tv PBS News Hour PBS April 28, 2011 10:00pm-11:00pm PDT
captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions >> lehrer: a powerful storm system ripped through six southern states, spawning dozens of tornadoes and killing at least 280 people. good evening, i'm jim lehrer. >> brown: and i'm jeffrey brown. on the "newshour" tonight: we have an on-the-ground account of the devastation from birmingham mayor william bell. >> lehrer: then, we assess the leadership shuffle in president obama's national security team. >> brown: as congresswoman gabrielle giffords travels to florida for her husband's space shuttle launch. ray suarez looks at the challenges ahead for her recovery. >> lehrer: and, we begin a new
collaboration with "the economist" magazine to highlight the art of filmmaking. tonight: we excerpt a documentary about maternal mortality in nigeria. >> one of the 12 northern states in nigeria governed by islamic law or share ya, improving reproductive health requires a delicate interplay between islam and modern medicine. >> lehrer: that's all ahead on tonight's "newshour." major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> oil companies make huge profits. >> last year, chevron made a lot of money. >> where does it go? >> every penny and more went into bringing energy to the world. >> the economy is tough right now, everywhere. >> we pumped $21 million into local economies, into small businesses, communities, equipment, materials. >> that money could make a big difference to a lot of people.
and with the ongoing support of these institutions and foundations. and... this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> brown: much of the south was left reeling today after the nation's worst outbreak of tornadoes in nearly 40 years. at least 280 people were killed in six states during wednesday night's barrage. that included more than 190 dead
in alabama, where two major cities were hit. it was just after dinnertime wednesday, when a terrifying sight transfixed the people of tuscaloosa-- a tornado nearly a mile wide, that blasted its way across the city. >> goodness, look at that! that is huge. >> brown: the massive funnel cloud was spawned by a vast system of violent weather. it spun off severe storms and tornadoes that plowed furrows of destruction from mississippi to northwest georgia to virginia. the tuscaloosa twister tore through a city of 83,000 people. leaving in its wake, entire neighborhoods wiped off the map. by this morning, shell-shocked residents were out, trying to take stock. >> i couldn't get up. i was having to move stuff off of me and i got up and this is what i woke up to.
>> pieces of our house scattered all over two or three counties, but like i said we are alive. >> brown: some were transfixed by the wreckage that was once their homes -- now splintered into piles of debris. others began picking their away around, to gather up what they could. and rescuers did their best to pull survivors from the rubble, including this young girl who was found under a pile of bricks. but officials said scores of people were still missing. >> we heard a moan coming from under there, but they ain't moving the stuff so we can get through there. her kids, they don't know where she at. she been missing since yesterday. >> brown: the twister did only minor damage to the university of alabama campus, narrowly missing the school's football stadium. but many businesses were left unrecognizable. and streets were impassable-- littered with trees, pieces of houses and overturned cars. tuscaloosa's mayor said the city now faces a cleanup beyond imagining.
>> this is going to be a very, very long process. the amount of damage seen is beyond a nightmare. i don't know if i've ever seen in my life anything as destructive and tragic as what's transpired in tuscaloosa. >> brown: alabama's governor robert bentley, a native of tuscaloosa, declared a state of emergency and called out 1,400 national guard members. >> we're making sure that we >> brown: elsewhere, just north of birmingham, half of the courthouse roof was ripped away in the town of cullman. trees and power lines were down and officials said it could take several days for crews to fully restore power. >> oh, my graous, theres no way ome every imagining how much of a loss.
>> brown: statewide, nearly a million people lost power. the storm even forced the brown's ferry nuclear power plant near huntsville to shut down its three units because of damage to transmission lines there was no damage to the plant itself. president obama declared alabama would be eligible for federal emergency aid. he planned to visit the state on friday to view the damage firsthand. >> we can't control when or where a terrible storm may strike, but we can control how we respond to it. and i want every american that has been affected by this disaster to know that the federal government will do everything we can to help you recover, and we will stand with you as you rebuild. >> brown: mississippi was also hit hard with more than 30 dead. a surveillance camera in collins, in the southern part of the state, captured the force of high winds, tearing the roof off a warehouse. and in smithville, in the northeast, the police station, post office and city hall were among dozens of buildings that were badly damaged.
