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Defense Technical Information Archive

The Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) is the premier repository for research and engineering information for the United States Department of Defense. DTIC's Suite of Services is available to DoD personnel, defense contractors, federal government personnel and contractors and selected academic institutions. The general public can access unclassified, unlimited information, including many full-text downloadable documents, through the public Web site, DTIC Online.

DTIC's collections contain over 4 million documents including technical reports, research in progress and Independent Research and Development (IR&D) summaries. DTIC also publishes searchable Congressional budget data shortly after its release from Congress. DTIC acquires approximately 25,000 new documents each year.

On June 4, 2004, DTIC became a DoD Field Activity under the management of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, reporting to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering (ASD(R&E)). Mr. Christopher Thomas is the Administrator.

DTIC's mission statement is "To provide essential, technical research, development, testing and evaluation (RDT&E) information rapidly, accurately and reliably to support our DoD customers' needs."

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Relational data representations have become an increasingly important topic due to the recent proliferation of network datasets (e.g., social, biological, information networks) and a corresponding increase in the application of Statistical Relational Learning (SRL) algorithms to these domains. In this article, we examine and categorize techniques for transforming graph-based relational data to improve SRL algorithms. In particular, appropriate transformations of the nodes, links, and/or...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC CENTER FOR APPLIED RESEARCH IN ARTIFICIAL...
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Summary: Proof-of-concept of Artificial Hair Sensor with CNT mechano-resistive elements demonstrated. CNT arrays examined that initially appear mechanically different by length, but DIC reveal a common failure criteria. Observed carbon hair deflection in-phase with gust-like disturbances without vibration - mapped the flow regime steady/unsteady. Computed frequency response plots for carbon hair structure in quasi-steady regime 2nd order like response. Found that elasticity and drag dominated...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB EGLIN AFB FL MUNITIONS DIRECTORATE, *DETECTORS, *ENGINE AIR...
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Research into human auditory localization acuity and factors that compromise this acuity is an ongoing research program at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory. Although there is a wealth of information in the professional literature about the physical, physiological, and psychological underpinnings of auditory localization, the specific theoretical concepts, localization error metrics, and data collection methodologies found in various books and articles are quite diverse and frequently poorly...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD HUMAN RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING...
This paper reports the radio frequency (RF) performance of InAs nanomembrane transistors on both mechanically rigid and flexible substrates. We have employed a self-aligned device architecture by using a T-shaped gate structure to fabricate high performance InAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with channel lengths down to 75 nm. RF measurements reveal that the InAs devices made on a silicon substrate exhibit a cutoff frequency (f t) of approx. 165 GHz, which is one...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CALIFORNIA UNIV BERKELEY DEPT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE,...
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Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL SUPPLY SYSTEMS COMMAND MECHANICSBURG PA, *MILITARY OPERATIONS, ACQUISITION,...
This grant to studied and developed innovative methods of hardening electronic systems against the effects of high power microwave (HPM) radiation.
Topics: DTIC Archive, MARYLAND UNIV COLLEGE PARK INST FOR RESEARCH IN ELECTRONICS AND APPLIED PHYSICS,...
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The relationship between terrorism, drug trafficking, and policymaking is examined through the development, implementation, and use of a series of systems dynamics-based models. These activities are intended to provide the basis for future development of a decision aid to support policymakers in combating the narco-terror threat. The models developed for this purpose are: a narcotics, counter-narcotics, and trafficker double agent model; a policy cycle model to manage the trafficker double...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIV FORT MCNAIR DC CENTER FOR TECHNOLOGY AND NATIONAL SECURITY...
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In April 2011, NASA's pioneering cloud profiling radar satellite, CloudSat, experienced a battery anomaly that placed it into emergency mode and rendered it operations incapable. All initial attempts to recover the spacecraft failed as the resultant power limitations could not support even the lowest power mode. Originally part of a six-satellite constellation known as the A-Train, CloudSat was unable to stay within its assigned control box, posing a threat to other A-Train satellites. CloudSat...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CALIFORNIA INST OF TECH PASADENA JET PROPULSION LAB, *ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES,...
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The study concerns the dynamics of granular alignments held between rigid walls when the systems are subjected to continuous, large, forces at one end. It turns out that under such dynamical loading, granular chains exhibit peculiar quasi-periodic behavior. A deeper understanding of the physics associated with such behavior could lead to the development of multifaceted frequency sensors and energy harvesting technologies. The work also led to a deeper understanding of the contact forces between...
Topics: DTIC Archive, STATE UNIV OF NEW YORK AT BUFFALO RESEARCH FOUNDATION, *GRANULAR MATERIALS,...
