stadium in a nearby former school, children wither american superh backpacks walk where the walls are full of holes and where outside the windows, playgrounds have long been abandoned. >> every deserteduiing, every old school, every mosque, were converted to temporary shelters. it was very cold in the building . there was an old pno the children were trying to play th, but it was like a scene a frormone movie. -- a horror movie.
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nick: the american footprint has shrunk to about 500. they are deployed with mostly kurdish syrian democratic forces. since turkey's incursion, things have become complicated. >> you have a casserole of flags. we saw a syrian regime flag, a russian flag vehicle, a u.s. convoy. nick: de is a fellow on the council of four monroe -- formal relations, her eighth visit. she says there is a tenuous stability kept by the mostly kurdish sdf. >> it is a testament to the sdf s who fought iongside america, to keep a fragile that very real governance structure, keeping a level of se and stability in place. nick: they are distracted from
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their fight against isis b incursion of turkish forces who consider them terrorists and displacement crisis. >> if the forces who are fighting isis also havehe to defendelves and deal with roughly 200,000 or so who are estimated to have been displaced by thencursion, you can imagine the fight against the islamic state doesn't become secondary, but it is competing with survival in terms of priority for these folks. nick: she met with a commander negotiating with the multiple militaries deployed to syria. >> looks like a lot of discussion with russia. there is aot of conversation going on. then a longer have the illusion that the ametecans will p the syrian kurds but he does ask the americans to stay until a political ocess is in place. nick: but that political process is stalled. so idlib's displaced children spend their nights a.und a campfi
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they try to find light in darkness. >> we have children who have been here for a year or so. they are all beautiful and cute. >> ♪ [singing] ♪ nick: they sing a song aboutal surv and happiness. in their innocence, these children find resilience. to draw pictures, they use the mud. they use the mud to leave their ham plants -- handprints and turn hardship into hope. >> most children adapt quickly. they laugh, they smile, they play, theying, they dream of the future. nick: but they live in syria, where most of those dreams are nightmares. and while the adults try to distract the children from are all too real. monsters her i'm nick schifrin. ♪
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judy: finally tonight, when it comes to photography, we are all ving in the instagram world. we want our pictures now or never. many think polaroid set us on that path with its revolutionary camera dating back to 19 47. the musm at the massachusetts institute of technology is telling the story of how the polaro era began in the artists who were there to make it happen. jared of bh boston reports as part of our series on arts and culture, canvas. >> for ansel adams, it answered the call of the wild. william wegman thought it was force play. it was the polaroid camera.
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when it came tohy photogr, it changed everything kinds surfaces and all kinds of wayof manipulating the materials. it probably drove some of the engineers at polaroid mad because the artists were ignoring the rules and making it up. >> at the m.i.t. meum in cambridge, a few blocks from where the polaroid camera r s invented, cades of polaroids. artists were given cameras and film to experiment, says the curator, starting with ansel adams. >> he was debate. he said, we should use itn the theate and astronomy. he gets really excited. >> the polaroid camera bypassed the process of developing film. for the first time, aists had an immediate look at their work. >> it was a small thing you could hold in the hand but you
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had to participate in the making of the picre. the picture came out and developed slowly, and that was described as magic. >> i'm going to take a picture >> would you like me to pose for you? >>es, please. it is going to tak probably 20 full minutes, but that blue sheet is thepafication and that will emerge. >> 20 minutes? >> it is not instant. the museum.urveyor at the pioneer was edwin,wn of an innovation lab who conceived of an instant camera in 1940 three and launched it into top-secret development. >> it is called sx-70, s for >> it a combination ofntal.
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mechanics and chemistry. >> all tul mol are going around and it says, i need a red one, a yellow one, a blue one. like your television that can combine these colors and create >> the first polaroid went on sale the day after thanksgiving, 1940 eight in boston. it sold out in hours. >> they didn't believe in marketing. they were skeptical of the company's efforts on that front. he said, for this.o he a feel is proved, by the way, very influential to a generation of entrepreneurs, most notably steve jobs and apple. >> we are sitting on this floor that we would all recognize. >> a rainbow stripe. it is not coincidental that the first apple logos are rainbow stripes. that is an intentional home to edwin. >> the cool quotient came from the artists given cameras and
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film to take the technology wherer they wanted. >> it freed you up from those chemicals and the labs. you could control it yourself. >> this artistol had a poid in the early 1980's. >> it is a vertical format. i want dancers to be jumping, leftthim a right. e only way to do tha is to have a mirror system, so i made a mirrorm sys, the camera was facing sideways. >> elsa would use the polaroid for portraitur andy warhol was prolific with it. barbara crane reveled in color. >> these people felt they were part of a community. they weren't alone. you didn't just do your photographs and bring them to po.roid and forget about th >> in the history and appreciation that is still developing. >> you don't have to shake it. thengineers hated that.
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>> for pbs newshour, i'm jared bowman in cambridge, massachusett judy: on t newshour online, meghan markle prince harry's decision to renounce their royal titles sparked conversatns about the current state of the british monarchy, as well as raise and identity in the u.k. why megxit marks a crossroads. that is on our website, that is e newshour for tonight. tune in starting tomorrow at 1:00 p.m. eastern as our special live coverage of the impeachment trial of president tru continueon pbs, and if you are not buy a tv, join us online at our website or on youtube. i'm judy woodruff. for all of us at the pbs, newshoank you and we will see you soon. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by -- >>idelity investments. american cruise lines.
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bnsf railway. consumer cellula the ford foundation, working with visionaries on the frontlines lines of social change worldwide. iecarn corporation of new york, supporting innovations in education, democratic engagement, and the advnacement of intonal peace and security at and with the ongoing support of and ♪ >> this program was made possible by the corpblation for
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broadcasting and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. ♪ >>his is pbs newshour west from wa studios in washington and from our bureau at the walter cronkite school of journalism at arizona state university. ♪
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