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Full text of "The Prákṛita-prakáśa : or, The Prákṛit grammar of Vararuchi. With the commentary (Manoramá) of Bhámaha. The first complete ed. of the original text, with various readings from a collation of six mss. in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, and the libraries of the Royal Asiatic Society and the East India House. With copious notes, an English translation, and index of Prákṛit words; to which is prefixed an easy introd. to Prákṛit grammar"

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Prakrit is the general terra, under which are comprised the various dialects 
which appear to have arisen in India out of the corruption of the Sanskrit, 
during the centuries immediately preceding our era. Their investigation 

offers much to interest both the philological and the historical student; for 
not only is a knowledge of Prakrit (and especially of the principal dialect 
usually understood by that name,) essential to the explanation of many forms 
in the modern languages of India'* 5 —supplying, as it does, the connecting 
link between these and the ancient Sanskrit—but, while thus throwing light 
on the history of one branch of the Indo-Germanic family of languages, it 
affords many valuable illustrations of those laws of euphony, with whose 
effects we are ourselves familiar, in comparing the modern Italian and Spanish 
with the Latin out of which they sprang. At the same time Prakrit is 
closely connected with several deeply interesting historical questions. * The 
sacred dialects of the Bauddhas and the Jainas are nothing else than 
Prakrit, and the period and circumstances of its transfer to Ceylon and 
Nepal are connected with the rise and progress of that religion which is 
professed by the principal nations to the north and east of Hindustan.’ f 
When the Greeks, under Alexander, came in contact with India, Prakrit 
seems to have been the spoken dialect of the mass of the people. The 
language of the rock-inscriptions of King Asoka, which record the name 
of Antiochus and other Greek princes about 200 B.C., is also a form of 

* For instance, cf. the Hindustani with the Prakrit forms 

• 7 7 J •; 

in Yararuchi, ii. 44. i. 9. 

t Professor Wilson’s “ Hindu Drama,” Introduction, p. Ixvi. 



Prakrit; and similarly we find it on the bi-lingual coins of the Greek Kings 
of Bactria. It also plays an important part in all the ancient Hindu 
dramas; for while the heroes speak Sanskrit, the women and attendants 
use various forms of Prakrit, the dialectical variations being more or less 
regular and euphonious according to the rank of the speaker. 

Yararuchi appears to have been the first Grammarian who reduced these 
popular dialects to a system; and, if we may receive the Hindu tradition, 
he was one of the ‘ nine gems ’ who flourished at the court of Yikramaditya, 
King of Oujein, whose great victory over the Sakse, as they pressed onward 
towards India after overrunning Bactria, B.C. 56, is the traditional epoch 
from which the Hindus still date their Samvat era. The chronology of 
Sanskrit literature is extremely uncertain; but there are several circum¬ 
stances which, in this instance, tend to confirm the popular account, if we 
may assume, as settled, the identity of Yararuchi and Katyayana. Kor this 
identification, our chief authorities are the universal popular belief in India, 
and the direct testimony of Somadeva, a native of Cashmere in the twelfth 
century. This author, in his encyclopaedia of legends, called the Katha- 
sarit-sagara, collected from various sources, and comprising a large portion 
of the mythological lore of the Hindus, expressly mentions them as the 
same person, and uses either name indiscriminately.* Kor the age of 
Katyayana, we have some independent testimony, which, though not 
precise, yet certainly throws his date far back into the past, and fixes it, 
at the latest, as anterior to our era. Katyayana has always been the 
reputed author of the Yartikas, or supplemental remarks on the ancient 
Grammar of Panini; and both names are found in the accounts of the 
Chinese Buddhist Hiuan-thsang, who travelled in India in the first half 
of the seventh century of our era. Panini is called Pho-ni-ni, and described 
as the founder of music, which appears to be the nearest Chinese expression 

* See this point fully discussed in Professor Wilson’s Sanskrit Dictionary, Introd. 
(first ed.) pp. vi.—xi. 



i/i i 

for a grammarian; the passage relating to Katyayana is as follows: * 

‘ Tchi na pou ti (erige par les Chinois), limite de l’lnde du Kord. Au 

sud-est de la grande ville, a 500 li, monastere de Tha mo sou fa na (foret 
obscure); la a vecu le docteur Kia to yan na, 300 ans apres le Kirvana .] 
Monastere fonde par Asoka.’ The Buddhist traditions in Ceylon all agree 
in calling the author of the earliest Pali grammar Kachchayano; \ and, 



although this is said to have perished, yet when we remember how very 
closely allied Pali is to Prakrit, and that Kachchayano is simply the Prakrit 

t Kt I 

form of Katyayana, there can be little doubt that the Prakrit grammar of 
the one and the Pali grammar of the other, are only the Brahmanical and 
Buddhist versions of the same tradition. 

The following work of Yararuchi or Katyayana is certainly our oldest 
authority for Prakrit grammar; and its rules are generally quoted by 





later grammarians and scholiasts as par excellence the Prakrita Sastra.’ 
Other grammarians have generally followed its system, and contented 
themselves with adding single rules, or altering the arrangement of 
its details. Much discrepancy exists between the Prakrit of the 
grammarians, and that which we find in the plays ; and it is of 
great importance to have a complete edition of the oldest grammarian, 
that we may ascertain, if possible, how far this discrepancy may 
he ascribed to the multiplied errors of ignorant, and the unauthorised 
corrections of learned, transcribers; and how far it may have arisen from 
a difference of time between the age of the poets and that of the 
grammarians, the dates of Sanskrit literary history being so uncertain. 

The works of the two great grammarians Panini and Yararuchi have 


* Quoted in the Appendix (p. 382) to Itemusat’s translation of the “ Foe Jcoue Jci , ou 
Relation des royaumes bouddhiques.” See also M. Julien’s “Hist, de la vie de Hiouen 
Thsang,” pp. 102, 165. 

f The common date of the Nirvana of Buddha is B.C. 543; but Hiuan Thsang fas 
quoted in a note to p. 237) gives several different dates as current in India in his time, 
the latest of which is about B.C. 360. 

X See Tumour’s “ Mahavvanso,” Iutrocl. pp. 25, 27. 



been singularly different in their fate; for while the former has been 
ever guarded with the most scrupulous care, and its Sutras (or 1 concise 
aphorisms,’) revered with almost Masorethic attention to minutiae, the 
latter has been apparently left to all the vagaries of successive copyists 
and editors. The MSS. often vary considerably, as indeed might be 
expected in an ancient work, which has passed through so many gene¬ 
rations of copyists, all of whom knew Sanskrit better than the dialect 
whose peculiarities the work explained; but the most important variation 
is in the number of the Sutras, some MSS. containing many which are 
not found in the others; and as no record appears to have been pre¬ 
served of the original number, it is a question of some difficulty to decide 
in particular instances. 

The MSS. which I have used in preparing this edition, are as 

(A.) Ho. 1120 in the East-India House Library. A valuable MS., 
but frequently difficult to read. * 

(B.) Ho. 211 in Professor Wilson’s collection in the Bodleian Library 
at Oxford. 

(C.) Ho. 210 in the same. Clearly written, but very inaccurate. 

(D.) Ho. 158 in the same. 

* It is this which Professor Lassen used for the portions of Vararuchi published in 
his “ Institutiones Linguse Pracriticse ” (where he gave Sections i.—iv., x.—xii., to which 
we may add Sect, viii., as given from the same source in Dr. Delius’ “ Radices Pracriticse ”). 
Having thus only one MS., and that not unfrequently very obscure in its writing, it 
was impossible for him to avoid many errors of transcription,. These have been 
carefully pointed out in an article in the second volume of Dr. Hofer’s “ Zeitschrift 
fiir die Wissenschaft d. Spracke.” I have noticed the more important of them in the 
notes to the text, but I have not been sorry to escape the unpleasing task of exposing 
the unavoidable inaccuracies of one whom all Oriental scholars must ever regard with 
affectionate reverence; Professor Lassen’s “ Institutiones ” have been of such continual 
service to me in the present work, that I feel bound to add my little tribute of 
admiration at the skill with which, in spite of such inadequate materials, he has 
accomplished his difficult task. 



(E.) No. 151 in the same. A clearly written MS. in the Bengali 

(W.) A beautifully written MS. in the lloyal Asiatic Society’s 
Library, formerly belonging to Mr. "Watlien of Bombay, for whom it was 



prepared [pra/cdsi-Icritam ] by the Pandit Vishnu-Sarman, and transcribed 


by Bapu-Sarman. Of this I have used an accurate transcript on thin 
paper, belonging to Dr. Max Muller. 

Of these MSS., we must at once separate W from the rest, as being 
evidently a modern recension. It abounds with new rules [see App. A., 
p. 97] which are found in no other MS., and which in some cases spring 
from evident errors on the part of the editor [as in those numbered 12 
and 23 in App. A]; in others he seems to have met with two readings 
in the MSS. and inserted both as separate rules [as e.g. v. 16 (cf. note); 
vii. 23] ; in others he has interpolated Sutras from other grammarians. 
W is therefore of very little value in a critical point of view, and though 
I have consulted it throughout, and given its variations where they seemed 
of importance, the whole has evidently been subjected to such an entire 
recasting \^pralzaVikaranam\ that we can place little reliance on its 
various readings, unless supported by other authority. 

A and C are (as I am persuaded), copies from the same original MS.; 
this was probably written in the Bengali character, which would explain 
many of the extraordinary mistakes which the copyist of C has made from 
ignorance of the character. After collating part of C, and finding it 
useless from the absurd blunders of the copyist, and its evident identity with 
A, where the genuine reading was preserved, I contented myself with 
simply referring to it in passages where A was doubtful. B is a MS. 
which seems to be composed of two parts bound together, though both 
are in the same writing; the paging of the latter from the middle of 
Section vii. has been altered to suit the former. In the earlier part it 
generally agrees with A, but in the latter, especially in Section viii. it 




agrees rather with D, and even seems to borrow a few Sutras from W. 
D and E generally agree, * the chief difference being that in the last five 
Sections (and sometimes in the earlier ones) E continually gives only the 
bare Sutra and its examples, omitting the explanation of the Commentary; 
and frequently omits even the examples too. I did not discover E until 
I had nearly finished my collation, hut I have collated it for most of the 
second half, and referred to it in all cases of difficulty in the earlier parts. 

The text of the following edition has been made from a thorough 
collation of the MSS. ABE (A being taken as the basis), with the collateral 
help of C and E, which may he considered as respectively co-ordinate with A 
and D; W has been throughout consulted, and its Yarise Lectiones noted, 
where of any value, but always as of inferior authority. "Where BDEW 
agree in giving Sutras not found in AC, I have inserted them in brackets ; 
and in one instance, at the end of Section v., I have similarly inserted 
some from DEW, but their authenticity must be left for future decision. 
The Sutras found in only one MS. beside W I have given in the notes; 
the various spurious Sutras found only in W (nearly fifty in number) 
are given in Appendix A. 

Beside the above MSS. of Vararuchi, I have also derived considerable 
assistance from the works of other native grammarians, as the Prakrita- 
Sanjfvam, and the grammars of Kramadfswara, Hemachandra, etc. 

1. The only MS. of the Prakrita-Sanjfvanf, which I have met with 
(Ho. 1503 in the East India House Library) is imperfect at the commence¬ 
ment, and is, unfortunately, very carelessly transcribed, and full of errors. 
Had it been accurate, it would have been of great service, as it seems to 
be a commentary on Vararuchi’s Sutras, which it generally gives in their 

* Thus DE alone quote the line from the Setubandha in the Comm, to iii. 52.—Por 
our knowledge of this rare and ancient Prakrit poem we are indebted to Dr. Hofer’s 
interesting article in his ‘ Zeitschriffc,’ and we trust that, in spite of the corrupt state of 
the MS. which he mentions, he will yet give us an edition of the text. Such a work 
would be indeed a boon to all Sanskrit scholars. 



proper order, but in some places with additions and alterations. The 
difficulty of deciphering the MS. has precluded my making that use of 
it which I otherwise should have done. The work consists of nine* 
Sections, corresponding to the first nine of Vararuchi. The general in¬ 
scription at the close of each section is Iti vasantardja-virachitdydm prdhrita- 
sanj'ivanydm, or, as it is written at the close of the book, Prakrita-sanjivam- 
vrittcm ; the only notice which I have found of Yasantaraja himself, is in 
a passage from the Prakrita-Sarvaswa, which states that Markandeya, the 
author of the latter work, commenced it after a previous study of the systems 
of former grammarians, among whom he specifies Sakalya, Bharata, Kohala, 
Vararuchi, Bhamaha, and Yasantaraja. f 

2. Ileniacliandra was a grammarian of the Jaina sect, who flourished 
in the thirteenth century, and wrote a Prakrit Grammar as an eighth 
1 Adhyaya ’ after the seven * Adhyayas ’ of his Sanskrit Grammar. The 
final inscription is Ity-dclidrya-hd-IIemachandra-virachitdijdm siddha-IIema- 

chandrdbhiddna-swopajna-sabddn'mdsanavrittazi, etc. 

This eighth Adhyaya consists of four Padas, with 271, 217, 180, and 445 
Sutras respectively. Y r e have first the Prakrita-bhasha (or * principal 
Prakrit’), in the first three padas and half of the fourth; the remainder 

is occupied with the Saurasent, Magadhi, Paisachf, Chulika-Paisachi, and 
Apabhransa-bhasha. Hemachandra’s opening Sutra is ‘ JBahulam,’ and the 
bahulddhilidra is supposed to continue to the end of the work, j and to 
explain any irregularities which may apparently contradict his rules, 

* The MS. numbers only eight, but the final inscription of the fifth is by mistake 
repeated for that of the sixth, which has occasioned the error, cf. ff. 43, 53. 

7 An instance of this occurs in a S&tra quoted in Appendix E, p. 187. 



especially in the Jaina writings, Arsham ’ being his next Sutra. His 
arrangement is frequently very different to that of Yararuchi, and in 
many cases his rules are quite independent. I have found two MSS. 
containing the eighth Adhyaya by itself in the Walker collection in the 
Bodleian, both in the Devanagarf character. 

[«. ] (Ho. 200.) A very correctly written MS., but some of the 
characters are very peculiar, and in many parts the writing of the last 
lines of the page is blurred and illegible. 

[#.] (Ho. 171.) A less legible MS., but more easy of reference from 
its having the Sutras of each pada numbered. 

Hemachandra’s grammar is too independent of Yararuchi’s to afford 
much aid in illustrating the latter’s Sutras; but many of his rules are 
very interesting, especially those on the Magadhf, an abstract of which 
I have added at the end of the translation of Section xi. [cf. p. 181] ; his 
rules for the Saurasenf are given in Appendix C [cf. pp. 104—106] ; 
some important rules on the Sandhi of vowels, and the doubling of con¬ 
sonants, are inserted in Appendix D and Appendix E [cf. pp. 185—187] ; 
and I have frequently quoted his other rules in the notes to the 

3. Of the Prakrit grammar in the Sankshipta-sara of Kramadfswara, 
which, as in Hemachandra, is added at the end of the Sanskrit portion, 
I have not succeeded in finding a copy (all the MSS. which I have con¬ 
sulted ending with the Sanskrit part); and I have therefore only used 
the abridgement given by Professor Lassen from the Paris MS. in the 
Appendix to his * Institutiones.’ As this work is of great value in 
correcting Yararuchi’s text, it is w T ith no small pleasure that I have seen 
among the publications of the Bengal Asiatic Society, which are announced 
as in progress, an edition of the Prakrit portion, by Babu Rajendralal 
Mittra. Probably no other grammar could be of the use, which this 
promises to be, in correcting and elucidating Yararuchi; as Kramadfswara 





has followed his method so much more closely than any other grammarian, 
whose works have come under my knowledge. 

4. To the above I might add the Prakrita-Sarvaswa, by Markandeya- 
kavindra, of which there is a copy, bound up with Yararuchi, in the MS. 
which I have marked D in my collation; but unhappily it is so carelessly 
transcribed that I have found it quite useless to consult it. I may also 
mention here that the commentary on the 13th canto of the Bhatti-Kavya, 
which is so written as to be either Sanskrit or Prakrit, has not unfre- 
quently proved of some service [e.g. p. 136, note), 

Such are the resources which I have had at my command in preparing 
the present edition of the Prakrita-Prakasa, and so far as a careful collation 
of the MSS. may help, I trust that something may really have been effected 
towards a critical recension of the text. Several passages still remain 
doubtful, and for these Yararuchi must wait for better MSS. or a more 
competent editor. The various readings, which are added at the foot 
of each page, will furnish the reader with the different corruptions or 
alterations of the MSS.; and it is these which we must chiefly consult 
before we attempt to interfere with the Sutras themselves, or to correct 
them by the rules of later grammarians, or the language of the poets in 
the plays. 

In the present edition, as the Sanskrit type required the use of an 
inconveniently large size of English type to fit with it in printing, I have 
been obliged to make my notes to the text as brief as possible, and have 
generally reserved any explanatory details or proposed emendations for 
the notes to the translation. 

In printing the Sanskrit text, and especially the commentary, I have 
ventured to relax the rules of Sandhi, wherever their strict observance 
would have obscured the perspicuity of the rule, or would have mixed 
Prakrit words with Sanskrit; as, whatever opinion may be held of the 
propriety of printing purely Sanskrit works with such a relaxation of 



grammatical niceties, the objections can hardly apply to a Sanskrit-Prakrit 
work like the present, where two languages are continually intermingled, 
one of which by its very nature repudiates Sandhi altogether. I have 
also throughout followed the MSS. in writing cf as the Prakrit equivalent 
for the Sanskrit ; in the continental editions of the plays it has been 
usual to write hut for this there is no authority,* 4 as the MSS. make 

no difference between the ^ = the Sanskrit H, and that = the Sanskrit 

• • 

cf. The rules of Yararuchi evidently show that there was no distinction 

whatever between b and v ; thus in ii. 2, and iii. 1, we have only one of 

them introduced, and yet it manifestly is intended to include both; and 

again in iv. 21, the prepositions apa and ava both become o, which would 

imply that their Prakrit forms previous to contraction were identical. It 

is not so easy to determine which of the two sounds thus absorbed the 

other, and whether in translation we should represent it by b or v 

universally; the analogy of the modern languages would incline us to 

the former, but a Sutra in Hemachandra given below, f which is the only 

passage in which I have seen the subject alluded to, seems to favour the 

latter, which I have therefore adopted throughout. 

Where I have occasionally quoted from the Prakrit of the plays to 

illustrate peculiar rules, my references have been made to the usual 

( * 

editions, except in Sakuntala,’ where I have generally quoted from the 
excellent edition lately published by Professor Williams, though I have 
added references to that of Dr. Boehtlingk. 

In the English translation, I have endeavoured to follow the plan 
which Dr. Eallantyne has adopted in his edition of the Laghu Kaumudi. 
All the peculiar features of the Hindu system are retained, while at the 

* Cf. Dr. Trithen’s remarks in the preface to his edition of the Mahaviracharita. 

t ii vr ii vf II 

’srarvi ii ^rrw: ii 

same time those explanations are added, which the sententious brevity of 
the Hindu grammarians so frequently requires. The culminating point 
of Hindu grammar is of course the great work of Panini; and it is not 
impossible that some of my readers, who may be unacquainted with this 
part of Sanskrit literature, may find in Yararuchi an introduction to his 
master’s more elaborate work. At the same time, the whole system of 
Sutras is so peculiarly Hindu, that a short translation like the present 
may not be without its interest even as a literary curiosity. 

I have to tender my sincere acknowledgments to Dr. Max Muller for 
the kind assistance which he has so frequently given me during the course 
of this work; nor would I conclude without expressing my thanks to 
Mr. Stephen Austin, of Hertford, for the spirited manner in which 
he has undertaken the printing of this book, and has spared neither 
pains nor expense in carrying it through the press. We are indebted 
to him for a series of the most elegant and accurately-printed editions 
of Oriental books, which have ever been published in this country. 

E. B. C. 

Oxfoed, Decembek, 1853. 



Introduction to Prakrit Grammar.xvii 

The Prakrita-Prakasa (Sanskrit text) . 1 

Appendix A (spurious Sutras).97 

Appendix P (on Yar. iv. 25). 101 


Appendix C (Hemachandra’s Sutras on the Sauraseni dialect) . . 104 

The English Translation. 107 

Appendix D (on Yar. iii. 58).185 

Appendix E (Hemachandra’s Sutras on vowels in Sandhi) . . 187 

Index of Prakrit words.188 





* Prakrit’ (as has been already observed) * is the common name given to the 
various dialects which sprang up in early times in India, from the cor¬ 
ruption of the Sanskrit; ’ and, as the word is used by the grammarians, it 
signifies ‘ derived,’ thereby to denote its connection with the original Sans¬ 
krit. Thus, Hemachandra defines it—* Prakritih sanskritam, tatra-bhavam 
tata agatarn va “ prakritamP ’ The later grammarians include many 
varieties under the name, but most of these are probably the subtil refine¬ 
ments of a later age; as, the older the grammarian is, the fewer we find 
the dialects to be; and the oldest, Vararuchi, has only treated of four—the 

Maharashtrf, the Paisachi, the Magadhf, and the Saurasem. Of these the 
first is considered by him as the most important, and it is this which Pro¬ 
fessor Lassen has treated as his ‘dialectus preecipua.’ Its grammar is given 
in the first nine sections of the ‘ Prakrita-Prakasa,’ the remaining three 
sections being severally devoted to the peculiarities of the other three 

As the method of Hindu grammarians 1 is very different from that with 
which we are familiar in Europe, it has been thought that the following 

1 All the rules of Hindu grammarians are given in the form of concise 
aphorisms ( sutras ), which hang together as on a thread (whence the name), 
so that frequently a rule contains one or more words which have to be 
supplied in those which follow it, to complete their sense. The aphorisms 
themselves are expressed as briefly as possible, and to facilitate this the 
following abbreviations are resorted to:—A word in the genitive case is 




short abstract of Prakrit Grammar in a more modern form might not be 
without its use to the student as an introduction to the original; while, at 
the same time, it is hoped that it will give a sufficient view of the language 
and its peculiarities to enable any reader of Sanskrit readily to understand 
the Prakrit passages, which form so large a portion of all Hindu plays. 

Prakrit almost always uses the Sanskrit roots; its influence being 
chiefly restricted to alterations and elisions of certain letters in the original 
word. It everywhere substitutes a slurred and indistinct pronunciation for 
the clear and definite utterance of the older tongue; and continually affects 
a concurrence of vowels, such as is utterly repugnant to the genius of 
the Sanskrit. In the following abstract we shall first treat of the changes 
which it effects in the letters of the words; and then those which it 
effects in their declension or conjugation. 


1. Vowels. (Yar. i.) 

Prakrit retains all the Sanskrit vowels except ri (ri, In, In) ai and me. 
Ri initial, and with no consonant preceding it, becomes ri, and some¬ 
times even when a consonant does precede, this consonant being then 
elided [Yar. i. 30, 31]. Ri also frequently becomes a, i, or u (especially 
when preceded by a consonant). Eor examples, cf. Yar. i. 27—29. [Eor 
Irif cf. i. 33]. 

Ai becomes e or ai, rarely i or i (i. 35—39). 

Au becomes o or au, and sometimes u (i. 41—44). 

Of the remaining vowels, e and o are no longer diphthongs, and may 


bo long or short as to their quantity {cf. Williams’ Sakuntala, p. 228, note). 

generally governed by sthdne understood (i.e., instead o/such a word or letter 
another is to be used); a word in the ablative by param (i.e., after such a 
word or letter, etc.); a word in the instrumental by saha (i.e., together with 
such, etc.); a word in the locative is sometimes used in its proper sense (as 
in Yar., i. 23), but more commonly it is used as a locative absolute, with 
pare understood (i.e., when such a ivord or letter follows, the rule refers to that 
which immediately precedes it, cf. Panini, i. 1, 66.) Va signifies ‘option.’ 
Panini adopts many more, but these will suffice for Yararuchi. 



Yararuchi in Section i. gives various directions for the changes of the 
other vowels, but these are rather confined to certain words, than expressive 
of general rules. Professor Lassen (Inst. pp. 139—144) has laid down 
as a general principle that before two consonants a long vowel is shortened ; 1 
that is, d, i, and u become severally a , i, and u (e and o, being common, 
may remain) : as, magga for mdrga ; diggha for dirgha ; puvva for purva. 
Subsidiary to this, are the two following rules: [ a. ] If the long vowel is 
retained, one of the consonants is elided, as isara or issara for iswara : 
[3.] A short vowel before two consonants is occasionally lengthened, and 
one of the consonants omitted, as jiha for jihwd. F and o being favourite 
vowels in Prakrit, i and u before a conjunct are very frequently changed 
to these (cf'. Yar. i. 12, 20); in some words an initial u becomes a (of i. 
22); for purusha, ‘ a man,’ we have the anomalous purisa (i. 23). We 
may here mention the anomalous metta = mdtra, which, though not in 


Yararuchi, frequently occurs in the plays [ e.g . Sak., Williams’, p. 183, 6]. 

2. Single Consonants. (Yar. ii.) 

[<$.] Prakrit has no palatal or cerebral sibilant (ii. 43); n is everywhere 
changed to n, unless it be followed by a dental consonant; and an initial 
y becomes j ; with these exceptions, initial single consonants generally 
remain unchanged. [ISLE. When a preposition or other particle is prefixed 
the letter ceases to be ‘initial’; cf. Comm., ii. 2, on suurisof We find 
a few exceptions, as una for punah, etc. in the plays, but these are not 
recognised in Yararuchi; cf. also Yar. ii. 32—41. 

[5.] Final single consonants are dropped, except m, and sometimes 
n, which become anuswara [iv. 6, 12]. The finals of nouns often assume 
a or a, and so cease to be final (iv. 7—11). 

[Y. ] Medial single consonants. 

K, g, ehfjt t, d, p, b, v, y (by ii. 2), may be optionally elided or retained; 
but t and p, when not elided, generally pass into d and v 2 (ii. 7, 15); and 
the elision of y (though not so given by Yararuchi) is probably absolute; 
see Lassen, Sect. 45. The preposition prati is always written padi ; see 
note, p. 116. 

N becomes n ; t becomes d ; d often becomes l (ii. 20, 23). 

1 This principle does not seem to be given in Yararuchi, but cf. 
Appendix D, p. 185. 

2 Or b, as it is often printed; on this, sec Preface, supra , p. xiv. 



Kh, gh , th, dh, bh (ii. 27) may remain unchanged, but generally become 

h (when th is not so changed, it becomes dh, especially in the prose, 1 or 


Saurasenf dialect, cf. xii. 3); chh, jli, dh remain unchanged; th always 
becomes dh; ph usually remains unchanged, but may become bh (ii. 26 ; 
cf. Lassen, p. 208). 

R often becomes l (ii. 30); this is universal in the Magadhf and the 
inferior dialects. N, m, l, s, h remain unchanged. S and sh become s (in 
some words s becomes h, cf. ii. 44). For examples, see Yar. ii. 

3. Conjunct Consonants (Yar. iii.) 

It is in these that the Prakrit changes are most manifest; and, as several 
distinct Sanskrit combinations are often merged into one Prakrit form, it is 
sometimes not easy to recognise the original word in its disguise. Prakrit 
avoids a union of two consonants of different classes, and everywhere endea¬ 
vours to reduce them to the same; this it generally effects by eliding one or 
the other (iii. 1—3), and then doubling the remaining one (iii. 50, 51); but 
there are several exceptions in the various individual combinations. One 
rule may be observed, viz., wherever a conjunct involves a sibilant, the s is 
represented by the aspirate of the accompanying letter; as in hhh for sh, shh, 
or hsh (iii. 29); or by li, if the other letter has no aspirate, as nh for shn (iii. 
33). When r is involved in a conjunct, it sometimes passes into anuswara, 
as ansu for asm; and the same also applies, but rarely, to v and s; cf. Yar. 
iv. 15. In some cases a new vowel is inserted between the letters of the 
conjunct, as harisa for harsha; for this, see Yar. iii. 59—66. 




The following table will show at a glance the various Sanskrit combina¬ 
tions which each Prakrit one represents. As given there they properly refer 
to those in the middle of a word; but, by dropping the first letter, they will 
equally apply to those at the beginning ; thus, hhh = hsh when medial, as 

1 The Maharashtrf dialect is more peculiarly used in poetry, as we infer, 
not merely from the usage of the plays, but also from such expressions of 
Bhamaha’s, as 1 vritta-bhanga-bhayaf in iv. 16, and his reference to the 
gdthdh in ix. 4. Cf. Lassen, pp. 370—378, who also quotes from the 
Sahitya-darpana, ‘ noble women should properly speak the Sauraseni, but 
in their songs ( gdthdh ) they must use the Maharashtrf.’ 



jakkka for yakska, but kh = Jcsh when initial, as khada for kskata; similarly, 
pp — pr, medial, but p = pr, initial. 

, % (?) iii- 1. 

iii. 3. 

, iii. 2. = ; Ifi, 

cjg = iii. 1. = iii. 2. = ^ (7%, Sift, iii. 

( :m ). iii-1- 

73T = f iii- 1- 
~ iii- i ■ 

If, rej, iii. 2. = jj, :jf. iii. 3. 
U, -g, iii. 2, 3. 

w = w (c f - iil 56 > 

iii. 2. = (JJ-, iii. 27. = "g, ^ iii. 3. 

= -S5J, iii- 27. = -gr, iii. 3. = ^ ( TSf ), iii- 30. = 

( <^J), iii- 40. 

~=[ = «*[, iii. 3. — ff ( sometimes ), iii. 5. = 'q-r, iii. 3. 

— iii. 27. — iii. 17. = (e.g. se/Jd for sayyd, iii. 17). 

*g[ = -SI, iii. 28. 

= "ff, ^f, (sometimes), xii. 7 ( Saur .) = x. 9 ( Pais .) 
Y = rf > iii- 22 = xf ( on ce), iii. 23. 

j = iii. 10. = g-, iii. 1. = ^ (rare), iii. 11. y. 23. 

viii. 25, 26. 

1 Ii 7c = kt is sometimes found in the plays; as, mukka — mukta. See 
Stenzler’s note on Mrich., p. 29, 1. 20. 

2 Kk = shk, sk, only in a compound word; as, tirakkara — tiraskara 
{cf. Lassen, p. 264); in all other cases it should be kkk . The same holds of 
click = sell. 

3 Chckk = skill, very rarely; e.g., padickclikida = pratishtkita, Sakun- 
tala (Williams’ edition), p. 153, 1 ; cf. Lassen, p. 266. 

4 Jk seems to stand for ksk in such words as jkina = kskina (Lassen, p. 
263), but cf. viii. 37. 



^ ( rare ), iii. 25, 26. 

^ = ^J, iii. 2. — (rare), viii. 44. 

TTZ, = *ff, (once), iii. 45, 46. 

^ == iii. 1. = iii. 44. = ii. 42. 

T|T, Tjcf, iii. 3. — iii. 3, with ii. 42. 

iii. 2. 

TTS = ^ (1“ )* i 11 * 33 > c f- ii[ - 8 - 

tT = Tfc iii- !• = W>W> i 11 -^ ^ hi. 3 - = c?> hi. s > 24 - 
Tgj, iii. 1. — vi. 2. = ^j, iii. 3. = iii. 12. = 

iii. 1. 

^ iii. 1, 3. = ^j, iii. 2. = jr-, iii. 3 ( jr- may 

remain unchanged, iii. 4). 

”gr = ref, ^T, iii. 1, 3. = ■*!, iii. 3. 

^ = iff ( Saur.j cf Hema-ch. 261, App. C. ) 

^ = ^ ( once ), iii. 34. 

xrr = 3T1J, rq-, iii. 1. = TEf, iii. = TT, tf, ^Cf, ?4, hi. 3. = 
iii. 49. = ( once ), iii. 48. 

^ 7q5, xq? ( :ifj), hi. 1. = Tq*, ^T, hi. 35, 36. 

^ ^ hi. 1. = if, sf, iii. 3. 

“*• 1# = ^ iiL ^ hi. 3 * = W 

(once), iii. 47. 

■jq — ^ (on this rare change, cf note transl. iii. 53). 

w = (^ w)> ^hi. 43 - = iiL 1 2 - = *?> iiL 3 - [^r 

becomes fijtjf-; cf. iii. 62.] 

1 As in the adverbial terminations; i.e., ettha — atra. 

2 Pp — sp , slip, only in a compound word (cf. note supra, on kk), sec 
Lassen, p. 264. 



^ iii. 32. = ^|f, (sometimes), iii. 32 ; cf. vi. 49. vii. 7. 

= iii. 8. 

■ST = ^ xi. 7. ( Mag. ) 

^ (sometimes), iii. 18. 

(sometimes), iii. 20. [ cf. x. 8, Pais. ] = (sometimes), 

i. 31. 

fr^T, fv? = -55, 4; iii. 62. 

iii. 2. = ^^ (?), iii. 3. _ ^ (rarely), iii. 21. 

= W’ iiL 8 ‘ 

m. 1. == ill. 2. = m. 6. 

= if, 3 f, -sg, iv. 15. 

^ = -331, -sg ; 1 JT, ^51; iii. 2, with ii. 43. = if, ^; if, 7^, 
^1, iii- 3. 

N.B.—Where three consonants come together in the Sanskrit word, the 
semi-vowel, if there is one, is always elided, and then the remaining letters 
are treated according to rule, as in machchha = matsya; unless a nasal pre¬ 
cede, in which case the two other letters follow the usual rules, except that 
they are not doubled after the nasal (iii. 56), as vinjha = vindhya , dhy be¬ 
coming jh by iii. 28 (the nasal prohibiting the doubling, which would other¬ 
wise have been required by iii. 50, 51). 


We may divide Prakrit nouns into five declensions : 1. Those ending in 
a and d ; 2. Those in i and i ; 3. Those in u and u; 4. Those ending 
originally in ri ; 5. Those ending originally in any consonant. 

The two latter classes have only a few cases which entitle them to form 
separate declensions. Nouns in ri either change it to u or assume a new 

1 Vv = dv (by iii. 1) only in such cases as uvvella for udveshta (viii. 41) 
where a radical v follows the preposition ud; cf. Lassen, p. 258. We once 
find v — an initial dv, in varciha = dwddasa, ii. 14. 



termination in ara or dr a {of. Vararuchi, v. 31—35); nouns of relationship 
admit also a nominative singular in a; and mdtri, thus becoming mda, is 
declined like a feminine noun of the first declension (Vararuchi, v. 32, 35). 
Nouns ending in a consonant (cf. Vararuchi, iv. 6—11, 18) either drop their 
final letter, and so fall under one of the first three declensions (when, if 
neuter, they generally become masculine), as 8ara for saras ; or add an a (or 
a if feminine) to the base, as dsisd = d'sis. This, however, chiefly applies 
to those cases whose terminations begin with consonants, these expedients 
being adopted to avoid the necessity of changing the conjunct, which the 
meeting consonants would produce; in those cases whose terminations begin 
with vowels, the Sanskrit form is generally retained, modified by the usual 
Prakrit laws; as, bhavadd (instr. of lhavat ), ausd for dyushd (instr. of ay us ). 
See Lassen, p. 298. 

Prakrit has no dual number nor dative case (substituting the genitive for 
the latter); but it has two terminations of the ablative plural— hinto, which 
signifies ‘from’ in a causal , and sunto, which signifies ‘from’ in a local, 
sense. The following scheme will give the various forms of the first three 
declensions, which are by far the most important. As nouns in u are declined, 
mutatis mutandis, like those in i, no example of these is needed. 


1r^ masc. 

(neut. = cR). 



Nom. (neut. ^i|f) 

cJ-^T (neut. gijTT? ; gmfa, 

xii. 11.) 

Acc. cj - 

g^fT (V. 11; cf. note, 

trans.) (neut. — nom.) 

Instr. ^ 

g-^f% -ff 


( g^TRrrr g^HsTT 

‘ g^lft g-^T 

' g-^r^dt g^^m 


q^fTW -W 


Voc. (neut. 

g^'T (neut. gxjrr^ -^) 




(neut. 7*-ft = 



Nom. (neut. 

Acc. ^frsi - 

Instr. -^fraTTriy 

Abl. -ft 

Gen. ^frwT 


Voc. ^sfrrr (neut. ^f%) 

o ^ttf -t) 

^fYwG ^7*Tt (?)- 

W?tft 'ft 

<TT -# 

^prVftw -xjr 

^7ttHY ^hwf ( n - -t) 


Jn«TT fem. 


Nom. 'JTT^TT 


; TU^TT ( of .: note, tr. 

p. 145.) 

Acc. TfT^T 

Abl. 7TmT?fY ‘ft 

Instr. \ 

Trr^Tftfh -‘ifh 

TTTWft -f% 

Gen. 7?T^TTV ‘V 


Loc. 1 



We may observe here that feminine nouns in i and i are not distinguished 
in Prakrit inflexion ; and the same holds of those in u and 









Instr. ^ 

Gen. j 



1 wtr ■ 



wt = fem. 


I ; TS?§^ (? Lass. p. 

) 307, note 2.) 


wtw -w 


The Prakrit pronouns follow the inflexions of nouns, hut also add some 
peculiar forms of their own. The accompanying scheme of declension, as 
applied to ja = ya, contains, it is hoped, all the forms which are really 
useful to the student. 

As a final consonant is always rejected in Prakrit, some of the pronominal 
bases are changed from their Sanskrit forms before the case-affixes are sub¬ 
joined ; thus, him , yacl, tad , become severally ha, ja, and ta ; etad becomes 
eda, and sometimes e (Yar. vi. 21); idam becomes ima ; adas becomes amu 
(and sometimes aha, vi. 24). Kim, yad, tad, have also a second form in i, as 
hi, ji, ti ; which, though generally restricted to the feminine, still furnishes 
some forms to the instrumental and genitive singular of the masculine and 
neuter. Prakrit, in fact, appears to have used the pronominal forms with 
great laxity; thus we find the proper masculine form of the locative (as 
imassim) frequently used for the feminine, as in Sakuntala (Williams’ 
edition), pp. 36, 2; 115, 3. 

We may here add a few peculiar forms which Yararuchi notices; such as 
to and etto for tasmdt and etasmdt (vi. 10, 20); se for tasya or tasyah (vi. 11); 
sim for tesham or tasam; aha for the nominative singular of adas, being 
apparently used for the three genders. Nam, though not given in Yararuchi, 
is frequently found in the plays for enam and enam. Por hiyat, tdvat, etc., 
we have (by iv. 25) the forms heddalta, hetlia, teddaha, tettia, etc. 



of = ^ (Masc.) f Who. 5 



Nom. ('oineut.) 

Acc. ^ - 

Instr. ^i|T f^fTITT 

Abi. -<5 

Gen. 1 2 

Loc. 3ff%T -f% -fa? ^fa 

m (-5IT t -T neut 0 


*r — 

wrf??h ^TTwr 

■511^ ^ 

^g -g 





Abi. wt^r (?) 

Instr. f^TWT \ 

Gen.T sT^JT(?) 



#q -t 

w}^ -m 


j wr’sh 

wfw? -^ffr M^wr -^fat 

ajT’qf ^fa; wrf%‘ wr^’ -w 

^5 -W 

The personal pronouns are given in Yararuchi, vi. 25—53. I have 

enclosed in brackets those forms which probably never occur in the plays. 

The plurals are regularly formed from new bases; as tujjha, tumha, tumma, 

? ? 

amha , and, in some cases, majjlia {cf. Hindustani and ..ysT 1 *). 

1 We find also a neuter genitive kisa, used in the sense of Avhyr’ in 
the plays. 

2 Hemachandra gives these first two forms. For jasim, cf. vi. 4, var. loot. 



tf Thou.’ 


Nom. <5?j ' ( H ) 

Acc. (rffj) 7$*T 

Instr. ( rfT) rfV 7J* 

C ) tf t 

Abl. ( TTV^T 

-f? )• 

Gen. ( 7JTJT ) <y? Tfs^ W* ^ 

*\ *\ 
rf ^ 

Loc. rTT Vrni ?5*ni 75^) 


Tpil <5^ 

75^ 7^1 TT 

7J%ft 75^N 

^Tf^Tfr -wr 

TT »T 75^TW TJ^TW 


Nom. ^ ^ ^f%|) 

Acc. Tj*j (^r?f%) 

Instr. $ TNT TWTT) 

Abi. ■flTft (TPTfrr thrift 

-5 -ft) 

Gen. ^ 

Loc. ^ (*ni) 



in prose, xii. 25) 


^Tf^Tfr -wr 

( ? ) *rr ^tw ^ 

For the numerals, see Yararuchi, vi. 54—59. 

1 In Sak. Williams’, p. 230, 1. 1, we find a nom. turn; cf. Yar. vi. 26, v.l. 

2 In the plays more generally tue. 

3 In the plays more generally tui. 




Prakrit "has properly only one conjugation ( = the first in Sanskrit), 
though fragments of forms belonging to other conjugations frequently occur 
in the plays. The middle voice is very seldom used, and most middle verbs 
are conjugated actively. There is no dual number, as has been already 
noticed in nouns. 

The only tenses of the active voice which remain seem to be the present, 
the second future, and the imperative. Below we have given the verb 
Tiasa, adding in brackets those forms which, though not in Vararuchi, occur 
in Hemachandra, the Sanksh. Sara, and the plays {cf. Lassen). 





i. -'j? -*47 

^ Wf -TJ -3T ( -’f ) 

(in prose 


The middle voice has a second and third person singular, as sahase, sahade 
or sahae. 



1. (Var. vii. 18) 

3. W? 


L VWT?fT-?? fj (1^) 

2 - VWV (’fW -V) 


It should be added that, instead of a , e may be optionally used before any 

1 On the absence of this form in Vararuchi, Lassen has a remark (p. 202) 
which it is important for the student of Vararuchi to bear in mind, viz., 
Consulto poni a grammaticis formas maxime vulgares • a poetis contra pro 
vario dicendi genere diversis locis alterutras pneoptari.’ 



personal affix (vii. 34), as hasemi, etc., hasedu, etc., or, in other words, as e 
is only ay contracted, Prakrit allows the verbs to imitate partially the tenth 
conjugation in Sanskrit. 

The future has several forms in Prakrit. 

[ 0 ] That most in use has the following terminations :— 

Singular 1. 2. ^gf% S. ^gfsg 

Plural 1. 2 - 3. ^gfa. 

These are added to the root with the augment i, as hastssam, etc,. The ss is, 
of course, only the Prakrit form of the Sanskrit sy. 

[6] A second form gives the anomalous chchh for the characteristic ss of 
the future, as sochchham or sochchhissam, from sru ; vochchham or vochchhissam, 
from vach (cf '. Yar., vii. 16, 17). 

[ r] A third form changes the ssa to hi, as in hasihimi, etc. We have 
also such forms of the first person singular and plural as hasihami and 
hasiharno. (Note also such forms as hdham, daham , from hri and da ; Yar., 
vii. 16). 

[For the very rare forms with the inserted jja and jja, in Yar., vii. 20— 
22; as also for the rare preterite in w and hia, in Yar., vii. 23—24; See 
Lassen’s Inst., pp. 353—358.] 

The Prakrit passive (vii. 8, 9) uses the active terminations; but, for the 
characteristic y, it prefixes m or ijja ; as padliia'i or padhijjai for pathyate. 
Occasionally the y of the Sanskrit form is retained, in which case it is of 
course assimilated to the preceding consonant, as gammai for gamy ate ; dissa'i, 
or more commonly disai, for drisyate ( cf\ also viii. 57, 58.) 

There are two forms of the causal; one in which ay, the Sanskrit addition 
to the root, becomes e, as haredi from Jcara = hri (an a in the first syllable 
of the root becoming d by Yar. vii. 26); the other in which are (a^?) 
is added; as haravedi or haravedi (the a of the first syllable being only 
optionally lengthened, vii. 27; cf. note, transl.). 

The infinitive ends in turn, if a consonant precedes (which is of course 
assimilated); and dum, if a vowel precedes; as vattum, from vach ; nedurn , 
from ni ; the latter being the favourite form, an i or e is often inserted 
after a final consonant to produce it; the d is also often elided, as haseum or 
hasiura, from has. 

The indeclinable participle in tied becomes tuna or una, as hdu n a, from 
hd = hri ; that in ya becomes ia, and is usually the only form found in 



prose, even in the simple verb; as gerihia, from genh = grah. In prose we 
find a few instances of twa relaxed into dm, as gadua for gatwa, etc. (xii. 10). 

The present participle active ends in anta (or enta by vii. 34); as, 
padhanta , ‘ reciting.’ Vararuchi (vii. 11) allows a fem. form padhai, as 
well as pcidhanti. The present participle middle ends in mana (with fem. 
in mam or mana, v. 24). 

The passive allows the termination nta as well as mana , and usually 
prefixes ijja . The passive past participle generally adopts the Sanskrit 
form, and modifies this by the usual laws, as suda or sua — sruta; laddha 
— labdha ; the augment i is frequently inserted (vii. 32). 

The future passive participle in ya, generally assimilates the y to the 
preceding consonant; that in aniya becomes either ania or anijja. 

On the particles, etc. (Var. ix.) we have little to note, except that iti 
becomes tti, in which case a preceding a, i, or u is shortened; Main becomes 
kkhu after a short or common 1 vowel, and Mu after a long vowel; and 
similarly eva becomes jjevva or jevva. Iva usually becomes via or vva; for 
api we have vi or hi. 

The above little sketch of Prakrit grammar will, it is hoped, contain all 
that the Sanskrit student will require to enable him to understand the 

Prakrit of Kalidasa or Phavabhuti; of course that of the Mrichchhakatika 

• • • 

is much harder. I cannot conclude better than with Professor Lassen’s 
words, “ Legitima veteris linguce cognitio non multa dubia relinquet; 
csetera turn tenor locorum, turn tradita a grammaticis doctrina, illustrabit; 
qurn deinde incerta remaneant, accurata grammatica investigatio plerumque 

1 It is important to bear in mind that e, o, and a short vowel followed by 
anuswara are considered common in Prakrit prosody. 

The compiler would add that he originally made a similar one for his own 
use, and found it sufficient for his purpose in reading Dr. Trithen’s edition 
of the Mahavfracharita, although there the Prakrit passages have no Sanskrit 
explanations subjoined. 


P. 14, 1. 7, on somalo add as a note, ‘ So read ABODE, Hemach., and 
the Prak. Sanj. W has suumalo ; cf. note transl. p. 119.’ 

P. 19, add to note 3, ‘ the Prak. Sanj. reads Sut. 17, as in text.’ 

P. 24, note 5, read * B nah; DE nthah .’ 

P. 30, last line, add, ‘for this Sut. and its corrupt Comm., cf. note transl. 
pp. 135, 136.’ 

P. 39,1. 11, read Sut. 3, ''HffT 

P. 49, note 1, add to W’s var. lect. (after ssd so ), ityadesau vd bhavcitah ; 
id-ed-ad-dta'seha bhavanti ; hissd, Jcise, Jcii (Cod. Mi), Me , Ma, kid ’; and 
similarly jissa, etc., tissa , etc. Then follows nasgrahaneiia, etc. as in note. 

P. 61, 1. 2, W’s var. lect. accidentally omitted; W for ‘ nitydrtham — 
viseslianam ,’ has * niyamartham vachanamd 

P. 111. Add as a note to i. 24, ‘The Prak. Sanj. reads this Sutra 
JJd uto madhulcddishu, and employs it to explain the shortening of u before 
a conjunct, as dhutta = dhurta. Similarly it uses i. 18 to explain the 
shortening of %; cf. also note, p. 109, and Appendix D.’ 

P. 128, 1. 12, for ‘end’ read ‘middle,’ and add as a note to the Sut. 
(iii. 36), ‘ though all the MSS. (except W) read sarvatra sthitasya, it is not 
clear why the words are needed in this Sutra.’ 

P. 129, 1. 5 from bottom, for ‘see v. 45,’ read ‘as attd, by iii. 2; cf. 
var. lect. v. 46.’ 

The has occasionally dropped in in part of the impression; I have 


noticed p. 17, 1. 5, mug go ; p. 25, 1. 16, nittlidro ; p. 69, 1. 16 (Sut. 7) 
nollah ; p. 72, 1. 10 (Sut. 23), jno ; similarly the e in sthane, p. 70, 1. 11; 
and lesena, p. 83, 1. 12. 

