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More than 1,100 brilliant scientists and engineers push the boundaries of computing in multiple research areas in 13 research labs around the world.



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Availability of broad-coverage knowledge repositories can potentially enable the next generation of artificial intelligence and natural language understanding applications. An emerging approach to constructing such repositories is by collecting them from volunteer contributors. Such mass collaboration approach allows posing finely constrained or extensively contextual questions as well as extensive validation of knowledge. However, it is most effective only if we can figure out how to guide and...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Matthew Richardson, Timothy Chklovski
Microsoft Research Audio
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Many modern natural language-processing applications utilize search engines to locate large numbers of Web documents or to compute statistics over the Web corpus. Yet Web search engines are designed and optimized for simple human queries---they are not well suited to support such applications. As a result, these applications are forced to issue millions of successive queries resulting in unnecessary search engine load and in slow applications with limited scalability. As a replacement, we...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Matthew Richardson, Michael Cafarella
Microsoft Research Audio
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While most of us only know E. coli as a lethal kind of food poisoning, we actually carry hundreds of billions of these bacteria in our bodies for our entire lives. Over the past fifty years E. coli has been probed and dissected by thousands of biologists who are seeking answers to the most fundamental questions of biology. Why? Despite its microscopic size, the E. coli bacteria contains over four thousand genes that operate a sophisticated network of millions of molecules. Currently we only...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Kim Ricketts and Kirsten Wiley, Carl...
Microsoft Research Audio
by Microsoft Research
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War is seemingly everywhere around us, and not just the war in Iraq. There are culture wars, internet wars, business wars, nasty political wars. This all reflects something strange and new happening in society—a heightened level of conflict up and down the line, as more and more individuals are drawn into and involved in power struggles. It is a confusing and complicated battlefield for us all. The only way to really navigate this new world order is through a solid understanding of strategy,...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jon Pincus/Tamara Pesik, Robert Greene
Microsoft Research Audio
by Microsoft Research
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Network games play a fundamental role in understanding behaviour in many domains, ranging from communication networks through markets to social networks. In this talk we will study in which individual buyers and sellers trade through intermediaries. Typically, not all buyers and sellers have access to the same intermediaries, and they trade at correspondingly different prices that reflect their relative amounts of power in the market. We model this phenomenon using a game in which buyers,...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jennifer Chayes, Eva Tardos
Microsoft Research Audio
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Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Gino Sorcinelli
Over the past decade and a half, considerable time and money has been invested in the realization of ubiquitous computing. Yet iterative design is still difficult and rare, which limits the speed with which the field can move forward. Based on the literature and interviews with 28 developers, we show how issues of sensing and scale cause ubicomp systems to resist iteration, prototype creation, and ecologically valid evaluation. Our work has focused in particular on a tool for enabling...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Mary Czerwinski, Jen Mankoff
Solar energy will be the cheapest source of energy in nearly all markets and locations because PV (photovoltaic) cells can bypass the aging and fragile electricity grid and deliver its power to the end user, fundamentally changing the underlying economics of energy. As the scale of PV production increases and costs continue to decline at historic rates, demand for PV electricity will outpace supply of systems for years to come. Yet, the shift from fossil fuels to solar energy will take place...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Kim Ricketts and Kirsten Wiley, Travis...
