tv Global 3000 LINKTV September 27, 2019 7:30am-8:01am PDT
>> welcome to "global 3000 today, we're off to siberia, where global warming is causing permrmafrost to melt, and scientists are trying to turn things around.d. in kenya, meet teenenage mothers determined to take control l of theheir lives and d a better future for themselves and their babies. but fifit, we takeke a look athe population problem. just how many people are there onon our planet, and can it coe with us all? in the early 1800's, the global population hit the one billion mark for the first time. thanks to more efficient farming
methods and greater access to food, it grew quickly after that. medical progress then pushshed down mortality rates, giving populations a further boost. in industrial countries, birth rates have slowed down. now, it's mainly the populations of developing nations that continue to expand. today, there are over well over 7 billion of us. ♪ >> a neonatal ward in kabul. these tiny, vulnerable infants represent the future of afghanistan. the world needs the next generation -- or ds it? can our planet deal with a growing population? does it have the resources to cope? at toll does it take on naturea? citieses such as delelhi and jaa struggle with the
fafaout from overcrowdi every day. therere are just t too many pee lookining for work, , for foodr somewhere to live. our planet's humanan populations currently inincreasing by y an averagage of 80 millllion a y. reiner klingholz is one of germany's leading population researchers. since the 1990's, he's been looking into the question of how many people can earth support. >> we live on a planet that has limitations. the resources s required to guarantee people a liviveable le are finite. whether we're talking about energy, infrastructure, roads,, housing, or health care. at s some point, the global populaonon will so o hugehat this will be a problem. >> it already is a problem inh populaonon will so o hugehat ratetes. demogrgraphics reseaearchers y that a country can only develop if the birth rate is low enough. harsh as it sounds, children don't contribute to wealth
eation..that means y >> t there needs t to be a falg birthrhrate and a rerelativelyh number of young adulults reachg a working age and actually finding jobs. only then have we seen progress. >> this development has already taken n place in many countrie, which is why the worldwide birthrate has declined significantly since the 1960's. today, women have an average 2.4 children. in chad and mali, the fertility rate has fallen, but is still an average of around six children per woman. but, the highest fertility rate in the world is in niger, where women have an average 7.2 children. chad, mali, and niger all belong to the sahel zone, a region that's arid and impoverished and has a rapidly expanding population.
here, outside niger's capital , niamey, people expect their children to provide for the family once they're able to. the more children they have, the greater r the likelihood that t least one of them will find work and be able to support the family. jean-marc gravellini works for the sahel alliance, an initiative promoting stability and development inin the regio. he s says population growth is e of the biggest problems currently facing africa. >> it's a very, very, very huge challenge. fofor the peoplele in regardrd f their knowledge, they don't understand the number of children in a famimily can be n issue. >> the figures give cause for concern.
4.6 billion people currently live in asia. but, according to forecasts, africa's population is set to grow by nearly 3 billion by 2100. so, when we say the global population is growing, what we mean is essentially africa's populationon is growing.g. what c can be done to put the brakes on population growth? in the mid-1990's, the fertility rate in ethiopia was seven children per woman. the authorities recognized the problem and invested heavily in awareness campaigns. researchers agree that education is the solution. young women neneed to know abot coraceptptioand d makenformemed decisions about having childldr. recent years have seen the fertility rate in the country fall to o four childreren per w.
> i think it't's necessarao haveve a pedagogic a approach. the contntrol of t p populion mumust be onofof the main targr, one of the main actions, public actions. >> women w who are better educad have more opportunities. they earn more money, they have a better status in society, and they are b better able to asset themselves in their relalationships.s. their partners oftften want moe children than they do. >> in developing nations, 43% of pregnancies are believed to be unwanted. the figure is especially high in places whehere women have fewr rights, where they're unaware of or can't a afford access to contraception. family planning is often determined by men. however, according to u.n.