>> we grabbed a quilt and personal belongings and we went into the boardroom and got under the board table, and when it was over, everything was gone. >> brown: in all, the national weather service fielded reports of at least 137 tornadoes across six states, leaving heavy damage in tennessee, kentucky, virginia and georgia. >> tore it all to pieces, blew it up. >> started seeing shingles coming off the roof, stuff flying around. i grabbed on the porch, the porch was lifting off. i thought i was gone. and then it was over. >> brown: the loss of life was the worst since an outbreak of tornadoes killed 315 people in 1974. and there have now been 600-plus tornadoes reported in the month of april, a new record. >> brown: and now to alabama's largest city birmingham where at least 26 people were killed, more than 170,000 people there are without power tonight.
a.c. roper is the city's police chief. he joins me now. and thank you so much for joining us. chief roper, what is the situation there now? what are you seeing as you move around your city this evening? >> well, we're reaching a point of stability. we have a lot of work to do. but our primary priority was search-and-rescue. so searching these destroyed homes hand to hand, going in the rubble, pulling people out of the rub rel. we even rescued two babies. one that was trapped in a crib when the house fell down on top of the baby. that has been our priority. we're getting through it but we still have a lot of work to do. >> brown: you're going house-to-house. is it your sense that there still are people missing there? >> we do believe there are people that are still missing. we're tting reports of loved ones who can't be located, family members are searching the shell ters. so we've established a hotline where these family members can call, give their loved ones names, give us that address so we can go back to that address and try
to use heavy equipment to get in that rubble and make sure their loved ones aren't trapped. >> brown: i just wondered on a personal basis if you have seen anything like this, what you went through last night? >> no, sir, not here in birmingham but as an army reservist i deployed to homestead wn in miami after hurricane andrew. and so i have seen something similar of a greater capacity. but here in birmingham, it's a form of destruction that we haven't seen for a while. >> brown: and often when we hear about tornadoes, you hear that one side of the street is torn apart, the other side is okay. as you walk around your city streets, is that what you are seeing or is this a wider path of destruction? >> it's a wider path of destruction, but yet quer's seeing thoseçó idiosyncracies. we're seeing five houses destroyed but there is one that was right in the center that is still standing. i've seen a house where the roof was gone, two of the
walls were gone, but the bed was still sitting there, made up with the spread still intact. which is amazing that the force of the wind could destroy the house but leave the bed intact. so we're seeing those types of strange occurrences that normally occur with a tornado. >> brown: now what about the people you're meeting? are they in shock? are they able to gather themselves? are they able to work together to help one another? >> well, we're seeing people with that look of loss and despair-- despair. we're there to give them hope. we are encouraged by the fact we have so many people who are giving, serving, bringing food and water out. and so together we're getting through it but we do see that look of shock as people take inventory of their lives and all of their earthly possessions have been destroyed. >> brown: and what is being done for those who have lost their homes? are there places for them to go? >> yes, sir. we've established a shell
ter here in downtown birmingham. we're also opening a relief center tomorrow right there in the area that has been destroyed as a point of distribution for food, water, clothing. it will be staffed by volunteers and several members of the faith community. so people are rising to the occasion like they normally do in a time of crisis. >> brown: how much warning was there for people when all this happened? i understood you had sort of a sense all day that things were coming. but when it really came, how much warning, how much time was there for people to react? well, we had several hours but there were one line of storms that came through that morning. and so once that line of storms came through, some people might have gotten a sense of calm. but there was still warnings that were enacted that another line was coming that could be more severe. and when that line hit, some people followed the proper procedures and went to the basements and all of that.