II sm: li 

qrTf^fPn^n^faiY^fwt ’TWTfanfa: li i li 

^T^faTfawiirJ^W^fTfw wT^JJTT^TW I 

^tt if^r wf%m wto: wt li ^ li 


II : II X 11 

^f^njnrt s^i i ^?r ^^•pfa'siTT? ^T^Trj: ^rrn 

7T13l(f1($W gf^rpR I ^TTfTWTf^ ^T I ^tcr 

Tfn^ ^T ^^TT^T5irrf x l ^Jrf Tfa rpfTTT*JW I 


wzii-g T<iN*Tfci ^T^rfr mfa ^t i 

RTftqft I trsre I ^jfwt 'SITfwt I W 

f%^t *TTWf%Wt I Rf%^T RTf%*m I WTft^ I Rf?- 

fa^t RTf%f%^t I Rlxf RT^xi I qf%^t RTf%^t I ^WT ^TRT II 
i -j?^? i ^fvr^TfTi i Tisffe^t i ■JffH^i *f ^ i *fW- 
f^*rj i T?f%% i ^ li ^T*f7r»nrr s^j ii 


t^Tfri 7^1 ^T^Trf: T^TTT^^T VT^ffT I 3fa 

—ijj deest in A; Of. Panini, i., 1, 70. So C; ABDEW 
l*^p|r. 3 MSS. Tjf?f^ffgr; Of. Lass. Inst, p. 265. 


ii Tf% i fqgj i fqfwr i qfwr i fqqjqft i i 


t^irm ii 

ii sm sti nan 

qiWST*? mirqqt «frqT Hqfw II T*5 II 


arm TwqwfTl ^#3 m^-qq wiTT^irr »rqfq n imT 1 
qjqr i "j%tt i qqrt i m#T i qqqi i sit n qpzrr 14t^q» 
mq>q I WT^ar i | qq^q i qfqr || 

Ii %T qq~q f-q || i || 

q^qq^ ^qfTqqr qm^Tq ms qqfq i! qTT II 

ii qfqwqqqfaqr^q 11 * n 

qrewqqqfwqVqq^qqt qqrirw mqqq: ^Tq_ii sto » 

whrf^qiT u 

H qqqqreqrqfaqT qT II ^ II 

©V ©\ 

qqq Tl^q TqrqqTqqrsqq qmfrq ms qT qqfq H qTTT 
qr^ft I qTTT fl^fTT II 

II ’qq^’NtSTII £- I* 

qqqrrqjqT qqi^qqi ms qqfq qT u qTTsft q^3 ?qt t 

’q^'ft ii 

'i ^TTqT qmfT3 qT II To it 

qiq q-fq Ptctt qjT^qqfqirqTTq, i sm q^qmf^iq: 

•RfTS qtqnqj^^Y qqfq qT II W? *T?T I q^ ??T I qrTJTT 

W (and Hema-ch.) 2 AB fqfwT Of. ii., 8. 3 B fqqjirl'. 

•v 5 ’ > 

MSS. 1 QJ- deest in A. 

H qqq: qfT^(< q - : n 


qcqTTT I qqqj qTq’q I qT~iqq?^ I qq^qj I 

qq^ ^ttjt t q^TT qqrfr i qrf i ^qi q-Tqqft i qrq;q 
^TTT^ I q^fH «3Tfq^ I qfqqT II I qqT 1 

qqnr i qraq i qrqr?^rqr 1 qqqTq i qrav i qqrv i qrc i 

s 9 

qqqTfq i qqfrq i qqfTfaq i qifqrqr u 

it C II \\ || 

qqq TqjqqTf^q qrrq t^ttV qqfq qT u qq q^T i tit 
qqn i «it qqr ii qqq i qqr i qqr u 

II ?q qfqf^qqq II V? II 

sir ; I /' 

fw Twqqqq nqfiqr^rr wfq wt i W fqq? I 

wt fqi^T i qf t fqfv i w% vfqri i qv fqv i qq^- fqq^ I 
qj fqi it fw i fq^T i fq^T i qfqjq i fq*? i fq^ i fq-g 11 qq- 

qqw wqTqqT^Tqqr^TjTTq II 

II ^TqfqqfTyrqfqqlq II 1.3 II 

qwtfcq qp%fsqq?TVqj 'qqfTTT qqfq II qTT I qqr^T I qqft II 

II q-qqir: qTT^: II \8 II 

q^T^fqfqqsqqr q^qn^qiqnrq^qi q-qrTqq? qqrrfr 
qqfq II q’q qqq qraqqqw I fqqqqfq f%t II ?fq q^ 
qTqjqiqqq u q;fq fqqre'qifgt u qqqqlvfq qqqtf^q q 

' So ACDW; B, nj. ’B qfwr- ; W om.; Cf. iii. 

34. 4 A (not C) adds m. ° A ^5J<5ra^5IW B -^5f^n|- 

qq^iTqi D -qreqqqqi w qq qqq =q^Tqqw; A has no Sans, 
explanation. A fqqfq^ C fq'qqfqtj; W has fqqjqqfqT = fq- 

qrq?q: AC have no Sans, explanation. * 


ii nTSrnr^nr: 11 

II fq^rf^T II Tf<r II 

ii ^fT^rsf^rat: ii i.y 11 


^ nqfw II "3^ 1 fq=l^T II 

!l ^rs fryra >?: ii ri ii 

**p*ts^ f^T7.^t4m Wfa I WTT^I ^ II 

feWT3i<T I ^T'fTT^ I II fs^IT faq?T t TV'fTT^TT I 


II Sfo'sfW’srn? II v° II 

^WTTTTft^TT^ t^TTT ^frf || qtfr I ^T II ^TTT 
$qq<q*TWqrq: I W*T ftqqj TW^^TfTW t<4 II 

\5 \J 

II TTtn: qTqtaTf^q II V= II 

qT^ftq TW^Tf^tT^ftoTT^t T^DCT »iqfa II qifqns I 
6 7 8 

qn%^ i qfqpsi i ri^Tfw i ^fT«T i i riT^ i qftr ii qrqfa i 

qi^tq? i qjqrfa i ti^t^T i qrffa i i ^<fta i q*fK ll 

II q^Ttft^tY’far^ ll \c I' 

t^TT^I qqTTTT VRfa II iff I ^TWT I I 

qfrqT ii 

ii ^?r ’qiiTw^q^ ii *® ii 

?jq? ?wq*fq^ ^rcffqrrna wqf?i ii rfrq# ( 

1 2 

A fq^rffr- a ftcrsrr w ; D n.l .: Cf. Lass. Inst., p. 

110. 3 DW add^Tj: before 4 A ^ (?) CW f;; BD 

AW #f^ T ; Cf. Lass. Inst., p., 270. 6 BDW add fqf%qj = sftferi 
' A (not C) rp5ff*?T. 8 A Cf Lass. Inst., p. 257. All but BE 

$■?• bd ^rqi^rr; Cf. n., 16, and Lass. Inst., App., pp. 49, 70, 

II il 


WtTT I qT^fTT | qTc^T I "TT^T I II 75^ I 5RWiT I 

tfE^C i Tj^gr i wraps i ®ff*i ii ^tra^Tir wrwrrw^wra 11 

ii <3^$ ^t gr ii *\ ii 


^Hf^nrsir vjgrrT^i 'sfmfT Mgfrf gT I 

®\ ©V. 



il ii ^ ii 

*T^<T TWWTf^nT^TT^t *31% WTTT 3fgf% II 1 
Tregi i i *r^t i srf%*rr i *rrw«i i ^rcfr n *rg}<r i 
*J^T I ^ I *jff I I I II 

|| THT*rt? TT: II =3 II 

V?T 7W1 ^TPC^I T^fTTr *Hf?T II qfw II 

ii ^<rr ii *<8 ii 

*TV3>7n% -^fcfrT^^f WTTT HgfTT II ii jHJ II 

ii m *t*s f%^ ii 5 8 ii 

^|r«nT^ ^fcfiTT^i ^rfr wf?r 3T i TraNnm 

fg<4 ii ii 

11 TTg^T II ^ II 

< 3*9 


II SW II = 3 II 

’SlT^e^TW ^^TTf Vgfa II TUB I WT I I I I 
'4«^T II (fH I WT I ^?TI Tg I ■gw II 

C D ^g^sT'? ^T an( l similarly in Comm. A \=nyncf ?5f; DC 
8 W adds gf^fij^ I ' A . 

ii TrT^ri^grrsf: 11 

'jni'Tj 3fT^3fTT3t T^TTf 33f3 II T3t I f33t I 
fift i f%ft i f%ft i fwTirfT i fiwt i firm i f33Tit i 
fr?N I f%T^T l f3fT3 l f^rwfr I ftr^T 1 ftf^iY I fa^T^TT I 
f%t i fa^t i f%3T ii >ef3 i -^ift i vjv. i ffif i i 333 tt i 
?€3T3f i *J3 i ?j3TT i tf3"3 I f^?3ir i ^f%3 I H'JfT i iraqr i 

^f%3f I 3?3T"T 1 Ufa I 3if3 I 3m II 

ii ii *?*- ii 

^(=5 T3T33TfV3 31TTT 33f3 II l^r I 33T3T I 

313t I 3^T33T I 3T13T I 313ft I fll^ I 33^ I I 3 tT3T I 

3^^ I 3T13T I 3T3T13T II I I I ^T" 

33 I 3T13J 3^f=3 I f333 I 33:3 I f%^3 I %3Tt3 I 3133 I 
3T33T I 3T3rS"3r I 13T33T^3: II 
II 333131 fr: II \o II 


3lt3^3T33i3fT3‘3l3fTT3l fr^TTI 33f3 II I ft^t I 

fr^ft II 

ii mfiirniiiTfa it si. ii 

vj x ^ 

3Wt313 3333Tf3 giflf^TW 33fa II 3fl3T I 

3fT3t I 3lfT3T II 

|| 33 33 33T II 9 ? II 

31^3 33 ^33131 3^TTT 33f3 3T II WT I 
3^t II 3J3f%3f33T3TST33T3 > ^33 3 33f3 3T<333 <5 

_ * **.*••• • -•<" J- ■ Jtr Jtf i '■' V' 

133133 33T3 II 

' A (not C) 

Cf. i., 15. J BW faig^; 

3 ADW ; C fcr^T; B fgwr 5 

Cf. ii., 7. 4 A gives the Sutra 

ii trrt ii 

H jtti rfa. It 3 3 Ii 

JfTT^ iOTTl T^tW^^TT^rr II firf%'rr II rf^- 


^TT^tfTTf%VT5fTfT^TliH ^irTT^^TTT ^ WrC II 

II ¥ff T^SfT^StT'gi: || 3 8 II 

%^TTV3V*fr^TW T^iTTT H^frf II fg'sm | fc^ITT II 
gnremT5If^; Wifg^ I ir^TT I T<gfa II 

II T|fT Tf?T || 3>j || 

T^ITT *Rff?T II Wf I ijW I TTTT^WT I i^TT^V I 

?r#rg? ii IN' i ffm i tTT^rf i l^rre i 11 

ii twrfT^T ii 3#. it 

t<gifvi ii jxwr i 

^T^Tt I *TTT*rr I ^TT I ^TT I I I I 

IT^TTf I WTfwT I ^T^rsro II ^g-1 %"3| l I I %T I 
l^xr i i ^?nt i tvusr i i i ii 

II T*g 3T II 3 0 II 

t^fTW T^*TT^gV WT II ^?3T I ^ II 
f%*<4 II 

II T<ls**r II 3c |j 

ifcsTW T^ttt *ref?r ii fa*re ii 

ii tiN ii b <^ ii 

t^TTT^I f ^TTT II vft II 

1 2 

C -^BR-. AC w- A (not C) very corrupt in the Comm, and 
examples. D ; AB ^npr ; Cf. Lass. App., p. 66. W has i|^| 
= ?Nj. 4 Cf iii., 52. 

ii "RTSi rnmin 11 


II '9t<fr m twb sna a : ii Ho ii 

^T^TT^I =?mTT »Dlfa 3T I rns*ftSr*R =ff^TT- 
T^l ^ II q^Yft II 

II ^TfT ^T<?JI 8\ II 

^TtTl’^Tft *RfH II ^TT?t I sftsnsj I ^Tr^Tf I 

s» s» 

^Twft ii i i ^frspr: i 11 



WTT I 3T3T^it I WfT^T II qTT I 3TTT3 I I ^Tfifa^WT 

& II fga^r: || ftwi I *>rewr II ^tsrw II 

II ^T^r II 8 3 II 

^tT3TJr^ ^NiTW ^T^TTT *Dffa I -^nTT^rH II 

II II 88 II 

TW^Tf^W ^^rfr V?frf || | 3pT- 

^<rr i i i ^4tfwr li i i -sfhs i 

i II 

II Tf^ 'RTlifrir^T^ ^f^fv^T3T II 

ii *rem: ii 

‘ BD gr^^T- 8 AW T^Wt 5 B Wsf^BT ; CD Tq-3T^T- * Only 
W has ^T as a new Sutra. 4 ACW CW ^cflf^^ftr. 

ii fppfa: pff#r ii 


ii fppfa: pfT^p: 11 

|| ^PiPlTPTpY ii ^ ii ■ 

Pffarw pttp ppfft^p pf^PPi i p^jfp ptipYpt ptYp: 11 
it 'PPwfp fp? i i ^igst ii ^PTprfpfp f~Pf I PiPPS II 
^pp^fW i 'qffr^^WH: a 'PPrp'Tfpfp’p i pit 



ii pr^ppsirrTPPPt to pttp: n =. 11 



fppnpj ii i ppjt i *rprr it w i pit i fp^pr i ^ftpr 11 
^ptp tIp PPifa ^ti^p^i p^p-jr^^nf^-^imfp ptYpY 


w i ptcwt i w^pj ii p^i i ptK i ii *?^jpr i p^pt i 

PTPT I 3 PTT I PPP I ^pt I PP| I TPP I «P I f%rTT*r I P^T I 
PT i p>fp i fpppr i ^ptp i ptppt i ppp i pfa i frpp ii 

sj \$ x 


7 8 


1 2 
A (altered from its old reading ); W AC 

VTPT7J; D^TPf-; Of- S.31. ‘w prj^Y. ‘ AC pf^P- ’BDW prHft = 
PTTP- “ For 4)^ see iv. 5 5 ; DW ^HY- 7 B ppf; D 8 BW 

N •RT3vrnm?r: n 

qq^qnsi it i fqqqqq i qqm i qqqq i qjqqr i i 

qroTT i qraiiqj qqi?qTq 11 

tow ii q^fr i ^Wft it iiqi i qrf it 


vnrrfqwq 11 qiqrt i qvt 11 qrra i qv 11 

II qqqTqf qqi II ^ II 

sf N 

qqqni^ qqfTTqf qtqT qqfq II q^T II 

II qsfeqrfqqrqfq^T'g qqi q: II B II 

'w^rfqfq qrm i q?qi wvr qqfw i TrrqTqqiqr: n 

qrfwrr i fawr i fqirrT 11 

II qtq>T q: II B II 

xffajqTIsq q>q«TTq? qqrTTT qqfrT II qtqTT || 

II qf^-qrTqf q: II <t II 

qf^nr^ qrqfTqqi qqnrt qqfa ll qf^qT II 

ii m t: H ^ ii 

^75 T(§qqTfTl qq>TTqj qqnrr qqfq 11 t * 

q-PB^t I I 'qraft I qqft I qT«ft 1 qiTflft I T^T I 

qq^ft»1 qqrfr i qqfc 1 qf%q^t H ^751 qqq 1 qnqq 1 

(and A originally) D ^5pj-. * Altered to i* 1 A, D 

has DW add several more examples not in ABC, e.g., 


^TWT, etc. A -fq<ra[-; DW give the Sutra qsfeqjfqqrqfqqfqr- 

fqqr^fq^Tq qrqt q: and add in the Comm, the Prakrit forms 

fqqqft 1 frw 1 (D fq^fr> 4 b omits 1 ^x^<ft 1 

qqT^Y I 5 B fqq^. ° A 7 AC qfqq Tit ; D¥ qf?q^t 5 

E qf%q^t B omits it; this ex. cannot properly belong to this Sutra, 

ii H 


I ^T^f?T I I ^fifa I I ^rf I | f%^»T I 

W?I | TJTTfrT | 5?f7Prf% II 

II ■Hf^^T^rfWqrTT^T^ II ^ II 

fT^TT^l ^ITT Wift | ^TTjTtRT^: II qf%*nir I 
%{%1?T I II 

ii < mfrWTnvP $: 11 <l ii 

qqfWTrrxr^-gTWTT^ II I UT?t # 

ii qfire w: ii \° ii 

*ifwnr^ ri^TT^t w^tt'CT 11 11 

|| tTTW?f^ II U II 


it nft^^TWcfT^Tl tt «r: ii 15 11 

"WITT II I qf^TT I ftwt II 

II ^TIT?’ t: II 13 II 

’IsT^'S!^ T^Tt^fr ^frf II qJ^TT II 

|| II 1,8 II 

qW^Tfafa ^ ^T ^3HTW ^f?T II TT^TT^ I 

yet it seems to be confirmed by the Sanksh. Sara, rule 71. W reads 

nfn^T'JrfTI^T^W^rr^fTT^T^^:- 2 BE 3 A omits 

‘A E ^t^«TT; W -qb BD tiJT^WT; B then adds 

«f ^^TT: f^rj ^^JJTWSI 

W 3 TTT: I WTW fqr Tf^T^TW ( ? ) I; Of- s - 40 > and 

S. 38 , note ; the Sanksh. Sara has a rule (92) tjtY ^TfTT^fTTt f 


WTisr 1 wbf qj; see Lass. Inst,, p. 197. A '’^‘1?; W 

ii nTfmwnn 11 



ii ft q: 11 nil 

tmT^^WSTTf^ff?Wr WTTTTTT »Rfa II wnfr I qq- 
Tt I ^Rt I II -STR I I I ^RTf II TTT^r- 

^nrwT^ ^fV’fr ^ *Rfri rf^re f%f^j: 11 

11 ’^Tifii r tt: 11 \$ 11 

^rrStTSR^ q^fTT^i *ranrt *Rfa 1111 

11 ^ftar^teratwf WT II 1 . 0 || 

^rrftersr^ ^sft*nraprr7hr w wt *Rf?r m ii i 

^rift W I TfPJTt^S I T?lfw~55r | VfTW}^ I 11 

11 wrmqf f: 11 n 11 

SFT*rrJ[# TOTl 'fq»TTT »Rfa II Wr?T II 

|| qrq$ <*T W. II XL II 

qqfTTR *R 1 TT *Rfa II <swr II 

II fr ■?: 11 = o 11 

H’W^Tf^rf^qY ^rfr *RfW 11 1 fq^fr 11 

II « 7 T 7 T 3 T 7 !r;j-in| 7: II =??. || 

7 qfTTR 7 q\T 7 T *Rfa II W 7 T I W"* 17 T I II 

• 11 Rif 7 % *r: ii ?? 11 

RifeqrT!^ 7 q>TRq ^rqrrrr *Rf% II ^f%Tt II 

Added from BDW. A om. W ^JTiftqTY. A gpf; BC 
DE W gpf. °ACW gpf; BD -^pf. °A reads iyarn 


in all the examples; W expressly adds pakshe yalopah. BD n 3 "t[- 
A BEW (and probably AD, but these are not so 

ti ii 

|| W t| || 5B || 

^T?;^T^iisw*rrfipi:<TO *rarcft »refcr 11 ^rfw*? i Tmrs i 
II •are ii ^rf^R i i ftrfsrrr ii 

ii 7t i: ii ^a ii 

^TTf wfa II I 5|^t i 

^f^tT II 

ii Wtif w. ii =?y 11 

WtelP^ ■S^fTT^I WTTT *Rfa II II 

ii vr *?: ii ^ ii 

WTWT^tSWTRTf^rra R 5 lft wfa II f%W I iwif%- 
^5T I R*?ft I II 

II T> II ^ Ii - 

^TTr 3f3fw II 



wg'ff II W II TTf T I gf?TT II II R'fT I ^TRTf II RT*I T<§^ II 

7 8 

w*rr i wgtsfr i i i 'gw^wfr n 

w=r i i ^ i si'sr i ^tt^t i ?nra i tt^t i ^far i 


w i thht i w*r i tp?N*j i i i ii 

clear) <j; and similarly in the ex.: E has in Sut. ; the Sanksh. 

Sara has see Lass. Inst., p. 209. BDW and probably A ritfTPR* 

2 3 

A om. WDE have the ^ throughout; the other MSS. vary 

4 •v 

between ^ and ^ ; Cf. Lass. Inst., p. 209. BW ; BDW add 
OTT = 5 W 6 ACDE ; BW -tit. 7 Obscure in 


AB, but plain in DE. Plain in CDE ;* DE add the Sans, interpr.; 
W has several different examples. 

N tl 


II n*rofafa*rfatrwT| II li 

^^^T^rTTT 3fwfa II I fafe^t | || 

li %arif w: 11 rl ii 

tawor®^ 3ref?r II ^TT li 

li tt *r: II \c II 

wrft *ndw II I I 

jtwt i sifsfj^fr i i i ^?nft i t^T^fr i fa- 

sf vj sj 

i *dwr i ’sfa^ ii ^fr^T i ^tw i i ^rfafaT i 

^ptTT I 1 I ^ITT I fa^TfT 1 qfaWT I Tlfa^r | 

TW^nr^: ii 

ii ^T^trr 'si: ii s? n 

^TTfafa faw ii ^tt*' wfa it 

wft i ^reV ! ii *rfs i *rarej ii 

ll ?w «r: it ^ li 

*rfinp^ *renx^ wTft ii wft ii 

11 faTTH II 35 11 

faTTfTIf^ ^T^Nfal ^>Tfr 3^ffr II fa^T^t II 

WE have <£ plainly throughout, and so mostly A ; but the other 
MSS. confuse it with 'g, D has ^ twice • Cf Lass. Inst., p. 209, and 

2 3 

Sanksh. Sara, S. 60. W ^3Tf- A $TL but the i is a later 
insertion, and contradicts i., 13, and the other MSS. A fwT^T; w 


f%-. D an( ^ a dds ^e Sans. ^Lbl^ffT; Cf Lass., Inst., p. 

100; W om. BC if; W m ; D ; A not plain. The t| is plain 
in BCD ; W has 

ii qfr#;r: 11 

II f;w W: II ^8 II 

^T^TTT wfa II W'sft II 

ii •?: it b \ H 

Tfg TITT^l TT^fiT II ^Wt I I ^T9> II 

II ^i?qft^RfT^TTl qi: II 9S I! 

ti^t^ 4^ T^rff »mf?r ii trwt i xfif%fr i 11 

ii trw sf^ ii ii 

TRT?U^ sfrj TjgnT^I TRUITT ^f<T II II 

II f%f%*jf «: ii ^ ii 

H^nrl' ll ii ^tf¥»r- 

fn^TXTfinr *1 *Rf?r ii ii 

ll ?: ll ^f_ ll 

'SIT^Nl g^TTT II gW'tf II 

ll 8 t: ii 8o it 


II w: II 81 II 

Tj$*rr*n^Nr^j w^TTf *Rfri h wft i wgptY i ^iwr i 

1 2 3 4 

A W i}^ra-. DE om. Sutra 37 and Comm. After 

Sutra 38, W gives a Sutra, found also in Hema-cli., (cf. Sutra 40) 

WT w: with ex. TJITWI I ^TTWr I tjtf- 


WlT I WRWT I W I ~r*T"T I " ABC } DE ; W 

J vj 

(in Comm. t5TTt£T*T)- abc tsrrwT; de fawt; w wrf- 

ttt ; Cf. Lass. Inst., p. 197, and notes to S. 12 and S. 38, supra. 

ii TfTiuTwnr: 11 

II 5ft W: III II 8?> II 

UT^fTfl fl^rT I Wf IITTW WIHTT 5flfl II I 
ITWI? I IKW I ?fTWt || 


II wit: i: II 8? II 

I[IiTTII>R r it: HiTTC *Tlfl II W II ^Y I f%WT I 
^iwr II W II ifY I I ITITIf II 

II 'f: II 88 II 

wrw srefYr ii i ttutts i 


II iwif IT II 88 II 

fJWTlt HHTTITlt IT W ^5i Mlfl II t?itt 

thHY i t^wt t^wT i t?t?t t?ttt ii 


II flfll W II 8$ II 

7 8 

ww ^inrY Hifi ii frsrfY ii 

II ^sjTit I?: II 8 a ll 


wt® itsttY *rifi ii iYi?t ii 

II Tfl IT^fl^I ITSilwriY ’I^lil'CTflfwiT 

feita: ifr^: ii 

1 2 

W only ?n ^:. Altered in A to TfTWflWt; BD W add 
f¥ I li^TT | ^UtR:- 3 A ^r- 4 A WT- " W ; the other 

MSS. are indistinct between -<jY and -'jY ; Of. ii., 24. W etc. 
7 DW add 3T. S DW add f^wl; Cf. Lass. Inst., p. 219. W 
BD add a reference to i20. 

II n 


II mfTSnij; HWrlTTmtll it 1 || 

gn-ftoritiTiiT ^wr^frfir7n^rt gftfr argff 11 ^ riT3* 11 

MtI I f%7?Nrt II W I W^T I II w I W73TT I fssft II 


ff^t I I ^WT^T II I ^T I iTUlft II ^ I IttY I 
WtTT II W I iftft I fa? ft II W I wftp9 I ^TT II MW I 


facjr’qST | MiRJ | f%3TJ I I 5F?5f I -Hrtrsr I ^rqTrf | | 

S VJ ’ \ J ' 

TTSiT I ^TT I qf TK I ft ft I f%KT I ^rf%n I iN II 


ft wft fjijsjt if << I 


i Tfjft i wif 1gift ll «rer ll grift ll mw II ftfrt i ftift II 

ll ufw sr*rt II 5 II 

wgMiwgnrfwTgrt MwfrtgfMifwgTMt ftft Mgff ll 

ww ll i gfif i ffwft ii gw ii fT^fr i ii g^r n 

Wf i wfit ii i gwrgt i fgnsg i watgr i gw i wf i aps it 


H f- ft WT II H II 

^arsf fw ^t frfr Mgfg ii frfr i ^tfr ii fft i fft ii 
^ 1 ^ 11 

1 Added from BDW. Altered in A to -^f. Added from BDW. 
4 So in all the MSS. 5 W ft# (wanting in BD) which it explains 

6 7 

by ft's- A gT7ft (wanting in BDW). A originally #|rfY> 
like B; W wf^’sgf; Of. i., 20. 8 BD add ^]rt - = ajW' 

ii TfTHrrtm-Jr: 11 

ii si: it * it 

stcirn^f wVqY *raf?r 11 wssfr i tf^r^sfr it stt- 

sjT^jrer^HTfw rnr whi: 11 

ii ^wr^^rnt: H i H 

wt«fr II *T^| I TWTW II 

ii *rsn3 w u u 

*rs?T 3 srjn^ wHV *rwfi=r 11 *n^rr 11 

ii ill? is * ii 

$11 Tsr^w:f%rrr*rr f%fa- 

II W*3 I I ^RTWT II I 3njfTT I 

^RfTfr ii ^psi i 11 

it ^ ii i. ii 

"sfv^TTT S*j I m 


*r*r’i?ip$ n i ^ifi 11 toiw wr 

W *g7TJ 

II b: ii \° H 

Z^TTT vrafrl II wft 1 f^ft II 



^^nrf wfa ii ii 

This Sutra corrupt in AB (and in A the Comm, as well); CW S{1; 
DE Sf5£(; BDEW agree in the Comm, and ex. W adds Tnrr^fr- 

3 4 5 

W BDW i^j; A ’JHIJ. E has ^ and so originally 

A; this is required by S. 50; Cf. Boehtl. Sakunt., note p. 175 ; BW 
qr; D. n.l . Sutras 9, 10 and 11 are confused by Lassen. A 

it w#5t: qfr 5 ^ H 


II w 5 © II ^ H 

^janrr *rqf?r i ^rfwrqmi^: 11 i i 
^ i ^re^rr i ariwst ii w i i i ^iqqr i ^rt^r ii 

J \i 

ii 4 ^ ii ^ n 

•^re-ar^ ^i^tt^i ^jairr^r q ii rprr ii 

ii w w: ii 18 it 

^ware? ^sreift »rqf% ii ^»fr ii 

fl ^JTWTq'^T I! 1M, II 

•^fTW^si? *rere? ^^rpfr **qfa I I *T »Tqf?l II 

\S \J) 

^Tqi II "*}^T Tf?T II Wf I II 

C\ C\ 

ii qjrrsi ii i$ it 

wT^qrai^ *i*rei wift mfq it ii 

II ^arwfw^p 5?: II i^> ll 

^ tare T5rTfwrenre^fl"g ^^ttt «ref?r ii arar i 

s# ^9 

*P55TT I ^f%iTW II 


$^£[. So BDW ; A’s is corrupt; see Lass. Inst., p. 103. 


This Sutra with its Comm, is variously written : AC (and probably 
B originally) as above; DE (and B now) with a correspond¬ 

ing Comm, but the same ex.; W confuses Sutras 13, 14.; the text of 
AC is the simplest, the ^ being elided by iii., 1. So DE, and B 
has been altered to this; ACW read the Sut., ^5f;, 

and the Comm. pr^Tj etc. The Sanksh. Sara follows 

DE in its two rules 115, 134, the latter being '—py | A 


So MSS. ; Cf. Lass. Inst., App., p. 53; D adds a reference 

ii TjTUfTiwrsn it 


U t: I! X K II 

TT7T3 ^*T *rcf?r II gf I ^tt I i ^h: I 

*t?r H 

n gr n \l ii 

t^rttT Vffa fT II ^ff 1 ^-ssfr II 

ti ft* it \e u 

ft'* TWTttr Mffa II '^Tfrt I bt- 
ft* I ftfc* II I Ttt I II iJW^T^TlifrRtrr S* II 

II W: I! ii 

^f ww w *rantr vffw ii * leer i w i vhwrt ii 

a ito a: n ^ o 

<T a^TTT Mfft II ifT*V I WftrT I tft II 

a yxR o ^ o 

HTf»nx^ a^ritc *r*fa II a 

ii * wfrlt* a ^ H 

V<! <T T<*rRt a^ritT *T Mffrf II VtTT I farfit I 

fxi^TW | fTfT I ^TfTrr I W^tT^T I fwfrT'sfr I ffrT^T I 

’*rfr I ^Tltt I JTrft II M?T I sftffT I f (TW«T I fT^T I ^Tf(T I 

^3 ©V 

i f%f i ffrm i ^Tn i graft i nftr ii 


il »raV: ii s h ii 

1 2 

to iii., 50. So MSS.; Cf. i., 5. " D adds giTj’^iiTXrf^'O^t'JI'^Tf^- 
^l¥T*rRI»I ^TT: W<T s (added in B in margin). BD f% . 


A ) f° r the doubling in the ex., cf iii., 50, as in. all 

5 6 

such cases. BW om.; D cf^T = AW ^rrft* 



II ^Ml ^ II 

TT?TO ^ -f r rnf?f II 5 I 1 TT I W*TfT I flwt I fwjt II 

n sparsit ^wwr: ii ii 

<to^t twto *rgfa 11 <ro 11 1 

II II T"^T I fTOFT I II to II f%^fT | TOT II 
fro i Trar^ i ^wr i froT i to i i 11 

n w#^: ii ii 

■«i m TWTORNrcft *Rf?T 11 tro 11 toj i 11 

"TO II g^SI^T I TOT’gT II TO 1 TOR I qTW I '’JUR || 

H *RW* 5 t II <R y 

tzk^t wrt *ref?r 11 tzto ii i qmfT 11 w*?i ii 
t?rt i ii to ii ^r?fr i ^wr h 

n 'qr^ut^'i w -« 

'srfe T<£hfwf^j tor^i srrt *rcf?r 11 ^roft i troft i 

-^T I WtT I I <3f%Tpr I wfr^ | TOF I ^-^FT I WR I 

fr^fr i i ^ i f 1 1 i^r i g-^ft i g-^fr i 11 

i i to i i to i 'sfeg i i i i 

'J \$ vi 

to: i ^ i *rfoqrr i |i i i ^ i groj ^ i i 
twtortst: ii 

12 3 

W adds fq*f^. “ W adds fqjqrt- A ^F55fT: • see note S. 21. 

4 5 

BDW DE qqjqs§; AC seem to read qqjqj; B¥ omit it; 

Qy. q^^ ? see Sutra 30. A fq^f (?) The q|j in A is only a 
rudely formed ?}. BD add = TOT- W *TO3 = S^-EER- 
So BDW, with Sans, qysq; A is not quite clear. ” AW qqj; B -gqj. 

II RTUrnmw: 11 

li S RT II ^ II 

W^ilTl W^TTt *TRfa RT II W*TT I *§*TT II I RWfII 

I II ^^TTT^IT^TT 15H ^<T3I«C ’qY(*RTf»RT- 

fafa ii 

II w*nfw§«9 W- II II 

y T<irw ^ttt wfn it rri n 

fwr i ^t i wt i fg^-srr ii rTr i i wr i f%^R it 

> S 

ii t^: ii ^ ii 

^r^»rf r? TW^T^sfr »Rf?r n 1 rts^ i 11 

w ii i rrir ii ii i 11 is rr? 1 

f?n$' ii ii RRifr i f%Tj^r ii =?% i 3i3B i tor i to i few i 

v3 Sj s3 

URT I TO^! I <ft^5 I 'R^f I ftr^I II 

II -XT. II ^8 II 

fwi^ *pfiTO 7m TRJRRT^Tf »TRfR II II 

ii toto w. ii ^8 ii 

Tm^rtxr RRf?r ii i gus i f^-wRT^r it 

RTO I I fa-tq-TR II 



' DE aid ^Tjrf here; W adds ^ sfq | TOCt | 


BDW ^=f ; A wrongly ; AW transpose ^SJ and ^ in the Sutra, 


but A agrees with BD in the order of the examples. BD ^fTT^; 
A > "W 4 Lass. om. A has a marginal addition 

sfq ; C ° DW fqrwRHrT; ABC fqttEjpsfr. 7 So D ; W 


has fipsn^. W ; it reads S. 38 before S. 36. 


wre xr *;ar>rRiT5fr *n*fa 11 ^»sY i 

xk^ H wsf i it 

11 fir ^ ii ii 

XJref fifij<Tj% TaPTOT^ft II XfTf^f%^t II II 

II S’srfw II 3x: || 


graj-jr^ xq ^TfY cfr^T II 3TTT || 

xspsrfir fir II WWT II Xfrtq X3^r«r II 

J N 

II grTWTW II ^£- II 

cfrntTWT^ ^nrt vr^ffi n crt^t^wV ii 

ii ^t w: II 8° II 

ttw w^rfY *Rfir ii ^ i xrfi^?? i 11 <w i i 
t^KY ii w i firmer i *r^t ii qf%^r i i w i i 
finjT i ii 

\» s* 

ii ^w: ii 8\ ii 

■% ^fT^[ 3^- TW^T^T *Tgfif II II 

ll *jYrxg<rr®ec|*iY; ii 8^ ii 

•?r^=ir V#rT^t: W ST^rRI W^fY H K^fif II ^T^T- 
W w Tfif ■RTTT T?firf%'Sra II -3^^rr I II 


1 2 3 

DE ; W X||^fV ; BC corrupt. ABC om. W Xff%f%fT. 
ABC om.; w -^r^T; Of. i., 2. 5 AC qrf T^xijY. BD add ^ - 


So BD ; A originally had ^ but has been altered to 
to * 5 ^*; W has ; the same holds of the Prakrit ex. in Comm. 

A B c ^sfT; D ^xqY; E w 


■?rT5^T- 9 A ^^cf;; BCD (C ^-) ; E ; W ^xqY ; 

ii TTTiifTTr^m: it 


11 M \ II 8? II 

T<?TTOt ^ T^TOTTTT *T?fa I ^IVT^ TU* II 5|WT I 

5# ii i ii 


*H Tt TWTOY: TOHr?^ TOT?f Tjs^rg ^^1 W^T^f 

wfa ii ’toi ii topti ii w ii wr i from ii totwt i tot- 



n ii 88 ii 

<TT«r^ TW^TT^Y Trwfw II rfT^fW^ || 

ii fM^T% w: II 8^ ii 

w tw*t fUT'sfr ii faf^TOrr ii 

ii !%w wr gi ii a® it 

f^gnjnpT TOTTTOTTt 3T ll%^f^TT 1 faWT II 

It wwf* W. II 8* I! 


in such uncertainty, E’s reading has been followed, because it at once 

brings them under iii., 1 ; Cf. Sanksh. Sara, 138, 190. Cf. iii., 2. 


So CW and probably A (for Lassen’s ; DE read Sutra 
giying ex. in Comm., but ^y, Tj^y are covered by iii., 2; B has been 

3 4 

greatly altered. BD XJTSJXXI (D originally -<(jx) > AE -jjy > W -xft- A 
5 B tjt: ; T|^:. ° So BD ; C VRXTt; A *srfV; w gives the 

Sutra ^X I adding to the Comm. "asWR^ij ^T^^X‘ 

faf?r wfire: ll fawt’ ll- 7 bcd^^-; w 


; A C ^X^T > A originally ^yxtJX but altered to ^x~- 

II S'ffta: II 

II II Hi-- II 

^rn T^fT^t R3HTT irwfrf II ^nj | II *nRf^RTT 

fWrq: II 

II iNli^tf^aR-pfr II <io || 

*TW ^T rRIR^T^T ^f?T II 

1TW rfRnTjl *frf I II II *Tft I f^ft I TWt II 

^T^TfafTT ftf II I ^r^WT I ^ II 

ww i ?rr*f i *jfir i Yfe 1 w i ^rf%m i i 11 

II <i*tg ^p: 33 : II y? I* 

^t ^wt fenta^'qT <*t fgf%7Tw ^r: jr*m^j<ft*rr ^t 
ii ^nr© feffcrei uwgrsw er<¥t^rr f^R f%- 
Vt*R I ^sirat; R^R? : ^RTTTRT^ vrm 

^ri: II 

iN^t II WTW I WT I *?^T I fW^IJTT I "T/TT I fw^TT II 

vj \J ^ 

^TTW || f^ft | Rf| | <n^t | fpfifpTT I fwTSTTTT I ^tWT I 


3JTW*T I ’?RT I I f%3R: I waj I f%WT I f fe • **f¥ I 

i fwsf 1 fwir i *ra i RWt i ^f% i pr 11 

11 ^nf 5 ?i ii y » ii 

1 Gf. viii., 40; and Panini, vi., 2, 59. " AC *j; q^;. 3 After 

AC h ave ^fij usureffto^Yf^N rre tit- 

^T^rfo and Wseems equally confused: the remainder is therefore 
given from D, to which B has been altered : the examples are given 
as in BD, A being in several places illegible and confused. 


II irrisrpwni: II 

33*tt 3^? ^ f^ wfw ii w ii 

Tr^T^tiwifr^n' xr<3 ii vN i w i mfvri i trapsY i sra- 

^fr i ii i i 3*13 i ^r*rf i 3?st i ^i33> i *rt=R 11 

ll ^-RfiTwri: II ys II 

3H5f 3T3 33>lft wfrf || ^ | 7R H 

II 3 wr: II H8 II 

T3r?3fTT3Tff<3 3 VT3f3 II xJtt I (ff I ^TT I 3TTf II th? I 
<3X3 I fWT I II 

ti "sm im ii y y it 

^3TTX5 ’ST TWWT^W f%<3 3 *T3f3 II WWT I 3TT- 

w tt) ii ^irsrr i ^rafn 11 t!w fsi 11 33tt ii % it 

[B 3 f^r n y$ u j 

3i3^fTT3T f%<4 3 xT3f?f ii 33?ffr i 3srr n 33>T3T i 3 -sjt n 

B 33T3 3T II y*> II 

Cf i., 19. AB -^g[; D -ff; E -npf (DE add, with a similar 
variation, ^^f^rf%33Tf%fW3f%3-lT3 Tf?T 3#T; Of. Hofer 


Zeitsch., yoL ii., p. 514); W om.; Cf. Lass. Inst., p. 233. DE 
■^pf. So BCD plainly ; Cf. Lass. Inst., App., p. 45. W adds 

331: f%<5|3 f ^ XT 3l33%- °A^(#rf3 (originally ^ 
rfej); BCDE ^©qf (D orig. ^}©Ef) Tfogf; W ^spf rTJ^; Hema-ch. has 

TTTwra^: i 33m3? tT *J3f3 i 3 x 3 'six#; Qf. 

v* \j 

Lass., p. 246. BDE ^x^"S[3J- *W TT33J AW ; 

DE add fg^rft; BDEW add ’gT^Jmfrf f3T ( W W®') xstf^ri- 

This Sutra is only found in BDEW; Hema-ch. has a Sutra, No clir- 
ghdnuswdrdt (i.e., par ay oh seshadesayor dwitwam .) This ex, only in 

ii ii 

f%«g Mgfa ii wg?*rnfr i i 

i i ^g^jt i ^ggt i -mwrawr i 

^rrwmwr 11 gftai*? i i Tg^fg i ii 

l| ^TfiTl ^« UF ll , > ■ 

ggT TW^Tf^S m ft<4 ggfg II iNfT *RT 1 w 

T% I ^wr WT I I ’gfag I wr^ W^S I 


f%fwr fafHt i ?5ftwr TjRt^Y i grfw^nrt gifw^irr i 
fggg ft* i Tit i ^f^iY ^fWr i wr wy i twA 
t^A i fgggiA gtgiA i fwggiA fteTA i twI tA i farrY 
fa A i ^§Y 4A ii Ait i i 5 ri i fg i ^fag i ggfrgg i 

fafag i i gfagnr i fH i TTfa i ^:fam i gp* i t^T i 


fg^T* | fg^Tg 1 Tfal | fag | q-si || 


Anffaum* ftAffat ”9 Tffa II 

|| fgggig: || «^£_ || 

A^grrA sv i ^t faggrgf ^gfg it 

ii fasf^T*rfa*nrr$$ g<^g;ggjgfai ii \» ii 

fifrgTff U gg<gt fggggT ^gfr? 1 fggfrggrg g: ggf gmf 

fafwgi g^TiT ggfg i ggg Aw grftjr ggf gf: grgf 

B; DE instead ggj ifW fg Tfg ggTf TT I An (?). ' So D ; AB 

Wf^^T - j in the other words the MSS. clear up some doubtful letters of 
A; W has several errors here. BDE rnsjYgj > W rfgrYsjj. B (not 
A) AsYA 1 ADEW ; B -Tfr- 5 AH the MSS. wf gA (W 

\3 x ^ 

q^jY). AEW xpej (cf. Lass. Inst., p. 261); BD seem to read q^ which 

C\ \S 

7 8 

is better, as q^q is neuter in iii., 35. AW iqj^FTj. W here and 


elsewhere rTc^^Wf- E> ^RTTfarU- ‘ Autgsf. " W ggfa, 

s C\ 



II HTSifTR^nr: ii 

wfa i tw*}: ii ftftnF i f%f%j i i fgrfT^n i rttrt 11 

II 1W HT ii <H II 

3>WI[S? fcTIWRT I RW ^ rfr^TrlT II 

^SRfepif^U^ I 7R WW faw fawh I fWft 7 % *T II 

otwt ii ^tj5T ii 

II T' #^t^RlRT^^T#SI^7NRT^R% II 4<? II 

TTTJ ^frf | T^TT: rfr^TrlT^ «Rf?T II 

f%ft i f%ft i fa?ft<fr i ftreiffr i f%wt i fR^Tw i fwfwf i 

Rifr^t i ^fr’TT i ^frrr i ^rfnfr 11 nrt nfitrr i i 
SPT I WT®T I ^TSM W3! I I ^ I *Tf II 

II =s: ^TiEiT'eiqt: II 4? II 

^fTT W^TT H^frr I 

J ©V 

r^rfT^ »T?f?r II ^sRT I RtfTT^T II 

II %% ~4T II 4« II 

fcTU^RT =(T wffT I ^ WR^T^RT 

'sS ©\ 

^ ^frf || uwr I WT II 

ii "?: ii in ii 

s# N 

R’CJ T<iNww ^ 'enro f^grerf wfrl I ^ 

xj vj Cy 

^T^7^TfTT ’n VRfW II W*T I riwt I RHlt II 


which may account for the marginal addition in A, noticed by 

1 2 3 

Lassen. Lassen om. W A BD 

w ' w f%WTW- 5 S° DW ( Of .: i., 3); A B 

6 7 8 

not clear. W . A om. So ABCW; DE (but D 

not so originally) ; W adds (Hema-ch. rVrt-) A om. 

II 'qfr’#?’: H ^ 

II ^rarfltri H <H H 

f^Raqf wfrT I R*hl a f^TT^fr^T^T ^ II 

v» O' 

wt^rr it 

ii Tf?r maTTRaT^ ^aR^fafv^TTt 


<s-r?to: II 

D adds ; w *rct- DE add another Sutra here, which is 

only supplied in the margin of B, and is not found even in W; 

n II TW R Tfa II RTW=R W || HTW T3 V*T II 

Cf. Lass. Inst., pp. 192, 370, where he quotes Sanksh. Sara, 385. 

The Sutra can have no place in this section. 

II STUrll^TSr: || 

ll ^ II 

II 4vTq'qmwrqf%^qT qiPsi II ^ II 

qRTfafq wttttvww i ^f3if?i -q i wr qffTnsfTq-m^t 
qrfqqifaT qfrqfqirqrg qw vqfq n 
■qfsqiiqTqrrqqjl «T3WT^ I Wt^TWT wIbY 

qfr i qinH i qrwr q> wv i fHfrqwT fq^Nwr i 
qHnqH fwrfq^ i xrfairfN f%qjrf%q? i qqY?rqrr qqt*Hrr i 

nS C\ 

wft^s *Ar? ll 

qftqfqw: || Ij3f I I *T?- 

| qTq^qi qjwfqi I ^wft ^proTft I qqw^3 II 

1 So AW (Of. iii., 52 ); BD -ffj* in both; Qy. Tir^^g- ? ABg^-. 


ABW have only qTqpfhi ^V’ST’fH 5 DE have fwrfH twitTO 

fW’qpqH (D q^sn-qH qtqtifq^); dew give the 

Sans. qt?rrq}rr f%rTTf% 7 f' * So BDEW (only W qosft-); A q«TT- 

qsf qqtqqj (the last tsf confused); DE explain it by fqqfjjrj, W 

G\ sS 

x 5 6 

by qqf^q: A om. both. The MSS. are here very corrupt; 

—^TtY f rom BDEW (B for the 1 st, and om. the 3 rd); 

DEW add Sans. '> ^ then adds 

^q? qqfvft ^qfwft qqwi;'*; w adds qrqiw qtq^ i 

’^fW’^'T l HcfJST^^i ; A has instead after raaulam , 

^qw q}qr^ wqfr^t ^qfw^t (supplied in marg.) qqqj^-’q with 

no Sans, explanation. 

II ^7$^: II 

tpNiHt wW: i 


isfM^ng 7rcrercn?WTrc i ^rrafw^f- 

^TT^f »ref?r i 

II ^t^f'q: ii ^ it 

^ Turret Tjffxfr VRfa II ^wt II 

II w ^T II ^ II 

w tit wttfr 11 vrare *&T*rr?ra ii 

II HT*R 5|% II 8 II 

?TT5R-3!5? ■SI^TW "CRT 3T II w<n MTW || 

II ^TTfTT| || y || 

^RTW WT "TT’TT VRfrf || ^T | TfT 
HT7JI qnj^r tfTTT^ I ^rrfrT WW^rf | ^tf%^ I THS 

ir^ | TCT^J TJ"Sq I II *TT7f?rj cfT^rT I qr^RTT I W 

7nfo 8 T»r i ^tf^rr i i Tg i $=p?r?r i ii 

ii ^r: ii f ii 

f^-rf i n^T*rt ^frswr wjto ^rr^r wfn it wr i 

No MS. gives this as a new Sutra ; W om. and adds 
after with several new examples, as T$rf^ 

•n 2 

^tTT etc. de ; W adds two new Sutras here, Sam- 


yogapurvo hraswah and DirgJiddishu vd. W Tf^f with a similar 

4 _ 5 

blunder in the Comm. A q^TW- B ^Trirjrf -q?j rj ; D "5|1 JTtPJT 

sj 9 v# 

^jtrq^njr (originally -"rTTf); E ^qrrTf? qrpT 5 w om - B ^tf^ST- 

J 3 

D adds (Pf* Sanksh. Sara, S. 196) 

§ 9 

So AC and probably originally D; BE ^i^fXef • AC om. 

ii HTwnmir ii 



|| femUT^II *> II 

f%Tt TTSTPreJT’areTT ’StT^TTT VRfrf II Tft’SIT I qf^TSlT I 

^T'^rr ii srfrTj TTfrre^ i tttji 

II TT TT || c || 

f^reTTparei WT T*»ret TT TSTTHT^STT KTfTT II ^TT I 

II *t fwf?? II i- II 


^ffttV *1 wfrr H 11 


TT *TTfa II TT^f II 

II fT^T^t: €: II \\ ll 

fTrrcPT^nwfTr: nr^T^wft tttttt n fr^T i 
Trs^T ll 

ii m !%*f: ii tt. ii 

’sparer wnrrei n i ^■^ \ vrf i 


’srfrT i TT i i vw ii 

ii W ii ^ ii 


1 *N 2 r 

So B; the others Tariff (Of* 19). Lassen reads this Sutra in A 


as an ex. TTTT to S. 7. D <r'g‘ explained by (^|r •) ; Ag-f; 


Ccftnv^; B confuses this with the next Sutra. A adds 



in the margin. D *?T fT^: ; W has TJcffTT^T fJ^TTT *RfrT 

II xjrj’jj: II 

ii sjsJHffcr h n is 

<?T<TT {%-^|cjf% II W II 

wr i qmY II ii g^rgiirW i f^jt f^gsfr 11 

s \ 

l| II II 

fa^TT^mt II I rDJ I wr I ^ I 

5 0 7 8 9 

^ I I gg I gwf%wt I I wr I wf I I I 

II 3sR I eSDIT I ^ I ^RT I 3JP5T I gfg I | g?lf%- 

O vJ sl 

5Rt I ^"sN I I I 'HfTRTrT I ^ I I T^TT^: II 

|| itfUTftl ,T « \$ II 

gfarfirg -ar^ 3T ngTWf: ii w wb i w w i 

19 |g 

wui WTtT I rff? rff% | ^II TRTtRRfifm' gfalf^lW: I ^ 

fif%jTm^UlTr^ fJlWifT??J f^RTTW^g « gf^T- 

fri yg-^r: H 

■^gfTTTfjwfV ’ MSS. om. ” W has for these, ^vjr ^jxj'yx I ‘<XryT 
gfTjgt- 3 A fatR^T fcsHlT; B ftfrsHrT f%*WWT; D ft- 

S s S» ^ ^ V 

3*^ (a iding Sans. cffsq ft'^J ; E ftwf 5 

W ft*r WT = * So A (not T 3JR). 5 A ^tg) ; B ; 

C\ N. Cv ^ 

W fJ[f^ ; DE ; Cf. Lass. Inst., p. 254. AB (not C) TfcEf ', Qf> 
iii., 56. 7 AB gtiTj ; W ^15; DE gtijX- 8 AE (A originally 

tjf?-); BD tjf%^; W qf%^. ° AB WT- “A ^[f^xj^x ; B 
; W " DE ; AB TrsrsT ; W n.l. '" So BD = 

v> C\®* ^ 

; AC -f%. So MSS. (W om.) ; A has no Sans. expl. ; 

DE give ; W adds several other examples. A om. ABCW 
; DE : the latter is taken, because all (except W) have 


Ffa FTFT fa’fFITFtFT FT FFf?f II F^T I F^T I FT^fr ! 

