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Defense Technical Information Archive

The Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) is the premier repository for research and engineering information for the United States Department of Defense. DTIC's Suite of Services is available to DoD personnel, defense contractors, federal government personnel and contractors and selected academic institutions. The general public can access unclassified, unlimited information, including many full-text downloadable documents, through the public Web site, DTIC Online.

DTIC's collections contain over 4 million documents including technical reports, research in progress and Independent Research and Development (IR&D) summaries. DTIC also publishes searchable Congressional budget data shortly after its release from Congress. DTIC acquires approximately 25,000 new documents each year.

On June 4, 2004, DTIC became a DoD Field Activity under the management of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, reporting to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering (ASD(R&E)). Mr. Christopher Thomas is the Administrator.

DTIC's mission statement is "To provide essential, technical research, development, testing and evaluation (RDT&E) information rapidly, accurately and reliably to support our DoD customers' needs."

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Contents: The State of Air Power History; Air Power and Warfare, 1903-1941, World War II in the Air: Different National Experiences; World War II: American Air Leadership; The Search for Maturity in American Postwar Air Doctrine and Organization, 1945-1953; Air Power Limits in Limited War, 1947- 1978; A Major Pioneer Looks at Air Power; Insights into Technology and Air Warfare: Past, Present, Future; The Eighth Military History Symposium in Perspective.
Topics: DTIC Archive, Hurley, Alfred F, OFFICE OF AIR FORCE HISTORY WASHINGTON DC, *AIR POWER, WEAPON...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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This study includes (1) a description of the various types of small arms tests, the agencies responsible for ordering, planning, and conducting them, and an assessment of the test management structure, (2) a description of the basic steps in designing, conducting, and analyzing operational tests (Field experiments) of small arms, with the 1965-1966 small arms test at CDEC presented as a case study, and (3) an evaluation of the conduct of current small arms testing and the facilities and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, INTREC INC SANTA MONICA CA, *FIRING TESTS(ORDNANCE), *SMALL ARMS, ACCEPTANCE TESTS,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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This report is a comprehensive index and guide to oral histories on naval research and development. Tapes and transcripts of the interviews, prepared during the past twenty years, are held in Navy, Federal Government, and nongovernmental respositories. Abstracts and indicies by name and subject have been prepared for each interview. The report includes contact points at repositories holding the materials, and an acronym and abbreviation list. Keywords include: Military History, Naval History,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Nowicke, Carole E, DAVID W TAYLOR NAVAL SHIP RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER BETHESDA...
The study reviews current academic behavior theory, training and motivation practice of successful industrial companies and current U.S. Army training and motivation doctrine and policies. Study methodology was essentially a review of: (1) current written works on learning/motivation behavior theory, (2) the latest books on management for excellence in industry, and (3) army training regulations and leadership programs for instruction. These were supplemented by information, written and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Haines,C O, ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *ARMY TRAINING, *COGNITION,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Deception, its significance in peacetime, in war, and in war avoidance, and how to counter deception, are topics of a widening public literature. This bibliography of open literature on detection in the English language includes sections on: (1) arms control and deception; (2) behavior of targets of deception; (3) bibliographies on deception; (4) China: military and political deception; (5) countering deception; (6) general deception studies; (7) historical studies; (8) human deception; (9)...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Stanley,Zell, RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CA, *BIBLIOGRAPHIES, *DECEPTION, USSR, WARFARE,...
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by Defense Technical Information Center
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A search of the military literature was conducted to determine combat training requirements for Marine Corps rifle squads. Pertinent works are listed along with alphabetical lists of keywords and authors. Keywords are also indexed and arranged hierarchically within seven major categories to facilitate cross-referencing with the other lists. This information provides a foundation for further research and development. (Author)
Topics: DTIC Archive, Archibald,Alvin G, NAVY PERSONNEL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER SAN DIEGO CALIF,...
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Is hindsight better than foresight or just different. The formal difference between the two tasks is the hindsightful judge's possession of outcome knowledge, telling him how things turned out. In the studies reported, outcome knowledge is found to increase the perceived inevitability of the outcome reported. Judges, however, appear largely unaware of the changes in their perceptions due to outcome knowledge, and thus believe that they had insights which actually resulted from outcome...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Fischhoff, Baruch, OREGON RESEARCH INST EUGENE, *DECISION MAKING,...