but there were some others who took it for granted. and those were the ones we were rescuing. >> brown: so the search continues and you have people going to shelters. do you have all the resources you need? what are the greatest needs there right now? >> well, the greatest need for us as a police department is additional personnel. we have about 150 officers on the scene right now. we'll be supplemented by the national guard. we're expecting another 2 to 300 national guard'smen to show up this evening. we'll forward them to our security plan. and they'll really help us tomorrow as we sort of shift our priorities of effort. we'll still be searching with open primary roads but we'll be opening secondary roads. we'll be trying to clear additional debris so that hopefully the utility companies can start getting in there in the next day or two and start really assessing the situation and trying to restore some sense of calm and some sense of power and gas services. >> brown: all right, police chief a.c. roper of
birmingham, alabama, thanks so much for joining us. and all our best to you. >> lehrer: still to come on the "newshour": the president's new national secity team; recovering from the shooting and maternal and infant mortality in nigeria. but first, the other news of the day. here's kwame holman. >> holman: at least 15 people were killed in a powerful explosion in morocco today. the government said it was a terrorist bombing. the lunchtime blast in marrakech ripped through a cafe in the city's main square, a favorite spot for foreign tourists. the force of the explosion tore the facade off the restaurant. state t.v. reported at least ten of the dead were foreigners. 20 other people were wounded. north korean leader kim jong il now wants direct talks with south korea. that word came today from former president jimmy carter, after a three-day visit to pyongyang. he did not meet with kim, but was given a message from the north korean leader. >> chairman and general secretary kim jong il sent word
that he is willing and the people of north korea are willing to negotiate with south korea or with the united states or with the six powers, the other five powers, on any subject, at any time and without any preconditions. >> holman: south korea has insisted the north accept responsibility for sinking a south korean warship last year and for an artillery strike on an island. but the north korean message did not go that far. there was word from syria today that army units fought each other this week in the city of daraa. the army was sent there on monday, to carry out a crackdown on protesters. witnesses in the city reported some troops refused to shoot at the crowds and then, came under fire themselves, from other troops. residents said at least 43 people have been killed in daraa this week. a military court in bahrain has sentenced four shi-ite protesters to death. they were convicted of killing
two policemen last month. the four defendants were the first brought to trial since bahrain's sunni rulers declared martial law in the persian gulf kingdom. israeli leaders have firmly rejected a deal between palestinian factions to form a unity government for gaza and the west bank. israeli president shimon peres said today his country would not accept any government that includes hamas, which now controls gaz but hamas said again it would not accept the jewish state as a permanent fixture in the middle east. london was a flurry of activity today, amid final preparations for tomorrow's royal wedding of prince william and kate middleton. we have a report from katie razzall of "independent television news." >> reporter: a wave for the crowds on her last day as a commoner late this afternoon a glimpse of kate middleton, as she returned to the goring hotel where she's staying with her family. this morning the bride-to-be was spotted leaving westminster abbey after her last rehearsal with prince harry, her bridesmaids and pageboys and her
parents as it was confirmed she the official wedding service now public, the almost princess will walk up the aisle to this-- parry's i was glad, composed for the crowning of edward 7th. in the program, the couple write of how incredibly moved they've been by all the affection shown to them since their engagement. that affection on show for the new duchess of cornwall this afternoon as she stepped outside clarence house to meet those fervent royalists from all corners of the globe who've set up camp along london's mall. >> mexico >> reporter: the pavements opposite westminster abbey now a sea of tents and down the mall, too, people jostling for a spot on the route.
the people set up a couple nights ago to be in the right position, which they are, right outside the abbey, that is pretty bizarre, then the people outside who are take photographs of the people inside. that's bizarre too. but everybody is united by the idea that something a little bit different is going on. different and with the clock ticking down to tomorrow, very british in its way. the wedding will epitomize britishness at the palace with music by alga r. williams and the him jerusalem. >> holman: the ceremony begins at 6:00 am eastern time tomorrow. a checklist could help detect autism by a baby's first birthday. reseachers at the university of california, san diego, reported the finding today after testing 10,000 babies. the checklist assesses a child's behavior and ability to communicate, and can be completed by parents in a doctor's waiting room. the researchers said they need to do further work before the
test is ready for routine use. on wall street, stocks moved higher again, despite a report showing only modest economic growth in the first quarter. the dow jones industrial average gained 72 points to finish at 12,763-- an all-time high. the nasdaq rose two points to close at 2,872. those are some of the day's major stories. now, back to jim. >> lehrer: president obama presents a revamped national security team. the shuffle has been in the works for some time and today, the president made it official, in the white house east room. >> i've worked closely with most of the individuals on this stage and all of them have my complete confidence. they are leaders of enormous integrity and talent who've evoted their lives to keeping our nation strong and secure. and i am personally ver very grateful to each of them for accepting these new assignments. >> lehrer: today's announcement was triggered by secretary of defense robert gates-- a holdover from the bush