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Clearly defining the roles and responsibilities of information managers and providing core competency training is essential to proper employment of a rapidly emerging warfighting tool. Information management (IM) is the latest buzzword, and a variety of techniques are becoming vogue within the Department of Defense (DoD), as are the tools with which IM is being conducted. Since emerging on the scene as a discipline some 15 years ago, IM has created quite a stir as it attempts to find a rightful...
Topics: DTIC Archive, MARINE CORPS GAZETTE QUANTICO VA, *CORPORATE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT, INFORMATION...
Symbiotic microorganisms are spatially separated from their animal host, e.g., in the intestine and skin, in a manner enabling nutrient metabolism as well as evolutionary development of protective physiologic features in the host such as innate and adaptive immunity, immune tolerance, and function of tissue barriers . The major interface barrier between the microbiota and host tissue is constituted by epithelium reticuloendothelial tissue, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) ....
Topics: DTIC Archive, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIV OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES BETHESDA MD, *CELLS(BIOLOGY),...
Combat veterans who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) can show impairments in behavioral and cognitive control and increases in impulsivity. In addition, many with mild TBI will also have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To improve diagnostic capabilities and better define treatment alternatives, it is important to determine the unique (and shared) contributions of each disorder to deficits in cognitive function and emotional control. Three specific control functions are being...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CALIFORNIA UNIV DAVIS, *POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER, *TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURIES,...
The aim of this work emerges from the need to understand damage mechanisms in composite materials, in terms of onset, growth and propagation, and assess fatigue life behavior, using advanced computed tomography techniques. X-ray computed tomography (XCT) has become extremely useful for material science and structural materials studies, due to its capability to allow 3-D reconstruction of the specimen with high resolution, facilitating accurate microstructural and micromechanical...
Topics: DTIC Archive, SOUTHAMPTON UNIV (UNITED KINGDOM), *COMPOSITE MATERIALS, *COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY, *X...
The Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) is used to investigate the process and frequency of extreme sea ice shear deformation events resulting in pycnocline upwelling due to Ekman pumping as described in McPhee et al. (2005). RASM is a fully coupled land, atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean model with high spatial and temporal resolution. Time series analysis of the upper ocean temperature structure, basal melt rate, total deformation rate, and ice-ocean stress curl yield the identification of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *DEFORMATION, *OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA, *SEA ICE,...
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This report summarizes work done on various radar imaging problems. Both stationary and moving targets are addressed, with single sensors and multiple sensors. Short summaries are included for the following dissertations: Yi Fang Imaging with Sparse Measurements Hector Morales Synthetic-Aperture Radar Imaging through Dispersive Media Analee Miranda Imaging moving targets in a multipath environment with multiple sensors). Kaitlyn Voccola Satistical and Analytical Techniques in Synthetic Aperture...
Topics: DTIC Archive, RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INST TROY NY, *MOVING TARGETS, *RADAR IMAGES, *SYNTHETIC...
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Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has become an important adjunct to the management of traumatic wounds and surgical incisions related to musculoskeletal trauma. On the battlefield, this adjunct therapy allows early wound management and safe aeromedical evacuation. NPWT mechanisms of action include stabilization of the wound environment, reduction of wound edema, improvement of tissue perfusion, and stimulation of cells at the wound surface. NPWT stimulates granulation tissue and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY INST OF SURGICAL RESEARCH FORT SAM HOUSTON TX, *MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, *TRAUMA,...
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The goal of this study was to examine neighborhood characteristics in relation to prostate cancer severity. Methods: We studied African-American and Caucasian prostate cancer cases from the Pennsylvania State Cancer Registry. Census tract-level variables and deprivation scores were examined in relation to diagnosis age, stage, grade, and tumor aggressiveness. Multilevel analyses were conducted on a subset of patients from a longitudinal hospital-based study to examine the effects of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, PENNSYLVANIA UNIV PHILADELPHIA, *DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), *PROSTATE CANCER, AUTOMOTIVE...
Alternative liquid jet fuels are being considered as a replacement for petroleum-based fuels for use in United States Air Force (USAF) aircraft and support equipment and vehicles. As with any new weapons system or other type of potential fire threat, the fire protection safety risk to the first responder must be established. The objective of this study was to measure alternative fuel safety parameters. Flame propagation tests documented the flame spread rate on liquid fuel surfaces. Flame...
Topics: DTIC Archive, APPLIED RESEARCH ASSOCIATES INC PANAMA CITY FL, *FIRE PROTECTION, *JET ENGINE FUELS,...