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Knowledge is power: but most knowledge is tied up in text. How then do one billion illiterate adults in the world access knowledge crucial to preventing disease, creating economic opportunity, and defending their political and human rights? In response to this problem Literacy Bridge was founded to empower children and adults with tools for scalable knowledge sharing and literacy learning. The Talking Book Project is Literacy Bridge’s major program, developing new and affordable digital audio...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Kirsten Wiley, Cliff Schmidt
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Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Dan Fay, Jim Gray
Microsoft Research Audio
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Despite the best efforts of programmers, programs still ship with bugs. Many of these bugs manifest as anomalies the heap. This talk discusses two low-overhead synergistic techniques for discovering heap anomalies by exploiting the underlying runtime system. The first, dynamic object sampling, is a technique for selectively tagging objects with characteristics. Summarization graphs provide a compact representation of collecting heap characteristics. We show that these techniques can stand alone...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Bjarne Steensgaard, Maria Jump
A surge of recent research in machine learning and statistics has developed new techniques for finding patterns of words in document collections using hierarchical probabilistic models. These models are called 'topic models' because the word patterns often reflect the underlying topics that are combined to form the documents; however topic models also naturally apply to such data as images and biological sequences. After reviewing the basics of topic modeling, I will describe two related lines...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, David Heckerman, David Blei
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Concurrency in user applications is on the rise. Modern computers have multiple hardware threads per processor and multiple processors per chip, each of which may switch to a different software thread many times per second. Applications of the future will be heavily multithreaded. My research aims to make such programs easier to write and more resilient to the performance programs historically caused by preemption. After surveying work in several areas (including preemption-tolerant locks and...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jim Larus, William N. Scherer III
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What is virtuosity in technology based art? Will advanced emulations make screen based computing obsolete? Why do we need a PhD in the digital and experimental arts? Could art be critical for the evolution of future computing? Creative arts research is in an ongoing state of becoming. Artists, engineers, designers and scientists are collaborating in unique ways to create digitally-realized images, sounds, performances, and installations never before heard, seen, or experienced. Cutting edge...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Tamara Pesik, Richard Karpen, Shawn...
Researchers of child language have typically assumed that the acquisition of grammatical morphemes provides evidence of syntactic competence. However, experimental research by Gerken (1996) and colleagues suggests that the variable appearance of some grammatical morphemes may be conditioned by phonological factors. This talk reviews some of our recent corpus research on English and French, showing that 2-year-olds are much more likely to produce grammatical morphemes such as determiners and 3rd...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Hisami Suzuki, Katherine Demuth
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Angela Kernan, Mark Hereld
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The notion of a ”market” has undergone a paradigm shift with the Internet – totally new and highly successful markets have been defined and launched by companies such as Google, Yahoo!, Amazon, MSN and Ebay. Another major change is the availability of massive computational power for running these markets in a centralized or distributed manner. In view of these new realities, the study of market equilibria, an important, though essentially non-algorithmic, theory within Mathematical...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Kamal Jain, Vijay Vazirani
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Research in summarization has been handicapped by a lack of agreement on how to generate a standard summary (which can serve as a reference in the evaluation of alternative approaches). Part of the problem rests in disagreement between different humans on what constitutes a single good summary. We propose an alternate approach that dispenses with the need for a global reference and instead focuses on the ability of a summarizer to rapidly learn how an individual human summarizes material....
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Alex Acero, Alexander Rudnicky
In this talk, I will talk about our recent work on bandwidth allocation problem in two projects: TCP friendliness and P2P streaming. Exploring the design space of TCP-friendly traffic control protocols: While the current definition of TCP friendliness has enabled a wide variety of traffic control protocols other than TCP, it still considerably restricts the design space of TCP friendly traffic control protocols. In this project, we propose a new class of TCP friendliness definitions, called...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jin Li, Lisong Xu
The infusion of new information technologies in customer-firm interactions has redefined the roles customers can play in value creation and product innovation. Several companies (e.g. Microsoft, HP, Procter & Gamble, Volvo, Samsung, and Peugot) have established online or virtual product communities, virtual product prototyping and testing centers, and other virtual product forums – which I collectively refer to here as Virtual Customer Environments (VCEs) – to facilitate rich...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Marc Smith, Satish Nambisan
Microsoft Research Audio
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How can a monoplist seller use social network effects to increase revenue earned? We identify a family of strategies called 'influence and exploit' strategies that are easy to implement, easy to optimize over and approximately optimal. Based on a paper that will appear in WWW 08. This was work, jointly with Jason Hartline and Vahab Mirrokni (MSR Redmond), while Mukund was an intern at MSR. ©2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Vahab MirrokniBanadaki, Mukund...
In the seminar, I will describe a user study of a novel information seeking interface that provides support for multi-faceted information seeking and targeted relevance feedback. The user interface is based on a document 'pile' metaphor that allows a user to arrange retrieved documents in visible piles, label these piles according to various aspects/facets of their search, and request the system to find documents similar to those contained within piles. Two interfaces were devised to evaluate...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Susan Dumais, David J. Harper
Traditional runtime analysis of training Support Vector Machines, and indeed most learning methods, shows how the training runtime increases as more training examples are available. Considering the true objective of training, which is to obtain a good predictor, I will argue that training time should be studied as a decreasing function of training set size. I will then present both theoretical and empirical results demonstrating how a simple stochastic subgradient descent approach for training...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Ofer Dekel, Nathan Srebro
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The Mars Exploration Rovers are searching for answers about the history of water on Mars. Finding those answers will help scientists determine if life ever was on the Red Planet. The rovers, which landed on Mars last year, have driven over more than three miles of Martian terrain, including areas never before seen on Earth. Come see picture from Mars and learn how these incredible machines were developed, as well as what else is in store for future Mars missions. ©2005 Microsoft Corporation....
