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Defense Technical Information Archive

The Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) is the premier repository for research and engineering information for the United States Department of Defense. DTIC's Suite of Services is available to DoD personnel, defense contractors, federal government personnel and contractors and selected academic institutions. The general public can access unclassified, unlimited information, including many full-text downloadable documents, through the public Web site, DTIC Online.

DTIC's collections contain over 4 million documents including technical reports, research in progress and Independent Research and Development (IR&D) summaries. DTIC also publishes searchable Congressional budget data shortly after its release from Congress. DTIC acquires approximately 25,000 new documents each year.

On June 4, 2004, DTIC became a DoD Field Activity under the management of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, reporting to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering (ASD(R&E)). Mr. Christopher Thomas is the Administrator.

DTIC's mission statement is "To provide essential, technical research, development, testing and evaluation (RDT&E) information rapidly, accurately and reliably to support our DoD customers' needs."

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Defense Technical Information Archive
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An overview of the lessons that are emerging from recent efforts to employ MBSE in the development of large complex projects in both the defence and civilian sectors. A broad interpretation of MBSE will be taken to encompass tool systems that embody the spirit of MBSE, if not the specific modern practice arising from the OMG/INCOSE sources. The paper will address findings on lessons learned with respect to process development, cultural resistance, management perception and training methods and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, SOUTH AUSTRALIA UNIV ADELAIDE, *SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, AUSTRALIA, LESSONS LEARNED,...
Effect of protein-solvent interaction on the protein structure is widely studied with experimental and computational techniques. Despite this, molecular level understanding of proteins and some simple solvents is still not fully understood. This work focuses on detailed molecular dynamics simulations of solvent effect on lysozyme protein, using water, ethanol, and different concentrations of water-ethanol mixtures as solvents. The lysozyme protein structure in water, ethanol and ethanol-water...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NORTH CAROLINA AGRICULTURAL AND TECHNICAL STATE UNIV GREENSBORO, *ETHANOLS,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The most important Army asset is human capital. It is imperative that individuals on every level operate within the team to guarantee mission accomplishment. Developing quality professional Department of the Army Civilian (DAC) leaders provides a foundation for achieving and maintaining the critical strategic leadership competencies that the Army and the nation require into and beyond the 21st century. After serving the Army in both a military and civilian capacity for 29 years, over 10 of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *ARMY, *DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, *GOVERNMENT...
Past efforts to reduce the airfoil count in low pressure turbines have produced high lift profiles with unacceptably high endwall loss. The purpose of the current work is to suggest alternative approaches for reducing endwall losses. The effects of the fluid mechanics and high lift profile geometry are considered. Mixing effects of the mean flow and turbulence fields are decoupled to show that mean flow shear in the endwall wake is negligible compared to turbulent shear, indicating that...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH GRADUATE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND...
Bartonellae are emerging vector-borne pathogens infecting erythrocytes and endothelial cells of various domestic and wild mammals. Blood samples were collected from domestic and wild canids in Iraq under the United States Army zoonotic disease surveillance program. Serology was performed using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. bovis. Overall seroprevalence was 47.4% in dogs (n = 97), 40.4% in jackals (n = 57) and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, TRIPLER ARMY MEDICAL CENTER HONOLULU HI, *BARTONELLA, *ZOONOTIC DISEASES, DOGS, IRAQ,...
Three areas emerged where the PTSD/mTBI participants showed strengths in executive control functions: (1) overriding conflicting response cues in a flanker task, (2) overcoming proactive interference in working memory (suppressing material that is no longer relevant), and (3) stopping a motor response that was already planned. These strengths are closely related to other executive functions that were weaker in the PTSD/mTBI participants. They showed pronounced deficits in (1) motor response...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CALIFORNIA UNIV DAVIS, *POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER, *TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURIES,...
The long-term goal of this project is to improve the prediction of tropical cyclone (TC) genesis, structure and intensity changes through improved understanding of the fundamental mechanisms involved. The accurate prediction of TC genesis, structure and intensity changes is critical to Navy missions and civilian activities in coastal areas. Significant gains have been made in the TC track prediction over the past decades. The genesis and intensity forecast, however, has shown very little...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB MONTEREY CA, *CYCLOGENESIS, *TROPICAL CYCLONES, BENGAL BAY,...