Major depressive disorder (MDD) co-occurs frequently with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and both disorders are linked to suicidal ideation. An emergent literature examines suicidal ideation in U.S. Afghanistan/Iraq-era veterans. Little research, however, has studied the role of PTSD and comorbid MDD on suicidal ideation across service eras. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the impact of depression on suicidal ideation in Afghanistan/Iraq-era and Vietnam-era veterans with PTSD. The...
Topics: DTIC Archive, VETERANS AFFIARS MEDICAL CENTER DURHAM NC, *MENTAL DISORDERS, *POST TRAUMATIC STRESS...
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Current requirements to decrease the Department of Defense's (DoD's) base budget, and national desires for an increase in the European community's participation in international security have led to numerous calls for a withdrawal of United States Army forces from Europe, and the reinvestment of both money and personnel in the Continental United States. Leaving Europe all together may force Europeans to readdress current military obligations, but such disengagement is not in the best interests...
Topics: DTIC Archive, MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE, *ARMY, *COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS, *EUROPE, *JOINT...
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Our team submitted runs for the TREC KBA Cumulative Citation Recommendation task. This task involves labeling over 300 million documents for whether they are relevant and/or central to particular entities already in a database. For this task, we used an SVM classifier that uses unigrams and named entities as binary features. In this paper, we describe our work for the 2012 evaluation and the results we obtained.
Topics: DTIC Archive, JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MD HUMAN LANGUAGE TECHNOLOGY (HLT) CENTER OF EXCELLENCE,...
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Given the daunting issues confronting the Air Force, Airmen would do well to look back at the service's reason for being and remember why the nation established an independent air arm. Admittedly, the Air Force will and should continue to support ground forces when appropriate, but Airmen should concentrate on those core functions that the service was created to perform. Current doctrine lists 12 such functions, but the Air Force could leverage its most fundamental purpose--attaining national...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR AND SPACE POWER JOURNAL MAXWELL AFB AL, *AIR FORCE, *AIR FORCE OPERATIONS, AIR...
Introduction: The recent literature suggests that chronic wound biofilms often consist of multiple bacterial species. However, without appropriate in vivo, polybacterial biofilm models, our understanding of these complex infections remains limited. We evaluate and compare the effect of single- and mixed-species biofilm infections on host wound healing dynamics using a quantitative, in vivo, rabbit ear model. Methods: Six-mm dermal punch wounds in New Zealand rabbit ears were inoculated with...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY INST OF SURGICAL RESEARCH FORT SAM HOUSTON TX, *FILMS, *INFECTIOUS DISEASES,...
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The unparalleled accuracies of accelerometers, gyroscopes and gravity sensors based on light-pulse atom interferometry methods hold great promise for a broad range of demanding military and commercial applications in navigation and geophysical exploration. Previous atom optic (AO) sensor development efforts have validated the technology for high-accuracy applications. This program assessed the suitability of the technology for navigation-grade sensors operating on Army platforms. First, we...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AOSENSE INC SUNNYVALE CA, *ACCELEROMETERS, *OPTICAL DETECTORS, ARMY EQUIPMENT,...
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Topics: DTIC Archive, ENGINEER RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER VICKSBURG MS COASTAL AND HYDRAULICS LAB,...
The 1.5 mile run test was developed in 1968 by Dr. Ken Cooper as an easy, inexpensive and relatively accurate way to estimate VO2 max in large groups of Air Force personnel. In January 2010, a new Air Force fitness test program was implemented, using the 1.5 mile run to test aerobic fitness, but there was no altitude adjustment for Air Force Bases located at moderate altitude. This study investigated if a significant difference in aerobic performance exists between moderate altitude (ALT) and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE ACADEMY COLORADO SPRINGS CO HUMAN PERFORMANCE LAB, *MEDIUM ALTITUDE,...
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This project will contribute to our understanding of oxygen management and the underlying physiological mechanisms of oxygen management in marine mammals. This information is essential if we are to interpret and understand the limits of dive performance, foraging ecology, and the ability of breath hold divers to adapt to environmental change and disturbance. The concept that most dives are aerobic in nature and do not exceed an aerobic dive limit (ADL - dive duration associated with the onset...
Topics: DTIC Archive, SCRIPPS INSTITUTION OF OCEANOGRAPHY LA JOLLA CA CENTER FOR MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY AND...
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For deployed U.S. military personnel, cross-cultural skills are more important than ever before. Cross-cultural competence is critical to mission success, and specifically, because Soldiers can no longer predict where their next deployments may be, general cross-cultural competence (the ability to immediately adapt and assess in culturally unfamiliar environments to support mission success) is emerging as a critical competency. In the performance of this Phase II SBIR research and development...