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Steven Shafer, Mark Maimone
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by Microsoft Research
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It is well known that noise can be introduced into video during capturing, storage and transmission. It is especially bad in dark regions in the video where the signal-to-noise ratio is low. Such noise is typically visually disturbing and can cause serious problem to many video coding systems such as MPEG-1/2/4, and H.261/3/4. This is because many precious bits would need to be spent to encode this undesirable noise in the video. As MPEG-2, MPEG-4, H.263 and H.264 are used widely in consumer...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jin Li, Oscar Au
Consider the problem of visually finding an object in a mostly unknown space witha mobile robot. It is clear that all possible views and images cannot be examinedin a practical system. Visual attention is a complex phenomenon; we view it asa mechanism that optimizes the search processes inherent in vision. Here, we describea particular example of a practical robotic vision system that employs someof these attentive processes. We cast this as an optimization problem, i.e., optimizingthe...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Zhengyou Zhang, John K. Tsotsos
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It's natural to assume that network protocol design is a well-known science, where the designers of today's standards take care to understand the tricks and pitfalls learned from previous protocols. This talk dispells this and other myths. This talk describes things that should be considered when designing a protocol, such as being able to manage parameters while the network continues to operate, designing to allow graceful migration to new features, scalability, and robustness. It talks about...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jennifer Chayes, Radia Perlman
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We study the structure of minimal-weight paths in the configuration model with i.i.d. degrees with a fixed degree distribution. Here, each edge receives an independent exponential weight, leading to double randomness in the form of a stochastic process on a random graph.
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, David Wilson, Remco van der Hofstad
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9:30 - 10:00 Omer Angel (U. British Columbia) Random planar maps and their limits 10:05 - 10:35 Michael Freedman (Microsoft) Random triangulations as dynamical variables in quantum mechanical models ©2009 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, David Wilson, Omer Angel, Rico Malvar,...
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The Internet has seen a tremendous growth since its inception four decades ago. With its increasing importance, there has been a growing emphasis on improving the reliability of the infrastructure. One approach to delivering such reliability is for design engineers, network administrators and researchers to stress test potential solutions against a wide variety of deployment scenarios. For instance, web hosting services would wish to ensure that they can deliver target levels of performance and...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, John Dunagan, Kashi V. Vishwanath
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In recent years, the Internet has experienced an astronomical increase in the use of specialized content delivery systems, such as peer-to-peer file-sharing systems (e.g., Kazaa, Gnutella, or Napster) and content delivery networks (e.g., Akamai). The sudden popularity of peer-to-peer file-sharing systems has resulted in a flurry of research activity into novel peer-to-peer system designs. Because these systems: (1) are fully distributed, without any infrastructure that can be directly measured,...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Mike Jones, Stefan Saroiu
The field of linguistics has seen a remarkable broadening of interests on the part of grammatical theorists in recent years. Not long ago, grammarians confined themselves purely to constructing rules and principles governing the surface distribution of forms. Now, most pay attention to meaning, discourse, variation both between and within speech communities, and to stochastic processes. The current debate in the field is not over WHETHER grammarians should take account of these phenomena, but...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Michael Gamon, Fritz Newmeyer
Collaboration is an important part of nearly all work and educational settings. In practice, however, collaboration is rarely perfect; numerous problems arise, ranging from social loafing to coordination losses. In this talk, I show how a multidisciplinary approach can help in the design of collaborative technologies. For example, in designing IRC Français, I drew on the educational literature to develop a chat-style environment for foreign language learning. Once placed in the classroom,...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Danyel Fisher, Jim Hudson
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At the Interactive Systems Laboratories, our efforts have centered on human communications and on how computer systems can mediate or facilitate human communication. We have recently launched the 'international Center for Advanced Communication Technologies' or 'interACT'. It's educational mission is to facilitate exchanges and opportunities for students to do scientific work in international teams, while carrying out research on advanced communication technologies that facilitate and improve...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Alex Acero, Alex Waibel
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Can we save the Internet from ourselves? The Internet and PCs that connect to it are “generative”: they can be changed by anyone, anywhere. This quality has fueled innovations that enhance our lives in ways we could never have predicted. Wikipedia, Facebook and YouTube are all products of this generativity, created by individuals with good ideas and the freedom to explore and share them. Yet the same openness that nourishes innovators makes these systems vulnerable to abuse, and with the...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Kim Ricketts, Kirsten Wiley, Jonathan L....