administration. he told the president last year he wanted to step down this summer and has now fixed his departure for june 30. c.i.a. director leon panetta was the president's choice today to succeed gates at the pentagon. panetta would be the oldest pers to become secretary of defense, at 72 years old. he's served in government for decades as budget director and white house chief of staff in the clinton administration and before that, as a long-time democratic congressman from california. >> as the son of immigrants, i was raised to believe that we cannot be free unless we are secure. today, we are a nation at war. and job one will be to ensure yet, this also a time for hard choices. it's about ensuring that we are able to prevail in the conflicts in which we are now engaged. but it's also about being able
to be strong and disciplined in applying out nation's limited resources to defending america. >> lehrer: the nominee to replace panetta at the c.i.a.-- army general david petraeus. the general is now overall commander of the international security assistance forces in afghanistan. prior to that, he ran the u.s. central command and he oversaw coalition forces in iraq during the surge of u.s. troops there. >> i've had the privilege of working very closely with the quiet professionals of the central intelligence agency. i have seen first hand their expertise, their commitment to our nation, and their courage in dangerous circumstances. their service to our country is of vital importance. >> lehrer: the president wants u.s. marine lieutenant general john allen to take over in afghanistan. allen is petraeus' former deputy at cent-com. he joined the marine corps in
1976 as a commissioned officer, after graduating from the u.s. naval academy. >> i understand well the demands of mission. and mr. president, if confirmed by the senate i will dedicate my full measure to the successful accomplishments of the tasks and the objectives now set before us. >> lehrer: general allen would be joined in afghanistan by a new u.s. ambassador. taking the place of karl eikenberry, who's expected to leave short. ryan crocker is being nominated for the posting in kabul. crocker is a career diplomat who retired from the state department after serving as u.s. ambassador to iraq. >> the challenges are formidable and the stakes are high. 9/11 came to us out of afghanistan. our enemy must never again have that opportunity. >> lehrer: the personnel changes come as u.s. forces in afghanistan are set to begin pulling out in july.
but recent incidents won't make that any easier. yesterday, an afghan pilot shot and killed eight american soldiers and a u.s. contractor at the kabul airport. it was the seventh such attack this year. on monday, more than 400 prisoners-- mostly taliban-- escaped from a prison in kandahar after digging a thousand-foot long tunnel. and there are reports that pakistan is pressing afghan president karzai to scale back his country's reliance on the u.s. those challenges and others will confront the president's new team, once they clear senate confirmation. white house officials indicate they hope to have panetta in place at the pentagon by july 1. and generals petraeus and allen in their new positions by september. some analysis now from jessica tuchman mathews, president of the carnegie endowment for international peace. she served in the carter and clinton administrations.
john mclaughlin, former c.i.a. deputy director and then acting director. he now teaches at the johns hopkins school of advanced international studies. and general jack keane, army vice chief of staff from 1999 to 2003. he now has his own consulting firm. first, just in general, general, what do you think of the new team? >> well, they're good choices. they're very companiable. i think it says a lot about continuity. three of them are already serving in national security. and they've got a lot of experience with it. and we're bringing ryan crocker back into government. absolutely one of the most accomplished diplomats operating in this region that we've ever had. all solid choices. >> lehrer: all solid choices? >> yes,:oh, yes, individual ability,ontiity, ability to deal with congress, i think. and ability to sell the plan in afghanistan. that's what they were looking for here. >> lehrer: what do you see? opinions yes, very much so i can't think of anyone more prepared to step in behind bob gates than leon panetta.
and cia, there is always a little anxiety with popular respect a director like leon panetta leaves but i'm confident they will embrace general petraeus. >> lehrer: jessica mathews, what about the idea that there is no new face here? it is continuity. and is continuity always a good thing when you don't have any fresh faces and fresh thinking that comes with it? >> well, i would say the flip side of continuity is fresh ideas. and if you develop a sense in an administration that only insiders can see what they are doing, can understand it, can execute it, then i think pretty soon you get a sort of a feeling of circling the wagon. both the perception of it. and that's a weakness that every administration has to guard against. so i think there is a cost to always and only looking inside. >> lehrer: do you agree. >> i see it a little