1 9 3 

**f I F'gTT I wV I FFRT I Ffarft II FFtfa far I ’FFT II FT- 
faFTTTTFj ’fa? I faf I FFTT I FFTT II 

It FFTWT^FTT: *jfF u %t: ,j 

F^nrfarrg Ff% fft?pft: h ft- 

<Tr: ii ftfit i ^ftt i fftI- ii ftft: ii ^ift i fft i ftt ii ft- 


B F f^TfFFFt II \t- W 

faj^F JWF TSTfV F FfF FFTFiFlT it f%t I WF II 

U IFTfFWT: t%Ff FT ti H® ii 


O v* 


u ftIt^tffY: u u 


7 8 


il FFnFFfafrF^ II ^ II 

Fi: M i W I FTtTF! II 

II M W: II ^ H 


as the ex. of the exception, which does not apply to AB om. 

2 BD-^. 4 A-^;D^;B n.l. D 

B has ^ for 7 So W; ABD 8 A ; D adds ^^p- 

^Sm~- 9 All except W (Of. Pan. vi., 4, 140) ; B has ^i$r . 


3fr3fW I ^T3f¥ II I ^prr I Hc^T I ^<atT II 

U XT' « *8 II 

*n*j^irar*rr fqf%7iw vT ^fri n 


Wlfm ^fafT I ^irifart ^r«TT II 
II flqq: II <*, t li 

WW Tt ’SITO q^Tl XT* TWfl ^TT^UXT W$q: BSTt'' 
Wfcff II 

'sgm^uqrrji f;qm i fwi^ H ti: ii fqmfwr i w*tt- 
<i H fq^rrwT 11 *rre: ii wft i q^rerY 11 n 

VWWt I II XT*’ II qT<?li^ II ^T- 

wT^t: «r ii 

f^nraj f^^TqTrj fqqnrq^i wvmmj v*Rrrj u^b i 
^Vq^qrfJ ftqq^l TTP5R7TJ 

[wfa^T Trqqt s^apsi ^T(ft qr -x;?m ufacrj 

iw i usmrrr ii 

3 's* 

T'lT^TqqT qra: trfaqf^ Tf^*l?f 1 

qftvq qfr'w i qn*m u 

vj <j 

qftw$ ^4frf i 

%?y qrffr^j i it^rw iffrra i i q X'i xtfcps n 

So W ; DE ^j^fi; AB have no Sans. So EW; A <jJi^; BD <g*K. 

3 4 5 

DE add ^f^rfX l[f%rTT* DE ~^rTrTT ? B here corrupt. W has qj - 
and in the next line f^^5U^\J'^'. . DE ; and ^ in ex. 
A D DE ^rf* here and in ex. W BW 

T|TW^<rTt; D 7ft- AB have no Sans. expl. D 7fr«j-; W 


TIJ-. The passage enclosed in brackets is only found in AC, and 

II •RT«rPmir: II 

t « '-T^TT I 

i g^girfr ii 
«iT#r ^t ^Tfthr: 3>: i 
^ITffV 3i3TTT: JT^r^: II ] 

ii frfrwkwr h ^ h 

f^f^rTJt^mf ^T?l: WUcST^ft *f4f?f II few I frsf- 

s> C\ »3 

II I ^ II 

[ n tT ^ t: fl ^ it ] 

5?rra Twr wt x^nnsj: 11 wt i f<r ii 

II 9&WT Twt: SI II 

^qjxii 2 FT-?:^r: it 11 ^ 

51 *ref?f II ^T 131 II 


ii ^r^V: 11 »<l it 

^mT5T^ f^friqfTlfxf^^frf II 


has been conjecturally restored by the help of the corresponding 
passages in Hema-ch., and the Prakrita Sanjivani. It seems (with the 
exception of the last two lines) to be in verse, wdth examples inter¬ 
posed, and as such to be quoted at the end of the Comm, to Sutra 25, 
hut it will be further discussed in the Appendix. BDEW here re¬ 
commence ; DE add ^y ; W has <*TB adding as new 

examples ^T^R^tV EE add ^y, and it is supplied 

in the margin of A. This Sutra not in ABC. W W i-i 

fg^. 0 1)W add ^tf^PlifsiTrr,,- 7 Cf. iii., 57. 

It n 

is si 3, 0 ii 

wsffnp? EpRTT'^nr’^Nhire^f n 

»T^rast II 

ii «rf%r% fWifwr st tt ^ n 

*Tf%*Taf sg fa^TT^TT^T^TW^fa^TT^TTT <T: II 

*JT"T I T?f%W || 

li *j% 'gft sqaf u li 

■^TJT^ TST^TRT^fr *r^fw I gfrnrsg q^<ft *! wfw II 
'Eft II ^rTTf^f^ f¥ II *Tlwt II 

ii a®« ii 9 ^ ii 

37ST TTS^r ETU^T fsTOToEI^I T^Tfcl II «T^T 1 

^TTT II TTT^ff I Vf^ II ^fffTT 1 *fblT V^T II tTHJEJ | ^TfJ- 

|| TTf3>: I ^4 tV II V% faferf I EJT ftjif%r? II ^rg# | 

G>. Cv 

3f^ffY II ’TT^Tgft I ^TT^TT II I II I II 

1 ^frs ii ^rwg i u ^ i wtvr ii 

1 A : " BW -mf\ 3 AB ^j. 4 So DW and probably A ; 

B has been corrected from 3 to ^; several variations occur in the 
examples of this Sutra : Cf. Sanksh. Sara, 162, 165. BCE THS^f; 

6 7 

D A only f^"Wt; B fq^T f^ft ; w only ^ngy. Altered 

8 ^ 

in A n.l.; C ^T^-. Altered in A to *rr?fr; B n.l.; DE »'^rrY. 

<\ «0 

9 AB f%f%^ (B altered to -ff). A -^T (?) ; W -■£. " A ; 

D tjt- ; W adds another form j AC end here. WE ; 

DEW give Sans. ; Cf. Sanksh. Sara, 162. B W 

flfrfr vr^^t ; W has besides as new examples, 3j(-gjx^ | *fnrr 11 

: 1 11 grg^r: i wer: it i gT< 3 <st li f^?u i 

ii urarnrarnn ii 

V s 

Wr i ^ *?4 tt3 ^4$ nire tt w^rir^T : 


ttf^ftwr: ii 

II TfW ^TC^faliW TJTIifTWrij 

^ 75 ^: qfr^N;: 11 

D adds Tf^rrx:: UTf"35- 


il 11 

II ll 

u irrwt: u ^ ii 

•wr^THr^^Trinr^ ^t: ^rr<4 u g^fr i qw- 

Tr i qfrwT ii i we i n^tr: 11 

sf s> 

u arsjfttwfq: i •?. u 

^7T I '3q»TTT<TOT’mT 4V oJ^IWt wr^T^T 


**qf?r ii ^rr qftfa i w: i Wwwhi «fH.Tft 

sft q^friYtfr i 

ST# I ^TfW^rT il ^ 4ft TSP^f «W T^T 

wtq: ii 

u ■qrat «: u ^ ii 

^^TTtrlW^fTt *1T S*f v ftlftlNfWT <T^T^ ^Tqt 
wft II II ft^ftft ft^: II 

u snift?: u 8 u 

^wr s^rit £T^^^qrTq*rq#faiJwi*fHqrTfY u 

q^w i i irq ^qtcim i T\i Tft ll 

II fWwT ft || i H 

wr sw^t ftrat ft ii T#ft ii tt^ ^ft T<iM ii 

D adds ^ft^p|r = and quotes iv., 1. 2 D generally has g<f[. 

’ BE ; D 5Hr«nrg:^f ^; Cf.v., 11. *W = q^?f- 

5 6 7 8 

DeestinA. Cf.v., 12 . B -trr. D E 

• B om. This Sutra not in B. 

ii ■jfTSHnrafnn 11 

IS ii i ii 

^<TT $q?TT«l q’q^jqfqqsT^l ^fTq ^T ^T ^ f% T<5?I 
^T^T II I q^T^f 1 q^T^ I q^Tf% II SH^IJ^- 

I) >ejwt fwt ^?TV II O it 

^tfr S^qT^q >qWT Nm ^tfr TWrfTWT^T *fqq: II q^T 
N<fT I q^TWt II TT^ ^sfqr TfrT ^TTW fH<q II 

II # q=«; Ii c II 

^qY S5tfTW qj T^n^TT »T^frI II q^X^f II 

it a c ii 

qjqV SqqT*3 ^ : TT f% TaTTTTt »rari: II q^ I nfq^ 
T-f%^T^fq: II q^fof II 

H *?q; w. ii \° it 

sqqw ^ wit^t *qfq ii q^^ i tr^r ^fq 


II nusftp^t^ j| ^ II 

aiwr^ q^qt sm q^T vqfa u q^r qWfq i -saw- 

xqfq qfq -qwT HTq: || q^pfT ^T^T I q^T^ 1 q^lf% II 
TTfT^Tq: II w^rw II 11 

2 • 2 
B ; D as in p. 39, note 3 ; E as in p. 39, note 8. W 

3 Of- v -> 13 > DW add ( not in E > 4 A ^ j 

E w. " B corrupt; D ; E ojq^Rrpj. ° Only W has 

an ex. of irq, i.e., q^ , adding qj^f qxqfl q^qxqq TT<q qqT ^Yq: 
Only EW add q^^j. 

li qqsi: qfr#^: II 

li tjtt H \R II 

■^r? wrnl<q qqfq ^fq qq:qY fewt q^fqMT I ^qtTTT- 
|| q^ qwf II WHn^Tq: II q#W | STqYw: II T#- 
li q^#i li 

qqnrT^Hqrfq 11 q^Tf^qY q-^rgqY 11 -nm ffqY ^qY 11 
^fwcrfrfq fqj 11 q^fw i q^qg 11 

li ufa^q-fa^Ywfq: u ^ 11 

wt f%* tw^^Y: qq/r: qifwrqY qqqfq 11 q^r ^t- 

q^Y i wor^qpq Tfq 11 q^ i 11 

II T^wt: *qY nrt II q .8 II 

T^qqY: qrqY wY qqfq it ^ftwr toY i qrewY to ii 

ii qqY qT n ^ h 

q;^qqYwr qr qY sjqfq H ^fYqwY i 'qfarqg 11 qrqqjY 1 
qr?qg ii qrih i qraY: 11 

II qjq^ ’qr q<q ||^ || 


T^qqY^q ^YqnrT^iiY qqfq i q^qY^ t^<q qT i w- 

TT^ wY’q ii qi^rt^Y i qr^T 11 qjfYqqY i qrqqY 11 

t 2 3 

■^fq—^TT not in AB. " W DE ^1- 

4 E . 5 1) ; ABW ; E has both. ° W 

and ^T3?qt* ? The MSS. here and elsewhere vary between and 

Tf^5“. ^fX Inserted in margin of ABD. W has two Sutras for 
S. 16, i.e., two various readings of the same, with distinct commen- 

taries ^Y qY qT S <4 q?4q II Tq^qqT: q^qYqq ^rqT TTqT- 

qqq: I ^j<q T<3 fqqr^q | -qqiTqqq^tY Sfq I q% 

ii m?irnwni: 11 



wt T^pmT^Tt ^frT ii wftwr i giwr 11 

ii fH: it X* ii 

v* vl 

T^T?i^r: ^ ftr^i\TWWi ftgf wgfg ii 
^ ii W 7*xt i grsr ii firwji '’smftft i gT^rf? 11 ijgji i 
gran ii 

II f%Rjt ^rw wft#T « II 

f%Wt ggTTTW WW W?T v vr?f s TW<TTgTTwV Wgg: II TIT" 

grra TiraT^jt i wf w wtwt i g^a g^grr 11 

[a «nft gV u Ro it] 

«ra: f%wt ^^rTri v TWriT^TTifV gT *rg?r: i gir wTgggii 
wigrra i WTgrnrT i tiWt ii 

II wtri w: II ^ H 

wfw thtt: ferwt ^gfg 11 Trrgi i wt i gi* 11 

II TT^g^tgTfa^f^Trf: (I ^ II 

ZT ^ f%* TW^T f%WT T<T^ s ^<T s ^ITTI s T^rr 

^gfa II 

zr ii wiT i wtr? i wtw i wtwT gpg ii gnji wir I wig; I 

wiw i wiwt w ii ft ii wir i wig i wiw i wiwr few u 

wggggji w”T1wt wTrftgr wfvwwY wnwr w?wgt wr^it i gr 

etc.: then follows ^TSSf- W f%wt wiwrrggtgt- 

This Sutra is only found in BDE (D erroneously cfj both in 


Sut. and Comm.) and in the Prakr. Sanj. So E ; B ; D 

WTgrgg wigiTT- * w srsfe^wfeife-- 

II *hm: trfv#3r: II 


ii *nm h ^ ii 

wr 'simriw ^tf^rwrcrn: 3rrw#fat ’’rajsu^T#- 

rTRT^Tl' 5? ^T^rr: I XJW THlfr II T?TWTT ^T^TtT I 

^iiwi fy* ii 

II ETRW || \% || 

f%^nTT^TRjfTT^T7i: W* ^TfT t TW <fV II 


^*TTWT *WWt I W|T w^t I ^tWft I WFfT 

WT'ft II 

II «f «mi II ^ II 

n i wt tH: 

,3 C\ 

T^<T^t: ^H<4 *r 57 ^$ ^t4h ii i 

*rc? i it Tfa i i ii 


II Ii it 

W 5 ? 'C^TVSTT 

W as before ; the q^ etc. are used to imply the inst. gen. and 
loc. cases, i.e., ^ V*7 f%rf- * A ^T%(ft; B ; in the 


Comm. A has the same, B (originally HTff s ) and • AB 


have only this ex. W then adds another Sut. ( S. 25) TTf^Tf \ || 

*ns*rf*ra[«pr<ffi i wr: tw^r- 

^rr^arr i f%*TTf»raR3<ra i i tt 


^^ra^T«Tji ^ rftxr ^ sftf'i <Ytff i *dj rm^ 
^itk mf? ^Tf? ii ^t: wt: s*rwr: mfir: wriw 

D adds the six examples of the genitive to the preceding Sutra ; Cf. 
vi., 6. W adds #r tH: uw- "Yft—sirsra given from DE 

^ 7 

{Cf S. 18) ; ABW om. and add ^t?T ^^$r in the ex. AB only 


ii nT®fnran"si: 11 


ii gnrgw n 

WT^Hw gagWTW 4Y xj?7f ^ I Wg 

wYgfrfrgfr^ gig i ■fH Tfg 1 gYfg^g^ggr 

Tfgfg^gnr: ll ^ g^l % I % gTW I % gw I % ^f? I % WsJII 

II fe^TTfTr! TT<T s II ^ II 

f^gTHTgj-gw ^m: wg g<g **gfg 4t g^g: ii i wra i 

% gra ii ^gug iw Tfg gtwfg: ii 

ii H ^ ii 

WT*Hw t^g¥f gfl - II % WT I % 31? II 

ii gffg.^g$ ii ? e ii 

gggw grfaTW gYfg<^gfw II I i ?r$ II 

ll Wfl wtt: 4tfa II ^ II 

^grrTTgwt g^g wtt T^xtwt *rgfg 11 ^ttttY 4Y- 
^t i *twrTT ggssgt i ^tutw grw ii 

ii WfSTngi ^ it 

wswgfww ^wTwwuwTft **gfg ii ^twt 4Wt i w? 
i ^twit grg i WTwrg n 

ll ^WTirflHrT^gj gr II II 

grssrgsT^EPH g^g wag wgrrTTTwV ggfg 4 t ii 

v \3 vj 

1 2 3 4 5 

W $p)*;. AB om. masc.ex, Cf.iv.,6. W adds f^f^f. WputsS. 
30 after S. 26. °B^ by mistake. ' W \^x$? ^T and 

N v5 


transposes Sutras 32, 33. The examples in AB are rather obscure, 
and the forms from *prlTT are only fully given in DE. 

II wn: II 


ire i KrT^hr ii ire i »ffnrr vtttt ll <tt i wwt 

^ttw ii ^rej ^tutc w^ttm ii i Wrrg ii ^it- 

v \3 "> C\ 

TTf^: ^cl II 

ii <w>3T <?htht w ^ttit : ii 38 11 

^TT<T ^ffT sfY I ^ITTTWT* H fa^T 
I W^T I utof^w II 

II ^t4 CT II 3 * II 

ftntT^tanRrenfY *refiY 4Y ^?r: ii ^rrri^T^ ll fasu 


uireip^i T^r^^T^ifr #r wr: ii tt^t ii 


[ll ^iTiniir 3T fw^: ll 3-0 n] 

^T5Rir®^i ^tiN% wt f^: ^m s ii % i % Tra ii 
[ll nia^ret wY ii 3 ^ ii ] 

tts ^wjrej§re s Twwwi wY Tar^m^rr ii 

TT^TWT wfw I TT^TWT q*RI 1 TTTWT *re' 1 V^TT V^T II 

[ II HfTJI 3i. II ] 

ttw qr^i ire v TW^wrt^Y *Rfa ii ttv qw i xt^twt 


[ll ^U?Y 1! II 8o ll] 

TTO ^rnrenre: rataire'qsref ^ TW^reTTifr **qf?r ll 

W^^;Aom. A tt, but C ^rj. 3 D (not E) spfr^jr. ’a^tT- 

sS \i x ^’ 

5 G 

mC-> D ^X^f- These Sutras on rdjan (S. 86—44)are only found in 
DEW; W has a few variations; DE agree. 7 AY puts S. 40 after S. 48. 

I! ^Tlirl'R^T^: It 

8 ^ 

TT^T^T || 

[It TT WT II *\ II] 

TF3 ^tH^it: wt wrrfjl tttwt ll 

[n wg f%(4 3tw^n3 ii 8>? 11 ] 

Tra ^tTT^ STT^in?}^ 3T VRfrl I 

Wfti: II T^v TTT^r II TTTWT T^T ^ II 

[n » «* II] 

if?T fa^xi I ^®7f TTtJ 

gif?T II tttwV tttwt II im f^ g wfg II II 

[ll ^n trrmmT^fw 11 »a ttj 

wtwf: <*wr: tt'wV ggrr^i ^rnrrrT^'Jr: ^ttt s i wf% 

g ^^frf || TT^ITWt I TT^T^T *N»| I TT'^Tw' 

W II f^f II TTTWV wt II ifag^rRrf Jl TT^ I TT‘ 

Hft I TT^ST TT^IT^r TT^T^ I TrsnfSffr TT^T^ffr I 

TnjTnn ll Trgra i ^Tgfg: i tth: i ttwhi: i ttT^ i Tr^ng 11 

ii ’siTwifr s*unrr st ii «m s ii 

^tw^t smrw Trgr^gt *ref?r m 11 ^wr i 'snunsfr u 

[ II II 8^ ll] 

^Tcfl^rC S«!T^ TlsRrTJSTg ^TTf^T^T cT^fg^iT II ^ttJT ( 
'STOWf | TgiqwT I ^urT || ^TWT I ^ITriTTg: I '3nm 5 (T I ^T<IT 5 T: II 

II ST^T^T 8*> II 

slirnJT: ^T II g^T- 

’ W ^t«rT<}T ^T- * C f- “•> 48. * This 

Sutra is only found in DEW. ; W adds the forms ^TfT 

ii <hnr: n 


wt ii w i urgrift ii w*r v Tnr- 

W^ff II 

II Tfa "STfirJ-R^TTr f^fewHUT^!!:: 



'sgnsi^t ’’BTWST'SjY > A om - Sans.; W explains it by 

T*T v ; B n.l. 

8 ^ 

ii HTsmwnx: 11 

n wsr: 11 

H xr«i ii \ ii 

TfW V^f?r II ^ I $ I 3 I f I II 

•vr ®S ®\ *\ ®N 

XJqf I *f I ?T I ^ I ^rJT II 

II f^0f%7HTT: ii ^ ii 

WTreforrqw wf^TTf^iw ^T*r f%f f% m Txipr 
*r#r ii u^§ i w^t%r i 11 i T’^ncfar 

t^T^TH ^Wftff^l TfTTf^TJ 

|| T^fTf^R^Tr^rgT TWT Wl II ? I! 

Tt I TXTTrfJ f* I *frfj f?rf v I TSprwi: 3T TWTTTf 


*raf?r ^t ii Ttwr i iif^rr i f%<rr i f^jwx i f?nsrT ii i twt i 

Tf^W I I I WW II ms? I I m 1 m 1 II 

II ^5T*? xrfw II 8 II 

T^Tf^l Tfm TW^TTsfr WT II 

T^HSJ | I 3TP5J l 3TRT | ^ 

cfT^ II 

it f^rrTifl' *ۥ*? mw: II y ii 

1 ABW f^u for 2 ABW f^fj, but all have Cf. S. 15. 

3 4 5 6 

A B -f^jj. A - 7 EJ 7 . So BD and Hema-ch.; AW ^T^TJTT 

7 8 

'SfTWT rfT^T* ^"WT f° r “W i n these second forms; B -Tji. W 
adds ^tf^TTT Smif% WfW II TmfH I TT^Tfa' I 3>Tffr I ^Tfw I 

II tre: u 


f^f I rfcT^I TT-HI <r?n:^l ^TU TW^T^T ^tff 

3T II 3TTW I ^ II *ITW I anjj II cfT* | rT^g II 

H TW- W * II A II 

T^ttt^wi: ^xnc^r ^jt i 

H^cf: II f%W I I I ^txr | ^ I ^tT II ^ I 

^T I I I ^tT II f?fW I <?tw | rfl^JT I T^TT | <fH | ?ftT II 


^ xPC^J ^; f? WT II 3>f? I 

g>fig i ^»f% i ^ ii *if? i ^f^g i i ii riH i *rfM i 
rTf^T I rTW II 

II T^T qfT'i II « II 

f^^xr^T t^t t^TT^tit ^t ^rj: 11 ^rr% 1 

5IT^ I rfT% II I *TT^T I fTT^T II TWT^^V Sf^T II 

I ^T I rRT II 

II xfi ^Y II t. II 

f^xJ^JT xfr ^T TWrTRT^^fV II 3Tx»*Y I 3>^Y II 
^txTY I ^T II Tlxfr I rf^Y II 

l| 7\J || \° j| 

rl^ ^xTT^ ^fT^rTT^TIT »refrr ^TT II ?fY I rTrfY I rT^TT II 

mfw ii- W reads S. 6, : ^gTBY f%*lt II T^TTTW^rgT^TTT- 

ferei f%^Tf^“«j ’Triw t-v: ^gT *Y etc., after the ex. 
it adds t3TOTOT|}3f (Cf. v., 22, yar. lect.) Cf Lass. 

Inst., p. 321—3. BW and similarly <fYt- 3 B 

etc. BD 7^ for tTV? and similarly in Comm. W Tf^ - Ng^. AW 


^TT- A om. ; W Tjxj ; for fft cf S. 20 ; Hema-ch. also gives it, 





%fa I <T^T ^T *3 * TfJp9*T^rr wfrT I **T- 
■JTTTT II B I rfTW I rf^f II 

II ^nw f« II ?,«> II 

rf^ ^T*T fa 4 t **fa II fa I ?TTW II W^lt 


II fa*: **: II ^ II 

fa^*i^fa ii i % i i 

•s^. 4 

srfa 11 

it t^* T*: II ^8 II 

^fa HT<7 T^* T* TST**T^^r *4fa II T*T I T* I T* I 
T*W I T*fa II 

H ^gfa*flW II X'i II 

^f%*T: ^ V^*T S^TT^ 3T *gfrf II I T*^l II 

^fai T*fai ii 

•V »V*k 

II W. II ^ II 

T^*T #: *TT* WXT^T 3T *?fa II II 

I I T*fal I T*fa II 

and it is found in tbe Setubandha ; see Hofer, Zeitsch., p. 517. A 
om.Sans.; BD add rf^Tt (for ij?); W adds fal*T*fa * fa^0T I 
^fa^W * cTtIT- * Only in DW. * So BDE (B 7fTW) 5 


•\ ♦ • 4 , 

A r^XWT ; W ft fXTW rlfa ; Hema-ch. also has f«. AB grfa 

5 6 7 

DW add cJT B confuses Sutras 14, 15. W *fa*TT^T- A T ^- 

8 9 10 

71^[. W^gf^(^f^gin S.16.) A but not so in S.16. Added 

II qq: qfq^q: n 

II q <*r: ll v® ll 

qqq: w t: w *f qqfq 11 t: fqgfqjTqr 

?fq qTq qfqfqqm II ?q I 'qfqj I T^f^i I T^fw II 
ii qqqt qmlltqfaqrfawr n 11 

qqqqrftq qqq: ^at: qrq: qfSwfqtqrqf qq tw^t 


TWq ■q^r ^TT'STT qqfq II qq I TWI T^qT VW || 

II qqq: qiqra 3T II ^<L. || 

qq^^qqt qt qqq tt<q qT ^r^f?T 11 fqqf qiq fqqr^qm 11 


qq I qqT II qq: It 

II qff qq: II 9° || 

qqq: qqqi q=q: tPt qqjqqiqqt wfq ll t^TT i qqiqt i 
qqT^ I qqtfq II qqqTTqjl 

ll qrr<spqrqiqfrq: it ^ it 

qqqqmqqr WTqqT: qqqT "TTqT qqfq II qqft l q<q II 
II q: qiqqqqt || ^ || 

q^fsqqi qq^sqqt qqrqqq: q^f qqqqTqqT qqfq ^q- 
qqt qt qqq: || qV qfqqT I qt qfq«TT | qq | qqT | qqT || qq 

>3 vS 

fqfq ft ll qq i q i qq i q ll ^tfqqr qfq ft ll q qq vw ll 


ll qiqqt qt«: it ^ ii 

qjqqT qqrrTqj ^fq qqqt *f T?qqqTqtt vqfq ii qjq 

from DW 


A qqtq 
qqq v - "DWqY- 

these cf. Lass., p. 129. 
; B 9 AB Tf. 

■ ’ A qqT ( ? ) ; W has as an ex. qqtqt = 
BD (not W) qqT- 5 DW * D qrff; for 
7 qTfqfqft and its examples not ill A. A 


li miunrafrsi: it 

i i wsfr i w?rr ^fwHrr i ’w 

\» • C\ C\ \> C\ ^3 



li ^ rt* li ^8 li 

^T qT? 7 T Wr^T^t »T^frf || jfT^T I 
77f%*TT I ^ || ^T^ifr f^rSnj 

^T?T 8 ^ II 


| ^T^f^T 5 U 7 T s l Tjf^rf ' 371^1 WifTTSITTi: 

ii ?5*? n ^ ii 

i ” t 1 U 7 n <t < 5*7 77377: ii 

77 ’ST^T I ^TTP^T II 

II fHTfij II ^ II 


3^1 3777: 77 Tsn^^fr 3 T 773(77 1757737 11 g 

33 ^lf 77 I 7577 ^^ttfri ll 

li ?pij 75^” srf% 11 11 

1 2 3 

So DE ; A om. ; B ’sgwT; w ^77^- w ^|T7^. B^Tf. 

C\ C\ C\ C\ 

Cf. Lass. Instep. 327. B throughout. DE ^^^7^ <jcf anc i 
similarly in Comm. ABC > DE cT^Uf*! > ^ (and the 

Prakr. Sanjiv.) rf^lfjT >—if t! be correct, it must be the enclitic 


form (Cf. Lass. Inst., p. 328) but it is probably a mistake for 7 f in 

copying from a MS. in the Bengali character. W cj fj^Xrf ; DE 
seem to give as a new Sutra, and add to this in its Comm. 


337TTTT7 n 77 75337- MSS. here : in the following Sutras D 

ii qfr#T: 11 


^)f% ?5^W <5^ TWTTTlT^h v^rf: n 

TJ^J I 75# ^T^I^T II 


■aif% tt ^gf?r i ^ttttt v 75#j 

rt# ^ II Tf ^Tfa II rf*fj 75# qwfa II 

J s> 

ii 3T^t^T ?nr 75*7 75 * ii §o ii 

^’JT^tTT^T: ZT f? TWfT^t: 7TT 777 75*77 75 # T7777 T7T- 
77T II ?T II rfT 777 ?5*T7 ?5^ 7R# II fe II 77T 777 75*?7 

75# fe^S II 

ii (S^Tj'fTS^g^w: ii ?7, ii 

^JTT: 77^ 75#T ?57 75^ 75*? 757) TT^Tf ^T^TtT 

*ref?T ll 75 *tt 77 1757 T^u 75 *? 7577 77 II 

II 'SfTfe 7 77 # II ^ II 

STfttfTR^# 777TTT^ ^f% 7 7T7TT 7777 : 7^77 # # 
77777777775 »?5|rr: II 7f 77# I t H # VW I # *7# II 

^t{% ^77^: 7^ 75*7TT TW^T^"3fr *77fcf II 75*7TT 77# II 

11 Tj^f? 75 #^ 75#f? f#f% 11 sy 11 

fVrf% 7T75T yiTT: 75#7f? ?5#f? 75#f# T7&7T 'SIT- 

#HT HTfa II 75#ift 75#f# 75#fl? 77# II 

generally has i§, the other MSS. ^ {Cf. iii._, 8); W generally writes 
for plain in CEW ; AB not clear, except in one ex. ; 

D reads corrected in the margin to ; only D has the 

2 3 

others rjlp- W adds ^^T^TrT So MSS. plainly; D as 

ii TfTSSrrJpifrai: 11 

1 ^ 

II WT TJtTT cITtH 7J??T^ 75*Tf% II II 

wlr fTrfr TTwr <5 *t^ <pift 

TWrf ^T^T ^4f<T II TTtVT ^T^T^T I 7TWT rJ^T^T <JW^ 

75^Tf% ^rpr^r II : 11 

ii <5^Tfwr ^T^?fr -«rf% ii ^ ii 

q^sr -«ff% ^iNffi <5^T^<rr tt£t- 

?IT^TT'3ft *nm: II r^WT ^TR^T II 

II €Yi| <5^T^j II ^ It 

’srifa ^T<fC ^ ^ <5^5TW rJ^TW T^«T ’ST^- 

■JTT vifh II fr ^TW I $T I <p§JTW fJ^TW v^i II 


^t q^f?: <prf% Twr^t 11 rj^far 
far^ II tRT^ rTTWrR^TTT W^frT II 

ll <5^1 <S^N ll ll 

q^l TWrTRT^lfV 

*R<r: II <3#5 I <5^ ^ II 
II wft ^ II 8° II 

w?: *V trt ^ w^i tw<t ^t^jtt ^f?r ii 

^ vi 3>Tfa II 

before, corrected in the margin; only D ^ for in the 

1 «►». 2 
second form. BD rffU rlT<TT, but B not so originally. AW 

3 •s. 

-ipEf t as a compound ; Cf. S. 48. So BDE ; A has if 
fJ^TW ; W TT ^ TJ^TW ^T^iTTf^T > and similarly in the 

Comm, of each. 1 T^—*f cff?f not in A ; Cf, S. 30. 5 So BDW (and 


II : II 14 

II II 8^ II 

^ TT<ft sw^: 'siTfrr i *T t 11 

^far w i ^Tfrr ^rrfir H ht t w i ^r? ^ftfir ii 

ii ii mt ii 8^ ii 

^iftfa i w^: tttTt it wt T^fTT^TT^ 

W7T: ii it wt w II 

ii ^ WwV: ll 8^ ii 

mt: ^ tw^htt^t ireftt ll ’ini 

II ’Tt’lrfw II 88 II 

wt: *r^r ^f% Twt wV TW^HTirifr ir^fa ii wt w ii 
wt’tJtw ii 

n ^rrf^F it HWT II 88, II 

WT : ^Tf? $ HHTT TWffRT^fr H^rf: II 

^ ^ I UUTT *lN II 

II #N HT mt II 8^ II 

W^: ^T q^ffr UT HTT TWTTT^T^irt U^rf: | ^T- 



ll firfw ll B'Q ll 

probably C ) ; A as * n S. 37; A has rfip^j in ex. 1 A 

in Sut. and ex.; W reads the Sut. ^Tf^T* A ^ ea ^ 

(Sutras 43—58) is here lost in A ( Cf. Lass. Inst., p. 330) ; C has the 
missing Sutras, but often corrupt. BCDE TJT; W isyf ; Hema-ch. 

gives as his Sut. ’ s 5FfY W TRT- B ^Tf^^T^V- 

ii TfT^rnmin 11 

fafa IT^ffT II ^II 

it httV *?Trrr twt^t jwi^ *mTfi it 11 

w«c: wr q^?r TTri wfa 11 wt ?t^t i 

^TT^T I *TOFfr ^ifT II 

ii ^Tfwr ^T^ffr >ofa 11 «i_ n 

WT : >Jjf% tfTrT ^Tf^fTT ^T^T TrS rfT 3 T^?lT 

Wrf: II ^TRrft ^TW' II 

II £? WT Tf^ TT^f ^fw || y ° || 

W«T : ^f% ^Trf Vrf ^TT^TT VRfa II raiHH *T? 

*H 3 J VW II 

ii *T 5 §j wr ^Tfa 11 yx 11 

W^: ^Tfa UTrf ipr ^TT'JTT II WT ^P* 


11 #■ ii ii 

#T q^ffr TWfal Tf 5 rT^Tr II 

fe’’* II trff#r HT WT T(i)?rN II 

ii ii y,? it 

wt: srnffta^r^ 4 ?fa ^Tn: Tfisr^TORift' 

ii fy^ II 

1 B ' B om .; Sutras 48, 49 desunt in C. B 

^^fTT- ‘ W ^R^JTWT. BC om. the Prak. Sanj. om. 
and varies between T?rf and qr. BC (in one word); W 

E has no Comm.; only D ^T|T T^V \jqr, which Hema-ch. 
confirms. 7 qq — added from B; Cf. S. 46. D ■ 5 35J^^. 

ii qfc#^ 11 

II II *8 II 

q^^f?r f%TTr i ^qtfa ^ ii fsrsrs^t ^t 

wfa ^fq q^TH ll i fW ii ^n*?T i q^fr: ii 

it ii in, ii 

fro^i qT^r: fn tstt^’jit *fqf?r 11 <ftff 8 i 11 f%- 

fa: i f^i ii 

ii farfs ii ii 

fsrcr^j ^ frifs TWTT'sfr *ref?r 11 fafa ^ito- 

I fr?f*3 TO II ■3RT ^TOrTT: I II 

II frfw WT II V s II 

V? qrq VRrE II ^ 

^wf?T I ^tf% ^xgfyj || q% ft ^wf?f II ft ^rH II qq^ I 
^Tfqr qq*| | q% ^ qq^ II TTW II 

ii ^?}T^TrrfV -q^ifr ii *jc ii 


gtKfjCHjf ?n? ^tTTTT ^xTTfr ^(grfTqrt’^t 
^qrt: ii Trnfq; qft^T i ^rnft ^mfr qft- 

•N *\_ 1 

q qq*? ii 

il TrqTWTwr ^ ll 'it, ii 

W (and the Prakr. Sanj.) So W; the other 

MSS. f^-. So CW; the others (D -^j). The Prak. Sanj., 


Sanksh. Sara, and Hema-ch. all have i; Cf. Lass., Inst., p. 102. B 
fw (sic) J C ff|T!TX; D ffjfa;; E f^f%[ ( sic) ; W ff|f% j Cf. Lass., 

6 7 

p. 319. A recommences here ; cf. p. 55, note 2. W adds 

A T'fi'TOTT^rrafq: I ?|q ’q-gif^ etc. A throughout. 

II TTTlirflf^Tir: II 

xmi ^ *Rfa 11 

^XTf VW I ffPSf W | W || 

II SHfr S^cRrfJI i° II 

in?: I ^TTRTT fwr f? T^’TTf'JT 

T^TTT^T^trrT^fTT I 3T^ff4 I TR W«rTN 

wifi i ^rr^j i ^i^ft^r i gT^i^r i i 

I TR fftf^ ’TSf? II 

ii 5 t f%R^r^T^r ii ^ ii 

trrrtt'^Y *r m4?t: ii 

^frJlfw ^IT^fw I 3TTRT I I 

^T^f% II 

|| ^ •wrf% || It 

I Rf% XTTTrT T^TTC^ITt*T wfrf II 

^**rif^<iY ^ratfwr 11 ^ft^iffr i ^rrsRwr 11 

II feeing giR^si II <t3 ii 

TRTUt fWfifat W fa^N f%T5tW ^SR^T TRT^cjj || 

ACDE Tffjxni 9 W; B ora. and confuses the Comm, of SS. 
59,60. " So D; A f%f^-. " W ; the rest ffff^ ; Cf. note 4, 
p. 57; mox W ^3tfs; A ^fM ;bde 'tsN ; the other Gram, have 

u. *A <TTr[ ; B -<TT*ft; W ^^RT^irfT^t- ' Of- v - (; > 9- °W 

added xf to the Sut., and, therefore, adds erroneously here 
f^Tf% The MSS. have etc., the anusw. being optionally 

added or not by S.iv.,,16. ACDE (and the Prak. Sanj.) yr; BW ^y ; 
and similarly in the comm. ; Cf v. 12, and Lass., p. 610. 

II re: ’jfc’WT 1 II 

Wt I II I sr#f? I re^Tf^rlt II T3*fr: I T^TT - 

^ I 31^^ II 

f?r#Y ^t ii fre?i: i f^i fW II 

II II $8 ii 


|| ^f?| TTTlire^T^ ^VTH? 

re: ll 

A ^FP^f• A ; D (but corrected in marg.). 

II HTUfTwni: II 

li qqq: qfq^^: ii 

II II 1, II 

7! friq^T#7T^TTlf^^I qiR TfT v ^fI v T<&rIRT^^r qqq: II 

q^T q^TT I qqT qqq II q^fq q^q | q^fq qqq II 

it qrfq[?qr: fq q 11 *? ii 

qjRJqqj^rq*riT$qW qiTq fq q TwqiqT^ift qqq: 11 q®- 
fq q^q i q^fq q^q II 

II T^faqVfqMl 9 II 

T? fqqjrwqqt: 1H fqqqfq ii qrrfq i qqrfq i qqrfq li 

v v 

II fqjqTsriwtqqT qiT| II « II 

qiH| qqqiqiqf fqqq qjR fqj ^ qT q q Tfijq ^T- 
qqT qqfq II qqqqqqq? | Tqfq I q^fq I qqfq II qqjqqj II 
Tqq I q^q I W? I qf%7qT II qqrqqt II qbqY I q^q I q^q II 


1 BD 2 The MSS. often read ; cf. ii., 24. 3 So MSS.; it is 

reversed in the comm, of S. 5. ijrlfr- not in A. A fjj. A 
etc. AW in Sut. and comm. ABD ^rnFTlB W 

Hema-ch. and the Prakrita Sanj. have ^72JT an d which 
seems better ; cf. S. 7; E has no comm. The annsw. in these ex. 
erased in A; W seems to have etc. ADE Xff^EJT * B 

■R^tT^TT? W cf Lass., p. 336, and infra. Sut. 17. E 

; cf S. 31. 

ii ttstr: » 

il -*)H « w li t II 

fsTWra *ffiY f%ill?W I ?rf?pfr: pJ^TWYT TT i TWT' 

%-STRrf ^ITf »T^rf: I ^IT^Tr^ II rrffRY: I TOT* II 

f%wr 4 Y: i 11 ^?r tPi far i tTt i ’rePr 11 

it II i II 

w^rnfr: ^Tf^g^iTTT^^: 4 t?tY *fY 4 Y »repf 11i 
*?fvrr f% it wt $f% i i^e?Y sf% II 

«J vl 

Bg 0 

it fwrr'iwT.fT^'yW^ 11 a 11 

fRjfrTmT^TTRr: ’TTWTWt ^^tt: iroYfirar: i 
^Yq: ii wr pf i *ra ^Y i ^ i ^ ^ ii *mY sf%? i 
*mT; w. II 

ii n* i^TwY ii ^ ii 

twt^iiY *r?t: ii q^PsiT i 

^fr^TT II to i ii 

II *fT7?jf%£ II L. II 

VT<flTWf%^ uPf ^ T^T T^JT^Y 5f Wrf: II • 
7PJTT II I II TOT^Plt f^f^RTfTJ f%^- 

f^w—^ri: from BD; A is obscure here; cf SS. \, 2, and 
Lass. Inst., p. 336; B has ^jx^rT for *j<fY, and both have StffraY:, 

as in s. l. “A^iwfq;. 8 e q^Y:; a ^irvnfr: *rtt: *rrf%(' 

TjY't^fq;. A 1TT!TT- A om. $j in Sdt. and comm. W Tfaj in Sut. 


and comm.; B n.l. A gives the plur. ex. tj^jx XpT ^T^STf ^fT j B 
has throughout; W adds scimyogapiirvo hraswah ; Cf. iv., 1, 

note. Cf. viii., 58 ; A merely quotes the Sut. ; the rest is given 


II fTWTJramt: 11 

fqVT«T n HW<T: I f^WT* 7 J qq || *nft- 

^ 3 T I f faWT II 

II sfinulV wuTsrqt: ii \° ii 

w -siT^ s T^fn?r^i^ *tt 5 TTW vq?n 11 

q^qt i q^n-qfr i ^'ht i ^q?TTqfr 11 

ii f^ret ii ii ii 

f%ft q<f qiq^rT: W^r^^Tft^TTT^lfT *rqf?f l 
^ II I 1 WTTWT II qqt I q4?ft I ^JW*!FT II 
ii w<rftrf%«ifa fq: ii ^ n 

qn^ vra’r: qfV fw^: whs*?: ii ^Tf%T i 
^f*f%T II €tNf<T I II I ^firafrT | I 

'f f%^fW ii 

II < 3 tT« f 0 T II ^ II 

»Tfq^<SHT^ W ^T T<t<^ Ti^TWi^t I ^qnTTq frg || TT- 

s9 x 

^gifa i TT^rfR i Ttf%fa i Ttignft i i Trfwr i 

T^nfr ii *Tfqs}Tfa i ^firerra: 11 

II fw If -IT II II 

^frsrajTre f»mT vnff: q^: fftnrsfr qr 11 

Tr^j I qqj TT^TfTI I Tf^Tfa I II 

is given from BD ; W absurdly makes a new Sutra of it, besides 

1 2 

having it in Sect. viii. DE 7f for *ff throughout. The MSS. vary 
between and DW ; A ^rTj B ; all have f; in the 

ex. 4 AD f%. ° A 6 BDW add the pi. forms in 

7 s 

*T and ^TTOTT? etc. W fqqt- D adds f etc. 


II wtth: II 

[ II ^T«Tjff^|Tf%7^T II ^ || ] 

^RT^T TWW: f%- 

W f%c 5 TT TW<TT^TtTf 3 T WrT: II Tlff^T Tlf^T I ^f%f%^T 
^f%fT^TT il I || t[% | TlfsRT I TT^TflY I 

Tf^mt i ^f%f%‘^r i ^fa^gufc i 'ffwifr i n# wr^trft i 

[II 3 >rw rt^f tt- 

^ *r*SF Tl^F ^F II II ] 

^fg-StfrT ^TT”T ^tW=FcRR WR R^ITRRR 3 fT^ 

7 P?RR ^JTTTTT ^frf II 3 TT^ ^fT^Tfa I ^TRITfa I r't’^F 
^frarfa I fr^F 3 Wf% I R - ^ RfaRJTfr? I Th^F ■^rf^'snfri I 
T'tW ?wfa I RWfa Tmf% II 

[ II wffat fR^TORRITTRR fwrtf^ RT II II ] 

^ TWRwftRT TT^Trar^TTt^ rtrt 

*rf%TZ[fa RfT^ €W TWT^R Rnt" 3 lT I *RR^TT I 

fwn'g RT II 

Rtf^FT Rtf^Ff?T I ’RTRtfR II RlNFfa I RTf^FHfrf I 3 fT- 
^f?r 11 Rtf^f%f% 1 11 wTf^FT^T 1 Rtf^Ffs- 

^tt 1 ’rt'sj'sj 11 Rrf^Ffa 1 ^rf^Ff%f?r 1 ^fr-sufa 11 rt^ri i 

Sutras 15 —22 are only found in BLEW ; for Sut. 15 , Of. Lass. 
Inst., p. 353 . 2 BW om. 3 B (•) 4 DW om. 5 B gives 

6 7 

these in full. Of. Lass. p. 351 for this Sut. B ^Vc^f > the 

other MSS. prefer ^. So W ; BDE ° "VV adds ^^^X!TT- 

^RTfa I RRT RTWR# | RTRUTfR R^jTfR- “ W om. ^ftf; for 

Sut., cf. Lass., p. 353 . So BW; DE in both ex.; cf. vii. ? 4 . 


ii miirrpnjrnr: 11 

I -rTf^T? I 5TTf^f%T? | WTf^^T I i 

v? v9 

^Yf^^tTirr i «Tf^^T^r i irTf^-^ur II ^fr-sanr: ii urg fr^fr- 


[im^« ii \' c: si ] 

-RflT^ *TOTWT ^ ^ *f TWrf ^T‘ 

's* \» 

tsrr *refrr ii i ^rg i ii '*^75 i i wft ii 

[ ii ws?i ii \t- ii ] 

^jTRrtrw -R<?pm *rqnbgi *?r ^ *fr twh 

^ C\ Nj 

’’ST^STT K^fTT II ^#<5 I W? I W^iY II 

I! 3T II II 

*rfira^sr?jri^ f^T^s ’gVaTW Tiw^r® ^r «tt 

TWrfT^TTlft WT WrB | Xf% ^TTfT^ i epf*TT% rfT^rT^ I TT^ 
TC^TT I W33f I R% TIT T*k II I Tl" 55 ! 

TfWT I R% •flf%T TWTfT H II 

' W adds xnfw^HU --g M ^rf%f%WT t 

the Comm, in B is corrupt, but seems = W ; both further add vochha 
at full length. W E adds DE add 

-15 -IT; W’s ex. are ^?T"3 ^ I Ttf% T*lf% | TT^ the 


last two = TSTfa- It then adds ^rf^TITWT^TTTTWT^fT 

; B adds a very long Comm, applying these forms at full 


length to the potent. 1st and 3rd pret, 1st fut. and bened. W <=r-. 
6 7 8 

W W Only W has ?j€p|”*[ ; E has through- 

out adya for anadya ; Cf. Lass. pp. 357, 358. W adds ^^TTTTfT 

here. “ BW add xr^ sfa TnraT*R3?=R5!Wf% TT^- 

^rrf% which Hema-ch. also seems to allow. So E ; D om. ; BW 

ii to*?: ii 

[ii •jplhr it \ ii ] 

^^nrTTr I fronf^TJ I TTWS TOWr? I W^WTf^ II 

[ II WTOrg: II II ] 

w^srcl - vn?T: 

^ w WT T*TOT9T^ft *f TOT?: ftrTO TO tott: II ’TOT 
< 5 TOT II TO WT TOW TOWT < 5 WW < 5 ^TWT I TO*?** 
Sw^tw<?wt: II 

ii $r* *zn ii ^ ii 

add as ex. ‘^V^f | with the following Sans. 

expl. TOrr s ^TfT^^fff?*TTOTOr?m,^ftg ^W<T S TOTO S 
^JTO W>TO 'TOTT ^W\ TWTfiC I 5 Hema-ch. in his 
corresponding Sut. agrees with DE, but adds anye tu anyasam api- 
chchhanti ; hojja , bhavati, bliavet, bhavatu, abhavat , abhut, babhiwa, 
bhuyat bhavitd bhavishyati abhavishyadva ityarthah. 13E ”=g. 

