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Ethnic Relations and Cultural Life in the Ancient Mediterranean Podcast

Philip A. Harland


The "Ethnic Relations and Cultural Life in the Ancient Mediterranean" podcast (by Philip A. Harland, York University) explores sociocultural life and ethnic relations in the Greco-Roman world, including ancient Judeans (Jews) and Jesus adherents.

Episodes are released in the official podcast feed but are available earlier here on archive.org. These episodes are not scripted; most are edited versions of improvised lectures from point-form notes.



There are several series in the podcast so far:

Series 1: Paul and his communities (12 episodes, Oct 2007 - Feb 2008 release)
Series 2: Early Christian portraits of Jesus (11 episodes, Feb 2008 - Sept 2008)
Series 3: Diversity in early Christianity: "Heresies" and struggles (16 episodes, Oct 2008-June 2009)
Series 4: Honouring the gods in the Roman Empire: Asia Minor (8 episodes; Sept 2009-Dec 2009)
Series 5: The Historical Jesus in context (14 episodes, Jan 2010-April 2011)
Series 6: Associations in the Greco-Roman World (14 episodes, April 2011-Oct 2012)
Series 7: Visions of the End 1: Origins of Judean Apocalypticism (Oct 2012-Oct 2013)
Series 8: A Cultural History of Satan: Evil Personified in Early Judaism and in Christianity (Nov 2013- )

Series 9: Ethnic Relations and Diaspora in the Ancient World (coming soon, in 2020)

Browse episodes starting with recent additions

Subscribe to the official podcast feed through iTunes or another podcatcher

Read more at: http://www.philipharland.com/Blog/


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This episode looks at images of torture in hell that are first seen in the Apocalypse of Peter before going on to the notion of Christ's descent into hell in other writings, including the so-called Gospel of Nicodemus .
Topics: satan, hell, apocalypse of peter, gospel of nicodemus, torture, lex talionis, law of retaliation,...
This episode looks at the modern, ironic portrayal of Mephistopheles in Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust (ca. 1800), which suggests some future directions for a relatively harmless and even powerless Satan in the modern period.
Topics: Satan, Goethe, Faust, Mephisto, pact with the devil
Here I further explore the first-person visionary account in Daniel chapters 7-12, our earliest example of an historical apocalypse as veiled history.
Topics: apocalypse, apocalypticism, end of the world, judaism, christianity, daniel, antiochus epiphanes
This episode looks at how certain followers of Jesus, including the authors of Revelation and the gospels, expressed their notions of Hell and the afterlife.
Topics: satan, hell, gospels, revelation, apocalypse of john, afterlife
This episode discusses some medieval images of Satan and Hell with a special focus on Dante's Inferno .
Topics: satan, hell, dante, inferno, judas, medieval culture
This episode situates the emergence of Hell and notions of an afterlife within Judean apocalypticism in light of the earliest reference to the punishment of fallen angels in 1 Enoch (ca. 225 BCE).
Topics: Satan, hell, 1 enoch, judaism, judean culture, afterlife, heaven, apocalypticism
This episode looks at how the rhetoric of Satan and demons played a role in internal debates and the construction of "heresies" in the era of the so-called Church Fathers.
Topics: satan, church fathers, justin martyr, heresies, heretics
In this episode, I explore how Satanic images and stories were used to combat enemies during the Reformation period (1500s), finishing with a discussion of Menno Simons' piece on identifying the Antichrist.
Topics: Reformation, satan, devil, papacy, martin luther, Menno Simons
This episode looks at the place of Satan or the Devil in witchcraft accusations of the period 1400-1600, building on Robin Briggs' theory expounded in Witches and Neighbors: The Social and Cultural Context of European Witchcraft (London: Penguin Books, 1998).
Topics: satan, devil, witchcraft, witches, trials, sabbat, black mass, pact, Percy
This episode looks at the cultural predecessors of Hell and the afterlife in the Ancient Near East, Israel and Persia, setting the stage for discussion of Judean and Christian developments in the following episodes.
Topics: hell, sheol, satan, judaism, zoroastrianism
This episode considers some Medieval perspectives on Satan and demons, considering stories of everyday interactions between humans and demons and looking at the role of Satan within one particular movement, the Cathars.