Topics: DTIC Archive, 361 INTERACTIVE LLC SPRINGBORO OH, *CROSS CULTURE(SOCIOLOGY), *LEARNING, ARMY...
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Experiments were designed to evaluate corrosion-related consequences of storing/transporting petroleum and alternative fuels in contact with natural seawater. Fuels included petroleum JP-5, camelina derived JP-5, petroleum F-76, and algal derived F-76 and mixtures of the petroleum-based and alternative fuels. Corrosion rates were estimated from polarization resistance measurements and corrosion was measured by weight loss. Corrosion attack morphology and corrosion products were analyzed by...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB STENNIS DETACHMENT STENNIS SPACE CENTER MS OCEANOGRAPHY DIV,...
Ellsworth AFB is faced with having to upgrade its current wastewater treatment systems to meet more stringent State of South Dakota-mandated restrictions on wastewater discharge. Ellsworth AFB is proposing to decommission and demolish its current wastewater treatment plant and allow construction of a new sanitary sewer pipeline on Ellsworth AFB within an easement granted to the South Dakota EDA. The sanitary sewer pipeline would connect to an existing pipeline southeast of the installation that...
Topics: DTIC Archive, HDR INC OMAHA NE, *ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT, *MILITARY FACILITIES, *WASTE WATER,...
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The Defense Department must ensure the long-term utility and security of DOD networks in the face of increasingly sophisticated state and non-state cyber threats. Developing an exceptional cyber workforce through improved training and certification programs would represent a significant step in reaching DOD security goals. This paper examines the current impediments to effective cybersecurity workforce preparation and offers new concepts to create Cyber Sentries through realistic training,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *COMPUTER NETWORK SECURITY, *MANPOWER, COMPUTER...
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Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) have been employed to examine the optical absorption spectra of bare and passivated (thiolate-, phosphine-, or carboxylate-stabilized) gold and silver nanoparticles. The location of the ligands is responsible for causing splitting in the optical absorption spectra of thiolate-stabilized nanoparticles. The choice of metal and ligand affects the thermodynamic stability of the staples on the surface of the nanoparticle, and may affect...
Topics: DTIC Archive, KANSAS STATE UNIV MANHATTAN, *GOLD, *NANOPARTICLES, *OPTICAL PROPERTIES, *SILVER,...
Gaseous electron donor injection technology (GEDIT) involves injection of gaseous electron donors into the soil with the purpose of promoting anaerobic biodegradation of perchlorate. This report describes the application of TMVOC, a vadose zone simulation code developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to perform an alternatives and optimization analysis of GEDIT for a demonstration site in California. TMVOC was calibrated to data from a demonstration conducted at the Inactive...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CALIFORNIA UNIV BERKELEY LAWRENCE BERKELEY LAB, *ELECTRON DONORS, BIODEGRADATION,...
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This report provides an overview and analysis of U.S.-Yemeni relations amidst evolving political change in Yemeni leadership, ongoing U.S. counterterrorism operations against Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) operatives at large in Yemen's hinterlands, and international efforts to bolster the country's stability despite an array of daunting socio-economic problems. Congress and U.S. policymakers may be concerned with prospects for stabilizing Yemen and establishing strong bilateral...
Topics: DTIC Archive, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS WASHINGTON DC CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE, *INTERNATIONAL...
The past decade of long and repeated deployments in support of two overlapping conflicts has resulted in alarming increases in substance abuse, suicide, marital problems, and veteran homelessness. Even for service members not exposed to combat trauma, coping successfully with cumulative deployment stress and fatigue is a daunting task that tests the resilience of returning warriors and that of their families. Military leaders and mental health professionals have invested significant time and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, MARINE CORPS COMMAND AND STAFF COLL QUANTICO VA, *COMBAT FORCES, *DEPLOYMENT, *POST...
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PROGRAM OBJECTIVES: 1) Explore methods to maximize properties of nitride or carbide based active materials. 2) Develop methods for fabrication of cathodes containing high surface area nitrides or carbides, and anodes containing Mn or Ni oxides. 3) Design and assemble asymmetric prototype cells using appropriate electrolytes. 4) Evaluate the performance of prototype for technologically relevant load profiles. TASKS: 1) Fabricate prototype cells incorporating nitride and oxide electrode...
Topics: DTIC Archive, MICHIGAN UNIV ANN ARBOR DEPT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, *CAPACITORS, CARBIDES,...