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The secretive world of military "special operations" is filled with men and women whose dedication, self-sacrifice, and heroism on behalf of their country is seldom acknowledged in public. If John Stuart Mill could come to America a century after his historic judgment to meet such men and women, he would almost certainly understand their modern-day stories without a moment's confusion. Attempting to capture the history of USAF special operations from the beginning of the cold war to...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Hass, Michael E., AIR UNIV MAXWELL AFB AL, *COVERT OPERATIONS, *SPECIAL FORCES,...
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This study analyzes the training strategies and methodologies of American infantry battalions between World War II and the present. From historical analysis in combination with the author's personal observations it is possible to understand the critical components of ground combat. These critical components of ground combat represent the core of infantry tactics that support individual through battalion level collective operations. Additionally, this study also examines the strengths and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Danna, James W., III, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS,...
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This report gives a brief introduction to the Lanchester theory, which is a mathematical description of the course and outcome of battle with several participants on either side. Thus we present a history of the development of the theory in the United States and Western Europe (with a separate section about Sweden) as well as in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. For each geogra phical area we mention the institutes and individual scientists who have had the most impact on the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Wrigge, Staffan, NATIONAL DEFENCE RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT STOCKHOLM (SWEDEN) DEPT OF...
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Topics: DTIC Archive, Smith, Perry M, NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIV WASHINGTON DC, *LEADERSHIP, *GUIDANCE, CRISIS...
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This study investigates the degree to which conventional infantry battalions (light, mechanized, airborne, and air assault) are conducting realistic home-station unit training to prepare soldiers to face a willing and able foe. The study analyzes training based largely upon three criteria developed from extensive literature review and analysis: (1) cognitive mental stressors (uncertainty, ambiguity, information overload/deprivation, and so forth), (2) environmental physical stressors (sights,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Larsen, James C., ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS, *ARMY...
The mission of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) is to maintain a close relationship with the research and development community to support long-range research, foster discovery, nurture future generations of researchers, produce new technologies that meet known naval requirements, and provide innovations in fields relevant to the future Navy and Marine Corps. Accordingly, ONR supports research activities across a broad range of scientific and engineering disciplines. As one means of ensuring...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL WASHINGTON DC NAVAL STUDIES BOARD, *NAVAL RESEARCH,...
This study examines the United States Army's activities in psychological and unconventional warfare during and after World War II to determine the impetus for, and origins of, the formal 'special warfare' capability created in 1952 with the establishment of the Psychological Warfare Center at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. With the impetus of the Korean War, heightening cold war tensions, and the persistent pressures of Secretary of the Army Frank Pace, Jr., the Army created an unprecedented staff...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Paddock, Alfred H., Jr, ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE,...
In accordance with 50 USC 1523, this report provides Congress with an assessment of the overall readiness of the Armed Forces to fight in a chemical and biological warfare environment. This is the ninth report submitted under 50 USC 1523.
Topics: DTIC Archive, OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL...
This document contains the notes and briefings from the 1998 Army after Next conference that was held on the 24-26 June 1998. Some of the topics discussed were Future Personnel Management, Teams and Organizations, Information Technology, The Leadership Challenge, Army Science Board of Human Behavior in Combat and Strategic Human Resources Management.
Topics: DTIC Archive, Drillings, Michael, ARMY RESEARCH INST FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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A warrior is a person who adheres to values which inspire in him a willingness to engage in certain activities regardless of risk to his life. In battle such people accomplish great things. The heritage they leave to others is frequently said to be an advantage when a nation is embroiled in military troubles. Rhodesia is a nation in trouble and they have such a heritage. In 1893 Major Allan Wilson and thirty-three men died in a last stand against some four thousand Ndebele tribesmen. The fight...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Alphin,Arthur Brent, ARMY MILITARY PERSONNEL CENTER ALEXANDRIA VA,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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One of the common practices of modern warfare is the development of new weapons based upon advances in technology. As these weapons evolved during the 20th century, the United States Army witnessed significant improvements in the accuracy of its direct fire weapon systems. Soldiers who fired rifles, armored guns, and antitank missiles experienced an increased ability to hit what they were aiming at and do so at greater ranges. Understanding the factors driving the Army to develop precision...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Kidd, Christopher J, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS, *LAND...