differently. i think the world itself guarantees there is no continuity. so in other words, whatever team is there and these are all qualified proven people they will have to deal with the transition. there is no plan someone can put on the table and say we're going to follow that ceasilessly and without any change over the next period of time. >> lehrer: but nobody should expect any dramatic differences with the total, what team itself has been doing and what the new team will do, correct? >> that's correct, in terms of what is in front of them. >> lehrer: policy and stuff, sure. >> we deal with strategic surprise continuously. we just had it again with the revolutions that have taken place in the middle east. most people did not have that on their charter. soing have experienced capable professions, have been through crisis before i think bodes well here to deal with. my only reservation about all of this is take petraeus away from afghanistan at this critical time while we're trying to change the
momentum in that war. and how much he means to that. that is my single reservation. >> lehrer: and he would be replaced by general allen. you have questions about allen or just leaving -- >> no, no question approximates about allen, all sen overseeing that war from cencom. he is general david petraeus's recommendation. he has a tremendous representation himself. it's just this is a very critical time and let's be frank about it. petraeus is the best we've got. and we're right in the middle of turning this war around. >> lehrer: and the same thing has been said about bob gates, the secretary of defense. he's going to be very tough to replace. anybody, even leon panetta, do you agree? >> i do. and i have a slightly different view, i think, than john did about panetta. obviously nobody comes close to him in washington experience, at both ends of pennsylvania avenue, on the hill and in the white houses achieve of staff. and he knows budget cutting. but he doesn't know defense
per se. right, and coming in, not knowing the culture of that building, and the substance of the thousands of issues that he has to deal with, is to come in, i think, with one hand tied behind your back. it's, you've got two wars. you've got huge budget cuts coming in the pentagon. you had cuts of bone and fat are all tangled up. there is plenty of waste. >> lehrer: and machines as well. >> you have to have a vision of what kind of military you are trying to build in order to get the cuts to make sense. and he's coming in, really, without experience on those issues. so i think there's a real challenge there. >> lehrer: speaking as a military man, how do you see that? is panetta really the man to run the department of defence? >> well, first of all, gates is really tough shoes to fill. he's one of the most effective secretaries we've
ever had. so that would be tough no matter who are you picking. but what i like about this is panetta has got a real solid reputation for good judgement, common sense, works well with people, listens to the people. at the same time, he's been on this national security team listening to all the policy formulation and development that's been taking place. so his knowledge is very high coming in, even though he specifically doesn't know how those departments are running. i think his spinnup will be pretty quick. >> i add to that because one of the things we have to remember here is that the cia since nine -- since 9/11 has been a war fighting machine so leon panetta time there has been very close to the military. and there's no closer relationship by necessity in washington should be than between the cia director and the secretary of defense. >> lehrer: did gates and panetta, gates is secretary of defense and panettas ahead of the cia, did they
work well together as they say. >> absolutely, very closely together, before they came to office. they knew each other well. and after coming to office, they were very close. >> lehrer: now correct me if i'm wrong. but the general consensus was that when panetta became head of the cia, some of the folks in the agency doubted whether or not he was qualified to come in. and he was looked upon as somebody, a politician who had come in and may not be the right person. he did, did he, in fact, win over the troops of the cia? >> he did very much so. there's a bit of a myth that the cia will not embrace an outsider. they will if it's someone as respected and connected an savvy as leon panetta. but to be fair, he didn't know a lot about intelligence when he came. in he was a very quick study. and he did the thing that a c can i a directe has to do in order to succeed and that was, elise ened. and he didn't bring a lot of people with him. he brought in one person with him. >> lehrer: one outside person. >> only one person came with 4i78, his chief of staff. >> lehrer: everybody else
that is under him at the c can i a now are people who were already in office? >> yes. >> lehrer: is that unusual. >> it is unusual. but it sends a message to the troops there that this is a person whose's going to rely on them, look to them, show them a lot of respect. you know, the cia is always in the midst of controversy so they are always looking for someone who can defend them, stick up for them. and he's done that. and ises's learned his brief very wl. >> lehrer: what do you think about turning the cia over to a military man, petraeus? >> i think there's an issue there as well. you know, the vast majority of our 16 intelligence agencies are military, are within the pentagon command, they were inside it. the cia is the leading policymaking, or policy involved intelligence agency and the one whose charter has got to be most political, dealing with a lot of issues that are not
military-related. not tactical and not war-fighting related. i think as a trend, it's probably not a healthy one. if in addition to all the other military intelligence agencies, we end up with the cia being more and more led by military, an awful lot of issues that the cia needs to be smart about, that are outside of the military purview. >> lehrer: but you would consider-- and out of what you would consider petraeus's position up until now. >> certainly. >> lehrer: do you agree. >> i think running the central intelligence agency, the military should be the exception, not the norm. and i think in this case the exception is probably understandable. general petraeus has been involved in two wars, intimately involved with dealing with central intelligence agency, and some of the absolute hands-down best professionals that they have in operating in this region. i think it's attraction to