The purpose of this award is to help the principle investigator transition into a long term career in breast cancer imaging research through both training and independent research. The training component of this research has been split into breast imaging and image processing arms. Work within the breast imaging arm has included observation of an NIH funded multicenter breast imaging trial using contrast-enhanced 3D subharmonic imaging for the characterization of mammographically identified...
Topics: DTIC Archive, THOMAS JEFFERSON UNIV PHILADELPHIA PA, *BREAST CANCER, *IMAGE PROCESSING, *LESIONS,...
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During the period of the grant an interrelated set of studies were performed in the general domain of control over quantum dynamics phenomena. A prime focus was on establishing the basic principles of quantum control and their experimental implications. The overall research is summarized below.
Topics: DTIC Archive, PRINCETON UNIV NJ, *CONTROL, *QUANTUM THEORY
Our long terms goals are to understand sediment transport processes, the relevant physical forcing processes and the resulting morphologic evolution of river mouths and tidal inlets and shoals. Specific goals include understanding bedform characteristics (ripple to sandwave and sandbar scale) in relation to wave- and current-forced mean and turbulent flow.
Topics: DTIC Archive, WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION MA, *DELTAS, *MORPHOLOGY, *SEDIMENT TRANSPORT,...
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The use of aluminum for plasmonic nanostructures opens up new possibilities, such as access to short-wavelength regions of the spectrum, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatibility, and the possibility of low-cost, sustainable, mass-producible plasmonic materials. Here we examine the properties of individual Al nanorod antennas with cathodoluminescence (CL). This approach allows us to image the local density of optical states (LDOS) of Al nanorod antennas with a spatial...
Topics: DTIC Archive, RICE UNIV HOUSTON TX, *ALUMINUM, *ANTENNAS, *NANOSTRUCTURES, *PLASMONS,...
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Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are chromatin-modifying complexes that regulate epigenetic silencing and play an important role in determining cell fate. PcG proteins form two major complexes, Polycomb repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) and Polycomb repressive Complex 2 (PRC2). PRC2 methylates histone H3 on lysin 27 (H3K27) creating a chromatin mark which stimulates PRC1 to enact gene silencing at target genes. Employing in vitro and in vivo cancer models, combined with human tumor studies, we...
Topics: DTIC Archive, MICHIGAN UNIV ANN ARBOR, *CHROMATIN, *PROSTATE CANCER, *RIBONUCLEIC ACIDS, GENES,...
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This research project examines the war with Mexico in 1846-48 and the insurgency that arose and was quickly quelled. American commander Winfield Scott implemented a strategy that prevented the insurgency from exploding into a disaster, thus preserving the fruits of victory. This paper reviews what he did in order to seal the achievements of the conventional campaigns in Mexico by preventing a descent into the chaos of an insurgency. Based on this examination there are many parallels American...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *DECISION MAKING, *MILITARY COMMANDERS, *MILITARY...
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The National Guard Bureau faces an extraordinarily complex environment. Recent changes include the appointment of the Chief of the National Guard Bureau to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the new defense strategy, the continued evolution of the Profession of Arms, and the development of Joint Force 2020. Therefore, the ARNG directorate leadership must adopt a unique, focused leadership development program for the Title 10 (T10) Active Guard Reserve (AGR) officers that creates a bench of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *ARMY, *JOINT MILITARY ACTIVITIES, *LEADERSHIP...
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Recently, a major decision was made by the Navy to eliminate a key capability from the future ship of the amphibious fleet. The removal of the well deck from the future LHA (R) amphibious assault ship is attempting to change the way the Navy and Marine Corps have conducted amphibious operations over the past several decades. This thesis will develop equations to quantitatively analyze the lift capabilities associated with changing the design in the LHA (R) class of amphibious assault ships, and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA DEPT OF INFORMATION SCIENCES, *AMPHIBIOUS...
The United States has been the leading nation in space technology, as space is a vital asset in military dominance. But to sustain its position in the area of space lift, the current U.S. second stage liquid propulsion engine, the RL10 (developed in 1958) needs to be replaced. This replacement requires systems engineering methods and new technological advances to adhere to mission requirements and constraints of current platforms. This thesis provides a history of the Evolved Expendable Launch...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINES, LAUNCH...
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Solar Cycle 24 is having a historically long and weak start. Observations of the Fe XIV corona from the Sacramento Peak site of the National Solar Observatory show an abnormal pattern of emission compared to observations of Cycles 21, 22, and 23 from the same instrument. The previous three cycles have shown a strong, rapid Rush to the Poles (previously observed in polar crown prominences and earlier coronal observations) in the parameter N(t, l, dt) (average number of Fe XIV emission features...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB KIRTLAND AFB NM SPACE VEHICLES DIRECTORATE, *SOLAR CORONA,...