Bulk Sm Co/ Fe nanocomposite magnets were fabricated by high energy ball milling and subsequent quick hot-pressing. Three different parameters were investigated which are soft phase content, type, and distribution. The effect of Fe soft phase content on the magnetic properties of the final bulk samples was examined. Increasing the Fe content significantly increased the saturation magnetization but at the cost of reduced coercivity. The optimum Fe addition for the highest maximum energy product...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH AEROSPACE SYSTEMS DIR, *MAGNETIC...
Laser misuse poses a unique challenge to the public health and medical communities. At this time there is limited data to quantify the full scope and severity of this threat. However, it is generally accepted among many stakeholders from a variety of backgrounds that laser misuse, and therefore laser exposure, is likely to increase in the future. The rapid pace of laser technology development warrant s exploratory research into mitigation strategies for emerging laser threats. In 2007, the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ILLINOIS UNIV AT CHICAGO CENTER FOR ADVANCED DESIGN RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION,...
The optimal surgical exposure to the posterior ankle for trauma and reconstruction is a source of debate. We hypothesized that the Achilles tendon-splitting approach would provide greater exposure to the posterior ankle than the posterolateral approach. Forty surgical approaches were performed from twenty fresh-frozen cadavers. Achilles tendon splitting and posterolateral approaches were performed using a randomized crossover design for surgical sequence. Six landmarks (medial malleolus, ankle...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY INST OF SURGICAL RESEARCH FORT SAM HOUSTON TX, *JOINTS(ANATOMY), *SURGERY,...
Space weather is driven by solar activity and is an important component of U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) research. It affects both civilian and commercial assets in space and on the ground. Severe changes in space weather can damage or cause failure of communication and navigation systems of interest to the DoD, as well as civilian and commercial entities. Researchers in the solar community need a method of quickly characterizing solar activity to feed data-driven models that forecast...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NEW MEXICO STATE UNIV LAS CRUCES, *SOLAR ACTIVITY, *SPACE ENVIRONMENTS, *WEATHER,...
THz time-domain reflection imaging is utilized as non-destructive evaluation technique for ceramic composite materials in order to characterize changes in material properties due to mechanical and thermal strain effects.
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING...
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With support from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, we made significant theoretical and empirical advances in our understanding of cognitive control. We discovered new phenomena and developed theories to account for them. We developed theories of cognitive control and visual attention that integrated mathematical psychology with cognitive science and with neuroscience. We published our work in major journals, including Psychological Review, Journal of Neuroscience, and Journal of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, VANDERBILT UNIV NASHVILLE TN DEPT OF PSYCHOLOGY, *COGNITION, ATTENTION, DECISION...
In 2003 the Department of Defense (DoD) revised its acquisition policy to include the Total Life Cycle Systems Management (TLCSM) directive, which calls for cradle-to-grave management of weapon and materiel systems. In line with this revised policy, the Army made a substantial organizational change, creating Life Cycle Management Commands (LCMCs) in 2004 to give Army Materiel Command (AMC) logisticians more input into acquisition processes and move toward TLCSM. The Army has also made...
Topics: DTIC Archive, RAND ARROYO CENTER SANTA MONICA CA, *LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT, ARMY EQUIPMENT, DATA...
Integrating value focused thinking with the shortest path problem results in a unique formulation called the multiobjective average shortest path problem. We prove this is NP-complete for general graphs. For directed acyclic graphs, an efficient algorithm and even faster heuristic are proposed. While the worst case error of the heuristic is proven unbounded, its average performance on random graphs is within 3% of the optimal solution. Additionally, a special case of the more general...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH GRADUATE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND...
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Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMED FORCES HEALTH SURVEILLANCE CENTER SILVER SPRING MD, *ACTIVE DUTY, *MILITARY...
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The Multiple Independent Levels of Security (MILS) initiative is focused on providing a solution to the problem of securing information environments made up of multiple classification domains. We propose that multi-core architectures have the ability to bolster the MILS effort. However, current MILS operating systems are not designed for multi-core platforms. They do not have the hardware support to ensure that the separation kernel policies will be adhered to in a commercial off the shelf...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB ROME NY INFORMATION DIRECTORATE, *COMPUTER PROGRAMS,...
We have shown a clear time dependence on the gene expression in the skin of the Tsk2/+ mice. The mouse most resembles human SSc at a narrowly defined time point (4 wks of age) which means studies that use this model as a surrogate for human SSc, must use specific time points in their analysis. We have pinpointed at least one candidate gene in the interval for Tsk2/+ and have confirmed the sequence difference between Tsk2/+ and the parent strain, 101/H. We present preliminary results on the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, TRUSTEES OF DARTMOUTH COLL HANOVER NH OFFICE OF SPONSORED PROJECTS, *GENE EXPRESSION,...