the agency, not speaking for him, but just knowing him pretty well, is two things. one, as john clearly pointed out, the agency's fighting the cold war clandestine war against radical islam and al qaeda and general petraeus has been involved in that himself. he gets the opportunity to continue that and bring some of his unique skill sets to that. and also it contributes to policy formulation. and i know general petraeus has strategic interests in doing that as well. >> i think it's worth just mentioning that, in this context, that three of the four directors of national intelligence have been military men. these are the boss of the head of the cia. so there is a-- there is somhing. >> i got nothing. i've got nothing against civilian leadership in cia but at the same time i would say over time, since 1947, we've had seven military officerses aheads of the cia. and many of them have done quite well. general smith in the early years and general mike hayden more recently. something i would say to people at cia right now
about this general is this is a general who is a soldier scholar. he's got a ph.d from princeton-- princeton. he's able to move in many different worlds and i would see him being very comfortable on both the analytic and the operational side of the agency. >> lehrer: finally, why did they bring back ryan crocker, do you think? >> can't do better. >> lehrer: you really can't do better? >> i don't think so. he's been ambassador. he's had the experience in iraq. he's been ambar-- . >> lehrer: but nonin afghanistan. >> he's been ambassador in pakistan, that is really more important than kabul for the outcome in afghanistan. and he's been all over the region. he has the language skills. he has every bit of respect for how he has delivered. >> lehrer: dow wonder why he took the job? >> yes. >> lehrer: really a tough job. >> you know, i think-- i think-- i said, i thought delivery of the message about the policy was very much on their minds in these appointments. but my guess is, and i don't
know, that he finally agreed to do this because of how serious he thinks the situation there is. >> lehrer: quick word from you about crocker what do you think about crocker? >> he was indispensable to turning the situation around in iraq. he's absolutely hands down the finest diplomat i've seen in an operational setting where everything is on the line. he works so well with the military. the civil mill-- civil military relationship he had with petraeus is the best i've ever observed. no doubt that will continue, initially with petraeus here and also with general allen. >> lehrer: you feel good about crocker too. >> i've worked with him in the past. and among other things, he is a superb leader of an embassy mission. everyone in the mission feels like part of a team when he's in charge. >> lehrer: okay, all right, thank you all very much, all three. >> brown: next, arizona representative gabriel giffords and her husband are back in the national eye this week-- bringing renewed attention to her recovery so far. ray suarez has our update.
>> suarez: it's a milestone in congresswoman giffords' struggle to recover from being shot in the head last january. tomorrow, at cape canaveral, florida, she'll attend the final launch of the space shuttle endeavour. her husband, captain mark kelly, is commanding the mission. kelly says his wife was thrilled when she found out her doctors in houston would allow her to go. >> i think she said, "awesome," and she pumped her fist. >> suarez: giffords was critically wounded in by a gunman in tucson, arizona on january 8. not long after the shootings, she was moved to a houston rehabilitation facility. and while her early recovery was described as miraculous, signs of improvement are now coming more slowly. >> we saw some very early signs and so we got so optimistic that we were expecting a very fast recovery and that's not what we're seeing now. >> suarez: her doctors say giffords' speech is improving. but she still struggles with words-- using only short phrases like "love you" and "i miss
tucson." still, giffords has made enough progress to travel to florida for the launch, albeit under guarded conditions with reporters kept away. on wednesday, long-distance images showed a figure, apparently giffords, walking with help up the steps of a private jet that flew to cape canaveral. there, she will join families of the shuttle's other crew members in a private viewing on friday. but she has prepared for the occasion by writing a personal note for her husband to read in space and she's also chosen a wake up song for the crew, just as she did four years ago. and once the launch is past, giffords has told aides she has another goal in mind-- to walk a mountain someday. >> suarez: for more on all this, >> skeed them but they were unable to join us. so for more we turn to a
neuropsychologist who specializes in treating brain injury. to get us started what is a neuroschool-- neuropsychologist and what role do you play. >> neuropsychologist su a gok tore level clinical psychologist who then goes and pursues additional two or more years of fellowship training to specialize in brain disorders and brain conditions. so for example, on a rehabilitation team, a neuropsychologist will work closely with their physician colleagues and the physical and occupational, speech therapist to get a good assessment of the individual, how their injury has affected their cognitive and behavioral functioning, how it's affecting their psychological well-being. and then we'll provide assessment and treatment along the way. sometimes as long as 10 or 20 years if that's necessary. >> suarez: now noting that you haven't consulted representative giffords or her team, can you assume from the fact that she's being allowed to travel that her recovery is continuing, and in her doctor's view,