Within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), service-level agreements are a widely used tool for acquiring enterprise-level information technology (IT) resources. In order to contain, if not reduce, the total cost of ownership of IT resources to the enterprise, the DoD has undertaken outsourcing its IT needs to Cloud service providers. In this thesis, we explore how service-level agreements are specified for non-Cloud-based services (client-server systems), followed by determining how to tailor...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA DEPT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE, *AGREEMENTS, *CLIENT...
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The U.S. Navy's use of tactical mid-frequency active sonar has been linked to marine mammal strandings and fatalities (NMFS 2001). These events have generated legal challenges to the Navy's peacetime use of mid-frequency sonar, and have limited the Navy s at-sea anti-submarine warfare training time. Beaked whales may be particularly sensitive to mid-frequency sonar. A mobile, persistent surveillance system that could detect, classify and localize beaked whales will help resolve the conflict...
Topics: DTIC Archive, OREGON STATE UNIV NEWPORT OR COOPERATIVE INST FOR MARINE RESOURCES STUDIES,...
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In early 2009, President Obama declared cyber threat as one of the most serious economic and national security challenges of the 21st century. In May 2009, he directed the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) to review national level cybersecurity policies and procedures. Findings indicated two critical shortfalls: lack of leadership and lack of clearly defined roles among federal agencies. Although a new Special Assistant to the President and Cybersecurity Coordinator was appointed...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *CYBERWARFARE, *DATA TRANSMISSION SECURITY,...
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The goal of this work is to develop methodologies for synchronizing the clocks of neighboring nodes of an underwater acoustic network. Clock synchronization requires an estimate of the signaling time delay between the nodes, which is particularly challenging in the presence of multipath propagation through the acoustic communication channel. This thesis focuses on modeling the underwater acoustic communication channel, accounting for the multipath arrivals, and creating a set of signal...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *ACOUSTIC COMMUNICATIONS, *UNDERWATER...
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Waltz is a typical example of physical human-human interaction (pHHI) in a well-structured environment. Waltz involves two dancers. The goal is to reproduce the female dancer's abilities with a robot in pHRI. The project focused on the lower level interaction in pHRI, i.e., coupled dynamics, and proposed a framework which covers modeling, analysis, human state sensing and robot control in developing a cooperative female robot dancer. The two dancers' coupled dynamics was modeled as two...
Topics: DTIC Archive, TOHOKU UNIV SENDAI (JAPAN), *COUPLING(INTERACTION), *ENTRAINMENT, *INTERACTIONS,...
The overall science goal of this project is to address the short to long-term US Navy / DOD (Arctic Roadmap, 2009) and national requirements (Roberts et al., 2010) to understand and predict arctic climate change. The proposed research leverages ongoing developments of the state-of-the-art Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM) through a multi-institutional program supported by the Department of Energy Regional and Global Climate Modeling (DOE/RGCM) program and two ongoing complementary projects....
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA DEPT OF OCEANOGRAPHY, *ARCTIC REGIONS, *CLIMATE...
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Studies of the human microbiome have revealed that even healthy individuals differ remarkably in the microbes that occupy habitats such as the gut, skin and vagina. Much of this diversity remains unexplained, although diet, environment, host genetics and early microbial exposure have all been implicated. Accordingly, to characterize the ecology of human-associated microbial communities, the Human Microbiome Project has analysed the largest cohort and set of distinct, clinically relevant body...
Topics: DTIC Archive, HARVARD SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH BOSTON MA, *FUNCTIONS, *GENES, *HUMANS, *STRUCTURES,...
The mechanisms by which rare-earth compounds provide corrosion protection were investigated. A variety of environmentally benign corrosion inhibitors, including rare-earth compounds, are potential replacements for carcinogenic chromate-based inhibitors in conversion coatings and primers. Chromates are robust inhibitors that provide protection to a multitude of metal alloys from a variety of different types of coatings, whereas most alternative inhibitors only protect a limited number of alloys...
Topics: DTIC Archive, MISSOURI UNIV OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ROLLA, *CORROSION INHIBITION, *RARE EARTH...
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This paper presents a proof of correctness of an iterative approximate Byzantine consensus (IABC) algorithm for directed graphs. The iterative algorithm allows fault- free nodes to reach approximate consensus despite the presence of up to f Byzantine faults. Necessary conditions on the underlying network graph for the existence of a correct IABC algorithm were shown in our recent work [15, 16]. [15] also analyzed a specific IABC algorithm and showed that it performs correctly in any network...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA DEPT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING, *CONVERGENCE,...