This is the Proceedings of the Military Operations Research Society's mini-symposium dealing with the problem of achieving more operational realism in the modeling of combat from the standpoint of accounting for human performance in the battle environment. The meeting was held at the Center for Naval Analyses, Alexandria, Virginia, on 22, 23, 24 February 1989. Included are the 34 contributed papers presented in the five sessions: Human Factors in Decision Issues, Human Performance Models and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Murtaugh, Stephen A, MILITARY OPERATIONS RESEARCH SOCIETY ALEXANDRIA VA,...
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The Monterey Security Architecture (MYSEA) provides a distributed multilevel secure networking environment where authenticated users can securely access data and services at different security classification levels. The MYSEA framework utilizes both commercial-off-the- shelf (COTS) products and specialized secure high assurance components that enforce multilevel security (MLS) policy. Some collaboration among MYSEA users is enabled through the use of the Web-based Distributed Authoring and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Ong, Kar L, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *ENVIRONMENTS, *SECURITY,...
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Topics: DTIC Archive, ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE (ARMY) WASHINGTON DC, *ARMY OPERATIONS, *AIRMOBILE...
A Short History of War offers the reader a brief, but relatively comprehensive overview of the forces that have shaped the development of armies, weapons, and war throughout the ages. Its broad thematic approach conveys that sens of historical context within which soldiers have had to act over the millennia. The reader will immediately recognize that there is little ne the current debates over force structure, weapons, tactics, and operational skills that has not gone before. The reader will...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Gabriel, Richard A, ARMY WAR COLLEGE CARLISLE BARRACKS PA STRATEGIC STUDIES...
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This thesis presents a theory to help military leaders determine the best time to conduct a hostage rescue attempt. The theory is based on the phenomenon of a hostage crisis biorhythm. According to the theory, there are four principles essential for hostage rescue mission success: surprise, intelligence, operator's skill, and deception. These principles are derived from planning models used in special operations, personal experience, and an analysis of six historical case studies. The case...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Perez, Carlos M, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *CASE STUDIES, *DECISION...
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When it was established in 1946, the Office of Naval Research was the main channel for Federal support of science in the United States. Since there are few fields of science or technology that cannot be related directly or indirectly to Navy requirements, the real choice becomes one of emphasizing areas of particular interest where anticipated results may have a direct bearing on future naval activities. Most research programs within ONR are organized along disciplinary lines, the main...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Salkovitz, Edward I., OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH ARLINGTON VA, *NAVAL RESEARCH, COASTAL...
Collection and analysis of foreign intelligence is, and will continue to be, a vital component of U.S. national security strategy. However, there is significant debate regarding whether our existing intelligence apparatus can sufficiently transform itself to meet the demands of the 21st century. The Department of Defense (DoD) has a vested interest in this debate - both as a customer and as a major supplier - because the goals of the National Military Strategy cannot be achieved in the absence...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Latham, Donald, DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD WASHINGTON DC, *MILITARY INTELLIGENCE,...
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The role of the Navy Research and Development Laboratories has, historically, lacked precise definition. Budgetary pressures result in a continuing assessment of the in-house laboratory asset requirements. Recent improvements in mission and role assignments and laboratory resource management should be expanded and focused to guide any contemplated changes in the size or the make-up of the laboratory system. This study attempts to (1) summarize the laboratory missions and goals; (2) describe the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Moe, Richard G, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *NAVAL RESEARCH LABORATORIES,...
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This monograph addresses the fact that most writing on strategy is descriptive rather than explanatory. Describing strategy in terms of categories such as grand strategy, or theater strategy, or by various analogies, does not illuminate what happens when one practices strategy. Strategy is a cognitive process rather than some tangible object that one can point at or manipulate. Accordingly, this is a theory of how strategy is formed and why it works. The process that produces strategy is based...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY...
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This report summarizes research into and application of decision analytic techniques by Decisions and Designs, Incorporated (DDI) during the period October 1, 1975 through June 30, 1975. As such, this report provides a summary of those activities in terms of the following categories: -- assessment and forecasting, evaluation of alternative solutions, policy formulation and implementation, value-of-information analysis, utility analysis in treaty negotiations, basic decision analysis research,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Kelly, III, Clinton W, Peterson, Cameron R, DECISIONS AND DESIGNS INC MCLEAN VA,...
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This study is designed to discover perceived issues that plague conventional forces and special operations forces (SOF) integration on the battlefield. The research did in fact show that although operational and tactical integration of these disparate forces is overall successful, there exist several impediments to a truly joint and combined arms fight. The methodology used to conduct the analysis is based on the doctrine, organization, training, material, leadership, personnel, and facilities...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Hastings, Michael D, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS,...