Topics: Satan, demons, medieval, inquisitions, cathars, heresies
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This episode looks at the way in which Milton (in Paradise Lost ) pulled together many different elements into an early modern portrayal of a traditional Satan with some notable twists.
Topics: Milton, Paradise Lost, Satan, devil, beelzebub, belial, poetry, early modern
This final episode in the series continues the discussion of how negative ethnic stereotypes (including accusations of human sacrifice, cannibalism, and incest) impacted immigrant associations and cultural minorities, including groups of Jesus followers.
Topics: Christians, stereotypes, cannibalism, human sacrifice, early Christianity, immigrants
This and the following episode explore ethnic stereotypes as they impacted associations of Judeans and Jesus-followers, placing these groups within the context of ethnic rivalries. In this episode, I discuss common negative stereotypes about Judeans found within writings of the elites, particularly the Roman Tacitus and the Greek Egyptian Apion.
Topics: Jews, Judeans, ethnic rivalry, Judaism, identity, stereotypes, sociology
This episode introduces groups of early Jesus-followers within the context of associations, Judeans, and cultural minority groups, setting the stage for case studies of Jesus groups in Asia Minor (parts 2-3).
Topics: early christianity, associations, jesus, christianity
This episode introduces Judean (Jewish) associations or synagogues in the Greek cities of the Roman empire and begins to consider evidence in Josephus' Judean Antiquities regarding the first century BCE. This sets the stage for other episodes on the archeological and epigraphic evidence regarding Judean immigrant groups in the Roman era. This is part of series 6 (Associations in the Greco-Roman World) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: Jewish diaspora, judeans, roman empire, greco-roman religion, josephus, acculturation
This episode continues the discussion of Judean immigrant associations, turning to archeological evidence for assimilation and integration in the Roman era. This is part of series 6 (Associations in the Greco-Roman World) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: jewish, judean, immigrants, roman empire, greco-roman world, religion, jewish diaspora, josephus,...
Here I discuss concepts of identity, assimilation, and other sociological and anthropological tools for studying immigrant groups or ethnic associations in the ancient context, preparing the way for an investigation of Phoenician, Judean, and other immigrant groups or cultural minorities. This is part of series 6 (Associations in the Greco-Roman World) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: associations, christianity, judaism, immigrants, identity, ethnicity, ethnic groups, roman empire,...
This episode involves a case study of Syrian or Phoenician ethnic groups or immigrant associations in the ancient Mediterranean, preparing the way for a comparison with other groups of immigrants from the eastern coast of the Mediterranean -- namely Israelites and Judeans (Jews). This episode deals primarily with the Hellenistic period in the second and first centuries BCE and the following episode continues on into the Roman imperial period. This is part of series 6 (Associations in the...
Topics: roman empire, greco-roman religious, phoenicians, syrians, associations, judeans, jews, christians
Here I continue to discuss groups of Jesus followers in Asia Minor with case studies of 1 Peter and Revelation (John's Apocalypse), focussing on both indications of identity construction or maintenance and signs of assimilation or acculturation.
Topics: 1 Peter, new testament, early christianity, acculturation, assimilation, identity
Here I discuss the expanded story of Adam and Eve that emerged around the turn of the common era as a way of explaining the motivations of Satan (primarily jealousy) in connection with both the creation of humans in the image of God and the serpent in the garden.
Topics: Satan, Devil, Life of Adam and Eve, ancient Judaism, early Christianity, ancient history
Here I discuss the relation between associations and the Roman empire, including Roman authorities and the emperors. This is part of series 6 (Associations in the Greco-Roman World) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: associations, Roman empire, Christianity, Judaism, imperial cults, honors
Here I discuss the relation between associations and Greco-Roman society with a focus on the Greek polis or city. This is part of series 6 (Associations in the Greco-Roman World) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: associations, Greco-Roman society, polis
This episode continues the discussion of Syrian, Phoenician and Israelite (Samaritan) ethnic groups or immigrant associations, moving into the Roman imperial period. This is part of series 6 (Associations in the Greco-Roman World) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: associations, roman empire, greco-roman religion, judeans, israelites
Here I introduce Paul's apocalyptic worldview and go on to discuss the way in which some early Christian authors or leaders (e.g. Paul and the elder John) used the language or rhetoric of Satan or evil personified figures (e.g. Antichrist) to label and combat internal opponents within the Christian communities.