E gives ex. without Comm. Only W adds -T^* 

DE om. W ; B adds ^f^rT 3J37T etc., as i n S. 20. D (not 

<s» v V» 

E ) om. this Sut., and much of Comm., but it is supplied in margin. 

7 8 9 

D E has i for e in all. D rf^fr^f. BW om. and add 

| -*^jT* ADE ; B §^‘ ; W has three Sutras 

t^l II TO*?T*IT^T<fr: uww In w?t<t^ii to 

*N I I ’f€N I TON II ^nft?TI WXrNtrT^l ’TOTOJ TO- 

I TrTOftr I Wfw TJTOTOTO^TOWfa ^ *hr^- 

*TTf*?; then follow TOTOT 'fN II (S. 24) and ?J?J II 4TO 


it UTiirrJmir: 11 

^ VTffr: t^I T^T^J^T^-sfr ^frf II 3?Wfa 

ii ^?fr s i ^*mji 

it ^rrr affa it ii . 

n?ra vnrr: ira^rei it^s T^^rmr^t wfn 11 
TT’fH? ii ii 

ii wrif%: ii ii 

^Hp|w grpa ^rrf% Tfw fnromn 11 ^t!% tt^t i 

^rcfa ii ^rrftFT^T i 'suft^: 11 


I! fa* TTTr^TfT ^TrfJI ^ II 

TjnrrviT'sfr *ref?r 1 ^ ^ira 

K^frf ii grTTT i itwt i 'nil ii nnx^ifir i i HT^f?i 11 

H ^ m ii «^> ii 

fcm TcSRwnvT ^rnfa i ^HTrnprfFrg 11 i 


a»m vTfff: man v* twi^t: 1 wf%^ i w- 

f%? Tf%7T nfsri (W in fact gives the var. readings of one Sut. as 
two) ; the copyists add anusw. wrongly, as if the rule applied to the 
past participle (for which vide S. 32), Cf. Lass., p. 354 ; Hema-ch., 
the Pr. Sanj., and the Sanksh. Sara read fr*- The Pr. Sanj. adds 
in Comm., sarveshu purusheshu sarveshu vachaneshu , and expl. bhuta 
by and f%£\ ’ ADE ; B ( cf. viii., 1) 

\J V ^ S 


I; none give Sans. expl. ; the Pr. Sanj. A 

fr* in Sut., but '^‘•^in Comm.; BDE ; W (and the Pr. Sanj.) 
cf- Lass., p. 354. W adds 

rS^XTT . Only in W ; W then adds a new Sut., ^t^5T ; 

5 6 7 

see App. A only W\n4- B cjrRT - > ^ ie ex - * n ^ ^ ave (L 

II !• 


it ^rfq; wr ii ^ ii 

ftrq T *rrf%TT^sfr ^t tptw$ ^thY wqq^roY^ u 
^TTf^ wfq^ q^Tfr 5 * 13 fTfr^ Trt%^ qrf%^ 11 
^TTfrssrT i wfq^rr i ^Tfrsrs; i q>TfV«rT i 'fTft^rr i 
■qifjws; n ^nfrTT i ’WTf%?i i mf^ft i q»T*m i i qrsra ii 

III S|“Ct¥|| \t- 11 ] 

Tjwrre;^ TstoTSTT^sfr ?r ^q?r: 11 

qJTfV^ I qffrfT’q I ^Tfr^T I ^TTt^STT II 

ii m fafq wt ii \° 11 

^T^f m^rcrY^, fafa ’w^T^it-arr *nf?r ^t ii ^ht- 

frr i ’f li 

II 3T»I « ^ II 

fYniY qwr srf T^'njt'jfr ^qfw i ii 

^fYmY i ^^rr»rr i i wV 11 

nS \* 

ii ^ ii ^ ii 

fircrare 'TTffr s?f T’fqfrr 11 ^fYra 1 qf^i 11 

ii utj 11 

35T ufq^qfq qrrw ^ ^f?r Tr<q ^qf?r i , qq>T- 

1 2 3 4 

B BD om. W qT1"j and similarly a in all the ex. " This 

Sut. not in AC; B has it, hut corrupt; W reads it XT«^T?f ; DE as above 

( E adds in Sut.) ; the MSS. agree in Comm.; Cf. Lass., pp. 

360, 363. EW hut 6 BW add the forms of 

7 8 9 

^ and AD ^TTM* 1 BW add ^T?f. BW j^. 

II ■RTUrTH^rsn II 


II ^f%<3 I ’fJNsf ^fa^zf I 

^%f%T 'ffafST II 

it WTT^ WT II 3« II ^ " 

^Wl" Srf TT<4 WWfiT 3T II fflT I ^T 
q^T i i?«Trr i w? ii 

Tf?r UTaffST^ra 

tttw: ttfr^N - : ii 

1 AB -VJTJT; Cf. iv., 24. ' W 

II ^9‘gnu: II 

II , wg*T: ii 



^ TJtTTSJT I TTri^i VTTfrff 1S3 TW<rRT^^ Wrj: II TlT 

l ’fYfW II 

II ^ -g: it ^ II 

*J3f: ^571 1? TWT^^ff *Rfa II IPS II 

II 7 iTT»fa: II ^ II 

Tn^Tn:^ v€t v? *nrf?r 11 i i 

SH3T I qfT^T II 

ii ii « ii 

fa<3TT I VTffr^T «wffT II II 

II % wt: I \« 

UnraR ?JT T3T^mT$"3TT K^fw II II 

ii Wr ^Yw: ii $ ii 




II nj^fY wrsi :»'«>« 

1 2 
BW add several more ex.; B corrupt; W TTf^TTYS etc. A ^ 

BD ^ ; W ; the Pr. Sanj. S BD^. * A ; D. 

° A -gtri ^xn. 9 D for this sj^Y *lYw: II 7!T$ ^ VTifYlfw 
TWT^vY *raf?r i wTwt wfwT; E with ex. wY^ 

ii mirrnra>nr: ii 




ii f^r f m : it ^ it 

I ^ 1^1 ^IT (ffariTT^lfr H^ffT II II 

II tie: mm: H *. is 

^W*raY i w ^T<rt: w *ref?r 11 Riftra 


I! xHr: tjtw: ii \° « 

*i<h i vt?tt: qrer *ref?i 11 qrai 11 

ii iTOwww’fwm^ sir: 11 u 11 

^<rr^fare?r: Tsrit^r n wfrsr i srfr- 

st i *rft*T I ^fT^T II 

ii ^e?fr st: ii l* ii 

^e^TTtrr^J vnfr^Tr: -mrn kx T^nrart ^ref?r 11 ^ i 

II ¥ I *TT II ^ I 3TT II 

II @51: ^un ?t I! \z ii 

Tj@st i vm vT?fr: wrSr iprr ^r 11 wwt i 

^»TT II 


® has both Sut. confused; W has first TJT^t Tjft^n with 

ex. t^T wtlT I c 4 ; then WTw: with ex. 

; the Sanksh. S. (in Delius) has Tirf^; the 

Pr. Sanj. as in text. 1 B adds ^ A (not C) ^rt qf^efY; B 

T^^lV- BW ; W om. D ; this Sut. is sup- 

plied in niarg. of A, but is in the text of C. BW add 

II 11 

ll anfr II \\i II 

I W ^T<rNwr?f TSf^^r^TT v^ffl II 

5WT^k II 


II ^*ns?: ll 1* ll 

TTW I W ^T^T^TT wfrf II WfT II 

it ^ H ^ H 

*\ *\C *\ *s ^ *\ *N 5 

Tawnnnu an<pprrai 11 i 

WtI I $tT^ II 


ll sw: 3 ?t »g;7wfgw|-g n ^ h 

^rRf^^Tt: n>r: ^rr w*mT%Tt »ref?i i ^t- 

Ttw. 3iTrfwir<| ^rf: ii ^rft41 ^fTf^T i srrarw i ^rr¥ i 

^ v sJ I.. 


|| WTWT^JHTT II ! >*- || 

W HiTT^T I W *IT??T«TWCT ^rf: || WTT I II 

1 2 
W ^rxY ? B reads tlie Sut. ^foxx^D- So D ; A om. ; 

B *ifix ^ff$x ; W ; Cf Westerg., sect. 10,29. 3 B 5T*XX^TT- 

(L ^ 

w vn ; the others ^ (the Pr. Sanj. 'ij'Tl) and so in Comm. 
Qy. (?) cf. iv., 23. In the ex. ABCW have xT (B once ^T^TJT; 
cf. iy.23); DE 7 f, as etc.; cf. Mrich. Stenz., p. 22, 8. A gsj“ 

fvs ; B grif^l; D cRrf%^ ( altered to cfirffa?) ; EW qrr^f 5 w 
explains it by but cf. note to yii., 24, where W gives ^fX^ft^ 
as an ex. — ^^TXT > the °^ ier MSS. have no Sans. expl. E ^ffx{%^ 


(and so D, but alteied). All the MSS. and the Sanksh. Sara (c/1; 
Delius, p. 11, note) ^x - ^; A has ^^XXl a ^ so ^ but or ig- like th e 

ii qiwqq>nr: ii 

it ii \i- h 

fq^ft *rii i w VT<TtHTfrTlr *rqq: 11 vtt i 11 

[it fsrew: qm^ft u \° 11] 

wr i w vtttV: qT qT^i wi: ii qir 

qr^iT ii 

ii % qTqHrf ii *u ii 


% nrqfqsTTO i w vnfHiTqHrir *rqq: 11 qTT i qniT ll 

n wqf^jq: 11 ^ 11 

^q «rq ettY i qpg ^TqTf^qT >rqfq 11 fgqT « 

n qiT^wt ii ^ ii 


qjqqT^q i qret qTtfr^TqrcrwY vqq: ll qiTWT i ll 

Nj V> 

ii qpjqw? g: ii >?a n 

gqq qnsTqif qifa i qrei gnfr^q»TW *mvt ^qfq ll 

gqr ii 

ii ^Tvu»TTqf Tpq^rqqrqT: 11 <? y ii 

tjt i Nqiqf i $ ?r r ^ i qqqf zrq 

ur* ^TT'q T^w ^qfq 11 zrqfq i igrqfq i grqfq ll 

[ ii ^T^r^T-g qww^wfqqjfq'ajTqrqfq^q’i 11 ^ 11J 

rest. W faqfr- This Sut. not in AC ; in DE it follows S. 81, 

3 BW -qjqi- W cf Westerg. sect. 22 , 8. A om.; B ^t; 


for muna, cf. Lenz, App. Crit., p. 15. AW (W ^gj-) ; E of; 
the Pr. Sanj. ; and so in Comm, of each ; D throughout in SS. 


25 , 26 ; B om. Sut., but gives in Comm. A ; DEW as before; B 


om. This Sut. not in AC ; W has only ; E for has S{ 

II : II 

■gri'*5TT'*TT«lt 3T 33T ^TT TtSTTT*[T M^frT ^RTW W?fiT^ 

^Tri: II ^TT <TRIT I 7Tf?T -3T- 

i ii s?rr i uiffT i sjt? w- 

^3 II *TTT ’TT^T I ^ITf^T ^irsf%T I *IT3 *TT^ II 

[II ^rrf^vT^: wtvt ii ii j 

TfTf - I VT3 4% I TTrRTMraT: WT VT TWT^T 

Wrf: I II *$TTT I ^Trf%T I II 


II ii ii 

^ I w WTffrff^t II f%WT II 

II f%»if%w: II it 

i w vTmfg^T 11 fg^T 11 
ii f^w: H 8 5 ii 

i w MTm: f%wY *Rfa ii f%WT II 

ii g: iH ii 3i ii 

^ttw it i fa- 

%wt ii 

(like D ). This Sut. not in AC; B ^T^^TT^rf l ; W reads Sut. ^cjj- 

2 3 

^VTWT: WT MT- “ D *=TTfa ; w ’ D om. ^-. So¥;B 
VR ’■ T> VTfa- * T> om. 5 W^ifrfTJ^T: 5 The MSS. have ( W ^) 
here, hut as AB have ^ in Comm., and E’s Bengali is clear, Delius’ 

'’Ef is probably incorrect (^j, ©q* and ^ being so alike in MSS.) : the 

6 7 8 

MSS. have ©^ in ex. ( W ^). D . A far throughout. W 

%: inriRT || with ex. fWSFTfafaiWT; the Prak. Sanj. as in text. 

it uTfirnfsmn 11 



'fTT ai^Tfsrwrwr: i °sm vniY^pNi II 


it tst^t vY jj: i aa 11 

^T=T S mT^qYwW^t: I W VTffr^T- 
^ifr ?rgf?f ii i ii 

II ^TTr%^: II a# II 

7TT1T I W Wffr^T^TfT^I 3r?T^ufT ^f?f II 

^rftTrs; i ^*raro; ii 

ll II a y 11 

wr *ref?r ii i ^prtut ii 


II Wi: II a$ II 

i -vw VTTiYf^TR:^ m^T^afr vafYr i fowTOT i 

ii fwt %wr: || B>$> If 

f% ^ i w vnfrfilwr *iaf?f ii fw^rr ii 

ll fSrf^fefYrspa ll a* ll 

I ^rT^TTW^I ^Y Wf?j II I fw^T II 

II f>$£: II a i- II 

' A ^rf-vp-; C ^rf-sp -; W ^pspY V?1T ; B corrupt j for Tp; Of. 

V v © 

2 '34 

Pan., vi., 4, 140. B ; W ^rVTlTT' B ttt%- A 7ipf%; B 

r © ©v 

5 x 6 7 

-^. A cffTlj;- in Sut., but not in Comm. A B X^TTTWT* 

3 9 

A f^sn*. D f^“5f throughout, to which B is altered from f^g-. 

10 11 

B <r; but in ex.; AB for AW <£, D originally so ; 

ii ii 

i w wTglvgf^T ®t irrfw ii grsv 11 

II 5%^ II 8“ II 

qg WgW I W 'fcJTffrtsi'^I ft Hlfw II gfST II gTgfWo? 
, 3 tRJ^: II 

ii ii 8 ^ ii 

^^■HfT^TTT^I wt II ^4 t 1II 

II gg#: H u\ II 

II ^?ff fo 5 ?: H II 

^raphi fAfgr*?r *rcfcr ii ^frorr ii 

ll gvg: II 88 it 

gw to i w wnrYv^r^i gV wfa ii Wig ii 

ll 11 88, ll 

•v. 13 

wfr wwfw ii ii 

ll gtwm II 8^ ll 

B ; E ^ but all have kwcither. AD Only B ; E om. 

Comm, as usual. The MSS. (Bgjg, E^) ; the doubling 

«. 4 5 

seems required by iii., 51, and the clause Cf. iii. 49. A 

BW here and in Comm.; Cf. iii., 50. BD \jip-. W -^fy - ^ 

8 9 

here and in SS. 43, 44, and elsewhere. Only W etc. B 

0 AD (A is not clear, but the r proves that it is 


not ^r) ; W has ; B "gy. The MSS. as before (W 
Cf. iii., 51. So MSS.; Qy. ^ (?) cf. Lass., p. 245, note. W 

fwwr:—jpurfr *rem i fwg i vfn- 


In W this Sut 

II TIT® rrwnj: II 


Tjpfa i ii 

ll Vt pw: ii 8^ II 

■51® I ^®TTWT?I ®T ®gf»T II I II 

ll ®fvwr^: ii 8^ ii 

J vl 

Zi® | I ^*nT^T? 113 T II ®® 5 T I 

VJ vl 


ll ^vaj^lV ll 8 <l ll 

vfar i w^i prtV *r<t: ii i ^ ii 


II *2<ft ll v ll 

Tg-% I W VTffrtm^I ®T ®gf?r II II 

ii n|wt?: ll *1% ll 

®T<T% Tig qrin | II I TI®T II 

II f%® II ^ II 

I TW3®T3ffat f%^ ®^f<T II ®15T I ®PIT II 

Wlf® I P^lfrT || 

II T»fe®wHfr II ^ II 

J N v 

w ft®®® i ®q® i ®t ft® ii ®tt 

'J J 

I ®1T ®®T II 

follows S. 51 ; in Comm. BW add etc. * W adds tjjjt = 


Tq’Sjffif. B throughout ©^(?). 3 W ^J'T^ujY* S° ACW ; BDE read 
^T^gV, with ex. 5 W V ; the Iri is a 

later add. in BD, but the orig. text of AE; the Pr. Sanj. has ®ft-- 


W adds I I ^^?7? ( c f- var - ^ ect * 8) and 


then gives S. 58. A ; BDEW ; the Br. Sanj. 

II ’srgn: H 

II ii y» H 

•JTT^rfTT^ SW*?J fe<4 M^frl WTII trfagT I II 
ii >pTfl*rt ii yy 11 

TiifagT^fat ^TnV *rhfr ?raf?r u 

iim i i *tttP 3 11 i i ?-=& \ >tT^ ii i 


Q\ ^3 

11 wV 'fg: ii y^ u 

* 35RW I 3? ^T5fT^T^ I fa 31$ | *Ta* I I 

T<imwfa?iT g: -jfafana: i ftw ’fgY ii gwT i itsft i 
faWT 1 ^ V 1 v^T II 

>1 \l 

9 ^ ^ 10 

ii w^wfaig ii y^ ii 

ugt ^rc^': wtisg: ii wg n 

g*rr gfa«nr i n^T ^fam; I fag* fafassrT i ggT 

gfa'SSTT I gfagTT I 
II *FRTftat ft* 3T II y,^ II 

quoting ii., 20. So DW : AB TfT^ajg BfaT ; E om. Comm .; 


only W gives an ex. besides Tf. So D; ABE ; W 

BfariT I fagfaT fagfaT- * w adds ?ft fagg. 4 W ?fr- 

^3iw i i *rtgg, but ’xf in the other ex.; DE have 7 ^ in all 


the ex.; Cf. infra, transl. note. W 3T^f5|7ra»Tt XjrT (sic 

placed after S. 14 !). ° BD -ij^pj-; ; W ^Tij. 7 W - 3 ^. 8 W 

= IF&t- 9 w OTWWT: as an adhikara with no ex. A 


11 12 
-wq m > D corrupt. AB ^- : but only B ^ in the ex. D om. both. 

13 . 

W puts this Sut. after S. 52 with ex. 7 [ 7 jj^ "^^RT ^T^RT 


I! Tnwsramr: n 

srwftet wT<g/?t f%?j m *r=?fW it i 

TfaWT I WT ^f%^TT II I I wn II 

fwi? i w vnftfifrjV **=# ii f%- 


ii M° it 

i ^2!5 ? s =r:«jt i ^i»rgT^fTetri' w^mt 

s* 4 

urr^^ff: ii 'SKr i ii 

ii it ii H 

wli<rlr^Nrf wt *Rf?r i wg^rwlT^^r: 11 *TTffwrT i 
^rfloqfT ii 

II ^ H ^ II 

explained by ^PT^rfrf; Cf vii.,9, where all refer 

it to the passive ; the rest om. Sans. expl. here. So A ; DE f%- 
with ex. ; BW have a difF. Sut.; B (and the Pr.Sanj.) 

(the gg written in B^; cf Del., 

p. 12, note; the Pr. Sanj. -^g) with ex. 3*«g^ f%^g^ ; W 


^wf%Wj|^T: with ex - fWT « WT- * w ( and 

3 4 

Pr. Sanj.) IfS^SH”- A om. Here follows a Sut. in BW, not in 

acde ; b ( B r Y) ii tjt i w- 

tfhfosi *;arrrstV *Rw: ww*rwt: 1 w®rr WW 1 
wrfw^TT i i ; w has 'wiWT^^r^Tr 11 •wt 

\J c 

5T(ff ?rn?f%^ra I 'SR^rOTTW W^TWTt - i W^TT 

^¥T I 'WT^TH sjsr^- W for this Sut. TJ%4 t WW II with ex - 


^ c^"T ^rPrf^T I So EW ancl D 0I %- > AB here 

II ^rgnn ; h 

|| ^^T3T S I 

1 2 3 4 5 

f^3 II I ^ II I f%^sf II ^ I II Tfa I ^Tf II 

s s 

<i u ^ ii 

I W fa^XT wfa II I f%TW f^XC 


ii jgvsfr: il ^8 II 

■gre I W 5TfY *P?frf II ^CT II 

ii wg*r: ii ii 

^ 'g-sigg i w vTrfrgxr *Rfa ii ii 

ii ^iNhsr: » ^ it 

^ ggx 1 W VTXTxaft II g«TT ii 



raft I VT<flT TWT%3fr II *wr I 

C\ v ^ vj 

^<IT II 

and in ex. 1 AB ^tg. 2 MSS. ^f% ; Cf. S. 66. So BDE ; A f?f^f 

W rltSf (in Sect. ix. W has a Sut. f%75r gtf%rr^ftrrgV:> * AE 
(and prob. B) ; D prob. ; W ; Cf. Mai. M., p. 115, 2. 
B adds | (? y 5 So BW; A f’lfi ( ? ) ; D ^ ; E 

W continues to add bhdve or karmani in the Comm, to each Sut., cf 
S. 57, var. lect. 7 DW om. the rest. So BDEW ( suppl. iii D in 

9 10 

marg.); A and Pr. Sanj. ; C n.l. BDE ^q;. After this B 


has a new Sut. with ex. | q^STTfq ; W gives after 

s. 62 ii ?re i w<rr: grxfw g^T^'sfr 


II | Tj^jg ||- So AD j B qg- in Sut. and Comm., but 

Ttq- in ex. ; W reads ijljsf W ; B 

c» \S S' Vj 

II TTTlirfRiSTir: || 


ii 31*1 wt imi: 11 11 

I w VTrflT 3¥Tl4T *RfT II 3 TTI || 

n w^tfw^lj^WT: 11 it- 11 

'* <«# 

1 w 11 g^rsiT 1 

fakirs; 1 ^mx 11 

II ^WT^<ftTT: II 'S>° 11 

TTJf I w vnfT: fIT <fK T<tfl ’StT^T ^f?I II 
rlTT I 1 <ftTT II 

II ^TWT^rffTT II ^ 1 , II 

WWt ^prTsphlT^TH^TIT *Rfw II WT I II 
II Tfa TtTlifrU^T^ VmT^I 


gives San. TU^f?!- 1 A gf - ; CDE (and Pr, Sanj. ?) cfTg*-; W ^tT^- 

\* % s» ^ s» \> 

•s. • •s 2 

; the Sut. deest in B ; the Sanksh. S. g Tf I^TlfT (Pf* Pel.) A 
CDE as in Sut.; W spfTT ^ f¥T 5 B om. W f 

WTOi: II with ex - I WT I f%WT I I II 

<j y>^ || It also adds in the Comm.; cf. 63, note. So ADE 

(the second ex. in A may be ; B •aci^R^T^TT: II with 

ex. 71^ | ^Jcf^T I <ftTT I WTf% TT^frT -W 5 w has tuif^T- 
3 cflTT: II with tff^fhr in Comm, and ex. rRX I I <ftVT II 

BEW then add (supplied in a later hand in the marg. of D) 

$fa I ^ sfa f^^T7T^TT'l[r 

wV^t: i 7?ir: ( bw add wft) i fq^ni: wit i 

II The ^ r ' Sanj. gives this as a Sut. but its Comm. 


is very corrupt. BW for give ; W refers both ex. to 

ii ii 

ll ^ru ii 

ii fwm: ii r ii 

^if^rrft sv i ^jitit faqTrrewT if^ri^T: i hwit- 

faxHTUTT^ *TOT3j II 

II 3? II ^ II 

IT W*f Tftwmwt WrfFf II 
^r?r *tot 1 it 5r^ ^nrrr ll ¥=^T*rt i w wr&q wwri ll 
f%^TTW 11? inrs (5%# ii i? ¥¥TWTm^r i ts 

¥tv^ i it ?k ll 

the passive ; BW (and Pr. Sanj.) then add a new Sut. 

¥1^' II 5 W’s comm, is ¥WT¥TT: I VTTJ 5 ?TTT5fT^"3TT: 

FSPri I cfTWTfJ J¥T Ff¥T I WT ¥tfT l ^¥T 
¥>¥T I TT^T I *T¥T I ¥¥T Vf¥T I V¥T ftfT I 
^§¥T ( w ¥?-) ¥t¥T II 3¥f?T I W^fw I ^faf?T I I Rf- 


f% I F^f?T I I II i B’s Comm. VT(f sjTiUTr^^ 

(B -^g) «rs*r i ¥tt i ^t^kit: i ?ttt 

i 'Ffars ^¥¥T% ^ic) ^V^tt ^R¥TT ¥rsr i ^wfrr 

^T^?* 9 the Pr. Sanj.’s Comm, very corrupt. BD ; in this 


book AD are chiefly followed, particularly in the ex., where B 
often differs, and W almost always ; W has several new Sutras (see 

2 3 

App.) and often a different order. W So BDW ; 


AE Only BW give Sans, expl.; both have but only 

ti m^rf-ncmr: 11 


f 3 ps T^fTT^vTT^ wrr: 11 f%^ 1 ti 4 

c.^g || -qwi II 

II ^T ^^Tq^TTTTqf^T^^ II 8 II 

f’pnrN'sfr >r^fw 11 

^f% it 5-g^: 11 

|| ^ftf^rTTWR II y II 

TT f%W Tt^ W 3 ?T ^f%f%rfTW*J f^lTOW *PL 
f?T II W TT I t%T ?Rr I ^ f%<*T 

f%f%wni ^ 1 ^ h*i ^rc1%rr: i ^ 

ftrer ^n?: 11 

11 it ^ Pi^rfaTi^w^s 11 $ 11 
w ^ 1 twhV f?rg?it%<T^¥iTT^g fsrcTriwwr *re<r: m 
1? TWt 1 ttw)- ^ wfV II ~m ttw: 1 *r^: w WT: II 

\S sj s3 

11 ut^t: ^Nir 11 ^ 11 

W 3 T TW^j S*l f^’TTrtWf wfw II Wt V 3 II 

II ^IT«if!^J W^tr II * II 

W ?n"VW also. Ex conject.; A fg*ig (g^g in ex .); BDW 

i E fe^g ; In Hema-ch. MS. a has gr^ gpg fggj og 'gg^J- ; 
but b xi[ for g ; the Pr. Sanj. f%^g ^J"3J ; Cf. Lass., p. 189. Only in B ; 
W has as ex. ^ fggj | fgig I gp?^g <gigg. * So ABDE ; 
B adds ^gY gffxjT^ | gft- TTEgfagigr^gigr (?) j W, as usual, 
diff. BW om. So BW; AD ; only W has any Sans. expL 
0 W^r. ? Wfgfsrg-. ' So A ; BD om. ex. A tggf- ; B om.; W 

ii si^ro: qfr#?' ii 

f^^TfT^wr ^f?r it <Ptfr n 

ii f%<rr w ii ii 

fwT T^f^j *[*?: W fWW^t JTWfTT II f%wt *prf% i 

f%wt vsf% II w i f%*r ^*rf% II 

^ Cv 

II ^T ^:*§^l*fTO*mg II \° II 

fwrrewr it 

i ^^fr ^rssrervstfantfg 11 ^^furr i ’srar 

II WW I ^fsR ^T? II wr 


fwi i wr i wr wfwrrf h 


WTTf? TW^J f%WTTW f^RTcR^T *RfW II WTff 

I wft WT^IVW II W I W ^f^T- 


II W ^ TOHPli II \? II 

W5CW rTcST d$- 1 w f%WT f%*T and 8' ives it after s - 


15. B om.; D and prob. A ^j^f%; the is conject. to suit S.viii. 


57 ; none give Sans. expl. I)E ; B varies and ; 

W has and also after S - 2 > 

4 5 » 

A om. Ex conject. (cf, S. 16); ABD Tirfil^Xxf ( or ■ tT); E -< 5 ; 

0 7 

BD give the Sans. expl. as above. W These ex. 

corrupt; A cfr^p^rf^TiT ; B (the /^erased); D c?f^~ 

wiN; E om.; W as above. A 

expl. by ^^Tf% WrfT ; D qf^PR^VW >' E om - 5 AE> 

om. Sans.; W quite diff. W 

ii qTUrnRrrsn 11 

-srs; wtw faqT?R# it 

I W fir qrfifa ^gq% II 'Slfq Tjg^-EgfrT i qii fir qrqr- 
*rf% i II 

H qrfq qqffcir II 13 H 

qrfi tw^ "Jr^r tqftw fwrnr^r *raf?i 11 qjfi rr? q^wr 

?mr I fiqi^trT TT^T q^ffT ^T II 

ii ^ wuit ii vi ii 

T»2f^ *r^: firqiwrf wfif 11 ^ fifwt n 

firerjsrsr: ii 

II T ^ f%? WHTqWTfsrqfqr?T%q^ II 1^ II 
T I I f%T I TW^ ^t: ^TTqq!Tfi3'*rfTifi‘<J f%qT- 
crem *fifrj ^irei n t w qrvf% i qn^fr f% i fi"?t f% 
ii v w u^sr ii *rnrr $f% i fi~gt sf% for 11 

II faRfinfi^T T^ti II \i. II 

fiiR fin? fi^ tww tqri firqTrre wt *fifi II *raqi 

This ex. corrupt in AD • B as above • W has q*rg = *qfq 


(•)• Here follows in B a new Sut. (added by a later hand 
in the marg. of D) not in ACE ; TV gives it after S. 6j ^josjY (D 
^5j^Y throughout) ^qrr ( B throughout) <|:*sTTqjqfiwrq^q 

with ex. ^tsfr (B ^jqV) ^T if I 

fir qdfir i ^fr ^qrr wt§*t ; Cf. Boehtl. Sak. 


p. 11, 17, note ; for avvo , cf. S. 10, supra. AC with no 

Sans. expl. ( cf. vii., 23?); W diff. W ^j. AC j 


B f%raf?r^firaT.; D altered from A to B in Sut., hut not in ex.; 

ii snw ii 

ftp? I Wsi faw I 71^ II ®^jr II 

[II ^lnH% II II ] 

^TSSf TW^J ' 5 T®? ’SITtHw f^RT^m || ^T 55 T trU^Pr faf 
*K^f% II fif ^rfVfw II 


**T*«r: tw: i ifo: 

^WfT^m^j: i Tf 11 

II Tfa miirPmir famrRmfwfW^ 

*rsra: yfr^hf: ii 

E corrupt, with no ex.; W ; Hema-ch. has frj^ 

facl ^ T^Ti 3 T- A -Tji for -IQ in each ex. This Sut. 


is only found in BDEW (added in the marg. of D). So W ; the 
others om. 4 W 

II urarnrani: h 

II tjfi^^: II 

II IU ll 

ftuT^T^t »rm i mtm w^iwMwrHrr M§ztfi«MM 11 

ii nwfir: mYt^ n ^ il 

w: 'Riifn: mYt*^ i fWim ^ait ^ut- 

MfifMW imffiTrDS II 

II W^TWt ^•ftMMfJ^T’f^MreflXT^Y II ^ II 


TrpgV TTMMfeYftMY M^rf: II I $*§Y I ^TMT I fir^fY I 
gfs# I ^WreY I MT*HiY I *iYffi?iY I ^W'TT I I w^sY II 
MMMYfrfir fir II mmtmY i srmY 1 TWTfi' II MMT^Tfifir fir i 



BDW always ?i-. So DW; B fi^fjfY > A ^"fifTrTT ( marg. cor- 
rection). E has only the first two ex. A ttmwtY (?); BW 

TTMT fir^fY; D -fit^TT 5 BDW “ A ^"jr-; BDW add 


AD here add ^x^TT expl. in D by (hnt both are marked 

8 9 

in. D as spui.); B has with no Sans.; W om. A -*qxT* S° DW 

and A orig. ( altered to ^-) ; B corrupt. Only BDW give Sans. 

Ex conject. (as an ex. of ^ seems intended, although properly it 


should not be a conjunct) ; BD ; W BDW add 


D adds ^^X > Of* note ? • 

if 11 

il fa*: II 8 ii 

T^ir^?T fag II fag II 

ii wt «r: ii ii 

^Tg ggnr TW*WT^fr ggfa il ?n^t i wirt il 
ll -ggi vs: ii 4 ii 

S Tmvt ^gig ggpggTTVT ggfg it grg? TfT II 
*VS g<Tg II 

II W *g: II « II 

^ TW^I ^fT% «^T TW^WT^Wf ggfa II *T*?T*T I 4%TT II 

Il gg? fafa Il c II 

4 T3P3 ^TtS' fa* TW^Tt^fr ggfa II wfagjT ii *tHst II 


II W II £- II 

T T3PS? ^ ggfa II f^WT I g^frII 

farm* I g^TT II 

II gfgjTgt sggi II \° II 

gfgjT'Jig? gjgj ^JT% ^jr TW^WT^'SrT ggfa II II 

18 14 


gsni^gi 'aftTgfagTfaiggj ^ TW^Ti^T ggfa II 

So MSS. ADW (but A orig. ^ like B); cf. Lass. p. 443. 

3 4 

Only W gives Sans. A w Tffa; only W gives Sans. 

B 6 Only in A. 7 W ; B in Sut., but in 

Comm. 8 So¥; AD ; B ° Only in W. 10 B -^f: 

11 |g 

in Sut. and ex. B om.; only W gives Sans. " B ^f. D ^ 


(and perhaps A). Bo^ (?);¥^;, 

ii Train wren ii 

i . a .<■ 

3TW II arm II 

II TTWT TTf^ ST^fWnfe'5 nT II ^ II 

zt ^f% arcnt TTfn TninnT- 

t’ft nT nnfn II ^TfanT TWT I TTfanT W>" I TTfafn Tf^TH 
TT^f^fW far II TT^T I TT^Tn I ^ff II 


i^nrarW ^IT% (3?t Tf^^WT^lfT rafrT II ^Tfjn I ^T(3?T I 
•\10 . 

^TTrf || 


ii fWW ii ii 

f%rf^t^- f^tfTS^ || flTTW ^ TT^tf^r II 

II Tfa aR^fa«n TfT«rfTf^iT$ ^TTTfwT nTTf 

TW -crf^^WT : H 

'BW qro^ (B n.l.) 2 BD om. 5 B -f%rgin eft; W WT ; 

4 5 

the in 'A corrected to *g in marg. B om. f%;; W adds ■g. AW 

om. So D except -^T -f% 5 A Ttfw T^T I Tlfafn 

tP§t ; B TTfnnr Trsrr TT’ftnV tt^T Trsn ( sic ) ; w zt 

TTf%*fT I I THtT* - Trftarr I f%^ TTfa- 

f^R 7 A T^T ( added in marg.) ; B («*<?) ; W 5 

8 9 10 

D om. B -=ft rf. B xT?f ; W 7=£7j. The only ex. in BDEW 

®v ®\ 

is ihrTn ; BD (not in AE) then add ^«nf% TpTT 3TiStf?r fef ( B 
itfn f *) Tfn fti ^n?J (?); W has a new Sut. tarTfe 

fanVrTfir m ii nrrnt^ffc w: f%n ^Tf% TWK^fi vnfn i 
Wf% w I Wt^tfn I ^nf% I fan T,fn fa I 3?wfa 

33W I^Tfa 33WT?5 I • A *fa throughout. 

II -qn-ffT^ar: : 11 



ll *n*iwt li l H 

*rm *rnrvt i ^r^r^T'^t ^JgTt ll 

li iriifn: aftr^ 11 ^ ii 

W mai-SlT: TTlifH: ^fT<r^ II 

ll wr: it: ll 3 ll 

TjcfTT^TjcTTTT^f: TT »T?f?T II *TTT[ I fWrTT II TfTW: I 

f^TTW: II 

ll *r: ll 8 ll 

aPffTT^t ^^TTT VRfa II II *IT^ II 

|| ^=[3hg TJTgrJT rl^T^TT^: II 8 II 

»TgfrT ii tjf^Tr i i 

f%^ i fw?3% ll i ^sta^r: i f%srer: i f%3fr: ll 

ll ’f : ii £ll 

B ?J7T-; only BW have a Comm, to SS. 1, 2; E gives only the 

2 3 

Sutras throughout. ABW -■sjY in both ex .; cf. S. 10. A 

and adds xEfpRT = Wr^TT* BD ^cfTp^'lTffT; Lassen (p. 397 ) conj. 

aspashtata; the Sanksh. S. has managuchcharyah. So MSS.; A 

0 7 

altered to -T$f; E om. Sut. A for in all the ex. A frsni- 

8 9 _ 

BW ^z*j\ Only BW give Sans.; Lassen proposes (P- 


ii wurprarni: » 


■%bitb iwr B3f?r ii 11 % ^jttbbt bb ii hb ^ir- 
liY bb ii 

ii bwHb: ii ® ii 

^gnT^^TWr: Htb B^fa ii *irsf i ^bjw ii itb i 
^ib: ii 

ii w m- j| c || 

w bitb Bfinrr BBti ii bthti i » tt^b: i h 

ii w^: bY ii ib it i_ ii 


f b BWTfa ii wi ^rwrf^r ii 

II ’SB t^j?Y BT1B II \° II 


^ ^ 11 ^ 1 ^ 3 ^ 1 ^ 3 ^* 11 ^ ^ T1 

ib bbw: ii 

II ^trfT^ II %\ II 

397). ' A ’ A adds bbIb- AD om. Sans .; BW 

add (B -BTBT) ’BTBBBTflf^fB BT (?)• 4]D "Bi 5 B 

-■^r: ; but both ■$£[ in Comm. A o for e; W ; B ; 

ABW give Sans. °MSS. -ij. 7 From BW. *BDEW (and the 

*N ' 

Sanksh. S. in Lass., p. 393) om. cf. Sak., Williams’ ed. p. 217; 

Boehtl. p. 242. BDW t • 10 W for These ex. are 

from W; B has BITBT I 1 B^bY ’71 tTf^lT; AI) IBf BBfT I 

s9 S5 vS ' 

IB 1TBT ( D ifl BBT) IB Bf%B ( D ifl Bf%1) H ^frlBT ( D 
11 Bf%ir) 11 BBT (11 BBT) ; only W gives Sans. 

II ^T^"ar: II 

tr^?r win n wsttt^ T^nt 

ii i ^fafa i gfn^ i ii ^f%?f: ii 

II ^WT -f t ^T II ^ I! 

g=n: ^nn wrttstt gr win i rrwnY 5 fa 

ii gfaniir? i gfanpu vw 11 vn 11 

N nS si sS 

II «fa#t II \ 9 , II 

^rnfanfa i ^T<Tr^^T^^rrfr Tfaf wfa w^pft 11 

6 7 

nf^rcrr w i ww’jtt ii g^irfafa fa i ii 

si s$ ^ ™ 

wn it 

ii fa?*g fag: ii \h ii 

faj^i wn fag ^npsmfawY wfa ii fagf ^ 1 ii 

^ si 

wfwfn ii 

l! nsjWnnf -g: is h 

i w v fiTwfa i TijR i tiw nrjrarw 
wn ^rfa wfn ii i ni i *ii ii un: i *j<t: i nn: ii 

w -^: ^tT^. ' ad ^f%^r: (AD if for throughout) ; B’s 


ex. are gfa^ ^f% gfa^T ; W as in text. All but W confuse '£f and 

’JT. *W -niSrt.44»^W?^r (?)• “Lassen (p. 397) prefers ^ 
to ; the MSS. have but they cannot he relied on. ABD 
«WW^Ef (altered in A to TfTjnj); W (cf. var. lect. 3 vi. 64). 


8 BE -^: ; D --g-; ; A f^-g: ; W fgf;. °D --g; B fgg^ (sic); A 
fw A t%¥- •> E nL ; D faifa; w fajfa ; A adds (sic) 

faljfa I T^TTfa- 11 Only in W. ’' BW . “ BDW -JijR 

" BW add a Sut. ^^3^ ^ffa II Tffa 


ll ^Tfw: II H II 

aiFSTW^J ^Tfw TSTWi^ 5*=lf% II Trf%^Tf% 51% I 

ii «TfT 5T?r: i u^T’irr: ll 

ll 335rr*«r^j wnf^^Tiftr^iT^r^T: u v® u 

a^T^S^f 5?fT% ftr^T^TTT^ ^T%I[T || 

^Twf^ i ftntT% ^rrwfr i fPTw ii as’rra 


II Tfr? ^T^sS% T?TSrfTO3iTil 5?T5I^T53f 

Tnjrr^ar: ll 

T^T^^fr *HfrT I ^rfw 3T% (B --^f) ; Hema-ch. gives this Sut. 

f 1 2 3 

in his Sauraseni chapter. 13DW -fWT- MSS. ^-. Only in A. 

4 5 

So BDW. B ^ for ^jy in Sut. throughout, but not in ex.; A 

6 7 

ftr^^TT orig. ab fai^r-. A -tjr. 

I) qfr#^: II 

II ^ ii 

it Tfnrir^ft II \ H 
II 3T3sf?r: hwi'ii ^ ii 
it ^RT^raaft^ frq^vV ii ^ ii 
ii snrin ^r: ii a ii 


II jV $fa sfif^rfJl \ II 

ii t ii ^ ii 

II ^^lfWTRTr^^?RPrf t§?Y qr II « II 

ii ii p it 

BDW ; Book xii. has no Comm, in ABODE ; W gives a 
Comm, but full of gross errors^ and of no authority; Of. Lass. App. 
pp. 49— 58, with the Sanksh. S. quoted there : several Sut. are very 
corrupt. B -rf- MSS. (D orig. -^V) ; BE add 

(added in marg. of D) and then give as a new Sut.; W 

also divides them, qjqT^-Tqspi: || qifni’IT ^TI qq '3^- 

*piT: WlUnST: I tfWhTT tTtsn? I qtiq ; then q^qr^VT- 

4 B-^; w - ¥ ^ : . 5 So EW; A q^T; BD q^r sfa- °BE 

sJ 3 

7 BW om. qqj. * So BW; D n.l.; A jqqjqf. 9 A qy; BW 
^TT; C ; D ^T; E 3?f ; Of. Lass. App v p. 53. A f?[- 

wlrw:; b -q-fq whit: ; D -qfq fipfrtt:; w -q-fa riw^h; 

only E -Tff rr*T*ITt*T: ; c f- &•> 5. 

ii uranrosirnr: it 


II ?.^j: ii £_ ii 

II gi*mT^: ll \° 11 

II ii u ii 

ll vT ll ^ ll 

II 5? II II 

II FFTWT I JTW wfe II 1,8 ll 

ll wsj: ii ii 

ll : ll ^ ll 

ll WF*: PT: ll V® ll 

ll T^ : W: ll v* ll 

® N 10 

II : II ^f~ II 

II II i> e I! 

’ ABEW-gp ; ^ ; AD ^j; (?) ; B jj-. 3 W 

for fhr*-, with ex. gfTT^Tfw wf = ^^TTf*! etc. ! A ; c f- 

5 6 

Lass. p. 54. W E om. S. 1£—31. Lassen’s conject.; AC 

FFT^ ft I FF^J B fiFFT F I D FFTT?F : 1 

FF^r TW^I 5 W has two Sut. ^ ^T^- 

■srT I ^FT *reff I 3^ I ^F^ ^>F and then FFTHF 

wf? I FTVT'Tt: F^TT^t wfe FT<TT % I 

7 8 9 

F^tF etc - A •¥:; B -'3T; cw -tz: > D -t:- a W- a n - 1 - 

10 BW (and A ?) i c 5 D^^qr; ( ?). Ex con- 


ject. j ADC fgtiT ; B faqt ; W fafq tjj; || f%fq q^?r: 

^ s ^fT(fV: ^ ^T^TD | ^ifijr; Hema-ch. and the Sanksh. S. 

II ■qfr’#?: H 

it faqi n' 4 t ii v., ii 

ii f%mfa7^t 11 ^ ii 

|| Uq?5? 9|4 II *3 II 

II II *.« II 

II W^T 3WT q^N II 0 y II 

ii wqqiwf & fwqi ii ^ ii 
II 4nfr4Tqqu?qmi qwqT it *?*> ii 
ii 4*rai ii ** ii 

ii faqr mfiH it *c ii 

give no help. Ex conject. ( cf \ Lass App. p. 56); AC 

(the 7f in A altered to in a later hand; C has yy) fjJiJTfTT (f^F 

only added in marg. A) ^y^y- ; D *y^: (the vd 


partially erased) ; B vjq: faq faq ^jT^TrfT; W vrq: f%q faq fi?q 

vj S ^ S» N S \. 

mwt qC with ex. ^qpfq -fq- -fa :. ’ A -faf. 3 AC ^q (A 
orig. ?);B ; DW -^aq-. 4 Corrupt; AC ^ f%<5}p • D : 

B 4 faqqr ; w reads Sut. II ^SfTTnx^T^t ^<5^- 

qrqq?rej q^j »?qfq ii qfq^ Trqq’q <yqq^ 11 

qq4 etc. ; Lassen, p. 57, proposes f%t^T or fajf%RT:- W 
absurdly adds f%^Vi before ^jjfpy- (W VT<^t") fro m S. 26, and 
restricts this Sut. to fiysy^ and . ° ACD TT^y ; B ^5j«jyy 

Tj;^ (?) ; W ^4 qq || fa^rqraTWqTfqHJ fqfa?T qrtRqRq^ 
qq >Tqfq; Qy■ Him qw (?) cf Lass. App. p. 57. 
AfaqY ’q; BCDW faqt ^plfe ^ (D orig. 4-); W’s 

Comm, is qrlfa q^rTT faq qq 3fqfa I Hi qrqqTfa Hi 

ii iTTUrnnKnn 11 

|| || 3° j| 

II T?3P®T II ^ II 

|| ^ 1?rSTTTfta<TJI ^ II 

ii Tfa Jnwnm$ Tf^T^T^t T^rt 


*npr ^fo#^: 

«*u?r: ii 

^T^eTf^r i ^T^ifw ^i^Tfsr- a -fH- Lassen’s conject. 
p. 58 (cf. ii., 35); ABCD ; W ITT^<fY and in Comm. -ifTCicf! 

S •v 

ir®^: Trsft-Ttrsi:: So W; ACD ^f^T5^l[»rq (A has a mark of 
omission over ^f) ; B 4 W *j-. 


For Hema-chandra’s Sutras on the Sauraseni dialect, see App. C. 