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Simulation of low velocity impact on structures or high velocity penetration in armor materials heavily rely on constitutive material models. Model constants are determined from tension compression or torsion stress-strain at low and high strain rates at different temperatures. These model constants are required input to computer codes (LS-DYNA, DYNA3D or SPH) to accurately simulate fragment impact on structural components made of high strength 7075-T651aluminum alloy. Johnson- Cook model...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE CENTER INDIAN HEAD DIV MD, *ALUMINUM ALLOYS, *CONSTITUTIVE...
The goal of the project was to develop and standardize a procedure using field deployable solid phase microextraction (SPME) for the measurement of freely dissolved porewater concentrations of hydrophobic organics and demonstrate the relationship of these measurements to contaminant flux, bioavailability, and bioaccumulation. In situ SPME is a passive sampling approach for measuring hydrophobic organic contaminants in porewater and involves the insertion of a polymer sorbent into the sediments...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY TECHNOLOGY CERTIFICATION PROGRAM OFFICE (DOD) ARLINGTON VA,...
Purpose: Development and validation of a personalized breast cancer risk assessment model that includes automated measurement of breast density. Scope: Assemble a cohort of women with known breast cancer risk factors and digital mammogram files for women diagnosed with breast cancer using existing data sources and match them to controls (Harvey/Knaus). Validate and refine automated breast density software (Yaffe/Harvey). Build and validate the initial comprehensive model (Knaus/Yaffe/Harvey)....
Topics: DTIC Archive, VIRGINIA UNIV CHARLOTTESVILLE RECTOR AND VISTORS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA,...
In this paper, a systematic method is presented for developing microstructure-statistics-property relations of anisotropic polydisperse particulate composites using micro-computer tomography (micro-CT). Micro-CT is used to obtain a detailed three-dimensional representation of the polydisperse microstructures, and a novel image processing pipeline is developed for identifying particles. In this work, particles are modeled as idealized shapes in order to guide the image processing steps and to...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB EDWARDS AFB CA AEROSPACE SYSTEMS DIRECTORATE, *MICROSTRUCTURE,...
Autism is the fastest growing developmental disability in the US, costing more than $90 billion/yr, and is, therefore, extremely important to the DoD. According to the Military Times (Robert Dorr, 8/13/11), autism is the most prevalent special-needs issue in military families. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a frequency of 1/88 in the general population (1) and an estimated frequency of 1/88 in the military (Organization of Autism Research). Affected children display qualitative...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NATIONWIDE CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL COLUMBUS OH RESEARCH INST, *CLINICAL MEDICINE, *MENTAL...
Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is composed of three interdependent tasks: discovery of new objects, tracking of detected objects, and characterization of tracked objects. Currently these problems are treated separately and independently of each other, which may result in the non-optimal processing of data, with a corresponding loss of potential information. Given the scarcity of sensors available to perform SSA missions, it is crucial that these resources be used as efficiently as possible....
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB KIRTLAND AFB NM SPACE VEHICLES DIRECTORATE, *ARTIFICIAL...
Analgesic pain management for acute pain resulting from ocular sulfur mustard (SM) exposure in rabbits involves delivery of the opioid receptor agonist buprenorphine using subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps. The combination of an invasive surgery, risk of postsurgical infection and central effects makes this system suboptimal. Alternatively, fentanyl, a synthetic opioid with predominantly mu receptor agonist activity, is significantly more potent than buprenorphine, with fewer associated...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH INST OF CHEMICAL DEFENSE ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, *MUSTARD...
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1. Contingency Prepardness: Collect information from transplant centers, build awareness of the Transplant Center Contingency Planning Committee and educate the transplant community about the critical imp011ance of establishing a nationwide contingency response plan. 2. Rapid Identification of Matched Donors: Increase operational effectiness that accelerate the search process and increase patient access are key to preparedness in a contingency event. 3. Immunogenetic Studies: Increase...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NATIONAL MARROW DONOR PROGRAM MINNEAPOLIS MN, *DONORS(MEDICINE), *IDENTIFICATION,...
We report on effective sulfur-based passivation treatments of type-II InAs/GaSb strained layer superlattice detectors (100% cut-off wavelength is 9.8 microns at 77 K). The electrical behavior of detectors passivated by electrochemical sulfur deposition (ECP) and thioacetamide (TAM) was evaluated for devices of various sizes. ECP passivated detectors with a perimeter-to-area ratio of 1600/cm exhibited superior performance with surface resistivity in excess of 10(exp 4) ohm cm, dark current...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC, *INFRARED DETECTORS, GALLIUM ANTIMONIDES, INDIUM...