Bilingual word alignment, the task of finding word-to-word connections between a sentence and its translation, is an important part of knowledge acquisition for statistical machine translation. An Inversion Transduction Grammar, or ITG, provides an efficient algorithm to align a bilingual sentence pair, by simultaneously parsing the two sentences. However, the simple bracketing grammar usually employed in ITG parsing has no linguistic content. We investigate two methods to inform the ITG parser...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Chris Quirk, Colin Cherry
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Civil rights activist Kevin Cathcart, Executive Director of Lambda Legal, will provide historical overview of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) issues that are now center stage in the national debate for marriage equality. Lambda Legal has taken a pivotal role for over 30 years in achieving full legal rights for lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, transgender people and those with HIV. In addition, Lambda Legal is deeply involved with the current marriage litigation and Kevin will...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Dan Ling, Kevin Cathcart
How do we get programmers to routinely write parallel software? We have been working in earnest on this problem for over 25 years; actually much longer if you consider that the first multi-threaded machine appeared in 1958 (the Gamma 60 by Bull). But at this point, I’m not sure we’re really getting any closer to solving it. If we study the history of parallel programming, it is clear that in order to solve the parallel programming problem we need to: (1) understand how people write parallel...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, John Feo, Tim Mattson
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One thing which will be explained is the evaluation of a determinant originally stated by Sylvester and rediscovered by Mark Kac. The determinant is tridiagonal with x on the diagonal, 1,2,...,N above the diagonal, and N,N-1,...,1 below the diagonal. The polynomials responsible for this evaluation are Krawtchouk, although Kac was unaware that orthogonal polynomials were behind this and Sylvester just stated the values of this determinant for N=1,2,3,4,5,6 and said that the obvious rule...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Henry Cohn, Richard Askey
In this talk, we discuss the widespread use of Web search engines and its potential impact on the ecology of the Web. Recent studies show that a significant portion of Web accesses are referred by search engines. Furthermore, the Web-search market is increasingly dominated by a few key players. What are the implications of this heavy reliance of Web users on search engines in their pursuit of information? For example, given that search engines return currently “popular” pages at the top of...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Marc Najork, Junghoo Cho
People like to look at images and interact with them. We will show how scanned beam technology can either display, or capture images, and that this makes it unique when compared to other display technologies such as LCD,PDP,OLED, or projection. Scanned beam is what is used in laser printers in one dimensional form. We have replaced the polygon by a MEMs device as small as a few millimeters in size that scans in two dimensions at video rates. This small size and simplicity enables a range of...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Steven Bathiche and Andy Wilson, John R....