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In this paper, we present methods for comparing and evaluating forecasters whose predictions are presented as their subjective probability distributions of various random variables that will be observed in the future, e.g. weather forecasters who each day must specify their own probabilities that it will rain in a particular location. We begin by reviewing the concepts of calibration and refinement, and describing the relationship between this notion of refinement and the notion of sufficiency...
Topics: DTIC Archive, DeGroot,Morris H, CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIV PITTSBURGH PA DEPT OF STATISTICS, *TEST AND...
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The Russian winter defeated Napoleon, as every Frenchman knows. It also defeated Hitler, as most Germans know. Many Americans share that knowledge -- which is false in both cases! Those popular myths illustrate the uncritical acceptance and perpetuation of rationalizations designed to obscure the fact that those invincible Western military paragons were humbled by the inferior Russians. Although the plans of both of those would-be conquerors of Russia failed before the arrival of winter, there...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS COMBAT STUDIES INST, *RUSSIA,...
In 1929, MSG Morris Swett (in who's memory the USAFAS library has been named since 1968) devised this library classification schedule. His intention was to develop a plan that was broader than the Dewey Decimal and more complete than the Library of Congress classifications. Five subsequent library catalogers have developed the product to what it has become today. Although the subject of artillery is emphasized, it may have application for other military libraries. As such it is designed to...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Swett,Morris, ARMY FIELD ARTILLERY SCHOOL FORT SILL OK, *ARMY RESEARCH, *ARTILLERY,...
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The U.S. Air Force's poor air combat results in Vietnam prompted more realistic training programs to improve our fighter pilot's air combat effectiveness. The establishment of dissimilar air combat training (DACT) conducted by a professional 'aggressor' force has given Tactical Air Command fighter pilots the hostile environment and realistic adversary that were lacking in a predominantly F-4 fighter force. This thesis examined the need for F-5E Aggressor Squadrons to perform the DACT role now...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Wood,Barry K, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS, *FLIGHT...
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This guide is designed to provide logistics and acquisition managers with working familiarity of acquisition logistics. It addresses how to manage the acquisition logistics process throughout the life-cycle from preconcept exploration through post production support. The guide shows the inter-relationships of the major activities in the acquisition process of systems engineering, test, cost, risk, production, contracts, etc. It is designed to bridge the gap between general acquisition on...
Topics: DTIC Archive, INFORMATION SPECTRUM INC FALLS CHURCH VA, *ACQUISITION, *LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT,...
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This paper discusses Operation MARKET-GARDEN, which occurred during World War II. This operation combined a massive airborne insertion with a coordinated ground attack to secure the territory. The operation is described as planned and as performed. The best tools for analysis of a historical battle to the next, but the principles of war will always be the same. This paper discusses how the principles of war by itself may not be the reason for a failure or loss; however, when one combatant...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Green, W V, AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLL MAXWELL AFB AL, *AIR DROP OPERATIONS, ATTACK,...
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Naval doctrine is the foundation upon which our tactics, techniques, and procedures are built. It articulates operational concepts that govern the employment of naval forces at all levels. A product of more than 218 years of U. S. Navy and Marine Corps experience in warfighting, it incorporates the lessons of history, learned in both the flush of success and the bitterness of failure. This publication outlines the principles upon which we organize, train, equip, and employ naval forces. It...
Topics: DTIC Archive, OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF NAVAL OPERATIONS WASHINGTON DC, *MILITARY DOCTRINE, *NAVAL...
The Urban Combat Advanced Training Technology (UCATT) Task Group (TG) was established within the NATO Modelling and Simulation Group (NMSG), in 2003 as MSG-032 TG-023. The UCATT TG was tasked to exchange and assess information on Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) facilities and training/simulation systems with a view toward establishing best practice. In addition it was required to identify a suitable architecture and a standard set of interfaces that would enable interoperability of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NATO RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATION NEUILLY-SUR-SEINE (FRANCE), *TRAINING,...
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The research note contains a literature review of research on the transfer of training; it is intended for use by educational researchers and psychologists. The note includes information and comments on the relevance of transfer of training to what it labels as Army XXI environments, i.e., environments that might be found in the Army in the future and similar to those in what have been called the digital force and the objective force. The note presents different conceptualizations and measures...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Auffrey, Allison L, ARMY RESEARCH INST FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES...