Topics: ancient history, early christianity, satan, devil, antichrist, ancient judaism, apostle paul,...
Here I continue to discuss the importance of the prophets in the Hebrew Bible for the subsequent development of apocalypticism, dealing with Zechariah and Isaiah 24-27 (sometimes known as the "Apocalypse of Isaiah)
Topics: prophets, apocalyptic, apocalypticism, apocalypse, zechariah, isaiah
Here I examine "On the Origin of the World" (one of the writings found at Nag Hammadi), which attributes to the creator God (Yaldabaoth) of the Hebrew Bible many of the negative attributes and motivations found in developing stories about Satan.  The result is a Satanic creator god and a wise serpent in the garden who brings knowledge ( gnosis ) and salvation.
Topics: satan, demiurge, gnosticism, gnosis, yaldabaoth, ancient judaism, early christianity, serpent,...
Here I explore other building blocks of Satan's story from Israelite culture by looking at arrogant foreign kings and angels or messengers of God in the Hebrew Bible.
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Topics: Satan, Judaism, Israelite culture, Hebrew Bible, Devil, religion, ancient history
Here I introduce the "historical apocalypse" of Daniel, including a discussion of the kingdoms in king Nebuchadnezzar's dream (ch. 2) and the historical context of chapters 7-12 (the apocalypse proper) during the time of the Hellenistic king Antiochus IV Epiphanes (in the 160s BCE).
Topics: apocalypse, apocalypticism, end of the world, judaism, christianity, daniel, antiochus epiphanes
Here I continue to trace the development of evil personified figures in Judean literature around the turn of the first century BCE, focussing on Mastema (Enmity personified) and Beliar or Belial (Worthless One).  I also discuss the Princes of Darkness and of Light in the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Topics: Satan, Judaism, devil, beliar, belial, mastema, jubilees, dead sea scrolls, early christianity,...
Here I discuss how the authors of the synoptic gospels portray Jesus in conflict with demons and with the Devil.
Topics: satan, devil, beelzebub, early christianity, ancient history, ancient judaism, gospel of mark,...
Here I discuss the importance of the prophets in the Hebrew Bible for the subsequent development of apocalypticism, beginning with a survey of important events in the history of Israel and discussion of a passage in Ezekiel (chs. 37-39).
Topics: apocalyptic, apocalypticism, prophets, Hebrew bible, israelite, ezekiel, exile, restoration
Here I explore the internal activities of associations, pointing to intertwined social, religious, and burial purposes that these groups served for their members. We take a close look at one particular association devoted to the god Zeus and the goddess Agdistis at Philadelphia in Asia Minor (LSAM 20). This is part of series 6 (Associations in the Greco-Roman World) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: associations, guilds, social history, roman empire, greco-roman world, hellenistic, religion, early...
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Here I discuss Satan in John's Apocalypse (Revelation), pointing out how this author pulls together many strands of the story of Satan and does so to demonize an external power: the Roman empire.
Topics: Satan, the Devil, John's Apocalypse, Revelation, early Christianity, ancient Judaism, ancient...
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This episode continues to consider the centrality of the "combat myth" for the subsequent origins of Satan, considering Ugaritic (Canaanite) and Israelite examples of a god slaying a chaos monster, such as Leviathan.
Topics: Satan, personified evil, cultural history, religion, canaanite religion, israelite religion,...
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Here I discuss the battle between Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu in Persian Zoroastrianism in relation to the role of Satan within Judean apocalypticism.
Topics: satan, devil, zoroaster, zoroastrianism, apocalypticism, ahura mazda, angra mainyu, ancient...
In this first episode I begin to define apocalypticism with reference to (1) a worldview or ideology focused on an imminent end of the world, (2) social groupings that live out that worldview, and (3) a type writing or genre of literature (e.g. the book of Daniel in the Hebrew Bible and John's Revelation.in the New Testament). This is part of series 7 (Visions of the End: Apocalypticism) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: apocalypticism, apocalyptic, armageddon, ancient judaism, early christianity, end of the world,...