In this talk, I will address the feature dimensionality reduction problem within a unified framework from three aspects: Graph Embeddingand Extensions: A unified framework for general dimensionality reduction In the past decades, a large family of algorithms-supervised or unsupervised; stemming from statistics or geometry theory-has been designed to provide different solutions to the problem of dimensionality reduction. Beyond different motivations of these algorithms, I present a general...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Gang Hua, Shuicheng Yan
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In a conversation, much can be sensed from the person's eye gaze—interested or uninterested, attentive or preoccupied, focused or distracted, engaged or unmindful, wanting to continue or trying to get away etc. With the advance of new eye tracking technology it might be possible to use eye-gaze information in conversations with computers. The research presented in this talk firstly investigates if there are any eye-gaze patterns present in natural dialogues that can be detected and used by a...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Eric Horvitz, Pernilla Qvarfordt
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Coloring a k -colorable graph using k colors ( k≥ 3 ) is a notoriously hard problem. Considering average case analysis allows for better results. In this work we consider the uniform distribution over k -colorable graphs with n vertices and exactly cn edges, c greater than some sufficiently large constant. We rigorously show that all proper k -colorings of most such graphs are clustered in one cluster, and agree on all but a small, though constant, number of vertices. We also show that some...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Uri Feige, Dan Vilenchik
Network visualization has been a lively topic for a half century, but the intense challenges from many facets of this problem demand diverse solutions. While the popular force-directed approaches produce appealing presentations for websites and print, their benefits are limited to showing macro features such as clusters. Interactive approaches that give users control of node and link visibility enable them to make more fine-grained analyses that lead to important insights about relationships...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Marc Smith, Ben Shneiderman
Commodity computer systems contain more and more processor cores and exhibit increasingly diverse architectural tradeoffs, including memory hierarchies, interconnects, instruction sets and variants, and IO configurations. Previous high-performance computing systems have scaled in specific cases, but the dynamic nature of modern client and server workloads, coupled with the impossibility of statically optimizing an OS for all workloads and hardware variants pose serious challenges for operating...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Galen Hunt, Andrew Baumann
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As more of our activities are carried out online, technologies for protecting our privacy are becoming increasingly important. I will discuss one such technology – anonymity – in the context of peer-to-peer systems. To begin, I will talk about new techniques to study anonymity in this context. Anonymity in existing p2p systems has only been analyzed with respect to known attacks, while more general information-theoretic metrics have only been applied to small-scale systems. I show how to...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Helen Wang, Nikita Borisov
Humanity has a 50-50 chance of surviving this century, according to the eminent cosmologist Sir Martin Rees, Britain’s Astronomer Royal. Grim odds indeed, but James Martin, one of the great intellects of the information age, has devised a plan for stacking them more heavily in our favor. Martin has watched as concurrent crises pile up, including the destruction of the environment, overpopulation, poverty and terrorism—yet up until now lack of awareness and apathy have fostered inaction,...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Kim Ricketts and Kirsten Wiley, James...
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by Microsoft Research
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This talk has three purposes. The first is to explain to a general audience what is involved in retrieving a web page or performing some other complex network task, and what can make it slow, and why the problem of slowness is likely to get worse as networked applications become more complex. The second is to describe to those who program networked applications certain facts that we have learnt from modelling communication networks, which may allow more efficient applications to be written. The...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Albert Greenberg, Damon Wischik
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Moore's Law and the wave of technologies it enabled have led to tremendous improvements in productivity and the quality of life in the First World. Yet, technology has had almost no effect on the four billion people that make less than a dollar per day. In this talk I argue that decreasing costs of computing and wireless networking make this the right time to spread the benefits of technology, and that the biggest missing piece is a lack of focus on the problems that matter. After covering some...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Feng Zhao, Eric Brewer
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The number of African Americans and Latino/as receiving undergraduate and advanced degrees in computer science is disproportionately low. Relatively few African American and Latino/a high school students receive the kind of institutional encouragement, educational opportunities and preparation needed for them to choose computer science as a field of study and profession. Let us look at the daily experiences of students in three Los Angeles public high schools: an overcrowded urban high school,...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Kim Ricketts, Kirsten Wiley, Jane Margolis
This talk will describe the work in image, video and multimedia processing carried out at Multimedia Research Lab at Ryerson University. Our work focuses on four topics: human computer interaction, streaming media, indexing and retrieval, and bioinformatics. I will first give a brief introduction on these topics. I will then present two recent projects: Bimodal human emotion recognition. We investaged language/speaker independent human emotion recognition using audiovisual cues and different...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Yong Rui, Ling Guan
Roughly speaking, a Bergman complex of a matroid is a matroidal analogue of a tropical variety, and a positive Bergman complex of an oriented matroid is an oriented matroid analogue of a positive tropical variety. It turns out that the positive Bergman complex of an oriented matroid has a nice description in terms of the Las Vergnas face lattice; this implies that the positive Bergman complex is homeomorphic to a sphere. When we consider the Bergman complex and the positive Bergman complex of...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Henry Cohn, Lauren K. Williams