The purpose of this paper, which was prepared using both a present day and historical research methodology, is to propose that the U.S. Army should further its transformation efforts and develop a force specially trained and organized to meet the challenges of irregular warfare in the 21st century. As many irregular warfare conflicts are born during the stabilization phase, or phase IV, of a conventional conflict, this proposed force would also be transformed to operate in that environment as...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLL MAXWELL AFB AL, *CONVENTIONAL WARFARE, AFGHANISTAN, IRAQ,...
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This study identifies measures that can be taken by commanders to minimize the occurrence and impact of battlefield stress before and during combat. This is achieved through an examination of the writings of the classic military philosophers, articles on combat stress in the major military engagements of this century, and the conclusions of clinical studies on combat stress on the battlefield are identified and discussed. A bridge from the past to the future is made by examining those...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Flora, Dale B., ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS, *WARFARE,...
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This report summarizes the findings of a study performed by the Institute for Defense Analyses to advise the Deputy Secretary of Defense regarding Defense Agency management issues that warrant the attention of DoD's senior leadership in preparation for the FY 2001 Quadrennial Defense Review. The study covered fourteen of the Agencies, which in total account for 20 percent of DoD's budget. IDA assessment teams met with Agency officials, review Agency plans and programs, interviewed Agency...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Graham, David R, INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES ALEXANDRIA VA, *DEPARTMENT OF...
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Today, in the post-Cold War era, each of the U.S. military services and U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) realizes that in order to remain relevant it must be able to innovate and change. This thesis defines military innovation as a change in the stated roles or missions of the organization to solve current or projected military challenges or threats as defined by the national strategy. The thesis surveys three contending theories of military innovation. It identifies elements from each...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Giese, Jon F, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES,...
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This report describes a job analysis of U.S. Army Special Forces (SF) jobs. The overall goal of the project was to gather information that will aid in the development of new SF performance measures. This goal required two types of information-the individual attributes requisite to SF performance and the field performance of SF jobs. The research involved five major steps: (1) development of workshop materials and logistics, (2) administration of workshops to collect critical incidents and task...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Russell, Teresa L., HUMAN RESOURCES RESEARCH ORGANIZATION ALEXANDRIA VA, *SPECIAL...
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The term Unconventional Operations (UO) vice Special Operations (SO) will be introduced, defined and explained. The paper will clarify why Army Special Forces (SF) are a principle UO force and explain why the UO mission is critical. Most importantly, it will show why the numbered active duty Special Forces Groups (SFGs) should primarily focus on this mission and not be diverted to missions duplicated by other Special Operations Forces (SOF) or General Purpose Forces. Unconventional operations...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Boyatt, Mark D, ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *ARMY, *SPECIAL FORCES, *LOW...
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Recent operations in Afghanistan and Iraq have reawakened interest in counterland operations. One battle in particular, Operation Anaconda in Afghanistan, sparked a heated debate between the Air Force and the Army about the conduct of close air support (CAS) and led to new efforts to improve the integration of air power and ground power prior to Operation Iraqi Freedom. Although these efforts were quite successful, there is growing recognition by both airmen and soldiers that air-ground...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Kehoe, Ryan M, RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CA, *MILITARY OPERATIONS, *TACTICAL AIR...
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In this thesis, we examine the current levels of cultural understanding and irregular warfare being taught in U.S. Army conventional military schools. Given engagements in Iraq and Afghanistan, it is our view that the military needs a deeper understanding of the indigenous people due to the extremely close and on-going interaction between American Soldiers and the local populations. Current analysis of the difficulties being reported suggests U.S. Army Soldiers are having trouble combating...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Hudson, Jeff D, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *MILITARY FORCES(UNITED...
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The Building Blocks; The Vertical Dimension; The Early Years; On-The- Job Training; The Continuum of War; The Break in the Continuum; The Maneuver Solution; The Defensive Solution; Force Multipliers; Intelligence; Deception; Science and Technology; The Building Blocks; The Horizontal Dimension; The Political Connection; The Psychological and Economic Connections; The Horizontal-Vertical Interface; Grand Strategy and the Search for Decisiveness; Conflict Termination. 'Churchill is the most...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Jablonsky, David, ARMY WAR COLL STRATEGIC STUDIES INST CARLISLE BARRACKS PA,...