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The purpose of this report is to explore previous models of Escalation of Force (EOF) and provide a revised model based on pre-decisional cognitive factors that influence Soldiers' decisions prior to engagement in escalation procedures. Previous models were largely reactive, assuming that Soldiers? ability to make decisions was constant across situations (e.g., regardless of cognitive workload or other operational conditions). The proposed pre-decisional space model takes a cognitive-perceptual...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY RESEARCH INST FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES FORT BELVOIR VA, *ARMY...
This paper analyzes strategies of the boardgame RISK using Markov chain analysis and Monte-Carlo simulation in order to compare state-based strategies against sequentially dependent or non-memoryless strategy policies. Previous work had focused on calculating the probability of winning based on using all available engagement strategies and battling until either the attacker is unable to continue engaging the enemy or until the defender is annihilated. This research project applied decision...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH GRADUATE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND...
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In this project, we have been investigation a new approach for manipulating the refractive index of a gas while maintaining vanishing absorption of the beam. We have recently experimentally demonstrated the key ingredients of this approach in Rubidium vapor where we have observe enhanced refractive index with vanishing absorption. We predict that this approach my also allow obtaining negative refraction with low absorption in atomic systems with far-reaching applications in fields as diverse as...
Topics: DTIC Archive, WISCONSIN UNIV MADISON, *REFRACTIVE INDEX, ABSORPTION, GASES, OPTICAL IMAGES,...
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Less than 10% of chondrosarcomas occur in children. In addition, as little as 0.5% of low-grade chondrosarcomas arise secondarily from benign chondroid lesions. The presence of focal pain is often used to crudely distinguish a chondrosarcoma (which is usually managed with wide surgical excision), from a benign chondroid lesion (which can be followed by clinical exams and imaging surveillance). Given the difficulty of localizing pain in the pediatric population, initial radiology findings and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, IRELAND ARMY HOSPITAL FORT KNOX KY, *SARCOMA, CASE STUDIES, CHILDREN, COMPUTERIZED...
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This experimental study investigated the mixing behavior and characteristics of dynamic flow structures of cryogenic, non-reactive shear-coaxial jet sprays under varying flow conditions, with and without the presence of pressure perturbations due to acoustic forcing transverse to the flow direction. The role of injector geometry was examined using shear-coaxial injectors with different outer-to-inner jet area ratios and different inner jet post thickness to inner jet diameter ratios. Flow...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB EDWARDS AFB CA AEROSPACE SYSTEMS DIRECTORATE, *JET FLOW,...
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In order to preserve its warfighting effectiveness, the Department of Defense employs three interrelated decision support systems to guide the acquisition of military capabilities. These processes have been implemented to enhance decision making at the strategic level, which ultimately result in a military force that is equipped with the necessary capabilities to prevail in the anticipated threat environment.
Topics: DTIC Archive, MARINE CORPS COMMAND AND STAFF COLL QUANTICO VA, DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS, DEPARTMENT...
The project entitled Toxicity Evaluation of Engineered Nanomaterials: Portable In Vitro Chamber to Study Realistic Occupational Exposure in Biological Systems focused on developing a fundamental understanding of the interaction of nanomaterials (NMs) with biological molecules and provides instrumentation and field methodology design to mimic realistic exposure scenarios to predict the toxicological effects of engineered NMs upon occupational human exposure. Although many studies are being...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB WRIGHT PATTERSON AFB OH HUMAN PERFORMANCE WING (711TH) HUMAN...
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Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. A functional role for platelets in tissue damage after mesenteric I/R is largely unknown. The hypothesis that mesenteric I/R local and remote injury are platelet dependent was tested. Using a murine mesenteric I/R model, we demonstrate that platelets orchestrate remote lung tissue damage that follows mesenteric I/R injury and also contribute, albeit to a lesser degree, to local villi damage. While lung damage is...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY INST OF SURGICAL RESEARCH FORT SAM HOUSTON TX, *BLOOD PLATELETS, *ISCHEMIA,...
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A difficulty in complexity theory is lack of a clear definition for complexity, particularly one that is measurable. Those approaches that provide measurable definitions for the absolute complexity of a system often impose the requirement of perfect or near-perfect knowledge of system structure. In practice, it is intractable or impossible to measure the complexity of most dynamic systems. However, by measuring behavioral complexity in context with environmental scenarios, it is possible to set...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH, *COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE, ADAPTIVE...
