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REPORT 



RESUMES 



ED 012 060 CG 000 063 

PRINCIPLES AND PROGRAMS OF COMPENSATORY EDUCATION. 

BY- LOPEZ, LEO 

CALIFORNIA STATE DEPT. OF EDUCATION, SACRAMENTO 

PUD DATE 66 

EDRS PRICE MF- $0 . 09 HC-$0.24 6P. 

DESCRIPTORS- #D I SAD VANTAGES YOUTH, # COMPENSATORY EDUCATION, 
DROPOUT PREVENTION, *PILOT PROJECTS, CULTURAL ENRICHMENT, 
REMEDIAL PROGRAMS, * COMPENSATORY EDUCATION PROGRAMS, 

CALIFORNIA , MCATEER ACT, SACRAMENTO 

THE CALIFORNIA MCATEER ACT AUTHORIZED THE ESTABLISHMENT 
OF A 2-YEAR PILOT PROJECT AIMED AT UNCOVERING METHODS OF 
ENCOURAGING CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN TO REMAIN IN 
SCHOOL UNTIL GRADUATION. SELECTION OF 16,000 DI SADVANTAGED 
STUDENTS FROM 24 SCHOOL DISTRICTS WAS BASED UPON THE 
STUDENT'S SOCIOECONOMIC BACKGROUND, HIS ACHIEVEMENT LEVEL, 

AND THE SCHOOL DISTRICT'S PLANS FOR IMPLEMENTING EXPERIMENTAL 
COMPENSATORY EDUCATION PROGRAMS. THE SUCCESSFUL COMPENSATORY 
PROGRAM DEVELOPS THE CULTURALLY AND SOCIOECONOMICALLY 
HANDICAPPED CHIlD BY (1) DEMONSTRATING TO PUPILS A CLOSE 
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CLASSROOM AND LIFE, (2) PROVIDING 
REMEDIAL AND ENRICHMENT EXPERIENCES NECESSARY FOR ACADEMIC 
AND SOCIAL SUCCESS, AND (3) AROUSING ASPIRATIONS WHICH WILL 
ENABLE A PUPIL TO ESTABLISH CONSTRUCTIVE AND POSITIVE GOALS. 
APPROACHES UTILIZED ARE SMALL CLASSES, REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION, 
CLOSE TEACHER-PARENT COOPERATION, FLEXIBLE CLASS 
ARRANGEMENTS, STAFF ORIENTATION AND TRAINING, PRESCHOOL AND 
PARENT EDUCATION, EMPHASIS ON LANGUAGE SKILLS, TUTORIAL 
INSTRUCTION, AND EXTRA LIBRARY FACILITIES. INTERIM RESULTS OF 
VARIOUS PROGRAMS ARE DESCRIBED. (PS) 



ED012060 



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Stren 
Counseling Services 
for Disadvantaged Youth 




Special Consultant 

Bureau of Pupil Personnel Services 
^CALirofiNi4 State SEP/WTN't for of E'EucATie’fO)^ 



li.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION & WELFARE 
OFFICE OF EDUCATION 



THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN REPRODUCED EXACTLY AS RECEIVED FROM THE 
PERSON OR ORGANIZATION ORIGINATING IT. POINTS OF VIEW OR OPINIONS 
STATED DO NOT NECESSARILY REPRESENT OFFICIAL OFFICE OF EDUCATION 
POSITION OR POLICY. 



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CG OOO 063 



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PRINCIPLES AND PROGRAMS OF j 

COMPENSATORY EDUCATION j 

By Leo Lopez, Chief 

Bureau of Compensatory Education Community Services j 

State Department of Education 

The McAteer Act as amended in 1965 authorized the establishment of a two- j 

year pilot project in compensatory education aimed at uncovering methods of I 

encoura.gmg ^culturally disadvantaged children" to remain in school until j 

graduation. Culturally disadvantaged" pupils are defined in the act as j 

" * those pupils affected by language, cultural, and economic disadvantages \ 

who are potentially capable of completing the regular courses of instruction I 

, leading to graduation from the public elementary and secondary schools . " j 

The act established the office of Consultant on Compensatory Education within I 

the Department of Education and provided for the appointment of a consultant ! 

on compensatory education to administer the program and to serve as secre- j 

tary to the Advisory Committee on Compensatory Education, a 17-member I 

body created by the act whose main purpose is to advise the Department of 1 

ducation and the Board of Education in all matters concerning the education I 

of disadvantaged children. I 

i 

During the fall of 1963, the advisory committee selected 24 school districts ! 

to carry out the experimental program. In making the selections, the com- j 

mittee considered the economically impoverished backgrounds of the students j 

m the district, low pupil achievement levels as measured by standard achieve- ] 

ment tests,, and the district's plans for implementing experimental compensa- ! 

tory education programs. Under the provisions of the act, the selected districts j 

were entitled to reimbursement by the state on the basis of $24 per pupil if thev i 

matched one-third of the total, or $12 per pupil. During the 1963-64 school i 

year, a total of $300,000 was provided, with an additional $346,000 authorized ! 