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by Defense Technical Information Center
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This paper reviews some of what is known about leadership, focusing on the data collected about the nature of managerial work. These findings point to the unrelenting pace and capricious, fragmented, and oral nature of the job. Three dimensions are presented as useful in understanding managerial performance: complexity/simplicity, use of structures, and use of power. A way to study leaders is to simulate the variety of stimuli confronting them and observe how their activities relate to...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Lombardo, Michael M, CENTER FOR CREATIVE LEADERSHIP GREENSBORO NC, *LEADERSHIP,...
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This report describes the initial development of the step-through variant of Monte Carlo simulation, a new procedure for implementing decision analysis or for training decision makers. Like regular Monte Carlo simulation it involves sampling possible aftermaths of an initial action, and generating a distribution of outcome values for it. However, the detailed structure and/or assessments of the decision model are elicited as called for in the execution of each trial. It therefore permits...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Ulvila,Jacob W, Brown,Rex W, Randall,L Scott, DECISIONS AND DESIGNS INC MCLEAN VA,...
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This pamphlet has been designed to provide you with a history of the Ranger and to orient you on the Ranger course. For the prospective student, it answers many questions that will assist in preparation for Ranger training. The Ranger course has the capability of developing the overall combat potential of junior leaders to a higher degree than any other course in the Army. Men who make excellent tactical decisions in the classroom or in normal training programs, sometimes fail miserably under...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY INFANTRY SCHOOL FORT BENNING GA, *ARMY TRAINING, *COMBAT READINESS, *INFANTRY,...
This research supported the Advanced Combat Rifle field test and the Human Engineering Laboratory (HEL) stress program by evaluating competition as a methodology for producing a known level of stress in soldiers. The subjects in this field experiment were volunteer infantrymen from the 82nd Airborne Division and the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault). During the 2 competition weeks, 10 soldiers from each division participated; during the control week, 20 soldiers form the 82nd Airborne...
Topics: DTIC Archive, , James P, HUMAN ENGINEERING LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, *ARMY PERSONNEL,...
Since the end of the Cold War, the U.S Army has largely been operating in a come as you are format, responding to one major regional war and a series of crises around the world with equipment and doctrine optimized for that earlier Cold War era. In some sense, the momentum of the acquisition process is now resulting in a mismatch of capability with respect to emerging needs. Although one perception is that the Army now has more combat capability than it may need, which may result in...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Matsumura, John, RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CA, *MILITARY FORCES(UNITED STATES), *COMBAT...
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This publication: (1) Provides MTTP for tactical level planning and execution of fixed- and rotary-wing aviation urban operations. (2) Provides reference material to assist aircrew and ground personnel in planning and coordinating tactical urban operations. (3) Applies to all elements of a force planning and conducting aviation urban operations, including commanders, planners, aircrew, and ground personnel requiring aviation support. (4) This publication does not address all functions of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY TRAINING AND DOCTRINE COMMAND FORTMONROE VA, *AERONAUTICS, *URBAN AREAS, *URBAN...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The study of past operations is helpful in defining U.S. Army roles and functions in military operations other than war (OOTW) and in assessing the range of missions and requirements the Army is likely to face in the future. Operation Just Cause (OJC) can be distinguished from subsequent OOTW -- in Kuwait, Iraq, Bangladesh, Bosnia, and Somalia -- in part because it was a unilateral effort that did not involve coalition issues or problems. Nor did the United States have to coordinate its efforts...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Taw, Jennifer M, RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CA, *ARMY OPERATIONS, *MILITARY POLICE,...
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The Army of DESERT STORM owed much to three past trainers of the Army. For much of his career, George C. Marshall argued for field exercises to supplement institutional training; once raised to high command, he ordered large-scale maneuvers. World War II was won by cogent strategy, equipment good enough and plentiful, generally sound tactical doctrine, and the methodical training devised by Lesley J. McNair, who equated Realism in training to large maneuvers and live-fire exercises. McNair's...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Gorman, Paul F, INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES ALEXANDRIA VA, *MILITARY DOCTRINE,...
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This document is one of a family of educational acquisition management guides written from a Department perspective; e.g., non-service peculiar. These are intended primarily for use in the courses offered by the Defense Systems Management College and secondarily as desk references for DoD acquisition Managers. This family of guides consists of: (1) Integrated Logistics Support Guide, (2) Mission Critical Computer Resources Management Guide, (3) Test and Evaluation Management Guide, (4) Risk...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Kockler, F, DEFENSE SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT COLL FORT BELVOIR VA, *LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT,...
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Abstracts
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVY PERSONNEL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER SAN DIEGO CA, *Naval research,...