Localized concentrations of plankton (i.e. patches) alter the optical and acoustical properties of the water column and can have significant ramifications for the ecological dynamics of marine communities. The goal of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding and predictive capability of the relative importance of biological in the formation, persistence, and decline of plankton patches. This goal is addressed by concurrent characterization of physical water column structure,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, RHODE ISLAND UNIV NARRAGANSETT GRADUATE SCHOOL OF OCEANOGRAPHY, *PLANKTON, ADVECTION,...
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It is important in the age of the INTERNET and video games to keep students engaged in the classroom. One way of doing this is through the use of games and simulations. TABOO is a card game that involves getting players to say a keyword without saying five forbidden words. The game can be adapted for any number of different subjects. In this study, the game was adapted for use in the Detection and Estimation (EENG663) signal processing class at the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT). The...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH DEPT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER...
The goal of this Postdoctoral Award is twofold. First, the proposed research seeks to design microbubble ultrasound contrast agents with enhanced dye loading capacity for imaging and surgical labeling of sentinel lymph nodes. Second, the training plan seeks to improve the PI s scientific development through a combination of junior scientist mentoring, grant-writing, and external presentations. Here, the research portion has met with some setbacks, including poor yields and dispersities through...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CALIFORNIA UNIV SAN DIEGO LA JOLLA, *LYMPH NODES, BUBBLES, DYES, IMAGES, MAPPING,...
Material nonlinearity and progressive ply failure are important considerations in the finite element modeling of thick-section composite structures. LAMPATNL uses a method to model the material nonlinearity and progressive ply failure of composite laminates using finite element software without explicitly simulating individual plies. Improvements to LAMPATNL are documented and discussed in this report. Also, LAMPATNL is validated against both the linear and nonlinear material point models. In...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD WEAPONS AND MATERIALS RESEARCH...
The structure and properties of non-force-free (NFF) equilibrium magnetic flux ropes in an ambient medium of specified pressure pa have been studied in detail. A flux rope is a self-organized magnetized plasma structure consisting of a localized channel of electric current and the magnetic field arising from this current.
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC, *MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS, *PLASMAS(PHYSICS), CHANNELS,...
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Phishing is a form of electronic deception in which an attacker tries to cause the recipient to do something or disclose data that they likely would not normally do by mimicking a trustworthy entity. These attacks have been increasing at an alarming rate and can cause damages in the form of identity theft, financial losses, and compromised security for organizations and governmental institutions. Additionally, phishing attacks have become very sophisticated and even more successful because of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, MILITARY ACADEMY WEST POINT NY, *COMPUTER NETWORK SECURITY, *COMPUTER NETWORKS,...
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The long-term goal of this project is to improve model-based passive acoustic methods for tracking marine mammals. When possible, tracking results are used to study marine mammal behavior and bioacoustics.
Topics: DTIC Archive, HAWAII UNIV HONOLULU DEPT OF OCEAN AND RESOURCES ENGINEERING, *TRACKING, *WHALES,...
RAND's progress in dealing with uncertainty analysis for national security has benefited from a confluence of developments in four domains. Most familiar perhaps is technology: modern computers and software allow analysis that would have been inconceivable in the early days of systems and policy analysis, such as examining a vast possibility space when considering options for the way ahead. Technology, however, is only an enabler. Developments in understanding strategic planning and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, RAND NATIONAL DEFENSE RESEARCH INST SANTA MONICA CA, *DECISION MAKING, *INTERAGENCY...
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IRRA (IR-Ra) group participated in the 2012 Web track, with a system implementing a non-parametric term weighting method based on measuring the divergence from independence (DFI). This is the third year of participation for IRRA group, following the participations in TREC 2009 and 2010 Web tracks. In this year, the aim is to evaluate a new DFI-based term weighting model developed on the basis of Shannon s information theory (Shannon, 1949), along with the evaluation of a heuristic approach that...
Topics: DTIC Archive, MUGLA UNIV (TURKEY) DEPT OF ELECTRONIC AND COMPUTER EDUCATION, *INFORMATION...
In the five years of this MURI program, we have made major advances in several areas, including: 1) power production optimization; 2) MFC design; 3) identification of the genes coding for the proteins involved with electricity production by Shewanella oneidensis (MR-1); 4) construction of conceptual models of extracellular electron transport (EET); 5) characterization and quantification of the per cell rates of EET to solid substrates; 6) characterization of a previously undescribed behavioral...
Topics: DTIC Archive, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES DEPT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES,...