[The MS. W contains many Sutras, which are not found in any other ; 
some seem to be taken from Hema-chandra or the Prakrita Sanjfvam, but 
others it is not easy to trace to their source. Those which have already been 
given in the notes (as in p. 15, note 4, etc.) will not be repeated here. 
None of those which follow can have any claim to be considered as 
Yararuchi’s, and many indeed at once betray a spurious origin.] 

ii ii’wiDu?} wfa: ^Trfji wft iNj i wr- 

TTf WVTTt siPr i wfY TWTf^ II \ II 

II II4 ** ^imji 

i i ii ^ ii 

n ^^TTrxitf w: ii *NN wt *nrf?r ii firrft i 

C\ C\ 

fw*s<fr i wf^r ii i faww i ?nf% vwrfF ii ^ a 


i ^tT wfr ii w vwtIf ii a it 

II II ^ TffJJW T’S ^TW v ^5inVTfJ v 3iT- 

imi^raTfq ii i ii ^ u 

n sfa ^sr ii ^nrar^nitTfa '^sfr ?ref?r ii 
sr^si ii $ ii 

1 This is added after iii. 6. 2 After iii. 9. 3 Here and often elsewhere W 

has a double aspirate, which I have corrected. 4 This and the next, after 
iv. 1. 5 Cf. iii. 58. 6 This and the next, after iv. 23; both belong to Sect. xii. 




it H frytsra II *t^i- 

wt i ^vrv?r i % •»re ^ spa# II II 

H WSf 3 T II W ^ITrTJI II *Rfa: I Wl 1 


ii ii i t ?4 wreirji *_ 11 

II ii wr^rffai ^mifa^Tr- 

^srr *ref 7 r 11 ^far^g i ^rgift i ^tf^if^r m- 

II \° II 

ii ttstotvi vi 5 ? ii $1 f^rrc* 

*t f'w w ^ ^t: ^TiirW^T wY^rr: i ^rar 3 TTT twt- 
f% 11 w 11 

II ^PTJSTT '€Hl II '€?f 3 >rir TWrt'^l' 

JT^frf II TTft^l I I II ^ I *fTZ^ I W II ^ II 

II %N*U II f% rlT^ I W VUirfwt'sh wfrf I f%^T II II 
11 11 1 fawTf^niT H«11 

11 srtwro 11 m t s w<to ifrwNi »m^TV * ^rrfft 11 f%- 
^ 5 TT I WT I ^fTT I ’SfW’CT « *X « 

11 II f%T 1 w ’m: ll 

*RT fw^TT II *4 II 

1 This and the two next follow v. 44. 2 After vi. 60. 3 The last Sut. in 

Eook vi.; a long list of ex. is omitted. 4 After vii. 24 \_cf. note to vii. 23] ; 
this Sut. seems unaccountable. 5 After viii. 6. 6 This Sut. comes after W’s 

version of viii. 56 (hence the na-Jcdra) which in W follows viii. 14; [cf. Yar. 
Lect.] 7 This Sut. follows and restricts viii. 18; the m being elided by iii. 2. 
8 This and the five next Sutras follow viii. 37; W also has visura in viii. 63, 
which proves this to be an interpolation. 



|| II TISI I %jT<frTTrtwV I 


twt ii V s ii 

ii tinN: ii tw T^T^f i w vT;?r*r5T^irr wfn i 

w ii w ii 

ii ^rvf^r: ii <Tr^ i w wfa i f%- 

w; ii H 

ii ii ^ i w m<frgT*$rT^wf *raf?r i 

W ii ii 

II TT’sjTw't-ftiTOct <fr<Sf^ || grnfr V<4 WrTJI $T 

i ^ifW ^vTfn ii ^ ii 

ii ^r^:° ii i w vufr^uw ^rrr *nrf?f i 

ii ^ II 

ii ^Ttw- ii femir i w vTffiTw^i ^<4 *nira i i 
^rg^f?r ii ^ ii 

II II f%<^ WT ^JTr! K i ^TTT^N II 

frwT ti^t i finT fr^r ii i *r 

^rw ii ^8 ii 

II fil^TWTm^faWr: II || 

’ft^TT I I 1 WT I I V78TT I ^tTT II 

i?*ra w f=R^m T^nf^ ii ^ i! 

1 Cod. n-. 2 Cod. mahdi. 3 Cod. vibhbhai, whence Delius conject. vijjha. 

4 Sic Cod.; the sick may be an error for Jchkh. 0 1 omit the recapitulation of 
the roots. 6 This and the next, after viii. 38. 7 After viii. 53; the Com¬ 

mentary’s chakara is wrong, as there is no Sut. for otwam. 8 Cf. ii. 12 (?). 
9 After viii. 71, before ajdde'sd bahulam; cf. Yar. Lect., p. 81. 



ii ^q^rat fqwr ii ii 
ii q^ur f% II ii 

II ^ %qfq^*T$W^ II ^ II 

11 %»rr ^Wf 4 m ii ? v ° ii 

ii ww^iiwV 5 ii ^ ii 
ii 33 fsf?np^ ^f% ii ^ ii 
ii ^rfwr ^f%w wt ii ^ u 
ii to q^m ii ^8 ii 

ii <ro f?n$*ra ii ii 
II " 35 %: ii ^ ii 

II f%^r II ^ II 

ii ^^qvre TTTqfwmqvria wr: ii ^ it 

\$ V* 

ii qrf%t *ffa: ii ^f~ ii 

ii qq: II 8 ° II 


ii qj?rr ^rrri ii 8 \ ii 

1 This and the next after ix. 3 ; I omit the Comm, and ex. as being- 
needless in Sutras on nipatah. 2 Cf. i. 14. 3 This and the next, after ix. 8. 

4 After ix. 13. 5 This and the remaining Sutras are inserted after ix. 15 

(being immediately preceded by the Yar. Lect., of Sut. 9, q.v. in notes). 6 With 
Comm. daJcshinasabde dahino nipatyate vihalpena ; dahino pavano. 7 Tor this, 
cf. viii. 62, note; the ex. given is hittham datthuna raam — bhttasmi drishtwa 
rajanam . 8 The Pr. Sanj. and Hema-ch. both allow hutta to be used in the 

sense of abhimukha ; cf. Appendix B.; W’s ex is huttam gaam. 




ON PAGE 35 (IY. 25, COMM.). 

The passage enclosed in brackets is only found in AC and stands in A 
as follows: — 

'TTTTt' (altered in a later hand to -(eft) 

f~*?m gif^ i i ttt^: !rfa% TPjsjg i 

gfDre i wi i qfrww *r4f?r 

I Tr^Tf I fafrP* I ^frCS I I I ?NfW 

grs: i ^art g t^w i gg- 

Itt i *mfV wr i ^rnh ^fig wnc: wtw: i 

1 2 3 

C -IRF® rfT- ’ C gjgi. C ^}cU but in next line : 


C has no other Var. Lect. worthy of notice. 

The division of the passage into Sutras (proposed by Prof. Lassen, cf. 
Inst., p. 93) is open to several objections : 1. The silence of the MSS. BDEW ; 
there being no instance of a Sutra, much less of several Sutras, being found in 
AC alone, although the other MSS. contain Sutras not found in AC. 2. The 
two MSS. themselves do not seem to give them as Sutras, as in every in¬ 
stance, if we separate off a part as the Sut., the Comm, is thereby rendered 
incomplete. 3. The passage needs hardly any alteration to run at once into 
verse, with the examples interposed between each line ; with the exception 
of the last two lines, of which more presently. 

As printed in the text, I conceive the passage to be quoted by the 
Scholiast at the end of the Comm, on Sut. 25, for it should be borne in 
mind that the first three verses still refer to the affix matup, which is the 
subject of that Sut., and the fourth seems only added because other Gram- 



marians ( ityanye ), had introduced a pronominal affix, which the author of 

the verse maintains to be merely a provincialism. 

The Prak. Sanj. in the course of its corrupt Comm, on Sut. 25, gives 

appullam and purillam (explaining the former by dtm'iyam, and the latter by 

purobhavam paurastyam) and then adds Bhavettam ( sic ) matupo 'ntyasya 

akdrastu tatha kwachit; hanuma, Jianumanto; sankhydydh kritwaso huttam 
. # . y * 

dbhimukhye ’pi drisyate; panchahuttam, panchakritwas ; chhahuttam shat - 
kritwas ; saahuttam satakritwas ; piahuttam , priyabhimukham ; ishtau kimyat- 
tadetadbhyah parimane ttiahau (ttiaddahau ?); kettiam, keddaham, kim pari- 
manam asya kiyat; jettiam jeddaham, yavat , etc. These do not appear to be 
given as new Sutras, but follow in the course of the Comm. After these 
comes a new Sutra, “ S war the ko va; asminarthe pratipadikat kapratyayo 
bhavati va; bhamarao, bhramara , pakshe bhamaro with other similar ex. 

Hema-chandra in a corresponding passage has the following Sutras, 
which may have occasioned the introduction of the lines in Bhamaha at all. 

II VTffffv ll 

vfWWTW TfW* TWTTah wf?T I ^ I 

I I V^rT^Tf%T5 I 

t (**<0 Tfw^r 

i vtpii* v i i favwj 

f%PrIW etc - 

ll utt ii with ex. ^rsrtf i srq fTrarbr- 

ll ll 

One ex. of manta is hanumanto, of itta (sic) manaitto , of ira, gavviro, of 

mana, dhanamano; then comes kechin-madesam ap'ichchhanti, hanumd. 

• ' • • • 

After three unimportant Sutras we have 

ll ii srra: vft Ti TwnV f%rT 


3^<t: i etc - 

* This sense of abhimukha is given to hutta by Hema-ch. also, see infra. Cf. the 
spurious Sut. of W (No. 38) App. A. 



vrwrf: i 

Hema-ch., therefore, and the author of the Pr. Sanj. both confirm the 
corrections which I have made in the text, down to p. 36, line 2, the only 
part which is left uncorrected being the two succeeding lines. These will 
not readily run into verse, and certainly bear strong marks of being a Sut. 
and mutilated Comm. The jatau at the commencement seems inexplicable, 
and the absence of any ex. proves that the Comm, is imperfect. Whether 
we should read it swarthe Ico va, or whether under the jatau there is hid some 
allusion to Hema-chandra’s illollau ditau is doubtful; but as it stands, jatau 
is almost unintelligible, and certainly is unsupported by either of the Gramm, 
who are our authorities for the meaning of the whole passage ( Cj\ the Schol. 
quoted by Stenzler, Introd. Mrichchhak., p. vi„ which also partly runs 
into verse). All the MSS. agree in adding swarthe in the Comm, of Siit. 26, 
which is a strong argument for a Sutra like this having dropped out here. 





[As the twelfth Section of Vararuchi has no Comm, and is therefore in 
several places corrupt, I have added an abridgement of Hema-chandra’s cor¬ 
responding rules from the MSS. 200 (a) and 171 (b) in the Walker Collec¬ 
tion in the Eodleian. This and the Sutras of the Sanksh. Sara (Lassen 

App., p. 51) are of great use in correcting Yararuchi. The numbers affixed 


are given from b, which numbers all the Sutras. The Saurasem Bhasha takes 
up SS. 260—286 of the fourth Pada.] 

Saurasenyam bhashayam^ anadav apadadau vartamanasya takarasya da- 
karo bhavati, na ched asau varnantarena samyukto hhavati (Yar. xii. 3). 


Yarnantarasya adho vartamanasya tasya do bhavati, kwachillakshyanu- 
sarena; mahando, andeuram. 


With examples * dava,’ *tava.' 


Ino nakarasya amantrye sau pare akaro va bhavati; hho kanchuia, 
pakshe bho tavassi. ( a is optionally substituted in the voc. for the n of 
words ending in in.) 

MO YA. (264.) 

Amantrye sau nakarasya mo va bhavati, bho raam, etc. 

Amantrya iti nivrittam; anayos sau pare nasya mo bhavati, bhavam, 
etc. (In this and the preceding rule the final m becomes anuswara; of. 
Yar. iv. 12.) 



YA EYYO YYAH. (266.) 

Eyasya yyo va bhavati; ayyautto, pakshe ajja (of, Yar. iii. 17; x. 11). 

THO DHAH. (267.) 

The Comm, adds apadadau’ (Yar. xii. 3). 


DJi is substituted for the h of iha, and the Prakrit suffix of the 2d pers. 
plur. imperative (which Hema-ch. calls hack ; of. Yar. vii. 19) as Idha or iha, 
* here;’ Hodha or hoha, ‘be yed 

BHTTYO BHAH. (269.) 

The Comm, adds vd with ex. bhodi, hodi; bhuvadi, huvadi; bhavadi, 
havadi (Yar. xii. 12.) 


The Comm, adds vd. 


With ex. Bhavia, bhoduna; havia, hoduna (the MSS. have iya for ia, 
but both frequently write y for a) pakshe, bhotta, hotta (Yar. xii. 9). 



Abhyam parasya ktwapratyayasya dit adua ityadeso bhavati; gadua, 
etc. (Yar. xii. 10). 


Tyadinam adyatrayasy’ adyasya ‘ ichechav ’ iti vihitayor ichechos sthane 
dir bhavati, veti nivrittam ; dedi, bhodi. 

ATO DESCHA. (274.) 

Akarat parayor ichechos sthane deh (chakarad discha) bhavati; gach- 
chhade, gachchhadi; ata iti kim, nedi, bhodi. 


The Comm, adds ‘hissaham apavadah’ (of. Yar. vii. 12, 13) with ex. 
Bhavissidi, gachhissidi. 


Akaratparasya hases sthane ado adu ityadesau ditau bhavatah (of. Sanksh. 
Sara, 9; and Lass. App., p. 54) t 


( Cf. Yar. xi. 15, Yar. Lect.) 

TASMAT TA. (278.) 




Antyan makarat para idetos parayor nakaragamo va bhavati. 1 



(This and the remaining Sutras refer to nipdtah.) 






1 The ex. given are * i-lcare, juttam nimam, juttaminam, e-liare , kim 
nedam, kimedam, evam nedam, evamedam. , 



Yictoey to Ganesa! who is filled with pleasure as he rubs his cheek with 
his trunk, while the corners of his eyes are closed as he listens to the sweet 
sounds of the bees, delighted with the juice which flows from his temples. 
By searching out the things which were to be defined in these Sutras of 
Prakrit definitions, composed by Yararuchi, Bhamaha, having attained their 
meaning, has made a clear and yet concise commentary. 


ADER ATAH. (1). 

This Sutra is supposed to exercise an authority [adhikdra\, by virtue of 
which it is implied in the succeeding sutras. The various rules, which we 
shall go through in order, are to be understood as supplying substitutes 4 for 
the first a.’ 1 Eor the first ’ is implied in all the Sutras to the end of the 
section; ‘a’ is implied until it is itself enjoined as a substitute for another 
vowel [in Sutra 10]. The t in at is used to exclude the homogeneous vowel 1 
[Panini, L, L 70]. 


In the words samriddhi , etc., a is optionally used for the first a. Thus 

Samiddhi, samiddhi; paadam, paadam; ahijai, ahijai; manansim, manan- 


1 Ader does not merely refer to the vowel in the first syllable, as it 
strictly ought to do, but frequently means the first vowel of a certain kind 
in a word, e.<j., the a in ishat in Sutra 3. 


[sect. I. 


sini; padivaa, padivaa; sarichchham, sarichchham; padisiddhf, padisiddhf; 
pasuttam, pasuttam; pasiddhf, pasiddhf; asso, aso. 


Samriddhi, ‘ prosperity ’; prakata, Manifest’; abhijati, ‘ family’; mana- 
swinf, ‘a wise woman’; pratipad, ‘the first day of a lunar fortnight’; 
sadriksha, ^likepratisparddhin, ‘a rival’; 1 prasupta, Asleep’; prasiddhi, 
‘fame’; aswa, ‘a horse.’ 

This is a class of words which can only be determined by observing the 
forms used in classical authors. 

SHU. (3). 

In the words ishat, etc., i is substituted for the first a. The optionally’ of 
the former rule does not apply to this. 

Isi, pikkam, sivino, vediso, viano, niuingo, ingalo. 

Ishat, ‘little’; pakwa, ‘cooked’; swapna, ‘sleep’; vetasa, ‘a ratan’; 
vyajana, ‘a fan’; mridanga, ‘a drum’; angara, ‘charcoal.’ 

LOPO ’BAHYE. (4). 

In the word aranya , ‘a forest,’ the first a is elided: as, Rannam. 


In the words sayya , etc., e is substituted for the first a. 

Sejja, sunderam, ukkero, teraho, achchheram, perantam, velli. 

^ £ C C i 

Sayya, a bed’; saundarya, beauty’; utkara, a heap’; trayodasa, the 
thirteenth’; ascharya, ‘wonderful’; paryanta, ‘limit’; valli, ‘a creeper.’ 


In the word badara, ‘ the jujube,’ the first a, with the letter d (including 
its inherent vowel), becomes o, as Voram. 


In the two words lav ana, ‘ salt,’ and navamaUilcd, ‘ double jasmine,’ the 
first a, with the following v (including its inherent vowel), becomes o : as, 
Lon am, nomallid. 

2 Such is Yararuchi’s explanation, cf> iii., 37; Lassen (Prak. Instit. p. 
265, note) proposes ‘ pratishiddhi.’ I may add here that in the first four 
Sections I have generally followed the MSS. in giving the Sanskrit word in 
its crude form, while in Prakrit it appears in its nom. sing., as modified by 
the rules of Sect. v. This chiefly applies to the termination o. 

SECT. I.] 




In the two words mayura, ‘ a peacock/ and mayukha, ‘ a ray/ the first 
a, with the syllable yu, becomes optionally o : as, Moro or tnaiiro, moho or 


In the two words chaturtln and cTiaturcla'si, ‘ the fourth ’ and fourteenth 
lunations/ the first a , with the syllable tu, optionally becomes o : as, Chotthi 
or cJiauttln, choddahi or chauddahi. 


A is no longer implied [see Sutra 1], in consequence of the change of 
sthdnin or * primitive element.’ In the words yathd , etc., a is optionally 
substituted for a. 

Jaha, jaha; taha, taha; pattharo, pattharo; pauam, pauam; talaventaam, 
talaventaam; ukkhaam, ukkhaam; chamaram, chamaram; paharo, paharo ; 
chadu, chadu; davaggf, davaggf; khaiam, khiiiam; santhaviam, santhaviam; 
halio, halio. 

Yatha, ‘as’; tatha, ‘so’; prastara, ‘abed’; prakrita, ‘low’; talavrintaka, 
‘a fan’; utkhata, ‘dug up’; chamara, ‘a chowrie’; prahara, ‘a blow’; chatu, 
‘flattery’; davagni, ‘the burning of a forest’; khadita, ‘eaten’; sansthapita, 
‘placed’; halika, ‘belonging to a plough.’ 


In sadd, etc., i is optionally substituted for a: as, Sai, sod; tai, tad ; 
jai, jad. 

Sada, ‘always’; tada, ‘then’; yada, ‘when.’ 


In words like pinda , e is optionally substituted for i : as, 

Pendam, pindam; nedda, nidda; senduram, sinduram; dhammellam, dham- 
millam ; chendham, chindham; venhu, vinhu; pettham, pittham. 

Pinda, ‘a lump’; nidra, ‘sleep’; sindura, ‘red lead’; dhammilla, ‘braided 
hair’; chihna, ‘a mark’; vishnu, ‘Yishnu’; pishta, ‘pounded.’ 

The word sama or ‘like,’ is used to indicate that the rule only applies 
when the i is followed by a conjunct consonant (as in pinda). 


1 The Prak. Sanj. constantly uses this siitra to explain the change of d 
to a before a conjunct; as in «chchhera for dscharya. 


[sect. i. 


In pathin, etc., a is substituted for i : as, 

Paho (or in its crude form, paha), haladda, puhavi. 

Pathin, a path’; haridra, ‘turmeric’; prithivi, ‘ the earth.’ 


In the word iti, ‘ thus,’ when at the beginning of a sentence, a is sub¬ 
stituted for the i which follows the t : as, 

la uaha annaha-vaanam, ia viasantiu chiram. 

• • • 

Iti pasyatiinyathavachanam, ‘so behold 4 the hypocrisy (?)’; iti vikasan- 
tyas chiram, ‘ thus blossoming a long time.’ 

We infer, from its being restricted to the beginning of a sentence, that 
the rule does not hold in such a case as pio tti , ‘ priya iti.’ 


In the two words ikshu, the cane,’ and vrischika , the scorpion,’ u is 
substituted for i : as, Uchchhu, vinchhuo. 


0 is substituted in the word dwidha when used with the root krin, and 
u also, since we find cha in the Sutra. Thus, dividhdkritam, ‘bisected,’ 
becomes dohaiam or duhdiam; and dwidhakriyate , ‘ it is bisected,’ dohdijjai 
or duhaijjai. 


In sinha , ‘a lion,’ and jihwa, ‘the tongue,’ i is substituted for i\ as, siho, 
jiha. The cha is used in the Sutra to include other words which are not 
mentioned, hence there is an i in such words as visattha, visambha, etc., for 
viswasta, ‘trusted,’ visrambha , ‘trust,’ etc. [The commentator, therefore, 
would seem to bring under this rule the various instances where an i , which 
would properly in Prakrit be followed by a double consonant, is exchanged 
for an z, and one of the consonants is dropped]. 


In pamya , etc., i is substituted for the first t: as, 

1 The first of these examples is very obscure. JJaha or uvaha is a singular 
word, which is found in the Bengali recension of Sakuntala [see Boehtl., p. 
150]. There is no rule for it in Yararuchi, but Hemachandra [8th adhy., 
2nd pada] has the following: ‘Ea pasya; ua iti pasy’etyasyarthe va prayok- 
tavyam; pakshe pulaadayah ’ [_cf, Yar. viii. 69]. Lenz, therefore, rightly 
called it [Erv. p. 224],‘ imperativa rpuedam forma vulgaris linguae.’ 

SECT. I.] 



Paniam, aliam, valiam, taanim, kariso, duiam, taiam, gahiram. 

Paniya, ‘ water’; ali'ka, ‘false’; vyalika, ‘painful’; tadam'm, ‘then’; 
karisha, ‘dried cow-dung’; dwitfya, ‘second’; tritiya, ‘third’; gabhira, ‘deep.’ 


In n'lda, etc., e is substituted for i : as, 

Yeddam, apelo, keriso, eriso. 

ISTfda, ‘a nest’; apfda, ‘pressing’; kfdris, ‘what like’; idrisa, ‘such.’ 


In words like tunda , o is substituted for u : as, 

Tondam, motta, pokkharo, potthao, loddhao, kottimam. 

Tunda, ‘the face’; mukta, ‘a pearl’; pushkara, ‘a lake’; pustaka, ‘a 
book’; lubdhaka, ‘a hunter’; kuttima, ‘a jewel-mine.’ 

The word rupa or ‘like,’ is used in the Sutra to indicate that the u must 
be followed by a conjunct consonant (as in tunda). 


In ulukhala, ‘ a mortar,’ u with the syllable lu optionally becomes o : as, 
olclchalam or uluhalam. 


In mukuta, etc., a is substituted for the first u : as, 

Maudam, maulam, garuam, garui, jahitthilo, soamallam, avari. 

Mukuta, ‘a crest’; mukula, ‘a bud’; guru, gurvf, ‘heavy’; Yudhishthira, 
‘the name of a king’; saukumarya, ‘youthfulness’; upari, ‘above.’ 


In the word puruska , ‘ a man,’ i is substituted for the u which follows r : 
as, Pur iso. 


In the word madhuka, ‘ Rassia latifolia,’ u is substituted for u : as, Mahuam. 

In the word dukula, ‘ woven silk,’ a is optionally substituted for u, and 
when it is so substituted, the l is doubled: as, Duallam or duulam. 

m GTJPGRE. (26). 

In the word nupura, ‘ an anklet,’ e is substituted for it: as, Neuram. 

RITO ’T. (27). 

A is substituted for ri in the first syllable of a word : as, 
Tanam, ghana, maam, kaam, vaddho, vasaho. 



[sect. t. 

Trina, ‘grass’; ghrina, ‘pity’; mrita, ‘dead’; krita, ‘made’; vriddha, 
‘old’; vrishabha, ‘a bull.’ 


In rishi, etc., i is substituted for tbe initial ri : as, 

• • 

Isf, visi, gitthi, ditthf, sitthf, singaro, mianko, bhingo, bhingaro, hiaam, 
yiinho, yinhiam, kisaro, kichcba, yinchhuo, sialo, kif, kisf, kiya. 

Rishi, ‘a sage’; vrishf, ‘an ascetic’s cushion’; grishti, ‘a cow that has 
had one calf’; drishti, ‘sight’; srishti, ‘creation’; sringara, ‘loye’; mriganka, 
‘the moon’; bhringa, ‘a bee’; bhringara, ‘a yase’; hridaya, ‘the heart’; 
vitrishna, ‘ contented ’; vrinhita, ‘ grown ’; krisara, ‘ a kind of pottage ’; kritya, 
‘action’; vrischika, ‘a scorpion’; srigala, ‘a jackal’; kriti, ‘act’; krishi, 
‘husbandry’; kripa, ^pity.’ 


In ritu, etc., u is substituted for the initial ri : as, 

Udu, munalo, puhayi, yundavanam, pauso, pautti, riudam, samyudam, 
niyvudam, vuttanto, parahuo, mauo, jamauo. 

Ritu, ‘a season’; mrinala, ‘a lotus-fibre’; prithivi, ‘the earth’; yrinda- 

• « • • # 

vana, ‘a country so called’; pravrish, the rainy season’; prayritti, ‘news’; 
vivrita, ‘opened’; samviita, ‘covered’; nirvrita, ‘ended;’ yrittanta, ‘news’; 
parabhrita, ‘ the koil ’; matrika, ‘ a maternal uncle ’; jamatrika, ‘ a son-in-law.’ 


The syllable ri is substituted for the vowel ri when initial and not con¬ 
nected with another letter: as, 

Rinam, riddho, riehchho. 

Rinam, ‘a debt’; riddha, ‘prosperous’; riksha, ‘a bear.’ 


The syllable ri is sometimes substituted for an initial 
connected with another letter : as, 

Eriso, sariso, tariso. 


‘such’; sadrisa, ‘like’; tadrisa, ‘such.’ 

even when it is 


In the word vriJcsha, ‘a tree,’ the syllable ru is optionally substituted for 
the initial ri with its accompanying v : as rulclcho , vachMo. The option 
being here definitely restricted, the change does not take place at all in the 
oase of the substitution of chh, but it holds universally in that of Jch Tsee 
iii., 31.] 

SECT. I.] 




In the word klripta, ‘ made/ Hi is substituted for Iri : as, Kilittam. From 
the above substitutions being enjoined, we infer that the vowels ri and Iri 
do not exist in Prakrit. 


In vedana, ‘ pain,’ and devara, a brother-in-law,’ i is substituted for e: 
as, viand, diaro. Since ‘ optionally’ is still implied (from Sutra 32), the 
forms veana and demo are also sometimes used. 

AITA ET. (35). 

E is substituted for the first ai : as, 

Selo, sechcham, eravano, kelaso, tellokkam. 

Saila, a mountain’; saitya, cold’; Airavata, Indra’s elephant’; Kailasa, 
‘ the mountain so called ’; trailokya, * the three worlds.’ 


In the words daitya, etc., ai is substituted for the diphthong ai: as, 

Da'ichcho, chai'tto, bha'iravo, sa'iram, va'iram, vaideso, vai'deho, kai'avo, 
va'isaho, vaisio, vaisampaano. 

Daitya, ‘ a demon’; Chaitra, c the name of a month’; bhairava, ‘dreadful’; 
swaira, ‘ wilfnlness’; vaira, ‘enmity’; vaidesa, ‘foreign’; vaideha, ‘a trader’; 
kaitava, ‘a cheat’; Yaisakha, ‘the name of a month’; vaisika, ‘meretricious’; 
Yaisampayana, ‘the name of a poet’; etc. 

DAIYE YA. (37). 

In daiva, ‘fate,’ ai is optionally substituted for the diphthong at: as, 
daivam or devvam. In the case of its non-substitution, the v is doubled by 
the Sutra ‘ Yfdadishu’ [iii., 52]. 


In the word saindhava, produced in Sindh,’ i is substituted for ai: as, 

ID DHA1EYE. (39). 

In the word dhairya, ‘firmness,’ the substitute is i: as, Eliiram. 


In the word pralcoshtha , ‘ the fore-arm,’ a is optionally substituted for o ; 
and, when it is so substituted, the Jc becomes v : as, Pavattho or paottho. 

ATJTA OT. (41). 

0 is substituted for the first au : as, 


[sect. 1. 


Komui, jovvanam, kotthuho, kosambf. 

Kaumudf, 1 moonlight’; yauvanam, South’; kaustubha, ‘Yishnu’s gem’; 
Kausambi, ‘ the name of a city. 5 


In paura , etc., ail is substituted for the diphthong au : 

Paiiro, kaiirao, praiiiso. 

Paura, ‘a citizen 5 ; kaurava, ‘ a descendant of Kuru 5 ; paurusha, ‘ manly. 5 

These form a class of words which can only be determined by observing 
the forms used in good authors. In the word Jcau'sala, ‘ welfare, 5 the change 
is optional: as, Jcosalo or Jcaiisalo. 


In the word gaurava, * respectability, 5 u is substituted for au, and so also 
is au as before (since we find cha, 1 and, 5 in the Sutra): as, garavam or gau - 


In saundarya, etc., u is substituted for au : as, 

Sunderam, munjaano, sundo, kukkheao, duvvario. 1 

Saundarya, ‘ beauty 5 ; maunjayana, ‘ a place producing the munja plant 5 (?); 
saunda, ‘intoxicated 5 ; kauksheyaka, ‘a sword 5 ; dauvarika, ‘ a porter, 5 etc. 

1 I may here remind the reader of what is further discussed elsewhere— 
viz., that in Prakrit there appears to have been no distinction between v and 
b, although it is uncertain which was the prevailing sound. 






This being an adhikara , will be implied in the succeeding Sutras. The 
rules which we shall from this point enjoin, are to he understood as applying 
in the case of a single non-initial consonant. The elision of k, etc., by Sutra 
2, will serve for an instance : as, Maiidam for the Sanskrit Mukuta. Why 
do we say ‘a single consonant’ ? Compare Aggho and Akko for the Sanskrit 
Argha and Arka (where we find a conjunct consonant, and consequently no 
elision). Why ‘ non-initial’ ? compare Kamalam. ‘ Single’ is implied to the 
end of the section; ‘non-initial,’ until j is enjoined in Sutra 31. 


These nine consonants, k, g, ch, j, t, d , p, y, v , l when single and non¬ 
initial, are generally elided : as, k , Maiilo, nalilam; g, saaro, naararn; eh, 
vaanam, suf; j, gao, raadam; t, kaam, vianam; d, gaa, mao; p, kaf, viulam, 
suuriso. (In the word ‘ supurusha,’ although they? is the initial of the word 
‘purusha,’ the last member of the compound, it is still elided. The author 
of the comment, therefore declares that * the initial letter of the last member 
of a compound is considered as non-initial.’) Y, vauna, naanam; v, jfam, 
diaho [ cf\ ii. 46], 

Mukula, ‘a, bud’; nakula, * disgraced ’; 2 sagara, ‘the sea’; nagara, ‘a city’; 
vachana, ‘ speech’; suchf, ‘a needle’; gaja, ‘an elephant’; rajata, ‘silver’; 
krita, ‘made’; vitana, ’expansion’; gada, ‘a club’; mada, ‘joy’; kapi, ‘an 
ape’; vipula, ‘large’; supurusha, ‘a good man’; vayuna, (insir. of vayu) ‘the 
wind’; nayana, ‘the eye’; jfva, ‘life’; divasa, ‘ a day.’ 

Prom the use of prdgas, (‘generally,’) in the Sutra, we conclude that 
there is no elision where euphony is satisfied, as in Sukusumam, piagamanam, 
sachavam, avajalam, atulam, adaro, aparo, ajaso, savahumanam. 

Sukusuma, ‘fair-flowered’; priyagamana, ‘sweetly-going’; sachapa, ‘armed 

1 Or b; cf. Lass., p. 201. 

2 Or, ‘A Pandava prince’ [naiilof 



[sect. II. 

with a bow’; apajala, ‘ without water’; atula, Unequalled’; adara, ‘respect’; 
apara, ‘unbounded’; ayasas, ‘infamy’; sabahumana, ‘respectful.’ 

As illustrations of what we mean by ‘ single consonants,’ compare Sakko, 
maggo, for Sakra, Indra,’ and marga, a path:’ and by non-initial,’ com¬ 
pare Halo and gandbo, for Kala, ‘ time,’ and gandha, ‘ a smell.’ 


In the word Yamuna , ‘ the river so called,’ the m is elided : as, Jaund. 


‘Non-initial’ continues to be implied. In the three words sphatiJca, 
‘crystal,’ nilcasha, ‘the touchstone,’ and chi/cura, ‘hair,’ h is substituted for Jc 
[we now pass from elision to substitution] : as, Phaliho, nihaso, chihuro. 


In the word silcara, thin rain,’ bh is substituted for h : as, Sibharo . 


In the word cJiandrikd, moonlight,’ m is substituted for k : as, Chandimd . 

In ritu, etc., d is substituted for t : as, 

Udu, raadam, aado, nivvudf, audf, samvudf, suidi, aidi, hado, sanjado, 
viudam, sanjado, sampadi [padivaddi J ]. 

Eitu, ‘a season’; rajata, ‘silver’; agata, ‘come’; nirvriti, ‘rest’; avriti, 

‘a surrounding’; samvriti, ‘covering’; sukriti, ‘virtue’; akriti, ‘form’; hata, 
‘killed’; samyata, ‘restrained’; vivrita, ‘opened’; samyata, ‘gone’; samprati, 
‘now’; pratipatti, ‘fame.’ 


In these words, d is substituted for t : as, 

Padisaro, vediso, padaa. 

Pratisara, ‘a servant ’; 1 2 3 vetasa, ‘the ratan’; pataka, ‘a flag.’ 

In vasati, a dwelling,’ and bharata, ‘a proper name,’ h is substituted 
for t : as, Vasahi, bliaraho . 

1 This word ought not to belong to this Sutra, as it is intended only for 

words with a single t ; but the Sanksh. Sara, in its corresponding rule, adds 
nishpatti and sampatti besides: [see Lassen, App., p. 42.] 

3 As this change of prati to padi is universal [see Lassen, p. 204], it is 
singular that this is the only instance given by Vararuehi in a Sutra. The 





In garbhita, ‘ pregnant,’ n is substituted for t : as, Gabbhimm. 

AIR AY ATE CHA. (11.) 

In airavata, ‘indra’s elephant,’ n is substituted for t : as, Erdvano. 


In these words l is substituted for d : as, 

Palittam, kalamvo, dohalo. 1 

Pradipta, ‘ kindled’; kadamba, ‘the tree so called’; dohada, ‘ the longing 
of a pregnant woman.’ 


In gadgada, inarticulate utterance,’ r is substituted for d : as, Gaggaro. 


In words expressive of number, r is substituted for d : as, 
Earaha, varaha, teraha. 

Ekadasa, Eleven’; dwadasa, ‘ twelve’; trayodasa, * thirteen.’ But the d 
must be a * single’ letter [by Sutra 1], or the rule will not apply; thus we 
find Chauddaha for Chaturdasa, * fourteen,’ (by iii. 3, and iii. 50). 

PO YAH. (15.) 

V is substituted for a single non-initial p : as, 

Savo, savaho, ulavo, uvasaggo. 

Sapa, ‘ a curse’; sapatha, *a curse’; ulapa, *a kind of grass’; upasarga, 
* a portent.’ 

Erom the use of pray as , generally,’) [implied from Sutra 2] we infer 

that this rule applies wherever there is no elision. 

APIDE MAH. (16.) 

< * 

In the words apida, pressing,’ m is substituted for p : as, Amelo [cf. i., 19]. 


In the word uttariya , and in words ending with the affix an'iya, jj is 
substituted for y : as, 

Httariam or uttarijjam, ramaniam or ramanijjam, bharaniam or bharanijjam. 

Uttariya, ‘an outer garment’; ramaniya, ‘pleasing’; bharaniya, ‘to be 

Prak. Sanj. reads in the Sut. prati for pratisara. Hema-chandra has a 
Sutra, Pratyddau dah. 

1 Hema-chandra has also dohalo . 



[sect. II. 


In the word chhdyd, * a shadow/ h is substituted for y : as, Chhahd. 


In the word kabandha , ‘ a headless trunk,’ m is substituted lor b : as, 
Kamandho. 1 

TO HAH. (20). 

D is substituted for a non-initial t : as, 

Nado, vidavo. 

Nata, ‘ an actor’; vitapa, ‘a branch.’ 


In the words said, ‘an ascetic’s clotted hair,’ sakata, ‘a cart,’ kaitabha , 
‘ a demon,’ dh is substituted for 1 1 as, Sadha, saadho, Icedhavo [cf. Sutra 29]. 


In sphatika, ‘ crystal,’ l is substituted for t : as, Phaliho [_cf. Sut. 4]. 
HASYA CHA. (23). 

L is substituted for a single non-initial d : as, 

Halimam, talaam, yalahi. 

Hadima, £ a pomegranate’; tadaga, £ a pond’; vadabhi, £ an awning, etc., 

on a palace.’ Since prayas, ( generally,’) is implied from Sutra 2, we infer 

that such forms as the following are also admissible: as, dddimam, vadisam, 

• • 


THO HHAH. (24.) 

Dh is substituted for a single non-initial th : as, 

Madham, jadharam, kadhoram. 

Matha, 2 ‘a college’; jathara, ‘ the belly’; kathora, ‘hard.’ 


In ankotha, ‘a plant,’ ll is substituted for th : as, Ankollo. 

PHO BHAH. (26.) 

Dh is substituted for a single non-iuitial ph ; as, 
Sibha, sebhalia, sabhari, sabhalam. 

' . i i 

Sipha, a fibrous root’; sephalika, a flower;’ 
sapbala, ‘fruitful.’ 



a small fish 



1 Kabandha also means ‘ water,’ and in this sense kamandha is said to be 
a Sanskrit word [see Wilson’s Lexicon.] 

2 Masc. in Sans. 





II is substituted for the five consonants Jch, gh, th, dh, bh, when single 
and non-initial; Jch, muham, rnehahi; gh, meho, jahanam; th, gaha, savaho; 
dh, raha, vahiro; bh, saha, rasaho. 

Mukha, ‘ the face’; mekhala, ‘a girdle’; megha, ‘a cloud’; jaghana, ‘the 
loins’; gatha, ‘a song’; sapatha, ‘a curse’: Radha, ‘Krishna’s favourite’; 
badhira, ‘deaf’; sabha, ‘a house’; rasabha, ‘an ass.’ 

Pray ah being still implied [see Sut. 23], we also find such forms, as 

Pakhalo, palanghano, adhi'ro, adhano, uvaladdhabhavo. 

Prakhala, ‘very base’; pralanghana, ‘transgressing’; adhfra, ‘unsteady’; 
adhana, ‘poor’; upalabdhabhava, ‘having the meaning understood.’ 

In the words prathama, ‘first’; sithila, ‘loose’; nishadha, ‘the name of a 
country,’ dh is substituted for th and dh ; as Padhamo, sidhilo, nisadho. 

In the word kaitabha, the name of a demon,’ v is substituted for bh, as 


In haridrd, etc., I is substituted for r: as 

Haladda, chalano, muhalo, jahitthilo, somalo, 1 kalunam, angulf, ingalo, 
chilado, phaliha, phaliho. 

Haridra, ‘turmeric’; charana, ‘the foot’; mukhara, ‘noisy’; Yudhish- 
thira, ‘ name of a king’; sukumara, ‘soft’; karuna, ‘ mournful;’ anguri, ‘a 
finger’; angara, ‘charcoal’; kirata, ‘ a barbarian’; parikha, ‘a moat’; parigha, 
‘ a club,’ etc. 

ADER YO JAH. (31.) 

The adhikdra of non-initial ’ which was implied from Sutra 1 ends here. 
J is substituted for an initial y : as, 

Jatthi, jaso, jakkho. 

Yashti, ‘liquorice’; 2 yasas, ‘ glory’ [cf iv. 18]; yaksha, ‘a demigod.’ 

1 This form is thus explained by the Prakrita Sanj.:— Sulcumdra ; the 
first u becomes o by i. 20; the k is elided by ii. 2; and the o and u now 
meeting in Sandhi, the last is dropped by iv. 1 ; we have thus somara and 
by the present rule somala. W’s Yar. Lect. suumalo was accidentally 
omitted in notes to p. 14; all the other MSS. have somalo. 

2 As yashti is also the subject of the next Sutra, either there are two 


[sect. ii. 



In the word yashti, ‘ a stick/ l is substituted for y : as Latth'i. 


In hirdta, a barbarian/ ch is substituted for the initial h: as, Childdo. 

KUBJE KHAH. (34.) 

In hubja, ‘ hump-backed/ lch is substituted for the initial letter : Khujjo. 


• • • ' * 

In the words dola, ‘a litter’; danda, 4 a staff’; daft ana, *a tooth/ d is 
substituted for the initial letter: as, j Void, dando, dasano. 


In the words parusha, harsh’; parigha, a club’; parihhd, a moat/ ph 
is substituted for the initial letter : as, Pharuso, phaliho, phalihd. 

PAYASE ’PI. (37.) 

Also in the word panasa, the bread-fruit tree/ ph is substituted for p : 
as, Phanaso. 


In the word visini, an assemblage of lotus-flowers,’ bli is substituted for 
the initial letter, as bhisini. Erom the express mention of the feminine 
[ visini ] we infer that the rule does not hold in the neuter visam, ‘ the 


In the word manmatha , love/ v is substituted for the initial letter: as, 

LAHALE YAH. (40.) 

In the word Idhala, 1 n is substituted for the initial letter : as Ndhalo. 

• • 


forms in use or there ought to be some difference of meaning in the two 
words. The meaning in the text seems justified by a Yar. Lcct. madhuyasJiti 
in two MSS,; but Cf. Lass. Inst. p. 100. Lassen (p. 195 ) illustrates latthi by 
the modern lath, ‘a column’: as, Eiroze Lath. 

1 Two MSS. read lohala, *made of iron/ for the unknown word Idhala ; 
but as Hema-chandra [see note 4, Sut. 38], recognises the word, as well as 
three, if not four of the MSS. of Yararuchi, it is probably correct. Herna- 
chandra’s rule is also found in the Prak. Sanj. 




In these words chh is substituted for the initial letter: as, 

Chhatthf, clihammuho, chhavao, chhattavanno. 

Shashthi, 4 the sixth day of the lunar fortnight’; shanmukha, 4 Kartikeya’; 
savaka, ‘a young animal’; saptaparna, 4 a kind of tree.’ 


4 Initial’ is no longer implied here. N is substituted for a single n every¬ 
where : as, 

Hai, kanaam, vaanam, manuso. 

Uadi, 4 a river’; kanaka, 4 gold’; vachana, Speech 4 ; manusha, 4 human.’ 

SASHOH SAH. (43.) 

S is everywhere substituted for s and sh : as, 


($) saddo, nisa, ankuso; ( sh ) sandho, vasaho, kasaam. 

Sabda, a sound’; nisa, night’; ankusa, an elephant’s hook’; shandha, 
a eunuch;’ vrishabha, 4 a bull’; kashaya, 4 brown.’ 

D ASAD I SHE HAH. (44.) 

In the words dam, etc., h is substituted for s : as, 

Daha, earaha, varaha, teraha. 1 

Dasa, 4 ten’; ekadasa, 4 eleven’; dwadasa, 4 twelve’; trayodasa, 4 tliirteen.’ 
\_cf. ii. 14, for the change of d to r. ] 


When the word is a name, the substitution of h for s in dasa is optional: as, 
Dahamuho, dasamuho; dahavalo, dasavalo; daharaho, dasaraho. 
Dasamukha, 4 a name of Eavana’; dasabala, * a Bauddha teacher’; Dasa- 
ratha, 4 the name of a king.’ 


In the word divasa, a day,’ h is substituted 2 for s: as, Diaho. 


In the word snushd, 4 a daughter-in-law,’ nh is substituted for sh, as 

1 It may be worth while to trace the steps by which trayodasa becomes 
teraha. By i. 5, we have treyodasa ; by ii. 2, iii. 3, teodasa ; by ii. 14, 44, 
teoraha ; and, finally, as the e and o meet in Sandhi, by iv. 1, the o is elided. 

2 Two MSS. make this rule optional (by continuing va from S. 45), and 
add diaso, which is the usual form in the plays. 


i c)cy 

X <V^v 





The eight consonants h, g, d , t, d, p, sh, s, are elided when standing 
first in a conjunct; and the remaining letter, if it is not at the beginning of 
the word, is doubled by Sutras 50, 51 of this Section. 1 Thus, 

[X*.] Bhattam, sitthao. 

Bhakta, * devoted’; sikthaka, ‘bee’s-wax’ (neut.) 

[y. ] muddho, siniddho. 

Mugdha, ‘foolish’; snigdha, ‘kind.’ 

[fl Khaggo, sajjo. 

Khadga, ‘a sword; shadja, ‘the fourth note of the gamut.’ 

[£. ] TJppalam, uppao. 

Utpala, ‘ a blue lotus’; utpata, ‘a portent.’ 

[<?.] Muggo, muggaro. 

Mudga, ‘ a kidney-bean’; mudgara, ‘ a hammer.’ 

\_p.~] sutto, pajjatto. 

Supta, ‘asleep’; paryapta, ‘adequate.’ 

[sA. ] gotthi, nitthuro, 

Goshthi, ‘an assembly’; nishthura, ‘harsh.’ 

[s. ] Khaliam, neho. 

Skhalita, ‘stumbling’; sneha, ‘love.’ 


The consonants m, n , and y are elided, when standing last in a conjunct, 

1 Sutras 50, 51 are constantly required in carrying out the following 
Sutras. Yararuchi’s plan with regard to conjuncts is, first to enjoin the 
elision of certain letters (Sutras 1—8), then in other cases (Sutras 9—49), 
to enjoin the substitution of a single letter for the conjunct; but whether the 
change be thus an elision or a substitution, in either case, by Sutras 50 and 51 
this letter is doubled , unless it be r or h (Sutra 54), or at the beginning of a word. 



1 23 

and the remaining letter is doubled, as before, by Sutras 50, 51. Thus, 

\_m .] Sossam, rassi, juggam, vaggf. 

^ C C i 0 0 C 

Sushma, light’; rasmi, a ray’; yugma, a pair’; vagmin, eloquent.’ 
[».] Yaggo. 

Yagna, ‘ naked.’ 

[y.] Sommo, joggo. 

Saumya, ‘mild’; yogya ‘fit.’ 


The letters l 7 v, 1 r are always elided, whether they stand first or last in a 
conjunct, and the remaining letter is doubled as before. Thus, 

\_l. ] Ukka, vakkalam, vikkavo. 

Ulka, ‘a torch’; valkala, ‘bark’; viklava, ‘agitated.’ 

[<?.] Loddhao, pikkam \_ef. i. 3]. 

Lubdhaka, ‘a hunter’; pakwa, ‘cooked.’ 

[/*.] Akko, sakko. 

Arka, ‘ the sun ’; sakra, ‘ Indra.’ 

DRE RO YA. (4.) 

In the conjunct dr, the elision of r is optional: thus we have 
Doho or droho, chando or chandro, ruddo or rudro. 

Droha, ‘mischief’; chandra, ‘the moon’; Rudra, ‘ a demigod.’ 


In words like sarvajna, the n is elided : as, 

Savvajjo, ingiajjo. 

Sarvajna, ‘omniscient’; ingitajna, ‘knowing signs.’ 

This elision of n takes place in all words which are similarly derived 
from jna, ‘to know.’ [This explains the tidy a of the Sutra.] 


The first letter of sma'sru, ‘ the beard,’ and smasdna, ‘ a cemetery,’ is 
elided: as, Massu, masanam. 


In the word madhydhna, ‘ noon,’ h is elided: as, Majjhanm. 


In the conjuncts, hi, hi, hm, the letters n, l, m are respectively written 
before the h : as, 

1 Or b, as there is no distinction between the two letters in Prakrit. 



[sect. 111. 

Puvvanho, avaranho; kalharam, alhado; vamhano. 

Purvahna, ‘ fore-noon’; aparahna, ‘ afternoon’; kahlara, ‘the white water- 
lily’; ahlada, ‘ joy brahmana, ' a brahman.’ 


This is an adhikdra [ cf. i. 1 ] and is implied in the succeeding Sutras to 
the end of the Section. Our rules are henceforth to be understood as 
supplying a substitute for a conjunct. Atthi for ustlii (by Sutra 11) will 
serve as an instance. The use of the word ‘conjunct’ shews that these 
substitutions are not intended to apply to final letters, since the second 
member of a final conjunct is rejected by Pan. viii. 2, 23. 


Th is substituted for the conjunct sht : as, 

Latthf, ditthi. 

Yashti, ‘ a stick’; drishti, ‘sight.’ 

ASTHINI. (11). 

In the word asthi, ‘a bone,’ th is substituted for the conjunct: as, Atthi. 

Th is substituted for st. This Sutra revokes Sutra 1, which would enjoin 
the elision of the s, as being the first member of the conjunct st. 

Hattho, samattho, thuf, thavao, kotthuho. 

Hasta, ‘the hand’; samasta, ‘all’; stuti, ‘praise’; stavaka, ‘a nosegay’; 
kaustubha, ‘Krishna’s jewel.’ 

YA STAMBE. (13). 

In the word stamba, ‘a shrub,’ th is not substituted for st: as, Tarnbo [i.e. 
the s is elided by iii. 1], 


In the word stambha, ‘ a post,’ Jch is substituted for st: as, Khambho. 


In the word sthanu , ‘firm,’ Jch is substituted for the conjunct, except 

when it signifies Siva: as, Khanu. Why do we make this exception ? 
When it signifies Siva, it is thanu (by S. 12). 

SPHOTAKE. (16). 

In the word sjohotalca , ‘a boil,’ Jch is substituted for the conjunct: as, 





J is substituted for the conjunct ry, and also for the conjunct in the 
two words sayya and abhimanyu : as, 

Kajjam, sejja, ahimajju. 

Karya, ‘ to be done’; sayya, ‘a bed’; abhimanyu, ‘ Arjuna’s son.’ 


( 18 ). 

In these words r is substituted for the onjunct ry, (and as by S. 54, r 
and h are never doubled, S. 50 is here inoperative.) 

Turam, dhiram [cf. i. 39], sunderam, achchheram, perantam. 

Turya, ‘a musical instrument’; dhairya, ‘ firmness’; saundarya, ‘beauty’; 
ascharya, ‘wonderful’; paryanta, ‘limit.’ 

SUEYE YA. (19). 

In the word surya, ‘the sun,’ r is optionally substituted for ry : as, Suro, 
or else by S, 17, sujjo. 