Collaboration refers to all processes where people work together to achieve results. With the advent of computers and the Internet, many collaboration tools have emerged. Synchronous collaboration tools require a team to work at the same time. Asynchronous tools allow a team to work at different times. This final report investigates the available features of these tools, the meanings of these features, identifies common and key features, and develops a taxonomy based on these features. The PI...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Xu, Jinsheng, NORTH CAROLINA AGRICULTURAL AND TECHNICAL STATE UNIV GREENSBORO DEPT OF...
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With In Contact! Case Studies from the Long War, Volume I, the historians of the Combat Studies Institute (CSI) have produced a historical anthology to support Army schools, to promote general professional development in the field, and to inform the American people about the missions performed by their Army in this long war. These case studies include both lethal and nonlethal missions performed by Soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan. The events chronicled herein span the spectrum of participants...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Robertson, William G, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS COMBAT...
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This monograph examines whether infantry small units, trained and equipped solely for war, can successfully conduct operations other than war (OOTW). Many military professionals argue that units trained for war can readily adapt to OOTW. Yet, other professional soldiers and military experts believe that OOTW requires unique capabilities which normal war fighting training alone does not provide. The trend toward ethnic and regional unrest has characterized the world security environment since...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Beech, Michael F., ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS SCHOOL OF...
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This study reviews the open literature of surprise attacks and concentrates on the works of Roberta Wohlstetter, Barton Whaley, Michael Handel, Richard Betts, Alex Hybel, and Ariel Levite. The characteristics and causes of surprise are summarized and areas for additional research are identified. The author asserts that Western defense planning is geared to deterrence of an all- out, bolt-from-the-blue attack which is the most improbable form of surprise. Keywords: Literature surveys, Military...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Mushaw, Stanley L, NAVAL WAR COLL NEWPORT RI ADVANCED RESEARCH PROGRAM, *ATTACK,...
Surprise, particularly at the operational and strategic levels, has been systematically examined by numerous analysts, most of whom conclude that it is almost impossible to guard against. They point to pathologies inherent in the processing of information and to the barriers and impediments to analytic accuracy, particularly where the production and use of intelligence is concerned. Senior Australian officials did anticipate the possibility of an attack on Darwin but assumed that the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Hartley, John C, ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *TACTICAL ANALYSIS, *TACTICAL...
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A bold, unconventional use of American air power to support British ground troops in Burma, Operation THURSDAY marked a critical development in the history of modern warfare. On March 5-6, 1944, the Allies conducted an air invasion of Burma in an attempt to push back the Japanese in the China-Burma-India Theater and reestablish the land route between India and China. U.S. airmen formed a special operations unit -- the 1st Air Commando Group -- to transport troops to jungle locations and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Mason, Herbert A , Jr, AIR FORCE HISTORICAL STUDIES OFFICE BOLLING AFB DC, *AIR DROP...
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How might an opposing force (OPFOR) attempt to defeat the Armed Forces of the 21st century? This article provides a scenario for examining the strategies of future OPFOR and concludes by analyzing enemy strategy in relation to maneuver warfare theory. In the wargaming scenario presented here, General Tzu, head of the OPFOR, planned for years for this battle with American forces. His mission was to defeat the U.S. forces and end their involvement on the peninsula. In the past, the doctrine of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIV WASHINGTON DC INST FOR NATIONAL STRATEGIC STUDIES, *JAMMING,...
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This publication has been prepared under the direction of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. It sets forth doctrine and selected JTTP to govern the joint activities and performance of the Armed Forces of the United States in joint operations and provides the doctrinal basis for US military involvement in multinational and interagency operations. It provides military guidance for the exercise of authority by combatant commanders and other JFCs and prescribes doctrine and selected...
Topics: DTIC Archive, JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF WASHINGTON DC, *TACTICAL AIR SUPPORT, *JOINT MILITARY...
A literature review and annotated bibliography were compelled to provide an introduction to the three Infantry weapon systems (M16A1 Rifle, TOW, and DRAGON antitank guided missiles), considering the three subsystems (training criteria, training content, and trainee selection) within each system's training course. Two hundred sixty-six documents were identified and abstracted: of these, one hundred five are variously cited in the review narrative. The review describes and discusses the hardware,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Smillie, Robert J., LITTON MELLONICS SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT DIV FORT BENNING GA, *ARMY...