going well? >> well, i think there's a-- i should preface this by saying, i think it's a good thing that we don't know a lot about her recovery. because while miss giffords is a public figure, of course, she is also a private individual and private citizen who deserves her right to privacy for her medical condition and right to recovery. so i think it's a good thing that we don't know a lot about all of the details, that we're not seeing a lot of photographs. because she's entitled to that privacy and we need to respect that. having said that, i think it is a good thing. we can infer that it is a positive thing that she's being allowed to travel. because if she wasn't sufficiently stable in terms of her medical condition and her cognitive and psychological abilities, then they probably would not let her-- let her take this traveling. if she is at a very good rehabilitation hospital and they're going to be cautious about what they let her do. so it probably is a positive sign. >> suarez: can account trip itself, just being allowed to do something normal that she would have been doing
absent the shooting, be therapeutic? >> yes, actually i think a trip like this has the potential to be therapeutic. i haven't read a lot about it, but i know some people have raised some concerns. but it can be therapeutic in a few different ways. one is, it's an opportunity for the person to do what we sometimes call starting to normalize life. that you have to start return to do the things that you would normally do if you had never been injured. it's never going to be exactly the same as it was, but you need to start to resume those roles. and so in parts's therapeutic because it's an opportunity to go out into the world, and to see what goes well, what doesn't go well. and i was going to say it also can be therapeutic because it is an opportunity for her to resume a role that was a normal role for her. since the time she's been injured, she's been taken care of, she's been watched very closely. and this actually could be a way that she has an opportunity to re-- to
resume her role as a spouse and to do something for her husband. so in that way, it also could be a therapeutic thing for her. >> suarez: we're still just a couple of months in, but what should the public understand about recovery from a certificate veer brain injury, emotionally, physically, regaining your previous capacities? >> that's a real challenging question. we like heroic stories of recovery. and we like to have the belief that somebody's going to overcome 100 percent recovery, return to everything the way it was before. and when you've had a severe brain injury, that's simply not what happened. there are levels of damage that are permanent. there are changes that will not fully heal. and so what the individual needs to learn is they need to learn how to compensate for abilities that had been lost. how to rebuild new abilities. how to resume old roles but to do it in a different way than you were before. that's the real sign of a
successful and, if you want to call it, a heroic recovery. the tens of thousands of people who have brain injuries much like miss giffords had is recovering from, do every day. >> suarez: so it sounds like you are saying her life will never be the same. but how long will it be until her family, her team of doctors understand what's possible given where she is? given what she has to come back from, and what the potential is for her taking up a normal life? >> it's a real challenging question. early on i think the doctor mentioned that there was fairly rapid signs early on and we often see that. and the further out from one's injury usually you see the recovery curve core the trajectory, as we say, slowing down. but it can go on for years. for example, when i came into the field the thought was the first year is where all the recovery occurs. i now am seeing patients for 10 or 15 years who are still showing improvements of one
kind or another. so they will be watching to see, and they will be assessing on an ongoing basis the continued changes that she makes. and they'll be tailor the treatment in order to maximize the recovery that they are seeing. and for those things that don't recovery, then her team will be working to develop ways that she can try to compensate for those areas that she can find other ways of trying to do them. and honestly, there may be some things that she's just not able to resume just as anyone who has had a severe injury such as this. >> suarez: but quickly, we don't know what those are yet, after four months. >> correct. it's too early, it's too early to know that and again, the fact that she, that we don't have all those details, respecting her privacy is a good thing. so we really don't know, unless you are one of the professionals treating her. >> suarez: dr. garmoe, thanks a lot. >> you're welcome.
>> lehrer: finally tonight, the start of something new-- a partnership with "the economist" magazine to showcase the art of filmmaking. together, we've chosen examples of independently-produced documentaries from around the world the first is from a film called "edge of joy" by filmmaker dawn shapiro. it takes us inside a busy maternity ward in nigeria, a country where maternal deaths are among the highest in the world. a warning-- this film contains graphic, disturbing images and events. >> it's one of the busiest maternity centers you can find in all of west africa. there is at least an average of 30 deliveries in 24 hours. >> dr. bello dikko is head of obstetrics and gynecology at murtala mohommed special
hospital in the northern state of kano, one of the most difficult and dangerous regions in which to be a woman. >> ( translated ): i took my wife sakina to the hospital on a saturday and she gave birth to twins on sunday. the first twin was a girl. >> because of the associated complications the second delivery should not exceed five toten minutes. >> ah? okay. okay. is it coming? >> yes. >> what just happened? >> she was telling me that the presenting part of that patient, the second twin, is breach presentation. >> breech delivery, especially in multiple pregnancy, is a very complicated delivery. there is a need for a qualified ob/gyn doctor.