In words like chaurya, riam is substituted for ry ; as, 

Choriam, soriam, viriam. 

Chaurya, ‘theft’; saurya, ‘heroism’; vfrya, ‘heroism.’ 

Erom the use of the phrase ‘like’ in the Sutra, this is a class, which can 
only be determined by authority \_cf. i. 2]. 


In the words paryasta, fallen ’\parydna, a saddl q k , saukumarya, ‘youth- 
fulness,’ l is substituted for ry : as, Pallattkam, palldnam, soamallam . 1 


T is substituted for rt : as, 

Kevattao, nattao, nattai. 

Kaivartaka, ‘a fisherman’; nartaka, ‘an actor’; nartaki, ‘ an actress.’ 

P ATT A YE. (23). 

T is also substituted for the conjunct in pattana, ‘ a town :’ as Pattanam. 

• • • • 

1 We may here retrace the steps by which saulcumaryam becomes soa¬ 
mallam. Ey i. 22, 41, it becomes soamaryam (the Jc being elided by ii. 2); 
the present Sutra, with iii. 50, gives ll for ry, and the a is shortened before 
the conjunct by i. 10 [sec note, p. 109]. 


[sect. Ill. 



T is not substituted for rt in the class dhurta, etc. Thus we have 
Dhutto, kittf, vattamanam, vatta, avatto, samvattao, nivattao, vattia, 
atto, kattarf, muttif, (r being elided in these words by iii. 3). 

Dhurta, *a gamester’; kfrti, 4 fame’; vartamana, * existing’; varta, 
4 tidings’; avarta, 4 a whirlpool’; samvartaka, 4 JBaladeva’; nivartaka, * re¬ 
turning’; vartika, 4 a wick’; arta, gained’; kartarf, 4 a knife’; murti, 4 form.’ 

GARTE DAK (25). 

In the word garta, 4 a hole,’ d is substituted for rt : as, Gaddo. 

In the words garddbha, 4 smell’; sammarda , trampling’; vitardi, ‘a 
covered terrace’; vichhardi , 4 a fine building’ (?), d is substituted for rd : as, 
Gaddaho, scimmaddo , viaddi , vichhaddi. 


Ch, chh, j, are respectively substituted for tg, thy , dg ; as, 

\_ty.~] Yichcham, pachchakkham. 

Yitya, Constant’; pratyaksha, perceptible.’ 

[_thy.~] Rachchha, michehha, pachchham. 

Rathya, 4 a road’; mithya, falsely’; pathya, proper.’ 

[%•] Vijja, vejjam. 

Yidya, 4 knowledge ’; vaidya, medical.’ 


Jli is substituted for dhy and hy : as, 

[ dhg.~\ Majjham, ajjhao. 

Madhya, 4 middle’; adhyaya, * a chapter.’ 

[%•] Yajjhao, gujjhao. 

Yahyaka, * external’; guhyaka, 4 secret.’ 


Jih is substituted for shh, sh, and Jcsh : as, 

[sAA] Mukkham, pokkharo. 

Mushka, ‘ aheap,’ (masc.); pushkara, 4 a lake.’ 

[sA] Khando, khandho. 

Skanda, 4 Skanda’; skandha, 4 the shoulder.’ 

\_Jcsh.~\ Khado, jakkho. 

Kshata, 4 wounded’; yaksha, 4 a demigod.’ 


OF vararucht. 



In akshi, etc., chh is substituted for ksh : as, 

Achchhi, lachchhi, chbunno, ehhiram, chhuddho, ucbchhitto, sarichchham, 
uchchhu, uchchha, chharam, richchho, machchhia, chhuam, chhuram, chhet- 
tam, vachchho, dachchho, kuchchhi. 

Akshi, ‘ the eye’; lakshmi, ‘ beauty’; kshunna, ‘ bruised’; kshfra, 41 milk; 
kshubdha, 4 agitated’; utkshipta, ‘ tossed up’; sadriksha, 4 like’; iksbu, ‘the 
caue’ \_cf. i. 15]; uksban, ‘ an ox’; kshara, 4 black salt’; riksha, ‘a bear’; 
makshika, ‘a fly’; kshuta, Sneezing’; kshura, 4 a razor’; kshetra, ‘a field’; 
yakshas, ‘the breast’; daksba, ‘ Daksha’; kukshi, ‘ the belly,’ etc. 


In the words kshama, ‘ patience’; vriksha, ‘ a tree’; kshana, ‘ a moment, 
a feast,’ chh is optionally substituted for Icsh : as, Chhama or Tehama ; vachchho 
or rukkho ; chhanam or khanam. It should be observed 1 that the chh is used 
in vrilcsha when a is substituted for ri [ cf. i. 32 ], and in kshana when it 
signifies ‘ a feast.’ 


Mh is substituted for shm, and also for the conjunct in the two words 
pakshman and vismaya : thus, 

Gimho, umha, pamho, vimhao. 

Grfshma, 4 the hot season] ushman, 4 the hot season’; pakshman, ‘an 
eyelash’; vismaya, ‘surprise.’- 


hfli is substituted for hn, sn, shn, kshn, and sn : thus, 

• • • 

[ hn.] Yanhi, janhii. 

Yahni, ‘fire’; jahnu, ‘ Jahnu.’ 

[ snh] Khanam, panhudam. 

Snana, ‘bathing’; prasnuta, ‘flowing.’ 

\_shn. J Yinhii, kanho. 

Yishnu, ‘Yishnu’; krishna, ‘Krishna’ [iii. 61]. 

\_kshn.~\ Sanham, tinham. 

/ * * ( 

Slakshna, small’; tikshna, sharp.’ 

1 Lassen (Gymnosoph. p. 21) explains ish in this sense as ‘desideratum 
est, optatum, i.e., a doctrinae hujus conditoribus constitutum.’ It is especially 
used to introduce an additional rule of a Commentator. 




\_sn.~] Panho, sinho. 

Prasna, ‘ a question’; sisna, ‘ penis.’ 


In the word chihna, ‘ a mark/ ndh is substituted for the conjunct: as, 


Ph is substituted for slip : as, 

Puppham, sappham, nipphao. 

Pushpa, ‘ a flower’; sashpa, ‘ young grass’; nishpaya, ‘ without water.’ 


Ph is substituted for sp, wherever it is found (that is, in the beginning 
or end of a word): as, 

Phanso [cf. iv. 15], phandanam. 

Sparsa, ‘touch’; spandana, ‘ a throbbing.’ 

SI CEA. (37). 

Si is also sometimes substituted for sp : as, Padisiddlu for pratisparddhin , 
* a rival’ [cf. i. 2]. 


H is substituted for shp in the word vashpa, when it signifies, ‘ a tear ’ : 
as Vaho. Why do we specify this signification ? When it signifies, ‘ hot 
vapour,’ we must use vappho (in accordance with S. 35). 


In the word Icarshapana, ‘ a certain weight/ h is substituted for the con¬ 
junct : as, Kdhdvano. 


Chh is substituted for the conjuncts sch, ts, and ps : thus, 

[sch.~] Pachchhimam, achchheram; [ts.[\ vachchho, vachchharo; [ps. ] 
lichchha, juguchchha. 

Paschima, ‘western’; ascharya, ‘wonderful’; vatsa, ‘a calf’; vatsara, ‘a 
year’; lipsa, ‘desire’; jugupsa, ‘censure.’ 


In the word vrischilca, ‘ a scorpion/ nchh is substituted for sch : as, 
Vinchhuo ( cf . i. .15). 


In the words utsulca, ‘regretting/ and utsava, ‘a feast/ the substitution 




of chh for ts (enjoined by S. 40) is forbidden : we have therefore Ussuo and 
ussavo (by iii. 1, 50). 

HMO MAH. (43.) 

M is substituted for nm, although (by S. 2 ) m is properly elided when 
it is the second member of a conjunct: as, 

Jammo, vammaho. 

Jamnan, * birth’; manmatha, love.’ [cf. ii. 39.] 


JSf is substituted for mn and jn, and for the conjunct in the words pan- 
chasat and panchadasa : as, 

Pajjunno, janno, vinnanam, pannasa, pannaraho. 

Pradyumna, 'Kama’; yajna, 'a sacrifice’; vijnana, 'knowledge’; pan- 
chasat, 'fifty’; panchadasa, fifteenth.’ 


In the word talavrinta , 'a fan,’ nt is substituted for the conjunct: as, 


In the word bhindipala, ' a dart,’ nd is substituted for the conjunct: as, 


In the word vilnvala, 'agitated,’ bh and h are optionally substituted for 
the conjunct: as, Vebbhalo , vihalo [for the e of the first form see i. 12]- 
ATMANI PAH. (48.) 

In the word atrnan , ' self,’ p is substituted for the conjunct: as, Appd. 

KM ASYA. (49.) 

P is substituted for the conjunct hm : as, 

Buppam, ruppim. 

Bukma, 'gold’; Pukminf, 'Lakshim.’ 

The Commentator remarks that this and the preceding Sutra (which 
might otherwise have been united) are separated, because the latter of the 
two (S. 49) is absolute, while the former (S. 48) is only partially applicable, 
as dtman admits of another form [ see v. 45 ] besides appd. 


Wherever after performing an elision or substitution enjoined by a rule, 
a single consonant comes to represent a conjunct, this letter is always 
doubled, except in the beginning of a word. 




As examples of such, after elision: 

Bhuttam, maggo. 

Bhukta, 4 eaten’ [the Ic elided by iii. 1]; marga, a path’ [the r elided 
by iii. 3]. 

As examples of such, after substitution : 

Latthi, ditthi, hattho. 

Yashti, ‘a stick’; drishti, 4 sight’ [iii. 10]; hasta, ‘ the hand’ [iii. 12]. 

Why do we except those which are at the beginning of a word ? Com¬ 
pare such cases as, 

Ehaliarn, khambho, thavao. 

Skhalita, * fallen’ [the s elided by iii. 1]; stambha, 4 a post’ [iii. 14] 
stavaka, 4 a nosegay’ [iii. 12]. 


"When the doubling enjoined by the previous Sutra takes place, whether in 
regard to the first or the second member of the conjunct, wherever the single 
representative is an aspirate (that is, the second or fourth letter of its class,) 1 
it is to be doubled by prefixing its own non-aspirate: in the case of the other 
letters, of course they themselves are their own duplicates. 

Examples by elision: 

Vakkhanam, aggho, muchchha, nijjharo, luddho, nibbharo. 

Yyakhyana, 4 explanation’; argha, 4 oblation’; murchha, ‘fainting’; nir- 
jhara, 4 a cascade’; lubdha, 4 greedy’; nirbhara, 4 excessive.’ 

Examples by substitution: 

Ditthi, latthi, vachchho, vipphariso, nittharo, jakkho, lachchhi, atthi, 

Drishti, 4 sight’; yashti, 4 a stick’; vakshas, 4 the breast’ \cf. iv. 18]; 
visparsa, 4 touch’; nistara, 4 crossing’; yaksha, 4 a demigod’; lakshmi, 
4 beauty’; asthi, 4 a bone’; pushpa, 4 a flower.’ 


In the words nida, etc., the medial letter is doubled, although it is not a 
conjunct: as, 

Yeddam [for the e see i. 19], sottam, pemmam, vahittam, ujjuo, jannao, 

1 The Prakrita Sarvaswa explains yuj, 4 Yug iti samanam dwitiyachatur- 
th ad in am sanjna.’ 




Yfda, 'a nest’; srota, 
nounced’; riju, ‘straight’; 

4 a river’; preman, ‘ affection’; vyahrita, ‘ pro- 
Jan aka, ‘the name of a king’; yanvana, ‘youth.’ 


In the words antra, ‘the mango,’ and tdmra, ‘copper,’ b is employed in 
the doubling enjoined by Sutra 50 : as Ambam , tambam. 1 

YA ItAHOH. (54.) 

R and Ji are never doubled : as, 

Dlnram, turam [iii. 18], jfha [i. 17, iii. 3], vaho [iii. 38]. 

Dhairya, ‘firmness’; turya, ‘a musical instrument’; jihwa, ‘a tongue’; 
vashpa, ‘ a tear.’ 

AHO JYASYA. (55.) 

'When jn is preceded by the preposition d, its substitute n (by Sutra 44) 

f f * * * £ {{ 

is not doubled: as, Ana, anattf, for Ajna, ajnapti, an order.’ AYhy, when 
preceded by d” ? In Sannd for Sanjnd, ‘a name,’ the rule does not hold. 2 

[HA YINDTJPAItE.] (56.) 

A letter, which immediately follows anuswara, is not doubled : as, San- 
kanto, sanjha, for Sankranta, ‘gone’; sandhya, ‘twilight.’ The h and jh 
would otherwise have been doubled by Sutras 3, 28, 50. 

SAMASE YA. (57.) 

In a compound word, the doubling is optional, whether in the case of an 
elision or substitution: as, 

Yaiggamo or nafgamo; kusumappaaro or kusumapaaro ; devatthui or de- 
vathuf; analakkhambho or analakhambo. 

Yadfgrama, ‘a village by a river’; kusumaprakara, ‘ a nosegay’; devastuti, 

1 Eor this difficult Sutra, cf. the Yar. Lect. Four of the MSS. of Yara- 
ruchi read avvam , etc.; two seem to read as above, which is clearly supported 
by Hema-ch., the Prak. Sarvaswa, Prak. Sanjfv., and Sanksh. Sara. If it be 
correct, I suppose the successive changes are amam [by iii. 3], then [by iii. 
50] ammarn , but here S. 53 interposes, and we have ambam or amvam. The 
only other way of explaining it seems to be by reading amvvam, i.e., the v is 
substituted for the r and then doubled. 

2 This instance is not a good one, if the next Sut. be genuine, which 
forbids the doubling of the n after the anusw. of sam. Probably this led 
to the var. lect., vinnatti — vijnapti. 

1 32 


[sect. III. 

Upraise of the gods’; alanastambha, ‘ an elephant’s post’ [for this, cf. iii. 14, 
and iv. 29]. 


In the words seva, etc., the doubling of the medial letter is also optional: as, 

Sevva, seva; ekkam, earn; nakkho, naho; devvam, daivam; asivvam, 
asivam; tellokkam, teloam; nihitto, nihio; tunhikko, tunhio; kanniaro, 
kaniaro; diggham, diham ; rattf, raf; dukkhio, dnhio; asso, aso 1 ; issaro, isaro; 
vissaso, visaso; nissaso, nisaso ; rassi, rasf; mitto, mio; pusso, puso. 

Seva, ‘ service’; eka, ‘one’; nakha, ‘a nail’; daiva, * fate’; asiva, Un¬ 
lucky’; trailokya, ‘ the three worlds’; nihita, Entrusted’; tushm'ka, ‘ silent’; 
karnikara, ‘ the tree so called’; dfrgha, ‘long’; ratri, ‘the night’; duhkhita, 
‘wretched’; aswa, ‘a horse’; l'swara, ‘God’; viswasa, confidence’; niswasa, 
‘a sigh’; rasmi, ‘a ray’; mitra, ‘friendly’; pushya, ‘the eighth lunar 


The alternative can be considered in two ways; in words like seva, 
there would have been no occasion for the doubling, except for this rule; 
in words like dir glia, the doubling is already enjoined by other rules [e.g. iii. 
3, and iii. 50], and therefore the option granted by this is required to 
dispense with their operation. 2 

VIPRAK Alt SHAH. (59.) 

This being an adhikdra will be implied in the following Sutras. Yuk- 
tasya still continues to be implied from S. 9. We are therefore to under¬ 
stand that the subject of the succeeding Sutras to the end of the section 
wilt be the separation [ viprakarsha ] of conjuncts. 

PUR VASYA. (60.) 

In the words Idishta, etc., the conjunct consonants are divided; and the 
first consonant, which has no vowel of its own, suffers vocalisation, and 
becomes sounded with the original vowel : 3 as, 

1 I should prefer aso [cf. i. 2], though the MSS. and the Pr. Sanj. have aso. 

2 Eor this rule, cf. Lass., pp. 275—7, who would explain some of the 
instances by the force of the accent. 

3 At the same time the new syllable so created is, of course, subject to 
previous rules, and thus the first consonant is sometimes elided by ii. 2. 
Thus wc have Ratna , ratana, and then (by ii. 2) raana\ and in S. 65, padma, 
paduma , and finally paima. 




Kilittham, silittham, raanam, kiria, sarango (or in its crude form Yaranga’.) 
Klishta, -distressed’; slishta, ‘ embraced’; ratna, ‘a gem’; kriya, ‘ an 
action’; sarnga, ‘horny.’ 

KR1SHNE YA. (61.) 

In the word hrishna, the separation of the conjunct shi is optional: in 
the case of separation, the vowel must be supplied as before; here, how¬ 
ever, the option is definitely restricted; for the separation is imperative, 
when hrishna means ‘ black,’ as hasano ; but is forbidden when it means 
“ Vishnu,” as hanho [iii. 33]. 


In the following words the conjunct is divided, and the first consonant 
suffers vocalisation as before; but the inserted vowel is i, and not the original 

Sirf, bin, kinto, kilanto, kileso, milanam, sivino, phariso, hariso, ariho, 

Sri, ‘ beauty’; hrf, * shame’; kn'ta, ‘bought’; klanta, ‘wearied’; klesa, 
‘distress’; mlana, ‘withered’; swapna, ‘sleep’; sparsa, ‘touch’; harsha, ‘joy’; 
arha, ‘worthy’; garha, ‘acensurer.’ 


In the words hshma, the earth,’ and sldgJid, praise,’ the conjunct is 
divided as before, but the first consonant is sounded with a : as, Khamd , 

SHEHE YA. (64.) 

In the word sneha, ‘love,’ the division of the conjunct is optional, but 
when it does take place, the first consonant is sounded with a, as in the 
preceding Sutra : as, Saneho, neho. [Eor the second form, cf. iii. i.] 


In padma, a lotus,’ and words like tanv'i (fem. of tanu, ‘slender,’) such as 
laghv'i (fem. of laghu , ‘light’) etc., the conjunct is divided, and the first 
consonant is sounded with u instead of the original vowel: as, Paiimam , 
tanui, lahui. 

JYAYAM IT. (66.) 

In jydj ‘a bowstring,’ the conjunct is divided, and the first consonant is 
sounded with i, instead of the original vowel: as, Jid. 






Ach is here of course the pratydhdra, or technical term for all the 
vowels. When vowels are in Sandhi, or in a state of immediate conjunction, 
various kinds of vowels and elisions arise. 

1. Yarious kinds of vowels: as, 

Jaimaadam, jaiinaadam; nai'ssotto, nafsotto; vahumuham, vahumuham; 
kannaiiram, kannauram ; siroveami, siraveana; piapiam, piapiam; sfasiam, 
siasiam; savomuo, savomuo; saroruham, sararuham. 

Yamunatata, ‘the bank of the Jumna’; nadisrotas, ‘the river-stream’; 
vadhumukha, ‘ having a woman’s face’; karnapura, ‘the mimosa sirisha’; 
sirovedana, ‘a pain in the head’; pitapita, ‘drunk and not drunk’; sitasita, 
‘ white and black’; saroruha, ‘ a lotus.’ 

2. Yarious kinds of elision : as, 

Itaaiilam, raulam ; tuhaddham, tuhaaddham; mahaddham, mahaaddham; 
pavadanam, paavadanam [viii. 51]; kumbharo, kumbhaaro; pavanuddhaam, 

Bajakula, ‘a royal family’; tavarddha, ‘half of thee’; mamarddha, 
‘half of me’; padapatana, ‘prostration at anj^ one’s feet’; kumbhakara, ‘a 
potter’; pavanoddhata, ‘ tossed by the wind.’ 

When a conjunct consonant follows, it is always the first of the two 
meeting vowels, which is elided (when there is any elision at all, which is 
not always required). From the use of hahula , or ‘variously,’ in the 
Sutra, we conclude that these changes are in some cases absolute, in others 
they admit of different forms; hence, when other forms are met with, they 
are still to be considered as here provided for in the lakshana or Sutra. 1 

1 The Comm, of this Sutra is obscure, and its examples corrupt, and the 
MSS. afford little aid; but the Prak. Sanjiv. by its use of the Sutra in its 





In udumbara, * copper,’ du is elided : as, JJmbaram. 


In kaldyasa, iron,’ ya is optionally elided : as, Kaldsam, Jcdldasam. 


In bJidjana, ‘ a vessel,’ ja is optionally elided : as, Bhdnam, bJidanam. 


In the words yavat, etc., v is optionally elided : as, 

Ja, java; ta, tava ; parao, paravao; anuttanta, anuvattanta; ji'am, 
jiviam; earn, evvam; ea, evva; kualaam, kuvalaam. 

Yavat, ‘how far’; tavat, ‘so far’; paravata, ‘a dove’; anuvartamana, 
‘following’; jfvita, ‘life’; evam, eva, ‘so’; kuvalaya,’ ‘ a bine lotus,’ etc. 


The ‘ option ’ of the preceding sutras ends here. A final consonant is 
always elided : as, 

Jaso [cf. iv. 18, 19], naham, saro, kammo, java, tava. 

A'asas, ‘glory; nahhas, ‘the sky’; saras, ‘a lake’; karman, ‘a deed’; 
yavat, ‘how far’; tavat, ‘ so far.’ 

Comm, on other Sutras throws some light upon its meaning. Here we con¬ 
tinually find it quoted to explain any apparent irregularity in the Sandhi of 
a Prakrit example, which is not provided for by any definite rule. Eor 
instance, let us take the word teraha = Sans, trayodasa, and trace the suc¬ 
cessive changes by which Yararuchi brings out the Prakrit form. By i. 5, 
we have treyoda'sa, by ii. 14, 44, treyoraha , and by ii. 2, iii. 3, teoraha; but 
we have no rule for the elision of the o, except iv. 1, which is adopted by 
the Prak. Sanj. Bhamaha, in his first list of examples, appears to extend 
the rule beyond its legitimate application, and includes under it the various 
instances where the finals of feminine nouns in d, z, and u are optionally 
shortened in composition [cf. Lass., p. 290], as in vahumuham or vahumuham, 
etc.; or where neuter words in as admit, when compounded, of two forms in 
o or a, as siro- or sira-veand. (The first three pairs of ex. are given also in 
the Comm, of Hema-ch., Sut. 3, dzrghahraswau mithovrittau.) The forms 
in line 7 of the Sans, text, pidpiam, etc., are very doubtful, as well as their 
Sans, interpretation. Savomuo is certainly corrupt, and neither of the Sans, 
explanations given in the MSS. is satisfactory. That in DE seems the best, 


[sect. IV. 




A is substituted for the final consonant of a feminine word : as, 

Saria, padivaa, vaa. 

Sarit, ‘a river’; pratipad, ‘the first day of a lunar fortnight’; vach, 
* speech.’ 

RO RA. (8.) 

Ra is substituted for a final r, in a feminine word : as, 

Dhura, gira. 

Dhur, £ the carriage-pole’; gir, ‘speech.’ 


A is not substituted for the final letter of vidyut, lightning’ (by S. 7), 
but although a feminine noun ending in a consonant, it follows Sutra 6, and 
becomes Vijju. 

SARADO DAH. (10.) 

Da is substituted for the final d of sarad, autumn,’ and thus we find 
Sarado [for its gender, cf. S. 18]. 


Similarly sa is substituted for the final sibilant of di's, ‘ a region,’ and prd- 
vrish, ‘the rainy season’: as, Disa, pduso (for the change in gender, cf 
S. 18 ; di's continues feminine as before x ). 

if we correct it to sarvamrita , but the two Prak. forms still need some 
correction. In lines 9, 10, if we make the corrections pd- paavadanam, and 
add the form pavanoddhaam in 1. 10, we may adopt the reading of BDEW 
as given in the text, and their Sans, explanations as given in the var. lect. 
The lines 1—3 on p. 31 are not without difficulty. Lassen has given 1. 1 
as a new Sutra, but I prefer taking it as an additional observation of the 
Comment, to explain such a form as pavanuddhaam. Pavanoddhaam would 
have been equally correct, but not pavanaddhaam ; as the elision before a 
conjunct (where it takes place at all), must be that of the former vowel. 
Similarly in the Bhalti-Kavya, vol. ii. p. 114, on the word ravottunga , the 
Schol. remarks that although by the rule ‘ lopo ’ chah ,’ which enjoins the 
elision of the preceding vowel, when a second follows, it should be ravut- 
tunga , still by the influence of the hahula , the elision is not absolute \_Atra 
yadyapi pralcrite < lopo ’cha ’ ityanena achi pare acho lope ravuttungeti syat , 
tathdpi hahulddhikdrdn nasti lopah ]. 

1 ‘ Id tantum vult regula, non dicendum esse dikd et pravritad Lass. Inst. 




MO YINDUH. (12.) 

Anuswara is substituted for a final m : as, Achchham, vachchham, bhaddam, 
aggim, etc. 1 2 


When a vowel immediately follows, m may optionally remain; or, in 
other words, Sandhi in this case is allowed : as, Phalam avdharai or phalam- 
avaharai , ‘ he gathers fruit.’ 

NAM)R HALI. (14.) 

Anuswara is substituted for the dental and palatal nasals when a con¬ 
sonant follows, and so also is m 3 (as we infer from the preceding Sut.): as, 
Anso or amso, kanso or kamso, vanchamam or vamchamam, vinjho or 

Ansa, * a part’; kansa, ‘ the name of a king’; vanchanijm, ‘to be tricked’; 
vindhya, ‘ the Vindhya mountains’ ( vinjha — vindhya, by iii. 28). 


In vaJcra, etc. Anuswara is inserted as an augment: as, 

Yankam, tansam, hanso, ansu, 3 mansu, gunthi, mantham, manansinf, 

• • • • 

dansanam, phanso, vanno, padinsudam, anso, ahimunko. 

Yakra, brooked’; tryasra, ‘a triangle’; hraswa, ‘ short’; asru, * a tear’; 
smasru, f a beard’; grishti, 4 a cow with one calf’; masta, ‘the head’; rnanas- 
wim, * a wise woman’; darsana, ‘sight’; sparsa, ‘touch’; varna, ‘a colour’; 
pratisruta, ‘promised’; aswa, ‘ahorse’; abhimukta, ‘released,’ etc. 


In such words as mansa, etc., the use of Anuswara is optional : as, 

1 As this and the two following rules merely refer to Prakrit orthography, 
they are of no importance in an English translation, and can hardly be 
understood, except by those who understand the original text. 

2 There can be little doubt that this addition of Bhamaha’s is wrong; 
the Prak. Sanj. (though corrupt) is silent about it; Hema-ehandra’s cor¬ 
responding Siit. [i. 24], is ‘ Nananano vyanjane. JVd na na na ityetesham 
sthdne, vyanjane pare, amiswaro bhavati.’ In the ex. ansa and kansa, Bha- 
maha appears to consider the nasal as a dental, in consequence of the dental 
sibilant which follows it. 


3 Eor this masculine form of asm , cf. Williams’ Sak. p. 165, where 


Boehtlingk’s correction [Sak. p. 217] is adopted. 





Mansam, masam; kaham, kaha; nunam, mina; taliiin, tahi (vi. 7); 
asum, asu. 1 

Mansa, * flesh ’; katham, ‘how’; nunam, * certainly’; tasmin, ‘in that’; 
asu, fem. loc. plural of idarn, ‘ this.’ 

There is no definite class of words, such as mansa, etc.; hut wherever, 
through fear of violating the metre, Anuswara is sometimes used and some¬ 
times omitted, the Commentator wishes such a word to he considered as 
included in the class referred to. 

YAYI T AD Y A EG AY T AH. (17.) 

When any consonant immediately follows, except h and the sibilants (i.e., 
the pratyahdra yay ), Anuswara may optionally become the nasal of the class 
to which the letter belongs: as, Sanded, sanJcJio, anJco, angam, sanchara'i, san- 
dho, etc.; or we may use the option of the rule, and say panham, vindu , 
sanhd, etc. ‘ Why do we use th e pratyahdra yay in the Sutra’: That we may 
exclude h and the sibilants, as in anso, etc., where we can only use Anuswara. 


Youns ending in n and s, and the two words prdvrish and sarad, are to 
be used in the masculine gender (the final n and s being elided by Sut. 6): as, 

Kammo, jammo, vammo. 

Karman, ‘a deed’; janman, 4 birth’; varman, ‘ armour/ 

Jaso, tamo, saro. 

Yasas, ‘ glory’; tamas, ‘ darkness’; saras, ‘ a lake.’ 

Pauso, sarado. 

Pravrish, * the rainy season’ [ef. iv. 11]; sarad, ‘ the autumn’ \jf. iv. 10]. 

Sir as, the head,’ and nahhas, the sky’ (although both end in s), must 
not be used in the masculine (but in the neuter, as in Sanskrit), and thus 
we have Siram and nadiam. 


The three words prishtha, ‘ the back ’; ahshi, ‘ the eye ’; and prasna, ‘ a 


1 Asum dsu are conjectural. This Sutra is considered also to apply to the 
anuswara, which is optionally added to the terminations of the instr. and 
loc. plural, and neuter nom. plur. etc.: as, raehchhehim or -hi, vaeliclihesu 
or -sum, vandi or -dim. 




question,’ may be optionally used in the feminine gender : as, Puttln or 
puttham, aohcJilii or achohham, panhd or panho . 


0 is optionally substituted for the prepositions ava and apa, when in 
composition : as, 

Ohaso or avahaso, osariam or avasariam. 

Avahasa, ‘ laughter’; apasarita, ‘gone out."' 


Da and ttana are respectively substituted for the affixes tal and twa 
(which are used in Sanskrit to form abstract nouns): as, 

Pfnada, pinattanam, mudhada, mudhattanam. 

Pfnata, pmatwa, ‘ fatness’; mudhata, mudhatwa, ‘folly.’ 

KTWA MAH. 1 (23.) 


Una is substituted for ktiva (the affix of the indeclinable past participle) : 


Gheuna, souna, kauna, dauna. 

Grihitwa, e having seized’; srutwa, * having heard’; kritwa, * having 
made’; datwa, < having given.’ 


Ira is substituted for the affix trinf signifying sila, ‘ habits,’ or ‘ dis¬ 
position ’: as, 

Bhamiro, hasiro. 

Bhramanasfla or bhramitri, ‘ fond of wandering’; hasanasfla or hasitri, 
‘fond of laughing.’ 



Alu, ilia, ulla, ala, vanta? inta are substituted for matup, the affix sig¬ 
nifying * possession.’ 


Isalu, niddalu; viarilla, malailla; viarulla; dhanala, saddala; clhana- 
vanta, jovanavanta; rosainta , 4 panainta. 

Irshavat, ‘ envious’; nidravat, 1 sleepy;’ vikaravat, ‘ changed’; mala vat, 

1 The Pr. Sanj. gives -this Sut. as Jctwa tunah, and similarly the Sanksh. 
Sara, 180 [Lass. App. p. 47] ; of. Lass. Inst. p. 367, and infra, viii. 55. 

2 Cf. Pan. iii. 2. 134 and 135. 


2 Written vanda in Sak., Williams, p. 38, 1 ; of. Boehtlingk, note p. 166 
Cf. Lass. pp. 289, 290. 



Slaving a garland’; dhanavat, ‘wea'thy’; sabdavat, ‘ sounding’; yauva- 
navat, * youthful’; roshavat, ‘ angry’; pranavat, ‘alive.’ 

These various substitutes for matup must not be used indscriminately, 
but with a due regard to the forms observed in classical authors. 

[Sometimes 1 we find a instead of matup, and sometimes manta : as ha- 
numa or hanumanta for hanumat, ‘ the monkey-chief’; others use the sub¬ 
stitutes ilia and ulla in the sense of the affixes technically called saishikdh 
(of. Pan. iv. 2, 92), as purilla for paurastya (a derivative with the affix 
tyak, Pan. iv. 2, 98), ‘produced in the east’; appulla for atmiya (a derivative 
with the affix chlia, Pan. iv. 2, 114) ‘belonging to one’s self.’ 

Instead of the pronouns him, etc., in the sense of ‘measure’ (Pan. v., 2, 
39), we should use Iceddaha, etc. : as, 

Keddaha, kettia; jeddaha, jettia; teddaha, tettia; eddaha, ettia. 

Kiyat, ‘how much’; yavat (explained by Panini as ‘yat parimanam 
asya ’) ‘ as much as’; tavat, ‘ so much’; etavat, ‘thus much.’ 

Others add huttam as a substitute for the affix Jcritwas, (Pan. v. 4, 17), 
but the present Commentator wishes this to be considered as a provincialism : 
as, saahutfam for satakritwas, ‘ a hundred times’; sahassalmttam for sahasra- 
kritwas, ‘ a thousand times.’ 

The affix ka is also frequently added to a word without changing its 
meaning (the k being of course elided by ii. 2): as, Bhamaro or bhamarao, 
for bhramara, ‘ a bee.’ 2 ] 


The affix la is used at the end of the words vidyut, ‘ lightning, ’ and 
pita, ‘ yellow,’ without altering their meaning : as, Vijjii or vijjuli; piam or 

[VBIKDE YO BAH.] (27.) 

In the word vrinda, ‘ a heap,’ r is optionally used after the v, without 
altering its meaning : as, Vrandam or vandam. 


In the word karenu, ‘ a female elephant,’ the r and n are transposed: as, 

1 Eor this passage, see App. B. 

2 See App. B. I have added the ex. (omitted in Yararuchi) from the 
Prak. Sanj. The word jdtau appears to be corrupt; of. the corresponding 
rules in Hema-ch. and the Prak. Sanj. 




Jianeru. From the express mention of the feminine, we infer that the rule 
does not hold in the masculine : as, Icarenu, ‘ a male elephant/ 


In the word alana, ‘ an elephant’s post,’ the l and n are transposed (of 
course, as before, without their vowels): as Andlalehambo for dlanastambha 
[cf. iii. 57]. 


In the word vrihaspati, ‘ the regent of the planet Jupiter,’ bh and a are 
respectively substituted for v and h : as, JBhaapphai [cf. iii. 36]. 


In the word malina, ‘ dirty,’ i and l are optionally substituted for 
li and n respectively : as, mailam or malinam. 


GJiara is used in the sense of griha, ‘ a house,’ except when it is followed 
by pati, ( a master’: as gharam , * a house.’ ‘ Why do we make this ex¬ 
ception’? Because we have gahavai for grihapati, ‘a householder.’ 


The class of words called clddlid, etc., are irregularly used instead of the 
class danshtra, etc. : as, 

Dadha, danshtra, ‘a tooth’; enhim, idanim, ‘now’; dhfa 1 or dhuda, 
duhita, ‘a daughter’; chatuliam, chaturya, ‘dexterity’; manduro, manduka, 
‘a frog’; ghare nihitam [iv. 32], grihe nihitam, ‘deposited in the house’; 
kandotto, 2 utpala, ‘a blue lotus’; gold, godavari, ‘the river Godavari’; 
nidalam, 3 lalata, ‘the forehead’; bhumaa, bhu, ‘the earth’; veluriam, 
vaidurya, ‘ lapis lazuli’; avahovasam, ubhayaparswa, ‘both sides’; maindo or 
maando, 4 chuta, ‘ a mango tree.’ 

The word adi in the Sutra is used in the sense of ‘similitude’ or 
‘ class ’; therefore all words of common speech may be considered as com¬ 
prehended under this rule, which are used by convention in different 
provinces. 5 

1 Dliida is a Sans, word, see Lex.; cf. also Hindiist. Lib J dhiya. 

2 Cf. Sans. Icandota. 

3 Cf. Sans, nitala. 

4 Cf. Sans, malcanda. 

5 As might be expected, the MSS. differ very much in several of the 
Prakrit ex. of this Sutra: cf. var. lect. 





AT A OT SOLI. (1.) 

0 is substituted for su, the affix of the nom. sing., after a word ending in 
a : as, 

Yachchho, vasaho, puriso. 

Vrikshas, ‘a tree’; vrishabhas, *a bull’; purushas, ‘a man.’ [The a is 
considered to be elided by iv. I. 1 ] 


Jas and sas, the affixes of the nom. and ace. plural are elided after words 
ending in a : as vachchha sohanti for vriJcshdh sobkante, ‘ The trees are beautiful.’ 
Here the vowel a is lengthened by Sutra 11, and then the affix jas is elided. 
Vachclihe niachchhalia for vrikshdn niyachchhata , 2 ‘ Bring the trees.’ Here 
the final a becomes e by Sut. 12, and then the affix sas is elided. 

ATO ’MAH. 3 (3.) 

The a of am, the affix of the accusative singular, is elided after words 
ending in a : as, Vachchham pekkhai , for vriJcsham prehshate, 1 He sees a tree.’ 
For the anuswara, see iv. 12. 

TAMOR NAH. (4.) 

After words ending in a, na is substituted for td and dm, the affixes of 
the instrumental singular, and the genitive plural: as, VachcliJiena, vach- 
chhanaj for vrikshena, by a tree, ’ vriksfidndm, i of trees.’ The e of the 
former word is caused by Sut. 12; the long vowel of the latter by Sut. 11. 

1 So the Priik. Sanj. ; cf. the addition in D noticed in the Var. Lect. 

2 Such is the interpr. of the MSS.; but cf. viii. 69, infra. 

3 The sign S is accidentally omitted in the Sutra as printed in the text. 

' 4 The MSS. write vachchJiana, vachchlidnam indifferently, the final anus¬ 
wara in these and similar forms being considered optional by iv. 16. 

SECT. V.] 




Him is substituted for bills, the affix of the instrumental plural, after 
words ending in a: as Vachchhehim for vrikshais, 1 by trees.’ For the in¬ 
sertion of e, see Suit. 12. 


After words ending in a, d do du hi are severally substituted for nasi, the 
affix of the ablative sing.: as, Vachchha, vachchhado , vachchhadu, vachchhdhi. 
For the long vowel of the penultimate in the last three forms, see Sut. 11 ; 
and for the first form, see Sut. 13. 


After words ending in a, Junto and sunto are substituted for Iliyas, the 
affix of the ablative plural: as, Vachchhdhinto, vachchhdsunto. For the long 
vowel of the antepenult., the commentary refers us to the cha, or * and,’ in 
Sut. 12. 1 

SSO YASAH. (8.) 

After words ending in a, ssa is substituted for nas, the affix of the 
genitive sing. : as, Vachchhassa. 

YEB EMMI. (9.) 

After words ending in a, e and mmi are substituted for hi, the affix of 
the locative sing. : as, Yachchhe, vachchha mmi. For the elision of the final 
a in vachchhe, we are referred to Sut. 13. 

SUPAH SUH. (10.) 

After words ending in a, su is substituted for sup, the affix of the loc. 
plural: as, Vachchhesu. For the e, we are referred to Sut. 12. 


For the final a of these nouns, d is substituted before the affixes of the 
nom. and acc. plural, the ablative singular and the genitive plural: as, 

1 Bhamaha does not recognise the forms with e, as vachchhehinto, vach- 
chhesunto ; but it seems plain from this very artifice of the cha, that such 
forms are correct; cf. infra, notes v. 12; vi. 62; and Lass., p. 310. Hema- 
ehandra expressly gives a Sut., ‘ Bhyasi vd ’; with comm. 1 Bhyasddese pare 
ato diryho vd bhavati, vachchdhinto, vachchhehinto ,’ etc., and so does the Prak. 
Sarvaswa. For the difference of meaning between the two forms, see Lass, 
p. 310, ‘ Junto caussam significat, a qua procedit effectus; sunto indicat unde 


[sect. V. 


Vachclihd sohanti, ‘ the trees are beautiful ’ [for the elision of jus, see Sut. 
2] ; 1 vachchhado, vachchhddu, vachchhdhi for vrikshdt [see Sut. 6] ; vachchhana 
for vriJcshandm [see Sut. 4]. 


E is substituted for this final a, before all the case-affixes except those of 
the loc. and gen. sing, ini and nas) ; 1 2 3 and from the cha in the rule we con¬ 
clude that the long vowel also may be used; as vachchhe pelckhaha, i behold 
the trees ’ [for the elision of sas, see Sut. 2]; vachchhena for v riles hena [see 
Sut. 4] ; vachchhehim [Slit. 5] ; vachchhesu [Sut. 10]. But the long vowel 
also may be used : as, vachchhdhinto, vachchhdsunto [Sut. 7]. 

4 Why do we except the affixes of the loc. and gen. sing ’? Because in 
vacJichhammi [Suit. 9] and vachchhassa [Sut. 8], the short vowel is retained. 


When nasi and ni, the affixes of the abl. and loc. sing., follow, in certain 
cases the final a of the noun is elided: as, Vachchha [Sut. 6], vachchhe [Sut. 
9], (that is, in this form of the abl. we elide the final a of vachchha to avoid 
the necessity of lengthening it by Sut. 11 ; and similarly in this form of the 
loc. we elide it to avoid such a word as vachchhae. In vachchhado, etc., and 
vachchhammi we see the opposite ; cf. also vi. 61.) 


In nouns ending in i and u, no is substituted for sas, the affix of the acc. 
plural: as, Aggino, vauno, for agnin, ‘fires/ vayun, Svinds.’ 

YASO VA. (15.) 

In nouns ending in i and u, no is optionally substituted for has, the affix 
of the gen. sing.: as, Aggino or aggissa, vauno or vaussa (for ssa, see Sut. 8). 


In these nouns, o is substituted for jas, the affix of the nom. plur.; and 
i and u* for the final i and u. From the use of the cha in the Sutra we 
infer that no is also used as well as o : as, Aggio, vduo, or aggino, vduno. 

1 The Comm, gives no ex. of the acc. plural. It should be vachchha. 
The usual form is vachchhe; cf. S. 12. 

2 All the grammarians agree that sup is here the pratgdhdra of all the 
case-affixes (formed from su, the first aff., and the p of sup, the last), and the 
Prak. Sanj. and Prak. Sarvaswa refer hither vachchhehinio, etc.; cf. S. 7, note. 

3 The va in the Comm., which is added in the margin in some MSS. to 

SECT. V.] 



TA NA. (17.) 

In these nouns nd is substituted for td, the affix of the instrumental sing. : 
as, Aggind, vauna. 


When su, bids, and sup, the affixes of the nom. sing., instr. plnr., and 
loc. plur. follow, the final i or u of these nouns is exchanged for its long 
vowel: as, Aggi, vdu ; aggihim, vauhim ; aggisu, vausu. 


In feminine nouns, u and o are substituted for sas, the affix of the ace. 
plural: as, 

Malau, malao ; naiu, naio; vahuu, vahuo. 

Malah, ‘garlands’; nadih, ‘rivers’; vadhuh, ‘wives.’ 

[JASO YA.] (20.) 

In feminine nouns, u and o are optionally substituted for jas, the affix of 
the nom. plural; in the alternative these follow the rule of nouns in a : as 
Mdldo, mdldu, and also maid (by S. 2). 1 


In feminine nouns the final long vowel is shortened before am, the affix 
of the acc. sing : as, 

Malam, na'irn, vahum. 


In feminine nouns, i, e, a, a are substituted for td, has, ni, the affixes of 
the instr., gen.^and loc. sing.: as, 

Nan, naie, nafa, naia, any one of which four forms represents ‘by,’ ‘of’ 
or ‘in’ ‘a river.’ 

NATO ’DATAIT. (23.) 

In the case of feminine nouns ending in d, two of the above substitu¬ 
tions a and d do not take place; that is, the legitimate influence of the 
preceding Sutra is here prohibited : as, 

Malai, malae (not malaa, makia) ‘by,’ ‘of,’ or ‘in’ ‘a garland.’ 

the Sut., must only mean here vyavashtliitavibliashd \_cf. iii. 61], i.e., when 

o is used, i and u must precede it, but not in the case of no; cf. Lass. p. 307. 


1 For maid, cf. Lass., p. 307, note 2, and Boehtl. Sak., p. 150, on 
daamdnd (Williams’ ed. p. 6; cf. also p. 165, 3). 



[sect. V. 



In feminine words ending in d, d and i arc irregularly interchanged as 
the final letter: as, 

vana’s sister’; chhaya, * shade ’ [ii. 18]. 1 


The final vowel is not lengthened in the nominative sing, of a neuter 

noun (in nouns ending in a there is no rule which would enjoin it; but those 
ending in i and u, but for this prohibition, might have come within the 
range of Sut. 18): as, 

Dahim, mahum, ha vim. 

Dadhi, 1 curdled milk ’; madhu, 1 honey 7 ; havis, * ghee:’ 


In neuter nouns, i is substituted for jas and sas, the affixes of the nom. 
and ace. plural, and the preceding vowel is lengthened: as, 

Yanai, dahfi, mahui. 2 


When the nom. sing, is used in the sense of the vocative (this being 
considered by Sanskrit grammarians as only a modification of the nominative,) 
neither the o of Sut. 1, nor the long vowel of Sut. 18, nor the anuswara of 
Sut. 30, are allowed : as, 

He vachchha, ‘0 tree’; he aggi, ‘0 fire’; he vau, ‘0 wind’; he vana, 3 * 
‘ 0 forest’; he dahi, * 0 curdled milk’; he mahu, ‘ 0 honey.’ 


In the vocative of feminine nouns, e is substituted for d before the affix 

1 The Prak. Sanjfv. explains this Sut. thus: 4 Stnlinge vartamdndt pra- 
tipadikdd d i ityetau pratyelcam bhavatah ; Jcai kri (hay a, kasydh, kasydm vdi) ; 

jdi, ju (yaya , yasyah , yasydm vdj ; etc. The MS. D has these ex. as 
genitives (cf. Yar. Lect.) added to those given by the other MSS. Eor led, 
etc., cf. vi. 6. This explanation is much more probable than Bhamaha’s. 

2 The more common forms are vanaim, etc., the nasal being added 

by iv. 16. 


Cf. Pan., vi. 1, 69, and Bochtl. Comm. 

SECT. V.] 



su : as, He male, ‘ 0 garland.’ The Commentator adds that su is elided by 
iv. 6, which enjoins the elision of every final consonant (the indicatory 
vowel of su is dropped by Panini, i. 3, 2, and therefore the s of males comes 
under iv. C). 


„ A final £ or % is shortened in the vocative : as, 

He nai, 1 0 river’; he vahu, 1 0 wife.’ 


In neuter nouns, anuswara is substituted for the affix of the nom. sing. : as, 

Vanam, dahim, mahum. 


In words ending in ri, dra is substituted for ri, before all case-affixes 
(the pratydhdra sup ): as, 

Bhattaro, ‘ a husband ’; bhattarena, 1 by a husband,’ etc. 

MATUR AT. (32.) 

* t 

A is substituted for the ri of mdtri, a mother,’ and the word is then 
declined like other feminines in a : as, 

Maa, maam, maai, maae [Sut. 23]. 


U is optionally substituted for a final ri, before the affixes of the nom. 
and acc. plural, the instr. and gen. singular, and the loc. plural, (that is, in 
these cases, words ending in ri become subject to the same rules as those 
ending originally in u) : as, 

Bhattuno [S. 14 and 16], bhattuna [S. 17], bhattuno [S. 15], and bhat- 
tusu [S. 18]. 

The forms with dra substituted for ri [by S. 31] arc also used : as, 

Bhattara, bhattare, bhattarena, etc. 


In the words pitri, *a father,’ bhratri, ‘a brother,’ jdmd.tri, Si son-in- 
law,’ ara is substituted for ri, before the case-affixes ( dra is therefore for¬ 
bidden) : as, 

Piaram, piarena; bhaaram, bhaarena; jamaaram, jamaarena. 

ACHA SAH. (35.) 

In these words (pitri, etc.) d is substituted for ri, before su, the affix of 




the nom. sing, 
used : as, 

Pia, piaro; 

; and from the cha in the Sutra we infer that ara is also 
bhaa, bhaaro; j amaa, j am aaro. 1 

ATMANO ’PPAlSfO YA. (45.) 

Append is optionally substituted for the word dtman, ‘self’: as, 
Appano, appa. [For the latter form, see iii. 48]. 


The words brahma, etc., arc properly declined like dtman : as, 

Vamha, vamhano ; juva, juvano ; addha, addhano. 

Brahman, ‘Brahma’; yuvan, ‘a youth’; adhwan, ‘a path.’ Other 
similar instances are to be determined in conformity with the examples given. 2 

1 The long list of Sutras on rdjan which are inserted here in three MSS. 
are omitted in the translation, as there- can be little doubt that they formed 
no part of the original text of Vararuchi. They arc found in the Sanksh. 
Sara [cf. Lass. p. 315, note) and the Prak. Sanj., but their diffuse phraseology 
is very different to Vararuchi’s usual style. 

2 For some further rules on Declension : see vi. 60—64. 







Jas, the affix of the nom. plural, becomes e when it follows the class of 
words called sarvadi : as, 

Savve, je, te, ke, kadare. 

Sarve, ‘all’; ye, ‘who’; te, ‘they’; ke, ‘who?’; katare, ‘which of two.’ 1 


Ssirn, mmi, ttha are substituted for ni, the affix of the loc. sing., when 
following a pronoun : as, 

Savvassim, savvammi, savvattha; iarassim; iarammi, iarattha. 