A new aircraft surveillance system, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), is being introduced by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) with mandated implementation in the United States by the year 2020. The rapid deployment of the system with current test-beds spread across the U.S. leaves very little chance for anyone to test the abilities of the system and more importantly the flaws of the system. The research conducted within this thesis explores some of the weaknesses of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH DEPT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER...
This paper describes and analyzes a Gaussian statistical satellite detection algorithm. This detection algorithm exploits the correlation of pixels that arises from the long-term exposure point spread function (PSF) due to diffraction and atmospheric effects. This correlating detection algorithm is compared to a simple, linear threshold detection algorithm, which treats the probability density function (PDF) of the photons as Gaussian and the PSF as Dirac. The effects of changing the window...
Topics: DTIC Archive, DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE WASHINGTON DC, *ALGORITHMS, *DETECTORS, ARTIFICIAL...
United States Army Soldiers regularly use dietary supplements (DS) to promote general health, enhance muscle strength, and increase energy, but limited scientific evidence supports the use of many DS for these benefits. This study investigated factors associated with Soldiers' confidence in the efficacy and safety of DS, and assessed Soldiers' knowledge of federal DS regulatory requirements. Between 2006 and 2007, 990 Soldiers were surveyed at 11 Army bases world-wide to assess their confidence...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY RESEARCH INST OF ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE NATICK MA MILITARY NUTRITION DIV, *DIET,...
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The efforts over the performance period focused on the nucleation of diamond by plasmon assisted chemical vapor deposition, characterization of diamond nanoparticles, and direct conversion of the polymer poly(hydridocarbyne) to diamond. We adapted the hot-filament CVD methods used in conventional CVD diamond to our plasmon assisted CVD (PACVD) setup and explored the growth of diamond using in situ Raman spectroscopy. With the addition of the filament, we were able to observe carbon deposition...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CALIFORNIA INST OF TECH PASADENA, *CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION, *DIAMONDS, *NUCLEATION,...
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The mission of the Department of Defense (DoD) is to provide the military forces needed to deter war and protect the security of our country. To successfully execute the DoD mission, our Military Departments must h ave the energy, land, air, and water resources necessary to train and operate, today and in the future, in a world where there is increasing competition for resources. Sustainability provides the framework necessary to ensure the longevity of these resources by addressing energy,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE WASHINGTON DC ACQUISITION TECHNOLOGY AND...
Severe thermal conditions can exist within ground combat vehicles; although these vehicles are generally equipped with heating, ventilation, and cooling (HVAC) systems, the HVAC systems often lack sufficient cooling capacity under conditions of thermally severe weather, open-hatch operations, and significant amounts of on-board electronics.
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY TANK AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER WARREN MI,...
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We are providing this report for your information and use. We have reviewed the Defense Commissary Agency (DeCA) Office of Internal Audit system of quality control in effect for the period ended July 31, 2011. A system of quality control for DeCA s audit organization encompasses the audit organization s leadership, emphasis on performing high quality work, and policies and procedures established to provide reasonable assurance of compliance with generally accepted government auditing standards...
Topics: DTIC Archive, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ALEXANDRIA VA OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL, *AUDITING,...
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As the United States continues to conduct successful military operations in Afghanistan and Pakistan to target and disrupt Al Qaida's ability to recruit, train, and plan future attacks, terrorist organizations continue to spread in ungoverned areas of the world. Since the 1991 civil war that tore Somalia apart, no central government has been successful in reestablishing rule of law in that country. Today, Somalia is a failed state that offers a safe haven for terrorist groups such as Al...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *CONFLICT, *CRIMINALS, *GOVERNMENT(FOREIGN),...
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The United States' quest for greater access and influence, in increasingly more dispersed and disparate locations, is hindered by an emerging number of readily observable fiscal, geopolitical, and security threats. Increased diplomacy and relationship building tempered with a careful blend of expertise and proficiency in violence management appears the more desired and sustainable form of influence. It is along this seam that U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF) have become the force of choice;...
Topics: DTIC Archive, MARINE CORPS COMMAND AND STAFF COLL QUANTICO VA, *SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES,...
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This fourth edition of the Common Sense Guide to Mitigating Insider Threats provides the most current recommendations of the CERT Program (part of Carnegie Mellon University's Software Engineering Institute), based on an expanded database of more than 700 insider threat cases and continued research and analysis. It introduces the topic of insider threats, explains its intended audience and how this guide differs from previous editions, defines insider threats, and outlines current patterns and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIV PITTSBURGH PA SOFTWARE ENGINEERING INST, *HACKING(COMPUTER...