We initiated this audit because of a DoD Hotline complaint made in 2009 concerning the Defense Contract Management Agencys (DCMA's) actions following the discovery of nonconforming cables used in avionics systems produced by Northrop Grumman's Navigation Systems Division (NSD). We reviewed the hotline complaint and evaluated DCMA's actions taken to address the nonconforming cables. We also reviewed DCMA's current policies and procedures on investigating and controlling nonconforming cables for...
Topics: DTIC Archive, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ALEXANDRIA VA OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL, *AVIONICS,...
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We determined whether costs on contractor invoices for services performed for DoD were accurate, allowable, and allocable. In addition, we determined whether U.S. Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity (USAMRAA) officials and TRICARE Management Activity (TMA) officials adequately tracked funding on one task order. We reviewed 251 invoices, totaling $32.9 million, on 3 task orders, valued at $64 million. The contractor for the three task orders invoiced costs that were generally accurate,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ALEXANDRIA VA OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL, *ACCOUNTING,...
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This thesis examines the effect of attrition on U.S. Marine Corps Reserve non-prior service marines who enlisted with a 6X2 contract in FY 1994-2005. Three cohorts were established to determine if the events of September 11, 2001 had any impact on attrition rates with this population. The Pre-9/11 cohort enlisted in FY 1994-1995 and was used as a control group. The Overlap-9/11 cohort enlisted in FY 1996-2001 and had no expectation of deployment, but many did deploy in support of the Global War...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND PUBLIC POLICY,...
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An important thread that has existed in the background of the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command's Connecting Soldiers to Digital Applications program has been the desire to create applications that fell into the so-called device agnostic category. As TRADOC leaders continue evaluating the role and viability of mobile devices in learning, training, and operational environments, a few goals have emerged. For example, we want to foster an atmosphere that sets priorities that limit...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY SIGNAL CENTER OF EXCELLENCE FORT GORDON GA, *MARKUP LANGUAGES, *MOBILE...
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Topics: DTIC Archive, AEROSPACE CORP LOS ANGELES CA, *DEFENSE SYSTEMS, *SECURITY, *SYSTEMS ENGINEERING,...
The rationale for using neurofeedback to affect changes in children on the autism spectrum is rooted in several assumptions. First, regions comprising the human mirror neuron system or MNS exhibit abnormal connections in ASD children. Second, the 8- 13 Hz mu rhythm oscillations over sensorimotor cortex are functionally linked to the MNS network. Third, modifying these oscillation dynamics via neurofeedback training induces neural plasticity. Finally, normalization of abnormal connectivity is...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CALIFORNIA UNIV SAN DIEGO LA JOLLA, *CHILDREN, *NERVOUS SYSTEM, ABNORMALITIES,...
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The piezoelectricity of a multiferroic BiFeO3 thin film deviates from its low-field linear response in electric fields higher than 150 MV/m. Time-resolved synchrotron x-ray microdiffraction reveals a low-field piezoelectric coefficient of 55 pm/V and a steeper increase in strain at higher fields, with an effective piezoelectric coefficient of 86 pm/V. The strain reaches 2% at 281 MV/m, a factor of 1.3 higher than expected based on an extrapolation from low fields. The peak intensity of the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARGONNE NATIONAL LAB IL ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE, *ELECTRIC FIELDS, *PIEZOELECTRICITY,...
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Anonymous communication capabilities are useful and desirable, but practical onion routing approaches are vulnerable to traffic analysis and DoS attacks especially against a powerful adversary, such as a repressive government or compromised ISP. To fill this gap we introduce D3, the first practical anonymous group communication system offering anonymity and disruption resistance against strong traffic analysis and collusion attacks, with scalability to hundreds of group members and quick...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC, *COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS, CRYPTOGRAPHY, PEER...
The Department of Defense (DOD) operates a complex, multibillion-dollar distribution system for delivering needed supplies and equipment to U.S. forces across the world. DOD's goal in operating its global distribution system is to deliver the right item to the right place at the right time, and also at the right cost. The materiel distribution system covers multiple legs, from the movement of supplies in the continental United States to tactical movement on the battlefield, and must be capable...
Topics: DTIC Archive, GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE WASHINGTON DC, *DEFENSE SYSTEMS, *DISTRIBUTION,...