Sarvasmin, ‘ in all ’; itarasmin, ‘ in another.’ 2 


Ind is optionally substituted' for td , the affix of the instr. sing., after 
idam , ‘this’; etat, ‘this’; Icim, ‘what?’ yat, ‘what,’ tat, ‘that’: as, 

Imina, edinii, kina, jina, tina; or, imena, edena, kena, jena, tcna. 

AMA ESIM. (4.) 

Esina is optionally substituted for dm, the affix of the gen. plur., after 
the above words idam, etc. : as, 

Iniesim or imiina; edesim or edana; kesim or kana; jesim or jana; 
tesim or tana. 2 


1 Vararuchi, in this short sketch of pronouns, coniines himself to their 
peculiar inflexions, and for the most part assumes the rules of Sect. v. 


2 Imassim [ of. Siit. 15] is used as loc. fern, in Sak. [Will. p. 36. 2]. 

3 Esim is used in the fern, as well as the masc.; of . Hema-ch. 


[sect. VI. 


Asa is optionally substituted for has, the affix of the gen. sing., after the 
pronouns him, yat, tat : as, 

Kasa or kassa; jasa or jassa; tasa or tassa. 


Ssa and se are substituted for nas, after the above pronouns, when they 
are declined like nouns ending in i (i.e., from feminine roots of the form 
hi, ji, ti ): as, 

Kissa, kise, Ida, lde, Ida, kii, ‘of what woman?’; jissa, jfse, ji'a, jfe, jfa, 
jfi, ‘of what woman’; tissa, ti'se, tfa, tie, tfa, tfi, ‘ of that woman.’ 1 [For 
the other forms given, see v. 22.] 

KEF HIM. (7.) 

Him, is optionally substituted for ni (the affix of the loc. sing.) after 
him, yat, tat: as, 

Kahim, kassim, kammi, kattha [cf. v. 2] ; jahim, jassim, jammi, jattha; 
tahim, tassim, tammi, tattha. 


• i 

Instead of hi in the sense of time [cf. Pan., v. 3, 15], dhe and id are 
optionally substituted after the above pronouns: as, 

Kahe, jahe, tahe; kaia, jaia, taia; and also the forms (in vi. 7) 
kahim, etc. 

Kada, ^ffien’; yada, 1 since’; tada, 1 then.’ 


Instead of nasi, the affix of the abl. sing., tto and do are substituted after 
the above pronouns : as, 

Katto, kado; jatto, jado; tatto, tado. 

Kasmat, 1 from what?’; yasmat, 4 from which’; tasmat, 4 from that.’ 


Instead of nasi, after the pronoun tat, o is optionally substituted: as, 
to, as well as tatto and tado (the final t is dropped by iv. 6, and the a is 
elided before o by iv. 1). 

KASA SE. (11.) 

The option allowed in the preceding Sutra still continues. Sc is op- 

1 These refer to the feminine gen. sing., and correspond to the Sans. 


hasydh, etc. See r Lass., p. 322, and the Sanksh. Sara quoted there. It is 
singular that W adds striyam in the Sutra. 




tionally substituted for tlio pronoun tat, together with nas, the affix of the 
gen. sing.; in the alternative, it follows previous rules : as, Se, tdsa, and 
tassa [vi. 5]. 1 2 

AM A SIM. (12.) 

Sim is optionally substituted for the pronoun tat , together with dm, the 
affix of the gen. plur.: thus, instead of tesham and tdsdm , w r e have sim or 
tana, and also (by vi. 4) tesim. 

KIMAH KAH. (13.) 

Ka is substituted for the pronoun him, when followed by the affixes of 
declension: as, nom. sing., ho; nom. plur., he; instr. sing, hena; instr. 
plur., hehim. 

IDAMA IMAH. (14.) 

Similarly ima is substituted for the pronoun idam : as, Imo, ime, 
imena, imehim. 


A is optionally substituted for idam, * this,’ wdien followed by ssa and 
ssim, the Prakrit affixes of the gen. and loc. sing. [v. 8; vi. 2] : as, Assa 
or imassa, assim or imassim. 

HER DENA HAH. (16.) 

Ka is optionally substituted for hi, the loc. sing, affix, together with 
the da in idam : as, Ilia. In the case of its not being so substituted we 
have (by previous rules), assim, imassim, imammi. 

HA TTHAH. (17.) 

The form ttha is not used as a substitute for ni, when it follows idam, 
and thus Sut. 2 is so far restricted from applying to this pronoun. 


Instead of idam in the neuter gender, together with su and am, the 
affixes of the nom. and ace. sing., we have the three forms, Idam, mam, 
and inamod 

1 Se is used in the three genders ; Hema-ch. joins Sutras 11, 12 in one as 
follows : “Vedamtadetado hasambhyam sesimau.—Idam tad etad ityetesham 
sthane hasambhyam saha yathasankhyam se sim ityadesau va bhavatah;” 
w r ith examples; $e, asya, tasya, tasyah, etc.; sim, esham, tesham, tasam, etc. 

2 Hema-ch. also gives inamo. 




When the pronoun etad is followed by the nom. sing, affix su, the sub¬ 
stitution of o for su (which by v. 1 is universal) is only optional: as, Esa 
or eso, for esJia, ‘ this.’ 

TTO YASEH. (20). 

Instead of nasi, the affix of the abl. sing., when it follows etad, tto is 
substituted, the ta being elided by Sut. 21 : as, 

Etto. (We have also the regular forms edado, edadu, edahi.) 

Etasmat, ‘from this.’ 


When the affixes tto [S. 20], and ttha [S. 2] follow, the ta of etad is 
dropped: as, 

Etto, ‘from this’; ettha, ‘in this’ (the final d having been dropped 
by iv. 6]. 


S is substituted for the t of tad and etad in the masc. and fem., before su, 
the affix of the nom. sing. : as, 

So puriso, ‘this man’; sa mahila, ‘this woman’; similarly esa [S. 19], 
eso ; esa. 

‘ Why do we specify su ?’ Because it does not hold in the nom. plur., 
ede, te, ; or the acc. sing, edam, tarn. ‘ Why do we exclude the neuter ?’ 
Because we say tam, edam ; for tad, etad in the neuter nom. sing. 


Mu is substituted for the da of the pronoun adas, before the case-affixes 
(the final s being already dropped by iv. 6), and the word is then declined 
like a noun ending in u : as, 

Amu puriso, ‘that man’; amii mahila, ‘that woman’; amiio purisa, 
‘these men’; amuo mahihio, ‘these women’; amum vanam, ‘this forest’; 
amuim vanaim, ‘ these forests.’ 


Ha also is substituted for the da of adas, before the affix of the nom. 
sing.: as, 

Aha puriso, aha mahila, aha vanam. 

This ha does not admit o, d or anuswiira, and therefore remains the 
same in the three genders. 



PAD ASYA. (25.) 

This Sutra will exercise adhihara [ cf\ i. 1]. The various rules which we 
shall go through in order, are to be understood as supplying substitutes for 
a pada, or word ending with a case-affix; that is, they will not supply 
substitutes for the case-affixes themselves, nor for a part of the base to 
which these may be added, but they are to supply substitutes for the whole 
word, base and affix together. 

The adhihara of this Sutra will extend until a sab da is enjoined (or crude 
form in contradistinction to a pada) which we shall certify, when it occurs. 

The affix su is repeated from S. 24. Tam and tumam are substituted for 
the pada yushmad , ‘you/ when followed by su, the affix of the nom. sing. : 
as, Tam, tumam, ( you/ 


For the pada yushmad, when followed by am, the affix of the acc. sing., 
turn is optionally substituted; and, from the use of cha in the Sutra, we con¬ 
clude that tumam also may be used : as, Turn, tumam, 1 thee.’ 


Eor the pada yushmad, followed by jas, the affix of the nom. plur., 
tujjhe and tumhe are substituted: as, Tujjhe, tumhe, ‘ ye.’ 

VOCHA SASI. (29.) 

For the pada yushmad followed by sas, the affix of the acc. plur., vo is 
substituted, and fro,m the cha of the Sutra we conclude that tujjhe and 
tumhe may also be used: as, Vo, tujjhe, tumhe, ‘ you/ 


For the pada yushmad followed by ta and ni, the affixes of the instr. and 
loc. sing., tdi, tae, tumae and tume are substituted: as, Ta'i, tae, tumae, time, 
‘ by thee/ or * in thee/ 


For the pada yushmad followed by nas, the affix of the gen. sing., the 
the following are substituted : Tumo, tuha, tijjha, tumha, tumma, ‘ of thee/ 
AYI CHA TE DE. (32.) 

For the pada yushmad, followed by an, 1 the affix of the instr. sing., and 

1 This is the affix of the instr. sing, in the terminology of the eastern 
( prdchya ) school of Hindu Grammarians : see Boehtl. Panini, Introd. p. xii. 



[sect. VI. 


also by nas, the affix of the gen. sing, (which we infer from the use of cha 
in the Sutra), te and de are substituted: as, Te, de, *by thee,’ and ‘ of thee.’ 

TUMAI CHA. (33.) 

For the pada yushmad followed by an, the affix of the instr. sing., 
tumai also is substituted : as, Tumai , * by thee.’ 


For the pada yushnad followed by bhis, the affix of the instr. plur., 
these are substituted: tujjhehim, tumhehim, tummeliim, by you.’ 


For the pada yushnad, followed by nasi, the affix of the abl. sing., tatto, 
etc., are substituted : as, Tatto, ta'itto, tumddo, tumddu, tumdhi, ‘ from thee.’ 


For the pada yushmad followed by bhyas, the affix of the abl. plur., 
tumhdhinto and tumhasunto are substituted: as, Tumhdhinto , tumhasunto, 
‘ from you.’ 


For the pada yushmad followed by dm, the affix of the gen. plur., vo, 
etc. are substituted ; as, Vo, blie, tujjhdnam, tumhdnam, 1 of you.’ 

HAH TOIAM MI. (38.) 

For the pada yushnad followed by hi, the affix of the loc. sing., tumammi 
is substituted : as, Tumammi, 1 in thee.’ By Sut. 30, we have also the four 
forms, Tai, tae, tumae, tume. 


For the pada yushmad followed by sup, the affix of the loc. plur., tujjhesu 
and tumhesu are substituted: as, Tujjhesu, tumhesu, ‘ in you.’ 


For the pada asmad, 1 1,’ followed by the affix su, ham, aham, ahaam are 
substituted, as, Ham, aham, ahaam, * I. ’ 


For the pada asmad followed by the affix am, ahammi is substituted, and 
from the cha of the. Sutra we infer that it may also be similarly substituted 
for the nom. : as, Ahammi, ‘ I,’ or * me.’ 

MAM MAMAM. (42.) 


Am is repeated from Sut. 41. For the pada asmad, followed by the affix 
am, mam and mamam arc substituted: as, Mam, mamam, ‘ me.’ 





For the pada asmad, followed by the affixes jas and sas, amhe is sub¬ 
stituted : as, Amhe, ‘ we,’ or ‘ us.’ 

AO SASI. (44.) 

For the pada asmad followed by the affix sas, no 1 is substituted: as, 
No, ‘ us.’ 

AXI ME MAMAI. (45.) 

For the pada asmad followed by the affix an [cf. Sut. 32], me and mamai 
arc substituted : as, Me, mamai, ‘ by me.’ 


For the pada asmad followed by the affix hi, ma'i and mae are substituted 
(and also when followed by the affix ah, as we infer from the use of cha in 
the Sutra) : as, Mai, mae, < in me,’ or ‘ by me.’ 


For the pada asmad followed by the affix Mis, amhehim is substituted : as, 
Amhehim, ‘ by us.’ 


For the pada asmad followed by the affix nasi, matto, etc. are substituted : 
as, Matto, mditto, mamddo, mamadu, mamahi, ‘ from me.’ 


For the pada asmad followed by the affix My as, amhahinto and amha- 
sunto are substituted : as, Amhahinto , amhasunto, ‘ from us. : 


For the pada asmad followed by the affix has, me, etc. are substituted: 
as, Me, mama, maha, majjha, ‘of me.’ 


For the pada asmad, followed by the affix dm, majjha, etc. arc substituted: 
as, Majjha , 1 2 no, amha, amhdnam, amhe, ‘ of us.’ 

1 The MSS. [cf. Yar. Feet.] generally read no, but as they all have vo, in 
S. 29, it is probably an error; at the same time it would be well for future 
editors of the plays to mark whether ne occurs in the MSS. All the MSS. 
of Vararuchi give no in thegen. plur. (if my emendation of vi. 51 be correct), 
but it is singular that Ilema-ch. there gives both ne and no. 

2 Cf. Yar. Lect. Ilcma-chandra’s Sut. is, “ Xe no majjha amha amham 


[sect. VI. 



Por the pada asmacl followed by the affix ni, mamammi is substituted: as, 
Mamammi, ‘ in me.’ Prom Sut. 46 we have also the forms, ma'i, mae. 


Por the pada asmad followed by the affix sup, amhesu is substituted : as, 
Amhesu, ‘ in us.’ 

DWEE DO. (54.) 

The adhikara of pada ends here [cf. S. 25]. Sup must he repeated from 
the last Sut., bnt in the sense of the pratyahara [see v. 12, note], and not 
as merely confined to the loc. plur. 

Por the word dwi, "two,’ do is substituted before the case-affixes: as, 
Dohim, ‘ by two ’; dosu, ‘ in two.’ 

TEES TIH. (55.) 

Por the word tri, three,’ before the case-affixes, ti is substituted (and the 
word is then declined like nouns ending in i) : as, Tihim, ‘by three’; tisu 
‘ in three.’ 1 


Por the word tri, together with the case-affixes jas and sas f tinni is sub¬ 
stituted : as, Tinni dgada, ‘ three are come’; tinni pehlcha , < behold three.’ 


Por the word dwi, together with the case-affixes jas and sas, duve and doni 
are substituted: as, Duve, doni, ‘two’; we have also the option of using 
the form do [S. 54]. 


Por the word chatur, together with the affixes jas and sas, chattaro and 
ckattari are substituted: as, Chatta/o chattdri purisa, ‘four men’; chattaro 
chattari pelchha, ‘behold four.’ 


Instead of dm, as the gen. plur. affix of these words dwi, tri, chatur, we 
have the form nham : as, Donham, ‘of two’; tinham, ‘of three’; chatunham? 
‘of four.’ 

amhe amho amhana mamana mahana majjhana amdT Amha occurs in Dr. 
Trithen’s ed. of the Mahaviracharitra, p. 28, 12. 

1 Cf. Yar. Lect. The % seems absolutely required hv v. 18. and vi. 60. 

2 Or rather, chaunham, the reading of one MS. 





The rest of the rules for declension are the same as those for words ending 
in a. Thus the Sutra bliiso him , which has been given for words ending in a 
[_cf. v. 5] applies equally to words ending in i and u ; thus we have aggihim , 
vduhim from aggi and vau; and similarly for feminine words ending in d, i, 
and u : as Mdlahim, naihim, vahuhim [v. 19]. In the same way we have 
aggissa, vdussa as the gen. sing., and agg'ido, vdudo , etc., for the abl. sing.; 
and similarly dohim , tihim [vi. 54, 55], chauhim. 


E and d are not used as the substitutes of the affixes hi and nasi [cf. v. 6 
and v. 9] in the case of nouns ending in i and u : as, Aggimmi, ‘ in the 
fire’; vaummi , * in the wind’; agg'ido, aggidu, agg'ihi, * from the fire’; vdudo, 
vdudu, vdiihi, ‘ from the wind.’ 

E BHYASI. (62.) 

The negative is repeated from the previous Sutra. E 1 is not substituted 
for the final letter of nouns ending in i or u, when bhyas follows: as, Aggi- 
hinto, aggisunto, ‘ from the fires’; vduliinto, vausunto, ‘from the winds.’ 


In all affixes, whether for the cases of nouns or the persons of verbs, 
we must use the plural instead of the dual; thus we must say, vachchha , 
‘two trees’: vachchhehim, ‘by two trees,’ etc.; and similarly for verbs; as, 
chitthanti, ‘ they two stand.’ 


Instead of the affix of the dative case, we must use that of the genitive; 
thus, vamhanassa dehi, vamhanana dehi, ‘ give to the Brahman ’; or ‘ to the 

1 Cf. Yar. Lect. E and not a seems the true reading, because in fact 
the form with a is only evolved from the Sutra v. 12, by the aid of the cha 
[cf. v. 7, note]; the original forms being no doubt vachchhehinto, etc. This 
being not observed by the copyists has occasioned the Yar. Lect. a. 


[sect. VII. 





For ta and tip (the affixes of the 1st person 1 2 in the dtmane and parasmai 
pada), i and e are mutually substituted: as, 

Padha'i, padhae for pathati, pathate, ‘ he recites.’ 


For thds and sip (the affixes of the 2nd. person sing, in the atm. and 
par. pada), si and se 2 are mutually substituted : as, 

Padhasi, padhase for pathasi, pathase. 


For it and mip (the affixes of the 3rd person sing, in the atm. and par. 
pada ) mi is substituted ; and thus padhami represents both the Sans, pathami 
and pathe. 


For the conjugational affixes in the plural, nti, ha, itthd, mo, mu, ma are 
severally substituted: as, 

(1.) Padhanti; (2.) padhaha, padhittha; (3.) padhamo, padhamu, 

ATA E SE. (5.) 

This rule limits what would otherwise be of constant application. The 
e and se which are substituted by Sutras 1 and 2 are only substituted when 
they follow a, and not otherwise; thus we have ramae, He rejoices,’ padhae , 

1 The reader will bear in mind that the Hindu Grammarians follow an 
inverse order to ours in arranging the persons, their first person being our 
third, etc. 

2 The apparent confusion in Sutras 1, 2, (as si properly — sip, not thds, 
etc.) seems intended to prepare us for Sut. 5. 




* he recites ramase, ‘ thou rejoicest,’ padhase, ‘thou recitest but not hoe or 
hose [ho being the Prakrit for hhu by viii. 1] hut only hoi/ he is’; host, 

‘ thou art.’ 


The root as, to he/ is elided when the substitutes [vii. 2] for the affixes 
thus and sip follow : as, 

Sutto si for supto ’si, ‘ thou art asleep.’ 


H is to be used immediately after the m in the affixes mi, mo, mu, ma , 
when they follow the root as, the elision of which still continues to be 
enjoined from the preceding Sutra : as, 

Gao mhi; gaa mho, gaa mhu, gaa mha for gato ’smi, ‘ I am gone 
gatas smah, ‘ we are gone.’ 


Eor yah (the affix of the passive) ta and ijja are substituted (and the 
personal affixes subjoined to these): as, 

Padhiai, padhijja'i for pathyate, ‘ it is recited.’ 

N ANT Y AD WIT WE. (9.) 

These substitutions for yah do not take place, when the final consonant 
of the root is doubled : as, 

' t 

Hassai, gammai for hasyate, * it is laughed,’ gamyate, ‘ it is gone.’ Ry 
viii. 58, this doubling of the final is optional in the verbs gama, etc.; there¬ 
fore when the final is not doubled, Sut. 8 remains in force, and thus we 
have gamiai, gamijjai. 


Eor the participial affixes satri and 'sanach, nta and mana are mutually 
substituted: as, 

Padhanto, padhamano, ‘ reciting.’ 



I is substituted (as well as the regular forms from nta and mana), for 
satri and sanach, when used in the feminine : as, 

Hasai, hasanti, hasamanti, ‘ smiling ’ (a woman); vevaf, vevantf, veva- 
mana, ‘trembling.’ 


The syllabic hi is to be used after the root in the future (and the affixes 



[sect. VII. 

of the present added to this): as, 

Hohii, ‘he will be’; hohinti, ‘ they will he’; hasihii, *he will laugh’; 
hasihinti, ‘they will laugh.’ 


In the 3rd person [cf. note Sut. 1 ] of the future we are to use after the 
root ssd and ha ; and also hi (as we infer from the clia in the Sutra): as, 

Hossami, hohami, hohimi, * I shall be ’; hossamo, hohamo, hohimo, ‘ we 
shall be.’ 

MIHA SSAM YA. (14.) 

In the 3rd person sing, of the future, ssam may optionally be used after 
the root, superseding the personal affix mi: as, 

Hossam, ‘ I shall be.’ This being optional, we may also use the forms of 
the preceding Sutra. 


In the 3rd person plural of the future, hissa and hittha may be optionally 
added after the root, instead of any substitute for a plural-affix, superseding 
mo, mu, or ma : as, 

Hohissa, hohittha, 4 we shall be’; hasihissa, hasihittha, Ve shall laugh.’ 
As this is optional, we may also use the previous forms. 2 


In the 3rd person sing, of the future, instead of the roots Jcri, etc., 
Icdham, etc. are respectively substituted : as, 

ICaham, ‘i will do’; daham, ‘l will give’; sochchham, ‘l will hear’; 
vochchham, *1 will speak;’ gachchham, ‘l w r ill go’; rochchham, f I w r ill 
weep ’; dachchham, f I will see ’; vechchham, 1 1 will know,’ etc. 

1 Sutras 15—22 are only found in part of the MSS., but Hema-ch., and 
the Prak. Sanj. give them; and as several of them are of some value, I add 
Hema-chandra’s corresponding rules. 

2 Hema-ch., 165, Momumdndm hissa hittha, and 166, meh ssam. 

3 Hema-ch., 167, Krido ham, with ex. haham daham ; then 168, sru-gami- 

rudi - vidi - dri'si - muchi - vachi - chhidi - bhidi - bhujdm sochham gachham rochham 
vechham, etc. The Sanskrit Grammarians frequently add an i to a verbal 
root, in order to decline it in their Sutras. See Sect. viii. passim. 




YA. 1 ] (17.) 

Sochchham , etc. (without the anuswara) are substituted for sru, etc. in 
the future, even when the signs of the first, second, or third persons follow; 
the elision or insertion of hi (Sut. 12) is optional: as, 

Sochchhii, sochchhihii, ‘he will hear’; sochchhinti, sochchhihinti, ‘they 
will hear’; sochchhisi, sochchhihisi, ‘ thou wilt hear’; sochchhittha, sochehhi- 
hittha, ‘ ye will hear’; sochchhimi, sochchhihimi, ‘i will hear’; sochchhimo, 
sochchhihimo, sochchhimu, sochchhihimu, sochchhima, sochchhihima, soch- 
chhissamo [Sut. 13], sochchissamu, sochchhissama, ‘we will hear.’ And 
similarly vochchha, etc. 


U su mu are severally substituted for the proper singular affixes in the 
sense of command, etc. [cf. Panini iii. 3, 161 and 162] : as, 

Hasaii, ‘let him laugh’; hasasu, ‘ do thou laugh’; hasamu, ‘let me laugh.’ 

[HTU-HA-MO BAHUSHU. 3 ] (19.) 

JVtu ha mo are severally substituted for the proper plural affixes in the 
sense of command, etc.: as, 

Hasantu, ‘let them laugh’; hasaha, ‘laugh ye’; liasamo, ‘let us laugh.’ 


( 20 ). 

Jja and jjd are optionally substituted for the proper affixes of the 
present and the definite future, and also when command, etc. are implied; 

1 Hema-ch. 169, sochhadaya ijddishu (explained in Comm, by lhavishyad- 
ades eshu), hilukcha vti. 

2 Hema-ch. 170, Dusumu vidytidishwehasminstraytintim, with the ex., 
hasamu aharn, etc.; the Comm, adds du, dahtirochchtiranam Ihtishtintartirtham. 
S. 171, Sor hir vti is new, as is 172, Ata ijjaswijjahijjelulco vti ; with Comm., 
AJctirtitparasya sos sthtine ‘ ijjasu ’ ‘ iyjahi’ ‘ ijje ’ ityete lulccha tidesti vti bhavanti. 

3 This is Hema-ch., 173. 

4 Hema-ch., 174, Vartamtintibhavishyantyo'scha jja jjd vti. Por Comm., 
cf. notes pp. 64, 65; also cf. ibid for the other interpr. in the MSS., some 
of which understand by vidhytidishu , ‘the imperative and other tenses’; 
Hema-ch. notices the variation [cf. var. lect., p. 65] but gives as above, 
which agrees with Pan., iii. 3, 161, 162. 



[sect. VI-1. 


there being- an option, the previous forms may he retained. Thus we have 
in the present hojja, hojja, or hoi, ‘ he is’ \_cf. viii. 1]; hasejja, hasejjd, or 
hasai, 1 he laughs (and the same form applies to the three persons in both 
numbers;) in the future hojja, hojja, or hohii, etc., he will be’; and simi¬ 
larly in the sense of the imperative. 

[MADHYE CHA. 1 2 ] (21.) 

Jja and jja are also optionally inserted between the root and the affixes 
in the present, the definite future and the imperative : as, 

(Present) hojja'i, hojjiii; (future) hojjahii, hojjahii; (imperative) hojjaii, 

[HAYEKACHAH.] (22.) 

Jja and jja, however, are not thus inserted between the root and affix, 
except when the root ends in a vowel (and is therefore monosyllabic [eMch], 
since a root which ends in a consonant becomes dissyllabic by the addition of 
the anuhandha) : as, 

Hasai from hasa, ‘to smile’; tuvarai from twara, * to hasten.’ But this 
does not preclude their being employed as finals (by S. 20); as, Hasejja, -jja; 
tuvarejja, -jja, etc. 

IA BHBTE. (23.) 


la 3 is substituted for the affix after a root in a past tense : as, 

Huvfa, hasia for abhavat, ‘ he was,’ ahasat, 4 he laughed.’ 

1 Hema-ch. 175, Madhye cha swarantdd vd. Swarantad dhdtoh prahriti- 
pratyayayor madhye, chakarat pratyayandm cha sthane, jja jja vd bhavatah 
vartamandbhavishyantyor vidhyddishu cha. The ex. of the future are hojjahii, 
hojjahii, hojja, hojja, pakshe hohii , which I have supplied above, as all Vara- 
ruchi’s MSS. omit them, except W, which erroneously reads hojja'i like the 
present. Hema-ch. also applies the forms to all the persons. 

2 For Sutras 23, 24, cf. Lass. Inst., p. 354. Some MSS. seem to have 
ia for ia, but the Sanksh. Sara and Hema-ch. have ia. The latter’s Sutras 

are as follow ; “ S'i hi hia bhutdrthasya. Instead of the affixes of the third and 

other preterites ( adyatanyddis pratyayo bhutarthas) si hi and Ida are sub¬ 
stituted ; and as the ia of the next rule is restricted to a root ending in a 
consonant, we infer that this rule applies to one ending in a vowel: as, Jcasi, 
ledhi, hahid for akdrshit, aharot, chalcdra from leri.”— “ Vyanjanad ia. For the 
affixes of the third and other preterites, after a root ending in a consonant, 




EKACHO HI A. (24.) 

Ilia is substituted for the affix after a monosyllabic root in a past 
tense : as, 

Hohfa for abhut, ‘ he was.’ 

ASTER ASIH. (25.) 


Asi is substituted for asti in the singular of a past tense : as, 

Asi raa for asfd raja, there was a king.’ 


K is substituted for nidi, the causal affix, and an a in the first syllable 
of the root becomes d : as, 

Karei, hasei for karayati, 4 he causes to do,’ hasayati, *he causes to 

AYE CHA. (27.) 

Ave also is substituted for nidi, as well as e : as, 

Karavei, karavei, hasavei for karayati, ‘ he causes to do,’ hasayati, * he 
causes to laugh.’ 1 



Avi is optionally substituted for nidi,[if] when Ida (the affix of the past 
participle) follows; and [ii.] when the object and the action are signified 
( [i.e ., in the passive voice): as, 

[i.] Karaviam, hasaviam ; or kariam, hasiam; for karita, 4 caused to do,’ 
hasita, ‘ caused to laugh.’ 

[ii.] Karavijjai, hasavijjai; or karijjai, hasijjai; for karyate, ( he is caused 
to do,’ hasyate, ( he is caused to laugh.’ 

[NAIDAYE.] (29.) 

JE and ave are not substituted for nidi when Ida follows, or in the 
passive voice : thus we have only Kariam, hardviam, karijjai, karavijjai. 

ATA A MIPI YA. (30.) 

ia is substituted: as, kui'ia, for abhut, abJiavat, babhuva, etc.;” liuv being a 
form for bhu, by viii. 1. 

1 The Pr. Sanj. adds pur.vasutrdd yogabheda cideranddtdurtha, i.e., this 
Sutra is separated from the preceding [cf. iii. 49] because the substitution 
for the initial a is not enjoined here.” Bhamaha allows both forms. 




A is optionally substituted for the final of a root ending in a, when mip 
follows: as, 

Hasami or hasami, ‘ I laugh.’ 


I is substituted (as well as a) for the final a, in the 1st person plural: as, 

Hasimo, hasamo, hasimu, hasamu, ‘ we laugh.’ 1 * 3 

KTE. (32.) 

I is substituted for the final a when Ida (the affix of the past participle) 
follows: as, 

Hasiam, padhiam for hasitam, ‘laughed,’ pathitam, ‘recited.’ 


When the affixes /diva, tumim, and tavya follow, and also in the future 
tense, e is substituted for a ; and also i, as we infer from the clia of the 
Sutra: as, 

Haseuna, hasiuna, ‘having laughed’; haseum, hasium, ‘to laugh’; hase- 
avvam, hasiavvam, ‘ (it is) to be laughed’; hasehii, hasihii, ‘he will laugh.’ 

LADESE YA. (34.) 

E is optionally substituted for a final a , wdierever it is followed by a 
substitute for P (or in other words, in any person of any tense): as, 

Hasei or hasa'i, ‘ he laughs ’; hasenti or hasanti, ‘ they laugh.’ 

1 This a seems optional by Sut. 30; hence we have such forms as 

hasamu ; cf. Sut. 4. 

3 Cf Pan. iii. 4, 77. 






For the verbal root bhu, to be/ ho and huva are substituted : as, 

Hoi, huvai, ‘he is’; honti, buvanti, ‘they are.’ 

KTE HUH. (2.) 

"When bhu is followed by Ha, the affix of the past participle, hu is 
substituted: as, 

Huam, 1 ‘ been.’ 


When bhu follows a preposition, as pra, etc., bhava is substituted: as, 
Pabhavai' for prabhavati, ‘he prevails’: sambhava'i for sambbavati, ‘he 
is born.’ 


Eor the root twar (nit war a) ‘ to hasten/ tuvara is substituted : as, 
Tuvarai, ‘ he hastens.’ 

KTE TURAH. (5.) 

When twar is followed by the participial affix Ha, tura is substituted: as, 
Turiam [for the i, cf vii. 32]. 


Eor ghuna (wffiich in the Dhatupatha or ‘ glossary of roots/ is arranged 
with ghurna in the sense of ‘ rolling ’) gliola is substituted: as, 

Gbola’i, ‘ be rolls.’ 


Eor the root nud (nuda ), ‘ to send/ nolla is substituted : as, 

• • « • 

Nollai, ‘he sends’; panollai, ‘he drives.’ 2 

1 Or perhaps huam; cf. Yar. Lect. 

2 Others read Iona for nolla, and two MSS. insert both rules, but this only 
proves that it is an old Yar. Lect. In Sect, iv., we have some instances of 
a similar transposition of the nasal, as ctndla, etc. 


[sect. VIII. 



For the root du {dun), duma is substituted : as, 

Duma'i, ‘he is pained/ 


For the root pat (pata, given in the Dhatupatha with ata, in the sense 
of ‘ going ’), phala is substituted : as, 

Phaliam hiaam, ‘ my heart is gone’ (?). 


For the root pad ( pada ), pdla is substituted: as, 

Palei, ‘ he goes.’ 


• • • • • ' ' 

Ari is substituted for the ri of the roots wish, etc.: as, 

• • 

Yarisa'i,‘it rains’; karisa'i, ‘he drags’; marisai, ‘he bears patiently’; 
harisai, ‘ he is glad.’ 

RITO ’RAH. (12.) 

Ara is substituted when a root ends in ri : as 
Mri, ‘to die,’ mara’i; sri, ‘to go,’ sara’i; vri, ‘ 


to choose,’ vara'i. 

KRIHAH KUm YA. (13.) 

Kuna is optionally used for the root leri (dulcrin ): as, 
Kuna'i or karai, ‘ he does.’ 


For jribli ( < jribhk ), ‘ to yawn ,’ jambhda is substituted : as, 
Jambhaa'i, ‘ he yawns.’ 


For grah (graha ), ‘ to seize,’ genha is substituted : as, 

Genhai, ‘ he seizes.’ 


Ghet is substituted for grah, when followed by Jctwd, the affix of the in¬ 
declinable participle, tumun, that of the infinitive, and tavya, that of the 
future participle : as, 

Ghettuna, ‘having seized’; ghettum, ‘to seize’; ghettavvam, ‘to be 
seized. 2 

1 The Prak. Sanj. reads pateli phdlah, and restricts it to the causal. 

2 If tt be the correct reading in the examples, we must read ghet or ghett 
for ghe. Cf. Yar. Lect., and transl., notes, iv. 23, and viii., 55. 





Kd is substituted for the root kri, in the past and the future tenses, 
and also (as we infer from the cha of the Sutra) when the affixes ktwd, 
tumun , and tavya follow : as, 

Kahi'a, ‘he did’ [for this, cf. vii. 24]; kahii, ‘he will do’; kauna, 
‘having done’; kaum, ‘to do’; kaavvam, ‘to be done.’ 


For the root smri, to remember,’ bliara 1 2 and sumara are substituted : as, 
Bharai or sumara'i, ‘ he remembers.’ 


For the root bJi’i ( nibhi ), ‘ to fear,’ bJid 2 and v'lha arc substituted : as, 
Bhai or vihai', ‘ he fears.’ 


For the root ghra , ‘ to smell,’ pa and pda are substituted : as, 

Pai or paa'i, ‘ he smells.’ 


For the root mlai, ‘ to wither,’ vd and vaa are substituted : as, 

Yai or vaa'i, ‘ he withers.’ 


For the root trip ( tripa, given in the Dhatupatha with trimpa in the 
sense of ‘being pleased ’) thimpa is substituted: as, 

Thimpai, ‘ he is pleased.’ 


For the root jna, ‘ to know,’ jana and muna are substituted : as, 

Jana’i and munai, ‘he knows.’ 


M is substituted for the l of the root jalp ( jalpa ), to speak articulately ’: as, 
Jam pai'. 


For the roots shthd, ‘ to stand,’ dhyai, ‘ to meditate,’ yai, ‘ to sing ’ (given 
in the Dhatupatha in the list kai, gai, rai in the sense of ‘ sound ’), tlida , 
jhda and gda are respectively substituted : as, 

1 Hema-ch. “ Smarer jara-jiira-bhara-lliala-ladlia-vimhara-mmara-payara- 
pambuhah .” 

2 Bhddhi and bhdissadi are found in Sak. (Williams’) pp. 176, 15 ; 254, 1. 



[sect. VIII. 

Thiianti, ‘ they stand ’; jhaanti, 4 they meditate ’; gaanti, ‘ they sing.’ 


Eor the roots shthd, dhyai , and gai, when followed by the singular affixes 
of the imperative, the future, and the present, tlid , jhd, and gd are severally 
substituted, as well as the substitutes mentioned in the preceding Sutra (as 
we infer from the cha in the present one): as, 

Thai or thaai', * he stands’; thahii or thaahii, ‘he wall stand’; thau or 
tlniaii, ‘ let him stand’; and similarly jhai or jhaai, jhahii or jhaahii, jhau or 
jhtiau, gai or gaa'i, gahii or gaahii, gau or gaaii. 


Eor the roots lclidd ( khddri ), ‘ to eat,’ and dhdv ( dhavu ), 1 to run,’ kha 
and dhd are substituted in the same tenses as in the preceding Sutra : as, 

Khai, *he eats’; khahii, 4 he will eat’; khau, ‘ let him eat’; and simi¬ 
larly dhai, dhahii, dhau. 


Eor the root gras (given in the Dhatup. in the list grasu , glasu , in the 
sense of * eating’) visa is substituted : as, 

Yisai, ‘ he eats.’ 


Eor the root chi ( chin ), ‘ to gather,’ china is substituted: as, 

China?, ‘ he gathers.’ 

KELYAir KIYAH. (30.) 

Eor the root kri ( dukr'n), * to buy,’ kina is substituted : as, 

Kinai’, ‘ he buys.’ 

YEH KKECHA. (31.) 

Kke is the substitute for kri, when preceded by the preposition vi ; and 
kina also, as we infer from the cha in the Sutra : as, 

Yikkei or vikkinai’ [for the kk, cf. iii. 50], ‘ he sells.’ 


Eor the root dhma, ‘to blow,’ when preceded by the preposition ut, 
uddhuma is substituted : as, 



Eor the root dhd ( dudhan ), ‘to hold,’ when preceded by the particle 




trad, dalm is substituted : as, 

Saddahai, ‘ he believes’; saddahiam, ‘ believed.’ 


Eor the root gdh (gahu), ‘ to churn,’ etc., when preceded by the pre¬ 
position ava, valid is substituted: as, 

Ovaha'i or avavaha’i, ‘ he bathes ’ [cf. iv. 21]. 


‘ Preceded by ava ’ is continued from the foregoing Sutra. Eor the 
root has ( hasri), ‘ to cough,’ when preceded by ava, vasa is substituted : as, 
Ovasa'i or avavasa'i, ‘he coughs.’ 


Eor the root md ( man ), ‘ to measure,’ when preceded by the preposition 
nir, mana is substituted : as, 

Nimmana'i, * he makes.’ 


Eor the root hshi, ‘to destroy,’ jhijja is substituted: as, 

Jhijjai, ‘he destroys.’ 


Eor the final of the roots bhid (bhidir ), ‘to break,’ and chhid ( chhidir ) 
‘ to cut,’ nda is substituted : as, 

Bhinda'i, ‘he breaks’; chhinda'i, ‘he cuts.’ 


Eor the final of the root hwath (hwatha ), ‘to boil,’ dha is substituted: as, 
Kadhai', ‘ he boils.’ 


Dha is also substituted for the final of the root vesht ( veshta ), ‘to 
surround’: as, 

Yeddha'i, ‘he surrounds.’ This and the preceding Sutra, which might 
otherwise have been united, are separated on account of the latter of the two 
[S. 40]; which enjoins a substitute for a final conjunct instead of a single 
consonant, and therefore comes within the range of Sect. iii. 51. 1 

1 None of the MSS. write the ex. with ddjh\ but that given above seems 
the natural explanation of the yogavibhdga uttararthah. The Prak. Sanj. is 
corrupt here, but seems to allow a second form vet that (by iii. 10); it giyes 
no expl. of yogavibhdga, etc., and this would have rather required nitydrtha 
[cf. iii. 49]. 



[sect. VIII. 



For the final of the root vesht, la is substituted, when it is preceded by 
the prepositions ut and sam : as, 

XIvvellai, samvellai. 

RUDER YAH. (42.) 

For the final of the root rud ( rudir ), to weep/ va is substituted : as, 
Ruvai, * he weeps.’ 

UDO VIJAXI. (43.) 

For the final of the root vij , preceded by ut, va is substituted : as, 
Uvvivai, 4 he trembles.’ 


For the final of the root vridh (■ vridhu ), ‘ to increase/ dha is substituted: as, 
Yaddhai, * he increases.’ 

HARTER MM AH. (45.) 

Mma is substituted for the final of the root han (hana ), to strike’: as, 
Hammai, ‘he strikes.’ 


In the roots rush, etc., the vowel is lengthened : as, 

Rusai, tusai, susa'i, for rushyati, ‘ he is angry tushyati, ‘ he is pleased ’; 
sushyati, ‘he dries.’ 


Chclia is substituted for the final of the roots vraj ( vraja ), * to go/ and 
nrit ( nriti ), ‘ to dance ’: as, 

Yachchai, ‘he goes’; nachchai', ‘ he dances.’ 1 

Jha is substituted for the final of the roots yudh, to fight/ and budh, 

‘ to know as, 

Jujjhai, * he fights ’; vujjhai, ‘he knows.’ 


Ndha and mlha are substituted for the final of rudh ( rudhir ), ‘to 
hinder:’ as, 

Rundha'i, rumbha'i, ‘ he hinders.’ 

MRIDO LAH. (50.) 

La is substituted for the final of the root mrid ( mrida ), ‘to grind’: as, 
Mala'i, ‘he grinds.’ 


1 Nachchanam — nartanam; Sak. (Williams’), p. 165, 1. 





Da is substituted for the final of the roots sad ( sadlri ), ’ to decay/ and 
pat ( patlri ), ‘to fall’: as, 

Sada'i, ‘ he decays ’; padai, befalls.’ 


The final of the roots 'sale ( saklri ), etc., is doubled : as, 
Sakkai, 1 laggai, for saknoti, * he is able,’ lagati, ‘ he adheres. 



The final of the roots sphut ( sphuta ), ‘ to blossom,’ and chal ( cliala ), ‘ to 
tremble,’ is optionally doubled : as, 

Phuttai or phuda'i (the t, when it is not doubled, becoming d by ii. 20); 
challai or chala'i. 


The final of the root mil ( mila ), 1 to wink,’ is optionally doubled, when 
it is preceded by the prepositions pra, etc. : as, 

Pamillai, pamflai. 2 


The finals of the roots bhuj, etc., are elided, when the affixes letwd , tumun , 
and tavya follow : thus from bimj we have 

Bhottuna, bhottum, bhottavvam ; for bhuktwa, ^ having eaten,’ bhoktum, 
( to eat,’ bhoktavyam, ( to be eaten.’—Similarly from vid, 4 to know,’ vettuna, 
vettum, vettavvam; and from rud. *to weep,’ rottuna, rottum, rottayvam. 3 

At the end of the roots sru, ‘ to hear,’ hu, ‘ to offer,’ ji, ( to conquer,’ lu 
( lun ), ( to cut,’ dhu ( dJiun ), * to shake,’ na is to be employed, and the pre¬ 
ceding long vowel is to be shortened : as, 

Sunai, hunai', jina'i, lunai, dhuna'i. 


1 Cf. sahkanomi ----- saknomi; Sak. (Williams’), p. 108, 2. 

2 Some of the MSS. seem to take prdder as equal to pra-purvasya , but cf. 
viii. 3. The Prak. Sanj. agrees with the text, and also gives examples with 
pra and ut, adding mila iti kim , milai. 

3 If the above be the correct text (and it is also found in the Pr. Sanj.) tuna 

as well as una will be the Prakrit equiv. for ktiva ; cf iv. 23, transl. note. 
The Pr. Sanj. (which always has tuna =? ktwd) explains the tt by iii. 58. 



[sect. VIII. 

At the end of these roots, when the passive 1 is signified, vva is to be 
employed; but na may also be used, as we infer from the cha in the Sutra: as, 

Suvva'i or sunijjai [vii. 8]; huvvai or hunijjai; jivva’i or jinijjai'; luvvai 
or lunijja'i; dhuvva'i or dhunijjai. 

Sruyate, ^it is heard’; huyate, ‘it is offered’; jfyate, ^it is conquered,’ etc. 

In the case of the roots gama, etc., the final letter is optionally doubled 
in the passive, ( cf,\ vii. 9.): as, 

Gamma'i, garni) jai; rammai, ramijjai; hassai, hasijjai. 

Gamyate, ^it is gone’; ramyate, ‘it is played’; hasyate, ‘ it is laughed.’ 

Lijjha is substituted for the root lih ( liha ), ‘ to lick,’ in the sense of the 
passive : as, 

Lijjhai, * it is licked.’ 


For the roots hri and hri, Jura and Idra are severally substituted in the 
sense of the passive : as, 

Hirai, ‘ it is seized ’; kfrai, 1 it is done.’ 


A long vowel is optionally substituted for the short a in the root grah, in 
the sense of the passive : as, 

Gahijjai or gahijja'i, ‘ it is seized.’ 


Dinna , etc., are used as irregular forms for some participles with the 
affix Ida : thus, 

Da (dudan), 1 to give,’ dinna, 1 given’; rud (rudir), 1 to weep,’ runnam, 
*wept’; tras (trasf) 4 to fear,’ hittham, 1 alarmed ’; dah (daha), ‘ to burn,’ 
daddham, ‘ burned’; ranj (ranji), *to be attached to,’ rattam (?), ‘attached to.’ 

For the root /chid ( Ichida ), ‘ to be distressed,’ visura is substituted : as, 

Yirahena visurai vala, ‘ the maiden is distressed by the absence (of her 


1 Karman = our passive; Uiava is the impersonal passive of a neuter verb. 

2 W continues to refer the remaining Sutras to the passive, but the 

Adhikara of Sut. 57 ended, no doubt, at Sut. 62. 




For krudh ( Icrudha ), ‘to be angry,’ jura is substituted: as, 

Jurat, ‘ he is angry.’ 


For charch ( charcha ), ‘to study,’ champa is substituted: as, 

Champa!', ‘ he studies.’ 


For tras ( tras'i ), to fear,’ vajja is substituted : as, 

Yajjai, ‘ he fears.’ 


For mrij ( mriju ), to cleanse,’ lubha and supa are substituted: as, 

Lubhai or supai, ‘ he cleanses.’ 


For may ( tumasjo ) to be immerged,’ vutta (?) and khuppa are sub¬ 
stituted : as, 

Yuttai, khuppai,‘ he is immerged.’ 


For the root drib (drisir ), to see,’ pulaa, niakka, and avakkha are 
substituted: as, 

Pulaai, niakkai, avakkhai, ‘ he sees.’ 


For the root sale ( saklri ) ‘to be able,’ tar a , vaa, and tira are substituted: as, 

Tarai, vaa'i, tirai, ‘he is able.’ 


The Anubandhas of the remaining roots are elided, and the roots them¬ 
selves considered as ending in short a : thus, 

Bhram (bhramu), ‘to wander,’ bhamai, ‘he wanders’; chub (chubi), 
‘ to kiss,’ chumvai, ‘he kisses.’ 

1 The Prak. Sanj. reads this Siit., “ Driseh pulaa-niachchha-avakkha-sach- 
chavdh the Sanksh. Sara has a Sutra, given by Delius (Ead. Prak.) 
“ Driseh pulaa- [Cod. -naci\-niachchha-avaklzha\Q<d&. -jjha\-sachcliava-pehlchdh ; ’ ’ 
so that no doubt we should correct Yararuchi’s niahha to niachchha, which is 
probably meant in the ex. of v. 2 \_cf. p. 142]. In the ‘ Mahavira-charita ’ 
(Trithen’s ed.) we twice find the form puloa [p. 99, 3, puloanto chitthadi; p. 
100, 10, asoavanidsammuham puloedi ] which is the only form I have met 
with like pulaa in the plays. Hema-ch. gives the forms niachchha, pechcliha , 
avayachchha, avayajjha, vajja, sachchava, dehkha, oakkha, avakkha, avaakkha, 
puloa, pulaa, nia, avadsa, pasa. 



[sect. IX. 


HIPATAH. 1 (1.) 

This Section will treat of particles [ nipatali ], following the method of the 
Sanskrit grammarians. 


Hum is a particle used in the sense of giving, asking, or speaking 
emphatically : as, 

Hum genha appano jiam, * Go, take your life Hum sahusu sabbhavam, 
* Wish good to the good ’ (?); Hum huvasu tunhikko, 4 Come, be quiet.’ 


Via and vea are used in the sense of asseveration: as, 

Evam via, evam vea, 4 So, certainly.’ 2 


0 is used in the sense of indication, remorse and indecision; for examples 
the Comment, refers us to the Gdthdh, or poems written in Prakrit. 3 


Ira , kira, and kila are used in doubtful assertion : as, 

Pekkha ira tena hado, ‘ See, he was possibly killed by him.’ 


Hum and kkhu are used in the sense of resolution, doubt, or reflection: as, 

1 As this Section treats only of interjections, etc., I have not translated 
all the examples in full. 

2 See Lass. App., p. 189. 

3 The Prakrit of these first nine Sections [Lassen’s * Dialectus Prsecipua’] 

is peculiarly the poetic dialect. It is called the Maharashtn in xii. 32. 


The Saurasem is the form employed in prose. 




Hum rakkhaso, ‘What! is it a Rakshasa ?’ 


Navara is used in the sense of * only’: as, 

Navara 1 annam, 1 Only boiled rice/ 


Navari is used in the sense of immediate sequence, * Then.’ 


Kino is used in the sense of a question: as, 

Kino duvvasi, ‘ Why are you agitated ?’ 


Avvo is used in the sense of distress, indication, or reflection : as, 

Avvo kajjalarasaranjiehim achchhihim, ‘ Alas ! (I am undone) by those 
eyes tinged with collyrium,’ etc. 


Alahi is used in the sense of opposition : as, 

Alahi kalahalesena, * Enough of this petty quarrelling.’ 


A'i and vale are used in the sense of addressing a person: as, 

A’i ruulam pasusai, ‘ Is the root dried up ?’ Yale kim kalesi a vale, * Come 
maiden, what are you thinking of ?’ 