Using Josephus and Philo as a starting point, here I discuss how people in the ancient world, including Judeans (Jews), Christians, and others, sometimes expressed the identities of Judean synagogues and Christian congregations in terms of association-life. Although peculiar in some respects, Judean and Christian groups can be studied alongside other associations in the Greco-Roman world. This is part of series 7 (Associations in the Greco-Roman World) of the Religions of the Ancient...
Topics: associations, guilds, social history, roman empire, greco-roman world, hellenistic, religion, early...
Here I begin to introduce our earliest example of the Judean apocalyptic worldview and our first example of an otherworldly journey apocalypse as a type of literature, 1 Enoch (which most likely dates to about 225-200 BCE). The next episode examines the so called "Book of Watchers" in 1 Enoch chapters 1-36 in more detail.
Topics: apocalypticism, apocalypse, 1 enoch, judgement, end of the world, fallen angels, satan
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Here I discuss 1 Enoch's expanded story of the fallen angels headed by Azazel and Semyaz (based an interpretation of Genesis 6), which came to play a crucial role in the emerging story of Satan.
Topics: Satan, devil, 1 enoch, fallen angels, ancient Judaism, early Christianity, Genesis, flood, Hebrew...
Here I turn to Persia (Iran) in order to examine Zoroastrian apocalypticism and its relation to Judean apocalypticism. This is part of series 7 (Visions of the End: Apocalypticism) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: Zoroaster, zoroastrianism, apocalypticism, end of the world, persia, iranian
In this first episode of the series, I discuss our evidence for associations and guilds in the Greco-Roman world and outline the various types of these groups, including family-based, occupation-based, neighbourhood-based, and ethnic-based groups. This is part of series 6 (Associations in the Greco-Roman World) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: associations, guilds, social history, roman empire, greco-roman world, hellenistic, religion, early...
Here I go back to the earliest Mesopotamian mythologies (starting about 3000 BCE) about the gods in order to trace a recurring pattern -- labeled the "combat myth" by scholars -- that later came to play a role in Judean (Jewish) apocalypticism. In particular I explore stories about a chaotic god or monster threatening the order of the universe and a young god's success in slaying the monster to restore order.
Topics: apocalypticism, apocalyptic, armageddon, ancient judaism, early christianity, end of the world,...
In the first of two episodes dealing with the Church Fathers, here I look at how Justin Martyr and Origen contribute to the story of Satan and his demons in countering external opponents.
Topics: Satan, Devil, Church Fathers, Celsus, Origen, Justin Martyr, ancient history, early Christianity
Here I discuss first-century Judean concepts relating to an anointed one, or messiah, particularly a kingly messiah, and discuss contemporary figures who were viewed as kings. This is part of series 5 (The Historical Jesus in Context) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: jesus, early christianity, messiah, king, judaism
Here I examine the story of the fallen angels in 1 Enoch 1-36 in connection with its importance for Judean apocalypticism and I explore the idea of an otherworldly or cosmic journey apocalypse.
Topics: apocalpyse, apocalpyticism, fallen angels, satan, demons, judean, jewish
This is the second of two episodes that consider the historical Jesus in the role of teacher. Here I discuss evidence regarding Jesus' conception of the "kingdom of God" and the scholarly debates regarding Jesus' present or (imminent) future focus. This is part of series 5 (The Historical Jesus in Context) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: historical jesus, early christianity, kingdom of god
Here I discuss messages from the gods, or divination. One way in which the gods were thought to communicate with individuals, groups, and communities was through oracles such as those of Apollo at Claros and Didyma. This is part of series 4 (Honouring the Gods in the Roman Empire) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: apollo, oracles, greco-roman religion, roman empire, divination
This and the following episode consider the historical Jesus in the role of teacher. Here I discuss the form or method of his instruction, and begin to introduce the centrality of the "Kingdom of God" to his teachings. This is part of series 5 (The Historical Jesus in Context) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: early Christianity, historical jesus, kingdom of god
Here I discuss the active role of the gods in punishing transgressors by focusing on indigenous practices in the region of Lydia, particularly the propitiation or confession inscriptions. This is part of series 4 (Honouring the Gods in the Roman Empire) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: confession inscriptions, propitiation, lydia, phrygia, roman empire, greco-roman religion, gods
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Here I discuss first-century Judean concepts of the prophet and place Jesus within the context of other figures who were viewed as prophets. This is part of series 5 (The Historical Jesus in Context) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: historical jesus, early christianity, judaism
This episode is the third of three that introduce key historical sources and problems in reconstructing the life of a peasant from Galilee, the historical Jesus. This is part of series 5 (The Historical Jesus in Context) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: early christianity, jesus, historical jesus, judaism, new testament
Here I investigate the historical Jesus within the context of contemporaries who were viewed as healers and exorcists in first century Galilee and Judea. This is part of series 5 (The Historical Jesus in Context) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: historical jesus, healing, miracles, early christianity, exorcism, exorcist
Here I discuss the way in which people in Roman times believed that gods saved them in their daily lives, focusing on the case of the healing sanctuary of Asklepios (Asclepius) at Pergamon (Pergamum). This is part of series 4 (Honouring the Gods in the Roman Empire) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: asklepios, asclepius, aesculapius, healing, roman empire, ancient religion, greco-roman religion,...