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The goal of this work is to develop methodologies for synchronizing the clocks of neighboring nodes of an underwater acoustic network. Clock synchronization requires an estimate of the signaling time delay between the nodes, which is particularly challenging in the presence of multipath propagation through the acoustic communication channel. This thesis focuses on modeling the underwater acoustic communication channel, accounting for the multipath arrivals, and creating a set of signal...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *ACOUSTIC COMMUNICATIONS, *UNDERWATER...
Whole-genome sequencing is an important tool for understanding microbial evolution and identifying the emergence of functionally important variants over the course of epidemics. In October 2010, a severe cholera epidemic began in Haiti, with additional cases identified in the neighboring Dominican Republic. We used whole-genome approaches to sequence four Vibrio cholerae isolates from Haiti and the Dominican Republic and three additional V. cholerae isolates to a high depth of coverage (2000x);...
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH INST OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES FORT DETRICK MD, *CHOLERA, *GENOME,...
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The Air Force has three mission elements, air, space and cyber that it must command and control as a Joint and Coalition partner. Today's Air Operations Centers (AOCs) want to improve multi-domain collaboration. To address these challenges, Air Force Research Laboratory Information Directorate (AFRL/RI) is sponsoring exploration and development of an Integrated Battle Planning Capability (IBPC) to coordinate and synchronize planning across the three domains. As a first step toward this goal,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB ROME NY, *BATTLE MANAGEMENT, *COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEMS,...
Traumatic axonal injury is a progressive process evoked by shear forces on the brain, gradually evolving from focal axonal alteration and cumulating in neural disconnection. Clinical classifiers and conventional neuroimaging are limited in traumatic axonal injury detection, outcome prediction, and treatment guidance. Diffusion weighted imaging is an advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that is sensitive to the movement of water molecules, providing additional information on the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIV OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES BETHESDA MD, *BRAIN, *MAGNETIC...
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The growth of the Chinese military, along with the economic power that China has amassed in the last 20 years instills fear in the Asia Pacific and throughout the world. This threat perception is mainly due to the lack of knowledge over China's expanding military, as well as the reason it seeks to project power beyond its shores. This essay draws on many sources to show the capabilities in force projection that the People's Liberation Army (PLA) currently has, and the economic, diplomatic, and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, MARINE CORPS COMMAND AND STAFF COLL QUANTICO VA, *CHINA, DIPLOMACY, INTERNATIONAL...
The genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae presently contains two members, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV), which are emerging zoonotic agents capable of causing serious disease in both humans and a variety of mammalian species. The reservoir hosts of henipaviruses are known to be several species of Pteropus fruit bats, and the mechanisms by which bats are able to tolerate infection with these highly pathogenic viruses are of great interest. With the recent isolation of P....
Topics: DTIC Archive, Petzing,Stephanie R, Uniformed Services University Of The Health Sciences Bethesda...
Objective: This study compared the properties of color stability and surface roughness of demineralized enamel treated with resin infiltration (ICON) or with casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (MI Paste, CPP-ACP).
Topics: DTIC Archive, Lincoln,Todd A, Uniformed Services University Of The Health Sciences Bethesda United...
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Background: Erosion is an increasing dental health challenge due to the irreversible effects of enamel loss. Fluoride (F) is a proven therapy for its remineralization effects. Recent studies have suggested that CPP-ACP (casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate) may provide similar protection against acid erosion. Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to compare the enamel-protective effects of fluoride and CPP-ACP against erosive challenges that simulate prolonged exposure to...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Luu,Thu N, Uniformed Services University Of The Health Sciences Bethesda United...
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Introduction: Apical patency is open communication between the root canal space and periodontal ligament. Establishing apical patency is controversial with only 50% of dental programs in the United States teaching the concept. Both sides can cite articles favoring their position. However, the clinical impact of establishing patency on endodontic treatment outcome has not been well documented in the dental literature. The purpose of this study was to compare treatment outcome to establishment of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Allen,Jason S, Uniformed Services University Of The Health Sciences Bethesda United...
Airborne emission rates for DDT from cloth material generated in a laboratory setting using a thermal micro-chamber over a range of temperatures were integrated into a well mixed box (WMB) model to predict volatilized DDT concentrations emitting from netting material hung inside an experimental hut in Thailand. Field sampling was conducted in order to evaluate agreement between observed samples and model predictions for volatilized DDT inside the hut. Results show the model fit was consistent...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Brown,Carlis W, UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIV OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES BETHESDA MD BETHESDA...