projections, global population growth will not continue to rise indefinitely. by the turn of the next century, it is expected to level off or even decline. ♪ >> teenage pregnancys a keyy theme, p particularly y in afr, where nearly a fifth of all rlrls beco motothersefore e they turn 19. that's almost ububle thelobabal avererage. typipically, youngng pregnant n and thers therend up cluded froeducation avererage. typipicallyentirely. pregnant n but, jobob prospects a are vitar these gigirls to give them the independence they need to care for themselves and their children. >> what at first glance looks like a childcare facility is actually a training center for teenage mothers. vivian anguzuzu is learning to be a seamstress. she got pregnant at 16 and dropped out of school. now that she's learnrning new skills, her future looks much brighter. >> becoming a seamstress will enable me to change my life.
until now, i've just been at home with my baby. now, i have something to do,o, d i get to use my brain. >> vivian's daughter, abigail, has a painful skin condition. becoming a mother as a teenager is hard enough, and harder still if the child is sick. young women can struggle to cope. >> since i had my baby, life has been very hard. i'm no longer a child. my parents want nothing more to do with me. everything changed when i got pregnant. a baby is so demanding. >> mathare is an impoverished area in nairobi where problems like unemployment, drug and alcohol abuse and prostitution are widespread. unwanted preganancies are commonplace. the trtraining center for teene mothers hosts a group session every day. young women who have a p place
there can consider thememsleves mothervery lucucky.up session there's a long waiting list. the center is run by ann ochieng. sex education isn't on the curriculum in most kenyan schools. contraception is a tababoo topc and abortion i is illegal. teenage pregnancies are on the rise. > some of them are being trafafficked from eir villages and brought to nairobi with expectations that they'll get an education. but, when they come here, they are turned into house girls. so, you find in between the lines, they don't really get their expectations, there is nobody to provide for their needs and they become an extra burden to the family they are living with. their needs are so many, so in the process of trying to provide for their needs, for example, sanitary towels, they get involved in sexual activities.
>> the young mothers are penniless. the charity organization provides them with clothes and also with regular meals, including for their children. mary wanjiru is reluctant to talk in detail about what happened to her. >> there were many problems. poverty. if we'e'd had money, i wouldn'te herere. i'd nenever have met my childs father, i wouldn't have got ten pregnant. it happened because of poverty. >> her own mother, it turns out, never told her about the facts of life. >> she was never there. she'd come home late at night, often drunk. she never had any time for me. >> from the age of 10, mary had to look after her younger brothers and sisters. after falling pregnant, she had to drop out of school. then, a friend told her she
could train as a hairdresser at the center. it wasn't her dream job, but it's an opportunity denied to most teenanage mothers. >> when i began the training scheme, i realised that many other girls were in the same boat. and that having a baby isn't the end of the world. >> today, vivian anguzuzu has to take her daughter to the hospital. the young mothers can have their babies treated here for free. abigail isn't doing well. the nutritionist asks vivian if she's sticking to the diet shehd recommended for abigail last time.
>> the child has moderate acute malnutrition. >> i feel so bad because she's not growing. i give her all the support. i feel so bad. >> for me, it was a challenge at first because, of course, it's very emotional. but i had to give her all the support she needed. because, of course, ifif she s emototionally y stable, the by will also feel the sense of happiness in the mum. >> young mothers marary and vivn often spenend their free t time together. they hadad to grow up fast. but both still have their hopes and dreams. >> i want to finish my course. make a job and maybe go babacko school to o finish my seconday education. i would like to be an anchor one day.
because i know it is possible. >> whahat makes me happy? my baby makes me happy. i'm glad i didn't have an abortion. if i hadn't had my baby, i wouldn't be who i am today. and i'm glad of that.. >> n neither of the young moths expects to marry anytime soon, but they are confident they can get by without a man and give their children a better start in life than they had. ♪ >> the expanding global population is straining our plplet's resources. carbon dioxi l levels e onon the se, as are tempetureres.the grop population is straining our peafrost aas, , which make up arnd 1 15%f the eah's suace, arelso feelg the heatat. the layers of ice anandk contain the remains of organisms trapped in them millions of yearars ago, whihich decay whehn ththey're exposed, releleasing greenhnhouse gases.. ins alady stard to mel
>> 240 kililometers nortrth ofe arctic circlcle, this corneref nonortheastern s siberia boasa surprprising amoununt of vegeto in the summer. but, it's not pristine nature untouched by human hands. sergey zimov takes us along on a motorboat t trip on the e kola rivever, which is s only free oe for a fefew months a y year. our journeney is interrurupteda sandnk. sergey, a regional director of the renowned russian academy of sciences, has to get out andg. morehan fourours aftporarily settg off, wreach the icy cliffs. and they're dripipping. sibeberia's permrmafrost is mel. >> these microbes have been asleep for close to 50,000 years.s.