Here I finish the discussion of the Gospel of Philip by focusing on the way in which notions of salvation were enacted in the practices of the followers of Jesus who used this writing. In particular, rituals such as the "bridal chamber" illustrate the connections between sex (as a metaphor) and salvation in the mindset of this author. This is part of series 3 ("Diversity in Early Christianity: 'Heresies' and Struggles") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: early christianity, gospel of philip, nag hammadi, gnosticism, bridal chamber
Here I consider evidence from Josephus and the Gospels regarding John the Baptist and his importance for studying the historical Jesus. This is part of series 5 (The Historical Jesus in Context) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: early christianity, historical jesus, john the baptist, judaism
Here I discuss civic cults in Asia Minor and Ephesus with a focus on the relationship between a city and its patron deity (in this case Artemis Ephesia). This is part of series 4 (Honouring the Gods in the Roman Empire) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: greco-roman religions, asia minor, ephesus, Artemis, civic cults, roman empire
This episode is the second of three that introduce key historical sources and problems in reconstructing the life of a peasant from Galilee, the historical Jesus. This is part of series 5 (The Historical Jesus in Context) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: jesus, historical jesus, early Christianity, judaism
This is the second of two episodes that explore two contrasting scholarly portraits of the historical Jesus, those of John Dominic Crossan (Jesus as egalitarian peasant) and E.P. Sanders (Jesus as apocalyptic prophet). This is part of series 5 (The Historical Jesus in Context) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: early Christianity, historical jesus, judaism, new testament, bible
Here I explain emperor worship and the various types of honours for the emperors as gods, including imperial cults at the provincial, civic, and local levels in Asia Minor. This is part of series 4 (Honouring the Gods in the Roman Empire) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: emperor worship, imperial cults, greco-roman religions
Here I continue to explore Jewish followers of Jesus by examining key passages in an apocryphal novel attributed to Clement of Rome, also known as the Pseudo-Clementine writings. In particular, an opening letter claiming to be written by Peter to James and the story of Peter's debates with Simon Magus (a cipher for Paul) provide glimpses into struggles between Jewish followers of Jesus and others, including Pauline forms of Christianity. This is part of series 3 ("Diversity in Early...
Topics: early Christianity, pseudo-clementine, apocrypha, paul, peter, bible, new testament, early...
Here I discuss the Gospel of Philip (perhaps best known in connection with the Da Vinci Code). This episode deals with the author's worldview and ideas about the condition of humanity, preparing the way for a second episode on the practices and rituals that enacted salvation. This is part of series 3 ("Diversity in Early Christianity: 'Heresies' and Struggles") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: early Christianity, gnosticism, gospels, gospel of philip
Here I discuss Jesus as a Galilean and a Judean. I do so by looking at cultural life associated with the temple in the first century and the relations between cultures in Judea and Galilee. This is part of series 5 (The Historical Jesus in Context) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: Judaism, historical jesus, galilee, early christianity
This is the introductory episode for a series that explores the various ways in which people in the Roman empire, especially in Asia Minor, honoured and communicated with their gods. This is part of series 4 (Honouring the Gods in the Roman Empire) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: greco-roman world, roman empire, religion, asia minor, greek religion, roman religion
Here I sketch out our main sources for the study of diverse Christian groups or "heresies" in the second and third centuries, including discussion of the early Christian Apocrypha, the Nag Hammadi writings, and the Church Fathers, or patristic writings. This is part of series 3 ("Diversity in Early Christianity: 'Heresies' and Struggles") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: early Christianity, apocrypha, nag hammadi, gnosticism, gnostic, church fathers, patristic, new...