» 0 /i e 1 9 64 - 65 school year to provide compensatory education to approximately ! 

16,000 pupils throughout the state. j 

1 

\ 

n The Program j 

i 

Compensatory education is generally defined as an educational program which ' 

compensates for gaps in the experience and skills which many disadvantaged | 

children bring to school. It is a positive approach designed to maximize and i 

expand the educational opportunities of these children ! 

* i 

: 

It has been found that the successful compensatory education program attacks j 

the problem of the culturally and socioeconomically handicapped child on three I 

fronts simultaneously: \ 

• It demonstrates to pupils a close relationship between the classroom i 

and life. ; 

• It provides remedial and enrichment experiences necessary for academic : 

and social success. I 



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• It arouses aspirations which enable a pupil to establish constructive and 
positive goals. 

In all 24 pilot projects, attempts were made in various ways to incorporate 
these three essential elements. In addition, the pilot programs are utilizing 
several of the following approaches, generally in combination: (1) small 

classes; (2) remedial instruction; (3) broadening of enriching experiences; 

(4) the enlistment of parent support and the establishment of a cooperative 
working relationship; (5) intensified and extended guidance and counseling; 

(6) development and enlistment of community resources; (7) flexible class or 
facility arrangements; (8) staff orientation and training; (9) preschool and par- 
ent education; (10) emphasis on language skills; (11) tutorial instruction; and 
(12) extra library facilities. 

Interim Results 



Findings after less than a year's operation must be considered tentative. Some 
aspects of the program will not show significant changes when measured for 
such a short time. All projects were designed as two-year operations, and so 
their final results have not yet been reported. Nevertheless, some promising 
and dramatic results have already been reported. Some examples are presented 
in the following paragraphs. 

In the Willowbrook Elementary School District in southern California, 500 fourth 
and fifth grade children in five elementary schools are attending after- school 
classes from 3:15 to 4:15 p. m. The program consists of providing additional 
opportunities for these children to develop increased skills in speaking, listen- 
ing, writing, and reading under the direction of especially skilled and under- 
standing teachers who are able to give each child more individual attention and 
to experiment with a variety of new techniques and approaches especially de- 
veloped to help the child compensate for his poor environmental background. 

The results? In less than one full school year, many of the project children's 
language scores, measured by standard achievement tests, have improved as 
much as two years. Library card usage went up from 10 7 pupils to 226 pupils 
out of a total of 250 project children. More than 1,040 library visits were made 
by these children, and a total of 1,479 books were checked out. This had never 
happened before in the history of the school district. 

In San Francisco approximately 1,500 pupils enrolled in first and seventh grades 
of selected schools located in low socioeconomic neighborhoods where poor lan- 
guage skills and cultural diversity are prevalent. A cultural enrichment pro- 
gram whose leading feature was the provision of study trips throughout the city 
and neighboring communities was developed. It is felt that study trips taken for 
the purpose of enriching and broadening pupil experiences offer unlimited op- 
portunity for the development of language skills in real situations. The results 
reported thus far are most encouraging. Teachers, parents, and administra- 
tors have enthusiastically supported the program. They have reported signs of 
academic, social, and cultural growth among the project children involved. 

The Merced project involves over 200 seventh and eighth grade students who 
come from Spanish- speaking backgrounds. These children come from an 



environment that develops among many of them low educational aspirations, 
possibly because limited opportunities have been provided and because they do 
not envision future job opportunities in relation to their success in education. 
These needs, plus the rejection of the culture of their parents by the dominant 
society, often result in a high dropout rate during the high school years. The 
Merced project is an attempt to instill in the students a pride in their cultural 
heritage and to develop self-esteem and self-confidence by helping them gain 
proficiency and appreciation for the Spanish language through daily Spanish 
classes geared to the students' special needs and abilities. 

The results are considerable. In many cases drastic improvements have been 
made in language proficiency in both Spanish and English. (It is well known 
that one of the best ways to improve one's language skills is by studying a for- 
eign language. ) Perhaps of greater importance is the fact that these pupils 
are not ashamed or apologetic about their cultural background. After all, how 
many other Americans can speak two languages as well as they can? 

Other Results 



In Bishop (Inyo County) a preschool project involving 40 four-year-old Ameri- 
can Indian children increased the mental age of the project children nearly ten 
months in a six-month period; this is an increase of 37 percent above normal. 

In Los Angeles in an evening counseling program that involved 360 students, 

309 students demonstrated a marked improvement in their attitude toward 
school, with 327 improving their grades. 

In the Centinela Valley project (Los Angeles County), the use of high school 
counselor-teacher teams increased the chances that participating pupils would 
stay in school from one out of two to two out of three pupils. 

Additional encouraging results have been submitted in narrative form by the 
project directors. 

The project pupils have not been the sole beneficiaries of compensatory educa- 
tion. Hundreds of teachers, administrators, and other educational personnel 
have profited by the year's experience. New and better educational techniques 
especially geared to the needs of the children have been developed. Even more 
important, the schools, the parents, and the community have more positive 
and realistic feelings toward the project children. 



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