now,w, they wake up and stt too breed,d, and produce a a smell. >> the organisms i immediately now, they wawake up and start o begieating. in the process, turnrning carbn into carbon dioxide. there are so many of them in the area, we're monitoring that europe's climate would become unbearable if they all thawed out. >> the permafrost under a quarter of the northern hemispsphere plays a p pivotale in globabal climate. ththere's twice e as much carn trapped d in it as thehere is ie entire atmosphere. frozen soioil is now releleasg grgreenhouse gasases at a fasr arctic g grasslands wewere oncee to large m mammals.
within mininutes, sesergey cols a range of bones from ancient bison, h horses and wowoolly mammotoths. >> wherever people setettle, wildlife disappearars. roujob b iswherever possibls o to resre the natural diversity thatat our forebeaears once s. >> sergey zimov is a scienstst whwantnts toee hisisdeas put into practe. to that aim,m, 20 years agagoe bebegan revivingng the ecosystf the lastst ice a. togethther with his son,n, nik, he's removoved trees andnd re-plantnted primeval l grassls ininheir place they've also reintroduced rdrds of y yaks and bisoson. some a are wilder ththan othe. the heheivores that now liven thplpleistoce papark he a bibig job ahead of them -- slowingd. in decembmber, there's a a thk layeyer of snow ththat insulatee grground from ththe cold. as they forarage for grassss,e hohorses tread d down on thenw anmamake it re c compact.
as a r result, the permafrost stays frozozen, d doesesn't met in the summer. >> tememperatures during arctc summers can reach 40 degrees cecelsius, but o our feet remn cold due to the permafrost didirectly beneaeath this mea. and ththe zimovs sayay the groun their r "ice age parark" is aly stayining colder foror lger. the experiment has also piquedtm geany's s max plck i instute. they've cocome to examinine the reconfigured ecosyemem, an measasure thquanantiti of enviroenentally harmfuful gass circrculating in t the area. >> we're expecting a farorore acve e exchae withthhe atmospsphere, but alalso a grer enrichmement of carbonon in the soil, due to more photosynthisis anthe e morective e pes of grasgrowininhere. >> sergey ziv v putst in m me dramatic tms.. sees hipark as babalegroundetween aew ecosystem anan oldldne that is noequal tohe challge of climate ange. the arct region warmingp twice as fasast as the resest oe planet.
the lalandscape is changing. bubbling up to the surface of the lakes created by the melting permafrost is methane, a greenhouse gas 20 times mo porful t tn co2. ifif successful, sery believes his experiment will benefit the entire world. >> t the russisians are not afd of temperaratures rising. they'll sasay we're lookoking d and are making prepararations. the impetus has to come e from e european frorom thamererics, nonoh africans and aans,s, from the countries ththat are alreay feeling the negative effectsff global w warming. >> the z zimovs know t they ct save the perermafrost all l on r own. bubut, they're d determined tow that it's possible. their icagage expementnt nee a ecosystem, w with all thatat s ththe objecentatails.an autonos
>> a and by the enend, i'll inintroduce a lilion oa tigegere and d tell them, " "this is yr park now."." that's a jojok. >> if modern technology can bring back the extinct species, sergey zimov can even imagine mammoths walking around yakutia one day. >> i i don't't want to leave bd a dedesolate landsdscape to my grandchildren and great grandchildldren, wherenlyy mosquitoes feel atat home. i prefer the s species-rich wod of ourur ancestors.. it's the k kind of natature tt kept the clilimate statable and provovided nourishmement for hu. >> sergey zimov has ofoften ben acaccused of trying to play go. hehe disagrees c completely anad says, toto the contrarary, he'st
trying to o make up for r te destruction that humankind began thousands of years ago. ♪ >> this week in global ideas, we head to armenia and find out how companies there are e adopting w habits to help save resources. our reporter, claudia laszczak, travelled toto the capitala, yerevavan, to meet t the peoplo ais to give people a tae e fore d dclimate protection.ial l it >> povertyty in the coununtrys, and western affluence in the capitatal, yerevan. armenia is marked byby stark cocontrasts. >> a areness and knowledge a ae ke >> until 1991, armenia w a a partf the form sovoviet ion. after the e collapse of f commu, the country y fell into anan ecsmall l and mid-sizezed compas hasn f struggle..rered.