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This series of the podcast investigates the origins, history and functions of personified evil from ancient Judean and Christian culture to modern, Western culture.  We begin with what you might call the pre-history of Satan by exploring the building blocks of what ultimately became the story of Satan within Judean (Jewish) and Christian circles.  The first among the predecessors of Satan are monsters (who are also gods) found within Mesopotamian mythology in the second and first millenia...
Topics: religion, ancient judaism, mesopotamia, israelite, combat myth, satan, devil, evil personified,...
Here I conclude the discussion of Ignatius by discussing his Judaizing opponents, who advocated certain Jewish beliefs and practices. I also deal with Ignatius' strategies in combating groups he considered heretical. This is part of series 3 ("Diversity in Early Christianity: 'Heresies' and Struggles") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: early Christianity, christian origins, new testament, bible, ignatius of antioch, heresies, history
Here I continue to delve into the opponents in John's epistles (part 2 of 2). These epistles provide evidence of an early Christian schism over how to view Jesus' humanity. This is part of series 3 ("Diversity in Early Christianity: 'Heresies' and Struggles") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: early Christianity, bible, new testament, heresies, christian origins
Here I continue to place Jesus and Galilee within the broader context of Israelite history. This episode works through the Hellenistic and Roman periods, including the time of Jesus, and finishes with a discussion of social and economic life in first century Galilee and Judea. This is part of series 5 (The Historical Jesus in Context) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: historical jesus, early christianity, new testament, judaism, christian origins
Here I continue to explain the worldview of the Apocryphon of John, particularly its notions regarding the material realm, the inferior creator god (demiurge), and salvation from this realm. This is part of series 3 ("Diversity in Early Christianity: 'Heresies' and Struggles") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: early Christianity, gnosticism, nag hammadi
In order to provide a context for Jesus in the role of a teacher, here I discuss contemporary educated Judean groups and leaders, including Sadducees, Pharisees, Essenes, and the Dead Sea sect. This is part of series 5 (The Historical Jesus in Context) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: early christianity, historical jesus, judaism
Here I use two related Nag Hammadi writings -- Eugnostos the Blessed and The Sophia of Jesus Christ -- as a window into forms of Christianity that were heavily influenced by Middle Platonic philosophy, particularly in regard to cosmology and the divine Triad. This is part of series 3 ("Diversity in Early Christianity: 'Heresies' and Struggles") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: early Christianity, plato, philosophy, gnosticism, gnostic, sophia
Here I use the region of Asia Minor (Turkey) as a case study that allows me to outline various strands and styles within Christianity in the first and second centuries. I then go on to outline our approach to studying the worldviews and practices of Christian groups and "heresies" in the second and third centuries. This is part of series 3 ("Diversity in Early Christianity: 'Heresies' and Struggles") of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: early Christianity, new testament, bible, christian origins, paul, history, ancient history,...
This and the following episode place Jesus and Galilee within the broader context of Israelite history. This episode begins with the Assyrian period (700s BCE) and concludes with the Persian period, with the construction of the second temple (ca. 500 BCE). This is part of series 5 (The Historical Jesus in Context) of the Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean podcast.
Topics: historical jesus, israelite history, galilee, judea
Here I discuss two main groups of opponents combated by Ignatius of Antioch in his letters to followers of Jesus in Asia Minor (Turkey): Docetic and Judaizing opponents (part 1 of 2). This episode introduces Ignatius (who wrote in the early second century) and explains the position of his docetic opponents, who thought that Jesus only appeared to be human when in fact he was a divine being. This is part of series 3 ("Diversity in Early Christianity: 'Heresies' and Struggles") of the...
Topics: early Christianity, heresies, new testament, bible, apostolic fathers, ignatius of antioch,...