>> we even called the doctor but he was not here. but if she is about to deliver, we can take the delivery, we do it. >> ( translated ): sakina labored in pain before the second baby was born. it was close to an hour before the boy was born. he came forth having problems. >> we need oxygen. we don't have oxygen
>> ( translated ): my son needed medical attention, and we rushed him to the emergency pediatric ward. >> while the second twin was being stabilized, sakina's condition worsened. she was diagnosed with post- partum hemorrhage. >> one of our main problems here-- how to get blood. the husband has to go and donate. before, we normally asked red cross.
they mobilized people to come and donate blood to the hospital. but now due to this hiv, so we stopped this. they have to go and check the blood group of the husband. then they compare if it's the same with her own. if it's not the same blood group. >> a positive. not the same. >> the husband must buy the blood. >> muhammed's search for sakina's rare blood type took him tourrounding hospitals and private blood suppliers. one pint of blood costs 10,00 lire, or $68 u.s. the average nigerian makes about $94 a month.
kano is one of the 12 northern states in nigeria governed by islamic law or sharia. improving reproductive health requires a delicate interplay between islam and modern medicine. >> in this part of the country, you need to work with the religious leaders. if you want to achieve your objectives, your aims, then you need to look at, what does islam say? how do you do it, so that it becomes more acceptable? for me, i have always been an advocate of family planning. people see it as a western idea, people see it as the western are trying to impose their ideas on us, so it becomes a little bit difficult. islamically, it is wrong for you to say you want to have two children. you want to have four. but islamically you can space.
i would have had 15 >> i hope a lot of things that happen will change. the change is coming gradually, but i think we need to move a little faster than the rate we are moving. islam moves with civilization. this is what i think. >> i don't think the baby is alive. i don't think. >> we have a teaching in the religion of islam that states what allah gives belongs to him. and what he takes also belongs to him. all of us are from allah.
and at some point, sooner or later, we shall all return to allah. even though we know it hurts, we can only accept its outcome. >> brown: that was an excerpt from the documentary film "edge of joy." on our website, you can read the director's reflections on filming difficult subjects like maternal mortality. the economist film project is designed to highlight the work of independent producers on the pbs "nshour." and you can learn more about the project or submit your film at film.economist.com. >> lehrer: again, the major developments of the day: the death toll neared 300 after the worst tornadoes in nearly 40 years savaged the south. president obama introduced his revamped national security team. his nominations included c.i.a. director leon panetta to be defense secretary and general
david petraeus to run the c.i.a. and british officials completed final preparations for tomorrow's royal wedding of prince william and kate middleton. and to kwame holman for what's on the "newshour" online. kwame? >> holman: our science unit looks at an earthquake preparedness drill today in the midwest called the "great central u.s. shake out." as the world waits for the royal wedding, we look at what such marriages used to mean for the destiny of nations and the course of diplomacy. plus, you can watch the ceremony live on our site starting at 4:30 a.m. eastern time tomorrow. and finally, word of a special newshour project comes from our science correspondent, miles o'brien. >> after 30 years of triumph and tragedy, the space shett el-- shuttle era is coming to an end, it's a special moment in history and you get a chance to be a part of it thanks to google, youtube and the newshour. three days after the next shuttle launch we'll be posting your questions to a
group of shuttle and spaus station astronauts lead by endover commander mark kelly. find out how to weigh in and vote on your favorites on newshour.pbs.org or on the pbsyou tube channel and see you for the live interview with the crew in space on "you talk to endeavor" >> holman: you can catch miles o'brien live at the shuttle site beginning at 11:00 a.m. tomorrow. endeavor is expected to launch at 3:47 p.m. eastern time. miles's comprehensive coverage can be found at spaceflightnow.com. find a link on our web site. all that and more is at newshour.pbs.org. >> lehrer: and again, to our honor roll of american service personnel killed in the iraq and afghanistan conflicts. we add them as their deaths are made official and photographs become available. here, in silence, are eight
>> lehrer: and i'm jim lehrer. we'll see you online and again here tomorrow evening with mark shields and david brooks, among others. thank you and good night. major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> i mean, where would we be without small businesses? >> we need small businesses. >> they're the ones that help drive growth. >> like electricians, mechanics, carpenters. >> they strengthen our communities. >> every year, chevron spends billions with small businesses. that goes right to the heart of local communities, providing jobs, keeping people at work. they depend on us. >> the economy depends on them. >> and we depend on them. and the william and flora hewlett foundation, working to
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