Astronomy, like all sciences, is being revolutionized by the progress in computation and information technology. Central to this is the exponential growth of data volumes, rates, and complexity, now moving from Terascale to Petascale, with the attendant challenges of an effective knowledge extraction and discovery. These demands become much sharper as one moves from a static exploration of fixed data sets, to a dynamical, real-time exploration of massive data streams.We will illustrate some of...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Dan Fay, S. George Djorgovski
Context-free languages combine expressiveness with polynomial parsing, making them very appealing for practical applications. In fact, they are possibly the most widely used class of languages in Computer Science. Thus, models of computation which slightly extend context-free models, without losing parsing efficiency, seem to have great potential for applications in fields such as Programming Languages, Formal Verification, Computational Linguistics, and Computational Biology, and are therefore...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Yuri Gurevich, Tamar Aizikowitz
Can the Internet help to heal a nation? Can a cybercafé change the economics of a rural village? Why do most rural internet projects in Africa and Asia seem to fail? My research focuses on information and communication technologies for social, economic, and political development. In particular I study mobile and internet-enabled services and their design, impact, and importance within low-income countries of Africa and Asia. In this talk I will overview two on-going projects: In Liberia we...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Kentaro Toyama, Michael L. Best
For centuries, the general view had been that science is neither good nor bad, that it merely supplies information ad that new information is always beneficial. Now we live in a world where the leaders of Africa nations prefer to let their citizens starve rather than import genetically modified grains, and where childhood vaccines, one of the most effective health measures in history has people marching against their use. In the best universities in the world the research labs are surrounded by...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Kirsten Wiley, Michael Specter
Critical systems are present in an increasing variety of application domains like electronics, control, avionics, health equipment, etc. They are mostly embedded systems, controlling devices that may risk lives or damage assets, hence termed safety-critical systems. These applications generally involve concurrency aspects, as well as complex real-time requirements that challenge the development process. Traditional analytical tools (e.g., Rate Monotoinic Analysis) are not well-suited when...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Wolfgang Grieskamp, Victor Braberman
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The most widely used concurrent software techniques, which are based on threads, monitors (or approximations to monitors), and semaphores, yield incomprehensible and untestable software. Bugs due to race conditions, timing unpredictability, and potential deadlocks can go undetected for a very long time. Unexpected interactions between even loosely coupled software components can destabilize systems. Yet increased parallelism in general-purpose computing (particularly multicore systems),...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Shaz Qadeer, Edward A. Lee
Learn about Microsoft Research achievements and collaborative partnerships over the past 15 years as well as the role of a research lab during a fireside chat with Rick Rashid, senior vice president of Microsoft Research, and Mark Emmert, president of the University of Washington. ©2006 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Kevin Schofield, Dan Ling, Mark Emmert,...
Location awareness is an important capability for mobile computing. Yet inexpensive, pervasive positioning—a requirement for wide-scale adoption of location-aware computing—has been elusive. Place Lab is designed to overcome the lack of ubiquity and high-cost in existing location sensing approaches. Place Lab is software allowing commodity laptops, PDAs and cell phones to estimate their position by listening for radio beacons such as 802.11 access points, GSM phone towers, and fixed...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, John Krumm and Patrick Baudisch, Jeffrey...
The polar RF transmitter architecture, Kahn Envelope Elimination and Restoration (EER), aims at achieving linearity, while amplifying non-constant envelope signals efficiently by means of switch mode amplification. A Delta-Sigma Modulator (??) is proposed to be used before the switch mode amplifier of the envelope signal. Due to its noise shaping characteristics, sharp analog filtering is compulsory afterwards. As a consequence, spectral regrowth appears in the output signal fed to antenna....
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Darko Kirovski, Jorge Mártires
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The Internet has achieved great creative success, opening our eyes to radically new communication capabilities and distributed control opportunities. Yet for all the critical and commercial success of the past twenty years, we remain essentially unable to quantify or trace the actions of services and devices on the network. The Internet is a maelstrom of packets and protocols, an infrastructure built to speed it all along to quick completion, but constructed without detailed measures, without...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Victor Bahl, Mark Poepping, Chas DiFatta
One important feature of a parallel programming model is deterministic semantics: that is, a program produces the same output on every execution with a given input, regardless of the parallel schedule chosen. Determinism makes parallel programs much easier to write, understand, debug, and maintain. Further, many (though not all) parallel programs are, in fact, intended to have deterministic semantics. However, general-purpose languages, particularly those that allow arbitrary updates to shared...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, John Feo, Robert Bocchino
Brilliance is more than just being smart – when you are Brilliant you are approaching your professional and personal life energized, in control and achieving results never imagined. When you are Brilliant, you go from operating as a human doing to human being. In this presentation participants will explore: The Principles of Brilliance - the integration of an individual’s intelligences, personality, energy and passion. How to connect your personal passion with your work-life achieve genuine...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Tamara Pesik, Lindsay Andreott, Brian...