so, , environmental protection s to yieield profi.. >> since 2014, our new waste water recling unun has saved usus over r 100,000 euros. but, things s are startingng toy puododuchanange. i into >> if we reorganizize our production succecessfully, it to makekegood busininess sense. a armenia's economy is largely donated by aiciculture. cerealals, fruit, anand vegetas are the mamain crops, lilike het the foot of mount ararat. with some 3000 hours of sunshine a year, peaches, apricots and plums grow in abundance. thisruit framemer turns his harvests into dried fruit.
he's'switched to organic producti, , and noongeger us chemical fertilizers and pesticides. a local l environmentatal ngo hd himakeke thewitch.h. financial support comes from t inteatioional imatee initiatitive. the ororganization a advises the fruiuit farmer's o ovens arw solar-popowered and hahaveore efficient veventilation. the e fruit dryingng process iw five t times faster,r, saving ey and costs. >> production in armenia and our region isn't't big enough h to compete with neighboring countries, such as iran or turkeyey. since armemenia is aml untrtry, ineeds s coetitivee compete prododts.hboring frfruits and driried fruits arae amonong those prododucts. >> the dried fruit now has an eu organic certification, and these
daysys aany ubt.t.in france. >u it's's also about t the person.. when he e starts sometething,e wants toto finalize itit and fh it with h a good resulult. >> many armenian businesses woullilike to t ththeir ot inn the door o of european m mark. but, before that can happen, they need to improve production standards and boost their viroronmental crcredentials. dustry accounts fojust 25% of armia's gdp totoday, nune haharutyunyan isis visitingng a battery f factorn the outskirts of yerevan. bybyproduc of f the oductition procs, s suluric acid and leisis vis, ed to o d up in theactorn factorory's wastewatater. the cocompany'now w found a cleaner solution. >> not m many people a are necessssarily analyzing or viewg ththe process. because a a businesspersrson ls on his benefefits and how w hes
ththe business a and it is notot necearily y that he e knows al the details s and the impapacn enviroronmt. >he car batteries are c cood befofore they're c charged. the factorory now uses t techny that cleanans the coolining wr afr the chcharging process so it can be recycled, along with the rest of the wastewater. someme 2 million e euros wee invested i in the new fafacil. >> most of the water ended up in the sewage system, so we nded a closed system thatat meant te water didndn't leave thehe fac. thisis way, we savave huge amos of watater, which alalso makes economic sense. >> the lead is partly recycledd
so, , ere's a saving of erer 500 roros of materiaial per ton. it's a a more efficient use of resources.s. meanile, in this bakery, leftover pastrtry is no longer simply t thrown away. it is turned into biscuits. simply t thrown away. sometimes, the solution can be simple. turneded into breadcrumbs, anotr anof the ngo's ideas.sold and the breadcrumbs have proved a bestseller. ♪ >> that's all from us here at "global 3000" this week. it we're curious to hear what you liked about the programme,
09/27/19 09/27/19 [captioning made possible by democracy now!] amy: from new york, this is democracy nonow! whateverer other explanatition e might become an excellent nation is also that it i is the cover-. the president has been engaged in a cover-up all along. amy: a white house cover-up. a cia whistleblower has accused the trump administration of attempting to "lock down" information about president trump's request for the president of ukraine to interfere in the 2020 election by launching an investigation of