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Strategic Vision is an enduring theme at the U.S. Army War College. Compiled in support of this theme, this selected bibliography reflects books, documents, periodical articles, and a number of web sites. Please note that the majority of references to military-related materials on vision may be found in the third part of the bibliography titled The U.S. Military and the Future. With a few notable exceptions, the materials in this bibliography are dated 2004 to the present. For older materials,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Moyer, Jeanette, ARMY WAR COLL LIBRARY CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *MILITARY STRATEGY,...
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For this report, a literature review was conducted to assess the knowledge of the effects of fatigue and related stressors on the performance of military personnel engaged in diverse military tasks. The objective was to determine whether there are sufficient objective, quantifiable data on the effects and time-course of fatigue to justify incorporation into combat models. Both mental and physical fatigue were considered. More than 500 articles, reports, and books were reviewed for this effort....
Topics: DTIC Archive, Evans, Susan M, VECTOR RESEARCH INC ANN ARBOR MI, *MILITARY PERSONNEL, WARFARE,...
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This document provides guidelines to the military commander on expected human performance degradation of continous ground combat. Degradation projections are based on extrapolations from scientific literature and realistic scenarios of continuous operations. The advantages and application of task restructuring, task reallocation, and work rest management concepts in the continuous operations context are presented along with considerations for training, system design, and performance support....
Topics: DTIC Archive, Siegel, Arthur I, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES INC WAYNE PA SCIENCE CENTER, *ARMY...
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This monograph argues that tactical disruption is an operational concept which will lead to superior friendly combat power at the decisive point. The monograph first examines the military theorists and thinkers from which tactical disruption has grown, in order to understand the theoretical framework it operates within. The author argues that the opposing commander's decision cycle is the ultimate target of disruption operations. An historical example is used to demonstrate tactical disruption,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Finehout, Arthur W, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS SCHOOL OF...
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Knowledge-Rich Acquisition of Knowledge from Experts Who Are Non-logicians (KRAKEN) was performed under DARPA's Rapid Knowledge Formation (RKF) Program. The KRAKEN system allows Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) to more easily, efficiently, and correctly enter their knowledge into an artificial intelligence knowledge-based system. KRAKEN's usefulness has been demonstrated in three challenge problems related to molecular biology, authoring of course-of-action (CA) critiquing rules, and terrain...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Matthews, Gavin, CYCORP AUSTIN TX, *COMPUTER PROGRAMS, *PROBLEM SOLVING, *KNOWLEDGE...
The decisionmaking process is affected by two distinct sides. The first is a factual, logical process which will produce a result completely void of human emotion. The second is an emotional, psychological process which although affected by logic and fact, causes occasional erratic, irrational behavior on decisions. This thesis examines both sides of this decisionmaking process but attempts to offer recommendations on only the logical, factual portion. Emotion and psychological factors have an...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Duncan ,Frank E, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KANS, *DECISION...
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The accuracy of centrally produced prognoses has improved throughout the past 20 years; however, several studies have shown negligible improvement in weather forecasting. Available data, more than 100 journal articles, were reviewed to independently evaluate weather forecasting improvement. Overall forecasting skill improved for most weather elements; however, improvement was not obtained by all. This led to a review of other factors (education, experience, interest, and procedures) that might...
Topics: DTIC Archive, German, Kenneth E, AIR WEATHER SERVICE SCOTT AFB IL, *FORECASTING, *SKILLS, *WEATHER...
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Combat places extraordinary demands on every individual, particularly the junior leader. The cumulative demands of combat may affect the leader's ability to lead his or her unit, resulting in members of their unit being tempted to quit. However, there are actions that leaders can take to build resiliency in their Soldiers, enabling them to lead their subordinates through the stressors of combat. Within the framework of social psychological contract theory, we outline two general approaches to...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Castro, Carl A, WALTER REED ARMY INST OF RESEARCH SILVER SPRING MD DEPT OF MILITARY...
The Victory Fitness (VF) Program examined fitness and injury outcomes during the initial 'toughening phase' of Physical Readiness Training (PRT). PRT is the U.S. Army's emerging physical training doctrine. A Basic Combat Training (BCT) battalion which implemented PRT (VF battalion, n = 1284) was compared to a battalion which used traditional BCT physical training (the Control battalion, n = 1275) during the 9-week BCT cycle. PRT exercises included precision calisthenics, dumbbell drills,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Knapik, J J, ARMY CENTER FOR HEALTH PROMOTION AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE (PROVISIONAL)...