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Introduction: The ability to accurately diagnose the presence or absence of dental caries is of the utmost importance since errors may lead to either performance of irreversible, but unnecessary, dental procedures, or failure to provide needed treatment. Conventional caries detection methods (visual/tactile/radiographic) rely on subjective judgment and are prone to misinterpretation. To improve accuracy, several adjunctive diagnostic instruments are available. Of these, laser fluorescence has...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Fagen,Derek T, Uniformed Services University Of The Health Sciences Bethesda United...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Background: Since the introduction of the high-speed handpiece in 1957, dentists have been concerned about the risk of hearing loss caused by chronic exposure to the high frequencies of the air-turbine motor. Although most studies have reported handpiece noise levels to be within OSHA standards, the literature regarding handpiece-induced hearing loss among dental providers remains equivocal, warranting continued concern. Moreover, handpiece noise may hinder office communication and increase...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Rogers,Justin L, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Bethesda United...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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During instrumentation of a root canal, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a chelating agents may be used during cleaning and shaping. EDTA demineralizes dentin and may inadvertently contribute to root canal transportation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of chelating agents used in moderately curved canals during instrumentation using micro-computed tomography (micro)(CT) and imaging/modeling technology. Methods: Moderately curved mesiobuccal root canals of 18...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Swenson,Kelli, Uniformed Services University Of The Health Sciences Bethesda United...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Introduction. Evidence suggests that social support and stress may play important roles in the development and progression of heart failure, an end stage of cardiovascular disease (Mookadam and Arthur, 2004; Murberg and Bru, 2001). Cohen and Wills (1985) posit that social support may influence disease through direct effects and by buffering the impact of stress on health. The present study examined (1) the main effect of functional and structural social support, independently, on markers of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Berg,Amanda, Uniformed Services University Of The Health Sciences Bethesda United...
Defense Technical Information Archive
by Defense Technical Information Center
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Never in the field of acquisition was so much requested by so many with so few dollars. This play on Winston Churchills famous Battle of Britain quote reflects the recent history of Americas expectations for national security coupled with an austere budgetary environment. This raises the question, How do we achieve what we need to within a context of diminishing resources? The answer lies in finding efficiencies, relying on value-based decision making, understanding trade-offs second-order...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Murphy,Joseph, Office of the Secretary of Defense Washignton United States, military...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Many people are familiar with Gary Larsons comic strip, The Far Side. One of his well-known cartoons depicts a castle with a moat under construction inside the castle walls. The caption reads, Suddenly, a heated exchange took place between the king and the moat contractor. Although humorous, this cartoon shows the predicament acquisition managers find themselves in when requirements are poorly communicated to the contractor.
Topics: DTIC Archive, Moschler,Joe, Defense Acquisition University -Mid-Atlantic California United States,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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When U.S. Marine M1A1 tanks advanced on Basrah International Airport on March 21, 2003, the defending Iraqi T-55 tanks didnt have a chance. The U.S. tank was built to outrange opposing armor. It is enabled by a high-density, chemical propellant. Each grain is uniform, with measured holes, allowing more surface combustion, and energy release. A 120mm cannon, built for high pressures, focuses this energy, propelling a round down range. At the center of the M1A1 tanks design was energetics R and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, McLaughlin,Dennis M, Naval Surface Warfare Center Indian Head Division Indian Head...
What We Did. Our objective was to determine whether DoD adequately administered and managed private security contractors (PSCs ). Specifically, we evaluated contract requirements and related security control measures and procedures for access to U.S. military installations in Iraq. We identified concerns related to the future role of PSCs in Iraq; therefore, we evaluated the private security contract requirements for the Office of Security Cooperation-Iraq (OSC-I) enduring sites. What We Found....
Topics: DTIC Archive, Depaitment of Defense Office of lnspector General Alexandria United States,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The Navy has recently begun development of a new Optimal Shore Footprint (OSF) strategy. The intent of this initiative is to develop an enduring, top-down strategic approach to effectively balance mission readiness, operational and fiscal efficiency, and innovation in order to minimize the overall Navy shore infrastructure footprint. To support this evolving OSF strategy, the Shore Readiness Division of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (OPNAV N46) asked CNA to develop a new...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Streicher,Burton L, CNA Analysis and Solutions Arlington United States, Construction,...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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Agenda : NAVAIR, TPI Implementation, Process Modeling, TPI and Beyond!, NAVAIR Team Performance and Things to Remember.