Grand unification theories have long been a holy grail in science, and in our search for an elegant theory of the universe we must consider everything from quarks to black holes. The two main concepts we will explore here are the “Grid” and the “Core”—the grid is a conceptual descendant of ether, that mysterious substance once believed filled empty space. Some physicists theorize that space is highly structured by the grid, and the substance from which all physical matter is formed....
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Shobana Balakrishnan and Kirsten Wiley,...
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It is well-known that methods of statistical physics are applicable to computational optimization problems like the traveling salesman problem. In the random link model, where all pairs of cities receive independent 'distances', several features of the optimum solution have been predicted non-rigorously based on so-called replica symmetry. I will present a rigorous approach where each of several optimization problems leads to a two-person game. The assumptions underlying the replica symmetric...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, David Wilson, Johan Wastlund
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Advances in storage technology and audio compression have made possible the storage of large collections of music on personal computers and devices. In order to develop effective tools for browsing and searching these large collections, it is necessary to go beyond treating audio as a monolithic block of samples and create algorithms that in some ways 'understand' the musical content. Although initial work in Music Information Retrieval (MIR) mainly used ideas and features from Speech Analysis,...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Cormac Herley, George Tzanetakis
Recent advances in graphics processing units (GPUs) have resulted in massively parallel hardware that is easily programmable and widely available in commodity desktop computer systems. GPUs typically use single-instruction, multiple-data (SIMD) pipelines to achieve high performance with minimal area overhead. Scalar threads are grouped together into SIMD batches (sometimes referred to as warps). While SIMD is ideally suited for simple programs, recent GPUs include control flow instructions in...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Onur Mutlu, Tor Aamodt
Today, we are increasingly building large and complex systems whose workings we do not understand, and this lack of understanding translates into systems that are hard to manage and have low availability. The problem is that there is a disconnect between our high-level goals for the system and the low-level visibility and control we have into and over it. To keep a system running, operators must wade through the minutiae of its low-level architecture and implementation. This is not unlike...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Yi-Min Wang, Emre Kiciman
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Mark Lewin, Kathrin Berg, Judith Bishop
Over the last decade, design of enterprise wireless networks have gone through a radical shift. While initial wisdom pointed to a completely distributed design, increasingly more and more functions are getting aggregated into a centralized architecture. In our recent work, we have focused on four interesting aspects of designing robust enterprise wireless networks: (i) a systems approach to mitigating some of the most challenging scenarios in these wireless environments, — hidden and exposed...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jin Li, Suman Banerjee
'Secure Computation' has been a classic and central question in modern cryptography with a large set of potential applications.Mining large genomic databases, private scientific computation, and studying properties of shared networks are just a few examples.Unfortunately, the majority of the constructions in this area have not made their way into practice, primarily due to their inefficiency. In this talk, I first outline three different approaches toward designing more practical protocols, and...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Kristin Lauter, Payman Mohassel
In 1983, Aldous proved that randomization can speedup local search. For example, it reduces the query complexity of local search over grid 1:n] d from Theta (n d-1 ) to O (n d/2 ). It remains open whether randomization helps fixed-point computation. Inspired by this problem and recent advances on equilibrium computation, we have been fascinated by the following question: Is a fixed-point or an equilibrium fundamentally harder to find than a local optimum? In this talk, I will present a tight...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Jennifer Chayes, Shang-Hua Teng
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Until recently, the study of cognition and the neurophysiological basis of human behavior was the subject of quite separate disciplines such as psychology, neurophysiology, cognitive science, computer science, and philosophy, among others. Mental processes were mainly studied in the framework of abstract theories, mathematical models, and disembodied artificial intelligence. It has now become clear that mental processes are strongly entwined with the physical structure of the body and its...
Topics: Microsoft Research, Microsoft Research Audio MP3 Archive, Zhengyou Zhang, Giorgio Metta