Topics: DTIC Archive, Schwalb,Jeff, Naval Air Systems Command Patuxent River United States
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In response to a series of midair collisions involving commercial airliners, Lincoln Laboratory was directed by the Federal Aviation Administration in the 1970s to participate in the development of an onboard collision avoidance system. In its current manifestation, the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System is mandated worldwide on all large aircraft and has significantly improved the safety of air travel, but major changes to the airspace planned over the coming years will require...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Kochenderfer,Mykel J, Massachusetts Institute of Technology -Lincoln Laboratory...
Defense Technical Information Archive
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The Department of Defense began using integrated product teams (IPTs) in weapons development in the 1980s. Their use proliferated after the secretary of Defense directed their use under the integrated product and process development (IPPD) concept in 1995. Over the years, the term IPT has been applied to a variety of groups, councils, tiger teams, and boards. Although these groups all have important functions, the IPT is a specific and powerful tool that begs definition. Properly chartered, an...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Hofstadter,David, Defense Systems Management College Fort Belvoir United States,...
An optically pumped mid-infrared edge-emitting laser is described, in which a Distributed Bragg Reflector grating partially occupies the surface, and provides spectral narrowing in a high power device. A quasi-continuous-wave power of 3 Watts is obtained at 3.6 m that is contained within a spectral width of 7 nm.
Topics: DTIC Archive, Yang,Chi, Air Force Research Laboratory Kirtland AFB United States, INFRARED LASERS
Many of the materials used for tactical fuel handling equipment were designed for use with petroleum-derived fuels, such as diesel and JP-8. However, emerging synthetic turbine fuels based on iso-paraffinic kerosene (IPK), synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK), and Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) have undergone extensive testing and gained approval for use by the Air Force. As these fuels become more widely available and their use extends to ground vehicles and support equipment,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, O'Brien,Shayla L, SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INST SAN ANTONIO TX SAN ANTONIO, jet engine...
The objective of this demonstration was to test and validate weak base anion resin ion exchange(WBA IX) technology using established performance objectives in order to obtain permitting and certification from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) as an approved perchlorate treatment technology. This 1000 gallon per minute system was constructed by Applied Research Associates, Inc. (ARA) to treat groundwater at the Rialto No. 3 well site in the Rialto-Colton, CA area under...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Environmental Security Technology Certification Program Alexandria United States, ION...
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Command of the sea denotes a strategic condition, and it is from this actual condition that the logic flows, whatever words are used to describe it. Since ancient times, navies have sought to control communications on the sea. Such control might be generalsuch as the Romans and British achieved at various timesor it might be local and temporary. In either case the object of such control has been to protect ones own commerce, disrupt the enemys, move one's own army, and prevent the movement of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Rubel,Robert C, Naval War College Newport United States, naval warfare, navy, naval...
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The last decade has witnessed an exponential growth in terrorism and violence emanating from transnational terrorist organizations and insurgencies. Even though the 'second grammar' of warfare - COIN operations, has existed for ages, this rise in terror has led to a global revisit on COIN. In the light of this renewed focus on COIN, this monograph analyses the experience of the Indian Army in COIN operations. In spite of a six-decade long history of COIN campaigns, these Indian COIN campaigns...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Rana,K M, US Army School for Advanced Military Studies Fort Leavenworth United...
Microbial colonization is thought to play a critical role in the healing trajectory of wounds. The microbial load and community composition are both important variables that, historically, were extremely difficult to characterize. Under this award, we have developed a suite of cutting-edge molecular tools, databases, and analytical approaches to enable more accurate characterization of wound microbiota. In the past year, we developed and validated culture-independent molecular tools for...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Price,Lance B, Translational Genomics Research Institute Phoenix United States,...
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Clusters of material at the ocean surface have been frequently observed. Such accumulations of material play an important role in a variety of applications, from biology to pollution mitigation. Identifying where clusters will form can aid in locating, for example, hotspots of biological activity or regions of high pollutant concentration. Here cluster strength is introduced as a new metric for defining clusters when all particle positions are known. To diagnose regions likely to contain...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Huntley,Helga S, Naval Research Laboratory Stennis Space Center United States,...
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This report describes the categorization of sonar waveforms that are applicable in multi-static low frequency active (LFA) sonar systems. Two discriminators are the continuous transmission systems and the pulse type transmission systems. Within the pulse type, the waveforms are further classified as to their Doppler and range resolving capabilities. Some signals are referred to as Doppler sensitive and have good Doppler resolving capabilities and low to medium range resolution, while others are...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Trider,R C, Trider Scientific Limited Dartmouth, NS Canada, sonar, low frequency,...