Navi is used in the sense of contrariety : as, 

Navi taha pahasa’i vala, ‘ Hot even the maiden smiles.’ 2 


Sit is used in the sense of censure: as, 

Su sivino, ‘ Sleep ! for shame ! ’ 


1 Perhaps this should be navaram ; cf. Ratnavali, p. 26, 12, ‘ Saranam 
navaram ekam? Cf. Lenz, Urvasf, App. p. 15. 

2 Navi — ndpi, ‘not even,’ [ ne&um? Lass. p. 370]; the MSS. explain it 
by viparitam in the sense of perverse or contrary to one’s expectation. 


[sect. IX. 


Re, are, and hire are used in the sense of addressing a person, or of 
delight, or quarrelling : as, 

Be ma karehi, ‘ Oh ! do not do it! ’ etc. 


Mmiva, miva, and via are used in the sense of iva, ‘like’: as, 

Gaanam mmiva, (miva, or via,) kasanam, ‘Black like the sky.’ 


Ajja is used in the sense of courteous address: as, 

Ajja mahanuhava kim karesi, ‘ What art thou doing, oh illustrious one?’ 1 

The remainder [i.e., all that has not been treated of], whether rules for 
letters, genders, taddhita derivatives, composition, or affixes, etc., must be 
learned from the Sanskrit grammar (as Prakrit assumes this as its basis); they 
are omitted here from fear of swelling the treatise beyond its proper size. 

1 This Sut. is doubtful, being only found in four MSS. In the ex. given, 
ajja might he for arya. 

SECT. X.] 




PAIS AC HI. (1.) 

The Paisacln is the dialect of the Pisachas, 1 or ‘ goblins/ which (like the 
other dialects) is explained in this section by definitions and examples. 


The original of this dialect [i.e., that which forms the base on which its 
peculiarities are engrafted] is the Sauraseni (or the Prakrit dialect peculiar 
to prose; cf. xii. 1). 

AD YAH. (3.) 

Instead of the third and fourth letters of each class, when single and 
non-initial, we must use the first and second respectively [i.e., Ic for g, and 
kh for gh ; ch for j, and chh for jh, etc.] : as, 

Gakanam,’ mekho, racha, nichchharo, 2 etc. 

Gaganam, ‘the sky’; meghah, ‘a cloud’; raja, ‘a king’; nirjharah, ‘a 
cascade,’ etc. 


Piva is used for iva, ‘ like :’ as, 

Ivamalam piva mukham, ‘ A face like a lotus.’ 

YO YAH. (5.) 

JSf is used for n : as, 

Taluni for tarnni, ‘ a girl.’ 

1 I know of no instances of this dialect in any of the plays; the Rak- 
shasas who are introduced in the Yemsamhara speak a kind of Arddlui- 
m&gadhi [cf. Lass. p. 411], without the two peculiar features of the Paisachf, 
the dental nasal,, and the substitution of hard for soft consonants. 

2 This is not a good ex., as it should be a single letter. I omit the 
remaining examples. 

2 A 


|SKCT. X. 



Sata is used for shta : as, 

Kasatam mama vatta'i, < It is my sorrow. 


Sana is used for sna : as, 

Sananam for snanam, * bathing/ 


Ria is used for rya : as, 

Bharia for bharya, ‘ a wife/ 


Nj is used for jn : as, 

Vinjato, for vijnata, 1 known/ 


Nj is substituted for ny in the word hanyd, i a girl / as, 


JJA CECHA. (11.) 

Chch is used for the jj, which in the Saurasem dialect is substituted for 
ry [of. iii. 17] : as, 

Kachcham for karyam, ‘ to be done/ 


Radii is optionally used for raj an, a king,’ before the case-affixes of the 
instr., abl., gen., and loc. singular : as, instr., rachina or ranjd ; abl. and gen. 
rachino or ranjo; loc., rdchini or ranji. ‘ "Why do we specify these cases ?’ 
Because we have in nom. sing., rdchd, acc. sing., rachdnam, and acc. plur. 
ranjo by Sutras 3, 9. 

KTWAS TUN AM. (13.) 

Tunam is used for Jctwa, the affix of the indecl. past participle : as, 
Datunam for datwa, 1 having given,’ etc. 


Hitaalca is used for the word hridaya, the heart:’ as, 

Hitaakam harasi me taluni, ‘ Maiden, thou ravishest my heart/ 






The Magadhf is the dialect of the Magadhas, and it is here explained by 
definitions and examples. 



The original of this dialect is the Saurasem. 



S is substituted for sh and s : as, 

Mase, vilase, for mashah, * a bean,’ and vilasah, * coquetry’ [for the final 
e, cf. S. 10]. 

JO YAH. (4.) 

Y is substituted for j : as, 

Yayade for jayate, *he is born.’ [For the f cf. xii. 3.] 


• • • ' ' 

The palatal letters are pronounced with but a very slight contact of the 
tongue with the roof of the mouth ( asprishtata ). 

1 This Sutra is very unintelligible as it stands in the MSS. with spashtata, 
and Lassen’s conjecture of aspashtatd does not seem satisfactory; the above 
is merely given as a conjectural emendation. The abhycmtara-prayatna , or 
internal effort in the utterance of the palatals is properly sprishta, because 
the organs of utterance are ‘ in contact ’; but in that of the semi-vowels (of 
which y corresponds to the palatals) it is isJiat-spnshta , because here they 
but slightly touch; which I suppose to be meant by the Sanksh. Sara’s 
“ Yapachavargayuktd mandguchclidrydh .” Asprishta properly refers to the 
vowels, but may here perhaps mean simply ’tshat-sprishta. In any case, the 
rule seems to refer to niceties of pronunciation. If the palatals really had 
this feeble sound, of course the aspirates chh and jh lose the additional letter 
which is prefixed to them in the proper Prakrit \ cf Lass. p. 397.] 



[sect. XI. 


Hadakka is substituted for hridaya, ‘the heart:’ as, 

Hadakke alale mama, ‘ respect in my heart ’ (?). 


Yy is substituted for ry and rj: as, 

Kayye, duyyane for karyam, ‘ to be done,’ durjanah, ‘ wicked.’ 


S7c is substituted for hsh : as, 

Laskase, daske for rakshasah, ‘a demon,’ dakshah, ‘clever.’ 


Eor asmad, ‘i,’ followed by the nom. affix su, hake, ha ye and ahake are 
substituted : as, 

Hake, hage, or ahake bhanami, ‘ I speak.’ 


Su is continued from Sut. 9. When su follows a noun ending in a, i and 
e are substituted; elision of the affix is also optionally allowed: as, 

Esi laa, ese pulise, esa pulisa for esha raja, ‘this king,’ esha purushah, 
‘ this man.’ 


JJ is substituted when the affix su follows a w T ord ending with the affix 
kta; and also (as we infer from the cha of the Sut.) we may optionally use 
the i or e of the preceding Sut., or even elide the affix: as, 

Hasidu or hasidi, haside, hasida, for hasitah, ‘ smiling.’ 


Ha is optionally substituted for nas, the affix of the gen. sing., and 
at the same time the preceding vowel is lengthened: as, 

Pulisaha or pulisassa dhane for purushasya dhanam, ‘ the man’s wealth.’ 


When the affix su follows a noun ending in a, in the sense of the voca¬ 
tive, the a is lengthened : as, 

Pulisa agachchha, ‘Approach, oh man.’—‘ Why do w r e say in the sense of 
the vocative?’ Compare Vamhanassa dhane, ‘ the brahman’s wealth.’ 


Chishiha is the Magadhf substitution for chittha, the Sauraseni form of 




shthd, ‘ to stand : as, 

Pulise chishthadi, ‘ the man stands.’ 


Da is substituted for the affix hta in the verbs kri (dukrin ), to do,’ mri 
(mrih ), 1 to die,’ gam (gamlri ), * to go :’ as, 

Kade, made, gade for kritah, ‘ done mritah, ‘ dead ’; gatah, ‘ gone.’ 

KTWO DAYIH. (16.) 

Dani is substituted for the affix ktwa : as, 

/ ( ( 
Sahidani gade, after having borne it, he went;’ karidani aade, after 

having done it, he came.’ 


Eor srigdla, * a jackal,’ we have these three substitutes : 

Si ala, siale, sialake. 

[As the Magadhi dialect is of considerable interest, I have added the 

following abridgement of Hema-chandra’s corresponding Sutras: which 


immediately follow those on the Saurasem: Cf. App. C. 

287. Ata et sau punsi magadhyam [cf. Yar. xi. 10]. 

288. Rasor la'sau [cf. Yar. xi. 3]. 

289. Shasoh samyogc so ’grishme , with Comm., ‘ the dental s is substituted 
for s and sh in a conjunct, except in the word grishma (thus revoking the rule 
corresponding to Yararuchi, iii. 1): as, hasti, susJcam, Jcastam [ sic ]; but 
gimha — grtslima. 

290. Ttashthayoh stall. ‘ The cerebral t joined to the dental s, is used 

for tt and shth : as, bhastd for bhatta , haste for haslitham. sustu for sushthud 1 

•• • • • • , 

291. Stharthayoh stall; with ex. uvastide [ upasthita ~\, astavati [ artha - 
vati}~\. [The writing of rtha in the MSS. is doubtful.] 

292. Jadyaydm yah. 1 Y is substituted for j and dy } and an initial y 
does not become j [cf. Yar. ii. 31] : as, yanadi , viyya , etc. 

1 This remarkable Sutra is borne out by the MSS. of the Mrichchha- 
katika [cf. Stenzler, preface], which however have the palatal sibilant; but 
in Prinsep’s Girnar Inscription [Bengal As. Soc. Journal, vol. vii. p. 278] 
we find the dental as above. 



[sect. XI. 

293. Nya-nya-jna-njdm njah. 

294. Vrajer jah ; with ex. vanjadi — vrajati, ‘ he goes.’ 

295. Chhasya scho ’nddau; with ex., gascha [gachchha ], pmehadi 
[ prichchhati ]. 

296. Kshasya shah. \_cf. Yar. xi. 8; the ska is here written with the 
jihivamuliya .] 

297. Shah prehshachahshoh [this ska is not written with the jihicd- 
muliyaf ; with ex. peshadi = prehshate, and dchaskadi = dchahshate. 

298. Tishthas chishthah ; 1 2 with ex. chishthadi [cf. Yar. xi. 14]. 

299. Avarndd vd naso ddhah 2 [<?/. Yar. xi. 12]. 

300. dmo ddlia vd; with ex. sayandha or sayananam. 

301. Aham-vayamor hage [cf. Yar. xi. 9]. 

302. Sesham saurasenwat [cf. Yar. xi. 2]. 

1 One MS. has s'hta for shtlui . 

2 This d is merely an ‘it* or grammatical technicality, and is added to 
an affix, to imply that the word wffiich is to receive the affix must drop its 
final vowel and any consonant which may follow it; cf. Panini, vi., 4, 143. 
Yararuchi never uses this sign. 




[The twelfth Section treats of the Saurasenf dialect, or that modification 
of the Maharashtrf (or Prakrit properly so called), which is usually found in 
the prose passages of the dramas. In consequence of the loss of Phamaha’s 
commentary on this Section, many of Yararuchi’s Sutras are obscure and 
corrupt; Hema-chandra’s corresponding rules are given in Appendix C, but 
even these leave many difficulties unexplained. I have not attempted a 
translation of this Section, but have contented myself with adding a few 
explanatory notes; cf. Lass. App., pp. 49—58.] 

(3.) This is clearly explained in Hema-ch. 260, 267. 

(4.) Vavado — vydpritah. 

(5.) Pudo or puddah = putrah. 

(6.) Giddho = gridhrali. 

(8.) The Maharashtrf forms, by iii. 5, are savvajjo, etc., while the prose 
forms by this Sut. are savvanno, etc. 

(9.) Ia is the proper prose form of the indecl. part.; cf. Hema-ch. 271. 

(10.) Kadua, gadua = kritwa , gatwa\ cf. Hema-ch. 272. 

(11.) This allows such a form as vanani for the neuter nom. or ace. 
plural, as well as the Mahar. vanai [v. 26]. 

(12.) Cf. Hema-ch. 269. 

(13.) Bhavissadi, havissadi, huvissadi are the common prose forms of the 
future of bhu, not the contracted forms hossam , hohimi, etc. 

(14.) Be is used for the root da, as dedi = dadati; but da'issam — fut. 

(15.) Kara is the prose substitute for hri\ kuna [viii. 13] is restricted 
to verse. 



[sect. XII. 

(16.) Chittha = shthd, as chitthadi [cf\ vi. 63, xi. 14]. 

(17.) Siimara is the prose form for smri ; the other form in viii. 18 is 

(18.) Cf. v. 14, Yar. Lect. 

(19, 20.) These are conjectural. “ Achchha is used in prose for the 
root as, ‘ to be as, achchhdmi = asmiA Lassen (p. 346) quotes from the 
Sanksh. Sara achchhai, achclihanti, achchhattha or achchhaha. “ AttJii is used 
in prose for the root as, ‘ to be,’ with the personal affix tip, i.e., astiA 

(21.) This is conjectural; cf. Lass. App., p. 56, and Sanksh. Sara, 15. 
If correct, it would imply that ssam is optionally substituted for the affix of 
the first \_third~\ person sing, of the future, and also that the previous vowel 
may be lengthened: as, Karissam or Icarisam, for Jcarishydmi. 

(22.) Itthi is the prose form for stri, *a woman.’ 

(25.) This allows the form vaam, 1 we,’ as well as the amlie of vi. 43. 

(26.) If we adopt Lassen’s first conjecture neh ssitthau, this will refer to 
vi. 2, and prohibit the locative form in mmi from being used in prose. As 

the form in him (as, tahim, etc.) is also found in prose, Lassen proposes a 

second conject., neh ssihitthah; but as this rule only refers to vi. 2, and him 
would still remain by virtue of vi. 7, neh ssitthau is no doubt the true reading. 

(27.) The dtmanepada affixes are not used in prose ; cf. Lass. p. 380. 

(28.) This Sut. is corrupt, but seems to imply that e may be used before 

any personal affix, as in the Mahar. by vii. 34. 

(29.) This seems to imply that e may he used for the first person of the 
imperative or potential [cf. Lass. App.] as hhave for bhaveyam, but this is 
very doubtful. The cha would imply that the common form [vii. 18 ?] may 
be also used. 

(30.) Cf. iii. 18. 

(31.) If Lassen’s conjecture is correct, the forms of ii. 35 are not used 
in prose. 

(32.) This Sut. is important, as fixing the name of the principal Prakrit 
dialect, with which the Saurasem so nearly agrees. All the rules, therefore, 
of Sections i.—ix. equally apply to the prose or the poetical Prakrit, with 
the exception of the points mentioned in this Section. 




ON PAGE 132 (III. 58). 

It has been stated in the little Introduction to Prakrit Grammar prefixed 
to this work, that Prof. Lassen has established the principle that a long 
vowel is shortened before two consonants; with the two subsidiary rules, (a) 
if the long vowel be retained, one of the consonants is elided, and (5) a 
short vowel before two consonants is occasionally lengthened by eliding one 
of them (cf. Inst. pp. 139-144). There can be no doubt that these are 
continually confirmed by the later Prakrit; but how are we to account for 
the fact, that Yararuchi nowhere states them in his Sutras ? The MS. 
W has indeed a spurious Sutra, Samyoga-purvo hrasivah, (see App. A. 3), 
which, though certainly not Yararuchi’s, seems to affirm the first; yet the 
Prakrita Sanjivam, an elaborate commentary on Yararuchi (for an account of 
which, see preface), never recognises it, even in explaining such a change as 
that of ‘ dscharya’ to Achchhera ’ (see note, p. 109). Bhamaha resorts to an 
artifice to include a partial application of (b) in i. 17; and the Sanksh. 
Sara allows (b) in its 190th rule, ‘ (dirghah) ad id ul lupta-vyanjaned 
(Lass. App. p. 47). But it is only Hema-chandra who states them clearly in 
the two following rules: (Pada i. Sut. 42) Lupta-ya-ra-va-sa-sha-sam sa-sha- 
sdm diryhah ;—‘ wherever a y, r, v, s, sh or s is elided, which precedes or 
follows an 's, sh, or s, the preceding vowel is lengthened: as, Pasai, siso, dso, 
puso, etc., for Pa'syati, sishya, a'swa , pushya, etc.’—(Pada ii. Sut. 90) Na 
dirghanusivardt (which follows a Sut. corresponding to Yar. iii. 50, q.v .); 

‘ the doubling previously enjoined [of. Yar. iii. 50] is forbidden after a long 
vowel or an anuswara [for the latter, cf. Yar. iii. 56], whether these have 
been introduced by previous rules [ Idhshanika ] or are the original letters of 
the word [ aldkshaniha ] ; as nisdso for niswasa (where the i is lengthened by 
Hema-chandra’s rule quoted above); isaro for iswara (where the z is originally 


long), and similarly phdso, pdsam for spar'sa and pdr'swa ,’ etc. Bhamaha by 
the examples given in his commentary on Yararuchi iii. 58, would seem to 
include such words under it: but surely if Yararuchi had intended this rule 
to exercise such a wide influence, he would have expressed himself more 
clearly, and would have specified the class by a better denomination than 
sevddi, as he had before done in a similar case in i. 20 by tundu-rupeshu, 
which at once defines the class of words to which it applies; see Comment., 
ad locum. Yor is there any reason, if such a principle had been recognised 
by him, for his inserting such a Sutra as viii. 46, as the words therein 
specified would have at once come within its influence, without needing any 
further remark. Are we therefore to interpret the silence of Yararuchi as 
evidence that the principle in question grew up gradually in Prakrit, and 
only became fulfy recognised in later times ? 




(Cf. Var. iv. 1), 

(Pada i. Sutras 3—9). 

[As Vararuchi is defective in this part of Prakrit Grammar, the following 
Sutras from Hema-chandra are added to supply the deficiency. I have 
omitted many of the examples, as these are often obscure and corrupt from 
the general absence of Sanskrit explanations. Prof. Lassen has discovered many 
of these rules by induction from the instances in the plays; cf. Inst., pp. 167-9.] 

3. Dirgha-hrasivau mitho vrittau .—Vrittau samase swaranam dfrgha- 
hraswau bahulam bhavatah, mithah parasparam; hraswasya dfrghah; 
( antarvedih ) antavei ; kwachin na bhavati, ‘ juvaiano ;’ kwachid vikalpah, 
(pati-griliam) paiharam paiharam, etc.: dirghasya hraswah [examples obscure 
in MSS.]—kwachid vikalpah, jaunaa&am jaiindadam, naisottam nauottam , 
vahumuham vahumuham [ cf note, p. 135]. 

4. Padagoh sandhir vd .—Sanskritoktah sandhih sarvah prakrite padayor 
vyavasthitavibhashaya bhavati; vdsesi vasa is'i [ = vydsa rishih ?]; visamaavo 
visamaaavo [explained in marg. by visharndtapaK], etc.—Padayor iti kim ? 
pdu , pa'i, etc.—Bahuladhikarat 1 kwachid ekapade ’pi; Icdhii, Icdhi. 

5. Na yuvarnasydswe. Tvarnasya wvarnasya cha, aswe varne pare [«.<?., 

followed by a different vowel], sandhir na bhavati. Aswa iti kim ? 

Puhaviso [= prithivi + fsa]. 

6. Edotoh «^»r^.—Ekara-okarayoh, sware pare, sandhir na bhavati. 

7. Swarasyodvritte. —Vyanjana-sampriktah swaro, vvanjane lupte, yo 

’vasishyate, sa * udvritta ’ iha uchyate a vowel, which has lost its 

original consonant by elision, is called udvritta ] ; swarasya, udvritte sware 
pare, sandhir na bhavati. [_Cf. Lass. Inst., p. 170]. 

8. Tyddeh. —Tip-admam swarasya, sware pare, sandhir na bhavati; hoi 
iha = bhavati iha. 

9. Lulc. —Swarasya, sware pare, bahulam lug bhavati; nfsasusasa — 
nisw r asochchhwasau (niswasa -f uchchhwasa). [ Cf note transl. p. 136.] 

1 Eor this, see Preface. 




A. f^j) 

Ai = ayi, ix. 12 (not api). 

Ansu = asru, iv. 15 (for gender, cf. 
note p. 137). 

Anso = ansah,iv.l4 — aswah, iv.15. 
Akko == arkah, ii. 1. iii. 3. 

Aggi == agnih (v. 14-18. vi. 60, 61. 
Aggho = argil all, ii. 1. 

Ankuso — ankusah, ii. 43. 

Anko — ankah, iv. 17. 

Ankollo = ankotliah, ii. 25 (Sans. 
* ankolah ’ ?) 

Anguli = anguri, ii. 30. 


Achcliha = as {root), xii. 19 (Saur.) ? 

Achchham = akshi, iv. 12, 20. 

Achchhi == akshi, iii. 30. iv. 20. 

Achchhariam = ascharyam, xii. 30. 


Achchheram — ascharyam, i. 5. iii. 
18, 40. 

Ajaso = ayasas, ii. 2. 

Ajja = aho, ix. 17 (arya or adya?). 

Ajjhao = adhyayah, iii. 28. 

Atthf = asthi {neut.), iii. 11, 51. 

Annttanta, *) 

> — annvartamana,iv.5. 
Anuvattanta ,) 

Annahavaanam = anyathavachanam, 
i. 14. 

Atulam = atulam, ii. 2. 

Atta, attano = atman,v. 46 (var.lect.) 
Atto = artah, iii. 24. 


Atthi = asti, xii. 20 {Saur.)} 

Addha, addhano = adhwa, v, 47. 
Adhiro = adhirah, ii. 27. 

Aparo = aparah, ii. 2. 

Appa, appano = atma, iii.48. v.45,46. 
Appullam = atmiyam, iv. 25. 

Amu = asau {declined), vi. 23. 
Ambam = amram, iii. 53 {cf. note 

Amso = ansah, iv. 14. 

1 As this Index is intended to comprise chiefly the useful Prakrit words, 
I have not always inserted those Prakrit examples which only reproduce the 
Sanskrit forms unaltered; and also in cases of nominal and pronominal 
inflexions, I have often contented myself with a single general reference. 
Wherever the Prakrit form differs in gender from the Sanskrit, I have 
noticed the discrepancy. 



Amha, -v 

Amhanam, ?■ = asmakain, vi. 51. 
Amhe, J 

Amhe — vayam, asman, vi. 43. 
Amhehim, etc. = asmabhih, etc, vi. 
47, 49, 53. 

Ariho = arhah, iii. 62. 

Are, particle, ix. 15. 

Alahi = alam, ix. 11. 

Aliam = alfkam, i. 18. 

Alhado = ahladah, iii. 8. 

Avakkhai = pasyati, viii. 69. 

Avajalam = apajalam, ii. 2. 

Avaranho == aparahnah, iii. 8. 

Avari = upari, i. 22. 

Avavasai = avakasate, viii. 35. 
Avavahai — avagahate, viii. 34. 
Avahara'i — avaharati, iv. 13. 
Avahaso = avahasah, iv. 21. 
Avahovasam = ubhayaparswam, iv. 

Avasariam — apasritam, iv. 21 (v.l.) 
Avvo = aho, ix. 10 {cf. Lass. p. 369). 
Asivam, asivvam = asivam, iii. 58. 
Asu, asum iv. 16 ; see asu, infra. 

Aso (or rather ‘aso,’ cf. i. 2) — aswah, 
iii. 58. 

Assa, assim = asya, asmin, vi. 15-17. 
Asso = aswah, i. 2. iii. 58. 

Aha = asau, adas, vi. 24. 

Ahaam = aham, vi. 40. 

Ahake == aham ( Mag .), xi. 9. 

Aham = aham, vi. 40. 

Ahammi = aham, mam, vi. 41. 
Ahijaf — abhijatih, i. 2. 

Ahimajju — abhimanyuh, iii. 17. 
Ahimunko = abhimuktah, iv. 15. 

A ' (^TT) 


Aado — agatah, ii. 7. 

Aidi = akritih, ii. 7. 

Audi = avritih, ii. 7. 


Anatti = ajnaptih, iii. 55. 


1 / / • / ••• r r 

Ana = ajna, m . do. 

Analakkhambho,') = ahinastambhah, 

Analakhambho, ) iii. 57. iv. 29. 

/ * 

Adaro = adarah, ii. 2. 


Apelo = apidah, i. 19. 


Amelo = apidah, ii. 16. 


Avatto = avartah, iii. 24. 

Asi = asit, vii. 25. 


Aso = aswah, i. 2. (iii. 58?). 

Asu, asum = asu (conject.) iv. 16. 
Ahijai = abhijatih, i. 2. 

L ( t ) 

la = iti, i. 14. 

Iarassim, etc. = itarasmin, vi. 2. 
Ingalo = angarah, i. 3. ii. 30. 
Ingiajjo = ingitajnah, iii. 5. 


Ingianno = ingitajnah, xii. 8. (Saur.) 
Inam v 

Inam / = idam, vi. 18. 

Idam ^ 

Itthi = stri, xii. 22. ( Saw .) 

Ima = idam (crude form), vi. 14, 
15, 16. 

Iraina, imena = anena, vi. 3, 14. 
Imesim = esham, asam, vi. 4. 

Isi (isi ?) = ishat, i. 3. 

Isf = rishih, i. 28. 

Issaro = fswarah, iii. 58. 

Iha = idam (loc. sing.), vi. 16, 17. 



I- (t) 

Isalu = irshavan, iv. 25. 

Isaro = fswarah, iii. 58. 

U. (s3) 

TTa, uaha = pasya, pasyata, i. 14 
{cf. transl. note). 

Ukka = ulka, iii. 3. 

TJkkero = utkarah, i. 5. 

Ukkhaam, ukkha- = utkhatam, i. 10. 
Uchchha = uksha, iii. 30. 
Uchchhitto = utkshiptah, iii. 30. 
Uchchhu = ikshuh, i. 15. iii. 30. 
Ujjuo = rijuh (rijukah), iii. 52. 


TJdu = rituh, i. 29. ii. 7. 

uttariyam, ii. 17. 

Uddhumaf = uddhamati, viii. 32. 
Uppalam = utpalam, iii. 1. 

Uppao = utpatah, iii. 1. 

Ubbhavai = udbhavati, yiii. 3. 
Umbaram = udumbaram, iv. 2. 
Umha = ushma, iii. 32. 

Ulavo = ulapah, ii. 15. 

Uluhalam = ulukhalam, i. 21. 
Uvviva'i = udvijate, viii. 43. 
XJvvella'i = udveshtate, viii. 41. 
Uvasaggo = upasargah, ii. 15. 
Ussavo = utsavah, iii. 42. {cf. v.l.) 
Ussuo = utsukah, iii. 42. 

E. (tj) 

Ea = eva, iv. 5. 

Earn — ekam, iii. 58 = evam, iv. 5. 

Earaha = ekadasa, ii. 14, 44. 

Ekkam = ekam, iii. 58. 

Enhim = idamm, iv. 33. 

Ettiam, = etavat, iv. 25, Comm. 
Eddaham,) ( cf. App. B.) 

Etto = etasmat, vi. 20, 21. 

Ettha = etasmin, vi. 21 (or rather 
‘atra’; cf. Lass. p. 129). 

Edam = etad, enam, vi. 22. 

Edina, edena = etena, vi. 3. 


Edana, > = etesham, etasam, vi. 4. 
Edanam, ' 

Eravano = airavatah, i. 35. ii. 11. 
Eriso = l'drisah, i. 19, 31. 

Evva = eva, iv. 5. 

Esa, esi, ese = eshah, xi. 10. (Mag.*) 
Esa, eso = eshah, vi. 19, 22. 

o. c^rr) 

Okkhalam = uldkhalam, i. 21. 
Ovahai = avagahate, viii. 34. 

Ovasai' = avakasate, viii. 35. 
Osariam = apasaritam, iv. 21. 

Ohaso =s avahasah, iv. 21. 

K. (qr) 

Kaam = kritam, i. 27. v. 23 {cf. note) 
Ka'iavo = kaitavah (?), i. 36. 

Kai'a = kada, vi. 8. 

Kai = kapih, ii. 2. 

Kaiirao = kauravah, i. 42. 

Kaiisalo = kausalam (?). i. 42. 
Kachcham == karyam, x. 11. ( Pais .) 
Kanja = kanya, x. 10. {Pais.) 
Kanjaa = kanyaka, xii. 7. (Saur.) 



Kade = kritah, xi. 15. [Mag.) 

Kadha'i = kwathati, viii. 39. 

Kadhoram = kathoram, ii. 24. 

Kanaam = kanakam, ii. 42. 

Kaniaro, kanni- = karnikarah.iii. 58. 

Kannauram,) / 

* * > — karnapuram, iv. 1. 

Kannaiiram, J 

Kaneru — karenuh [fern, only) iy. 28. 
Kanho = krishnah, iii. 33, 61. 
Kattari = kartarf, iii. 24. 

Katto, kado — kasmat, vi. 9. 

Kattha, kammi, etc. = kasmin, vi. 7. 
Kadua = kritwa, xii. 10 [Sour .); cf. 
Hema-ch. App. C. 

Kandotto = ntpalam [$Q.ns.Jcandotah ?) 
iv. 33. 

Kamandho = kabandhah (Sans. Jca- 

mandhah}), ii. 19. 

Kammo = karman, iv. 6, 18. 

Kamso = kansah, iv. 14. (note tr.) 

Kayye = karyam, xi. 7. [Mag.) 

Kara = kri [duJcrin ) viii. 13. xii. 15, 

Karidani = kritwa, xi. 16 [Mag.) 

Karisa = krish [root), viii. 11. 

Kariso = kanshah, i. 18. 

Kalambo = kadambah, ii. 12. 

Kalunam = karunam, ii. 30. 

Kalbaram = kahlaram, iii. 8. 

Kasatam = kashtam, x. 6. [Pais.) 

Kasano = krishnah, iii. 61. 

• • • 

Kasaam = kashayam, ii. 43. 

Kaha, kaham = katham, iv. 16. 
Kahim, etc. = kasmin, vi. 7, 8. 

Ka = kri ( dukrin ), viii. 17. 

Kauna — kritwa, iv. 23. viii. 17. 
Katunam = kritwa, x. 13. [Pais.) 
Kalasam, Kalaa- = kalayasam, iv. 3. 

Kasa = kasya, vi. 5. 

Kaham = karishyami, vii. 16. 
Kahavano = karshapanah, iii. 39. 
Kahia = chakara, viii. 17; cf. vii. 24. 
Kahe = kada, vi. 8. 

Kii= kritih, i. 28. 

Kichcha = kritya, i. 28. 

Kina = kena, vi. 3. 

Kina'i = krinati, viii. 30. 

Kino = kinnu, ix. 9. 

Kitti = kirtih, iii. 24. 

Kira, kila = kila, ix. 5. 

Kiria = kriya, iii. 60. 

Kirito = kritah, iii. 62. 

Kilanto = klantah, iii. 62. 
Kilittham = klishtam, iii. 60. 

Kileso — klesah, iii. 62. 

Kilittam == klriptam, i. 33. 

Kiva = kripa, i. 28. 

Kisaro = krisarah, i. 28. 

Kisi = krishih, i. 28. 

Kissa = kasyah, vi. 6. 

Kfa, kia, kii, kie, = kasyah, vi. 6 
( cf. v. 24, transl. note). 

Kira'i — kriyate, viii. 60. 

Kise =j kasyah, vi. 6. 

Kualaam, kuva- = kuvalayam, iv. 5. 
Kukkheao = kauksheyakah, i. 44. 
Kuchchhi = kukshih, iii. 30. 

Kuna = kri [dukrin), viii. 13. 
Kumbhaaro, *) = kumbhakarah, 

Kumbharo, j iv. 1. 
Kusumappaaro, 4 — kusumaprakarah, 
Kusumapaaro, ) iii. 57. 

Kedhavo = kaitabhah, ii. 21, 29. 
Kettiam, 1 = kiyat, iv. 25, Comm. 
Keddaham, j cf. App. B. 



Keriso = ki'drisah, i. 19; cf. i. 31. 

Kelaso = kailasah, i. 35. 

Kevattao = kaivartakah, iii. 22. 

Kesim = kesham, kasam, yi. 4. 

Kottimam = kuttimam, i. 20. 

• • • • 

Kotthuho = kaustubhah, i. 41. iii. 12. 
Komuf = kaumudf, i. 41. 

Kosambf = kausambf, i. 41. 

Kosalo = kausalam (?), i. 42. 

Kkhu = khalu, ix. 6. 

Kh. (^r) 

Khaiam = khaditam, i. 10. 

Khaggo — khadgah, iii. 1. 

Khanam — kshanam, iii. 31. 

• • 

Khado = kbsatab, iii. 29. 

Kbando = skandah, iii. 29. 

Kbandbo = skandbah, iii. 29. 
Kbama = kshama, iii. 31 = ksbma, 
iii. 63. 

Khambho = stambbah, iii. 14, 50. 
Khaliam = skbalitam, iii. 1, 50. 
Kha = kbad {root), viii. 27. 

Kbaiam = khaditam, i. 10. 

Khanu = stbanub, iii. 15. 

Kbujjo = kubjab, ii. 34. 

Khuppa = masj {root), viii. 68. 
Khodao = spbotakab, iii. 16. 

G. (71) 

Gaa = gada, ii. 2. 

Gaiiravam = gauravam, i. 43. 

Gao = gajah, ii. 2. 

Gaggaro = gadgadah, ii. 13. 
Gacbchham = gamisbyami, vii. 16. 
Gade = gatab, xi. 15. {Mag.) 

Gaddo = gartah, iii. 25. 

Gaddabo = gardabbab, iii. 26. 

* * f 

Gadua = gatwa, xii. 10. {Saw.) 
Gabbbinam — garbhitam, ii. 10. 

Gamijja'i, > = gamyate, vii. 9. viii. 58. 
Gamia’i, ' 

Gariho = garbah, iii. 62. 

Garuam,| == guru, gurvf, i. 22 {cf. 
Garui, ) iii. 65). 

Gahavaf = grihapatih, iv. 32. 
Gahijjai, gabi- = gribyate, viii. 61. 
Gabiram — gabbiram, i. 18. 

Ga, gaa — gai {root), viii. 25. 26. 
Garavam — gauravam, i. 43. 

Gaha = gatba, ii. 27. 

Gittbi = grishtih, i. 28. 

Giddbo = gridhrah, xii. 6 ( Saur .) ? 
Gimbo = grisbmah, iii. 32. 

Gira = gir, iv. 8. 

Gunthi — grishtib, iv. 15. 

Gujjbao = guhyakah, iii. 28. 

Genba = grab {root), viii. 15 = gri- 
hana, ix. 2. 

Gotthi = gosbthf, iii. 1. 

Gola = godavarf, iv. 33. 

Gh. ( -EJ ) 

Ghana = gbrina, i. 27. 

Gharam = griham, iv. 32, 33. 

Ghe, = grah {root), viii. 16 {cf. 
Ghet,) transl.). 

Gheuna = grihitwa, iv. 23. 
Gbettavvam == grabitavyam, viii. 16. 
Ghettuna = grihitwa, viii. 16 {cf. 
note, transl.). 


Ghettunam — grihftwa, x. 13. [Pais.) 
Ghola = ghuna [root), viii. 6. 

Ch. (^) 

Chaitto = chaitrah, i. 36. 

Chaiitthi == chaturthi, i. 9. 
Chaiiddaha == chaturdasa, ii. 14. 
Chaiiddahf = chaturdasi, i. 9. 

Chadu, chadu = chatu, i. 10. 
Chatunham (chaiinham ?) = ehatur- 
nam, vi. 59. 

Chattari, 9 = chatwarah, chaturah, 
Chattaro, 3 vi. 58. 

Chandima = chandrika, ii. 6. 
Chando, chandro = chandrah, iii. 4. 
Chamaram, cha- = chamaram, i. 10. 
Champa! = charchayati, viii. 65. 
Chala'i, challa'i == chalati, viii. 53. 
Chalano = charanah, ii. 30. 
Chatuliam = chaturyam, iv. 33. 
Chittha = shtha, xii. 16 (Saw.); cf. 

vi. 63. xi. 14. 

China!' = chinoti, viii. 29. 
Chindham, 'f = chihnam, i. 12. iii. 
Chendham, S 34. 

Chilado = kiratah, ii. 30, 33. 
Chishtha = shtha, xi. 14. (Mag.) 
Chihuro = chikurah, ii. 4. 

Chnmvai* (-ba!) = chumbati, viii. 71. 
Chotthi, | = chaturthi, chaturdasi, 
Choddahi, 5 i. 9 ; cf ii. 44. 
Choriam = chauryam, iii. 20. 

Chh. (^) 

Chhatthi = shashthi, ii. 41. 
Chhanam = kshanam (kshanah?), 
iii. 31. 

2 c 

Chhattavanno = saptaparnah, ii. 41. 
Chhama — kshama, iii. 31. 
Chhammuho = shanmukhah, ii. 41. 
Chharam = ksharam, iii. 30. 
Chhavao = savakah, ii. 41. 

Chhaha, -i == chhaya, ii. 18. v. 24. 
Chhinda! == chhinatti, viii. 38. 
Chhiram = kshiram, iii. 30. 

Chhuam = kshutam, iii. 30. 
Chhunno = kshunnah, iii. 30. 
Chhuddho — kshuhdhah, iii. 30. 
Chhuram — kshurah (masc.) iii. 30. 
Chhettam — kshetram, iii. 30. 

J- («r) 

Jaa, jai = yada, i. 11. 

Jala, etc. — yada, vi. 8. 

Jain madam,") , 

■ / ‘ v — yamunatatam, iv. 1. 

Jaiina = yamuna, ii. 3. 

Jakkho = yakshah, ii. 31. iii. 29, 51. 

Janjo = yajnah, xii. 7. (Saur.) 

Jattln = yashtih, ii. 31. (cf. note, tr.) 

Jadharam = jatharara, ii. 24. 

Jannao = janakah, iii. 52. 

Janno = yajnah, iii. 44. 

Janhu = jahnuh, iii. 33. 

Jatto, jado = yasmat, vi. 9. 

Jampal — jalpati, viii. 24. 

Jambhaa! = jrimbhate, viii. 14. 

Jamrao = janma, iii. 43. iv. 18. 

Jaso = yasas, ii. 31. iv. 6, 18. 

Jalia, jaha = yatha, i. 10. 

Jahano (-nam?) = jaghanam (neut.), 

ii. 27. 

Jahitthilo = yudhishthirah, i. 22. 
ii. 30. 


] ’ K A K K1T A P R A K A S A : 

Ja — yavat, iv. 5. 

Jana = jna (root), viii. 23. 

Jamauo = jamatrikah, i. 29. 

Jamaa, -aro = jamata, v. 35. 

Java = yavat, iv. 5. 

Jasa — yasya, vi. 5. 

Jahe = yada, vi. 8. 

Jina = ji (root), viii. 56, 57. 

Jina = yena, vi. 3. 

Jivva'i = jfyate, viii. 57 (cf. vii. 9). 
Jissa, etc. — yasyah, vi. 6. 

Jfam = jfvitam, ii. 2. iv. 5. 

Jfi, jfe, etc. — yasyah, vi. 6 (cf. v. 22). 
Jfa = jya, iii. 66. 

Jfviam = jfvitam, iv. 5. 

Jfha = jihwa, i. 17. iii. 54. 

Jujjhai = yudhyate, viii. 48. 
Juguchchha = jugupsa, iii. 40. 
Juggam = yugmam, iii. 2. 

Juva, juvano = yuva, v. 47. 

Jura = krudh (root), viii. 64. 
Jettiam, 4 = yavat, iv. 25 (cf. App. 
Jeddaham,J B.) 

Jevva = eva, xii. 23. (Saw.) 

Joggo = yogyah, iii. 2. 

Jovanavanto = yauvanavan, iv. 25. 
Jovvanam = yauvanam, i. 41. iii. 52. 

Jh - (S3) 

Jha, jhaa = dhyai (root), viii. 25, 26. 
Jhijja = kshi (root), viii. 37. 

Th. (?) 

Tha, thaa = shtha (root), viii. 25, 26. 
Thiam = sthitam, v. 13, 22. 

?. () 

llando — dandah, ii. 35 (cf. xii. 31). 
Dasano — dasanah, ii. 35. 

Dola = dola, ii. 35 (cf. xii. 31). 

N. (nr) 

Naanam — nayanam, ii. 2. 

Naaram = nagaram, ii. 2. 

Naiggamo = nadfgramah, iii. 57. 

Naisotto = nadfsrotas, iv. 1 (cf. iii. 52) 

Naf = nadf, ii. 42. v. 19-22,29. vi. 60. 

Nafgamo = nadfgramah, iii. 57. 

Nafsotto = nadfsrotas, iv. 1. 

Naiilam == nakulam, ii. 2. 

• * 

Nakkho = nakhah, iii. 58. 

Naggo = nagnah, iii. 2. 

Nachchai = nrityati, viii. 47. 

Nattao, -f — nartakah, -kf, iii. 22. 

Nado = natah, ii. 20. 

• • • 

Navara = kevala, ix. 7. 

Navari, particle, ix. 8. 

Navi = na -j- api, ix. 16. 

JSTaham — nabhas, iv. 6, 19. 

Naho — nakhah, iii. 58. 

Nahalo = lahalah (?), ii. 40; cf. 

var. lect. and note, transl. 

Niachchha (?) = dris, viii. 69 ; cf. 

note, transl. and v. 2. 

Jfichcham = nityam, iii. 27. 

Nijjharo = nirjharah, iii. 51. 

Nitthuro = nishthurah, iii. 1. 

* • • • ' 

Nidalam = lalatam (Sans, nitalam), 
iv. 33. 

Nidda = nidra, i. 12. 

N id d alii = nidra van, iv. 25. 



Nipphiio = nishpayah, iii. 35. 

Nimmanai — nirmati, viii. 36. 

Nivattao = nivartakah, iii. 24. 

Mvido = nividah, ii. 23. 

• • » 

jSTivvudam = nirvritam, i. 29. 

Nivvudi = nirvritih, ii. 7. 

Msadho = nishadhah, ii. 28. 

Nisa = nisa, ii. 43. 

Kissaso = niswasah, iii. 58. 


Nihaso = nikashah, ii. 4. 

Nihio, 4 = nihitah, iii. 58 (cf iv. 
Mhitto,) 33. 

Nisaso = niswasah, iii. 58. 

Nnnam, nuna = ndnam, iv. 16. 
ISTeuram = nupuram, i. 26. 
jNeddam = nidam, i. 19. iii. 52. 
Nedda = nidra, i. 12. 
jSTeho = sneliah, iii. 1, 64. 
jSTo ine var. lect.) == nah, vi. 44, 51. 
jNTomallia = navamallika, i. 7. 
dvolla = nud (root), viii. 7. 

Nhanam = snanam, iii. 33. 

T - C rf ) 

Taa, tai = tada, i. 11. 

Taanim = tadamm, i. 18. 

Taiani = tritiyam, i. 18. 

Tai, tae, etc. = twaya, twayi, vi. 30. 
Tala = tada, vi. 8. 

Taitto, etc. = twat, vi. 35. 

Tam = tad, tam, vi. 22. 

Tam = twam, vi. 26. twain ( ?), vi.27. 
Tansam = tryasram, iv. 15. 

Tanam = trinam, i. 27. 

Tamil = tanvi, iii. 65. 

Tambam (?) = tarnram, iii. 53 (cf. 
note, transL) 

Tambo = stambah, iii. 13. 

Tarai, tiTai = saknoti, viii. 70. 
Talaam = tadagah (masc.), ii. 23. 
Talaventaam = talavrintakam, i. 10. 
Taluni = tar uni, x. 5 (Pais.) 

Taha, taha = tatha, i. 10. 

Tahi, -m = tasmin, tarhi, iv. 16. vi. 7. 
Ta = tavat, iv. 5. 

Tariso = tadrisah, i. 31. 
Talaventaam = talavrintakam, i. 10. 
Tava = tavat, iv. 5, 6. 

Tasa = tasya, vi. 5, 11. 

Tahe = tada, vi. 8. 

Tina = tena, vi. 3. 

Tinni = trayah, trin, vi. 56. 

Tinham = tikshnam, iii. 33. = tra- 
yanam, vi. 59. 

Tissa, tise, tie, -a, etc. = tasyah, vi. 6. 

Tihim, tisu = tribhih, -shn, vi. 55,60. 

Tujjha, tumha, etc. = tava, vi. 31. 

Tujjhe — yuyam, yushman, vi. 28, 

29. ( Yushmad declined, vi. 26—39) 

Tunhio, -hikko = tushmkah, iii. 58. 

Turn, ) , 

r = twam, twam, vi. 26, 27. 
Tumam, J 

Tumai = twaya, vi. 33. 

Tumo, tuha = tava, vi. 31. 

Turiam = twaritam, viii. 5. 

Tnvara = twar (root), viii. 4. 

Tnhaaddham, 4 

> = tavarddham, iv. 1. 
Tuhaddham, ) 

Turam = turyam, iii. 18, 54. 

Tusa'i = tushyati, viii. 46. 

Te = te, vi. 22. == tava, twaya,vi. 32. 
Tettiam, 4 = tavat, iv. 25 (cf. 
Teddaham, S App. B.) 

Teraha = trayodasa, ii. 14, 44. 



Teraho === trayodasah, i. 5. 

Teloam, 0 = trailokyam, i. 85. 
Tellokkam,) iii. 58. 

Tesim = tesham, tasam, vi. 4. 

To, tatto — tasmat, vi. 10. 

Tondam — tundah (masc.), i. 20. 

• • • • ' * 

Tti — iti, i. 14 {cf. App. A, 27.) 

Th. ( ^ ) 

Thavao = stavakah, iii. 12, 50. 
Thanu = sthanuh [Siva), iii. 15. 
Thirapa — trip {root), viii. 22. 

Thuf = stutih, iii. 12. 

D - (^) 

Daichcho — daityah, i. 36. 

Daivam — daivam, i. 37. iii, 58. 
Dai'ssam = dasyami, xii. 14. ( Saur.) 
Dansanam = darsanam, iv. 15. 
Dachchham = drakshyami, vii. 16. 
Dachchho = dakshah, iii. 30. 
Dattham = dashtam or drishtam, 
iv. 12. 

Davaggf = davagnih, i. 10. 
Dasamuho = dasamukhah, ii. 45. 
Dasaraho = dasarathah, ii. 45. 
Dasavalo = dasabalah, ii. 45. 

Dalia = dasa, ii. 44. 

Dahamulio = dasamukhah, ii. 45. 
Daharaho = dasarathah, ii. 45. 
Dahavalo = dasabalah, ii. 45. 

Dahim = dadhi, v. 25, 30. 

Daske = dakshah, xi. 8 {Mag.) 
Daiina = datwa, iv. 23. 

Dadimam == dadimam, ii. 23. 

Dadha = danshtra, iv. 33. 

Da tun am == datwa, x. 13 {Pais.). 
Dalimam = dadimam, ii. 23. 
Davaggi = davagnih, i. 10. 

Daham = dasyami, vii. 16. 

Diaro = devarah, i. 34. 

Diaho == divasah, ii. 2, 46. 

Diggham — dfrgham, iii. 58. 

Ditthf = drishtih, i. 28. iii. 10, 
50, 51. 

Dinnam = dattam, viii. 62. 

Disa = dis, iv. 11. 

Diham = dirgham, iii. 58. 

Duallam, duulam = dukulam, i. 25. 
Duiam — dwitiyam, i. 18. 

Dukkhio = duhkhitah, iii. 58. 
Duyyane = durjanah, xi. 7 {Mag.) 
Duve == dwau, vi. 57. 

Duvvario = dauvarikah, i. 44. 
Duhaiam, duhaijjai = dwidhakri- 
tam, dwidhakriyate, i. 16. 

Duhio = duhkhitah, iii. 58. 

Duma! — dunoti, viii. 8. 

De = te (tava), twaya vi. 32. = 


da, xii. 14 {Saur.) 

Dearo = devarah, i. 34. 

Devatthui, devathui, = devastutih, 
iii. 57. 

Devvam = daivam, i. 37. iii. 58. 
Dehi = dehi, vi. 64. 

Do, doni = dwau, vi. 57. 

Donham == dwayoh, vi. 59. 
Dohaiam, dohaijjai = dwidhakritam, 
dwidhakri} T ate, i. 16. 

Dohim, etc. = dwabhyam, etc., vi. 54. 
Dohalo == dohadam {neut.), ii. 12 {cf. 
transl., note). 

Doho, droho = drohah, iii. 4. 



Dh. (*j) 

Dh an am = dhanam, iv. 12. 

Dhanavanto,) , 

1 = dhanavan, iv. 25. 
Dhanalo, ) 

Dhammillam 7 = dhammillah(7?2a<sc.) 
Dhammellam ) i. 12. 

Dha = dhav ( dhdvu ), viii., 27. 

Dhfa = duhita (Sans. ‘ dhida ’), iv. 

Dhiram = dhairyam, i. 39. iii. 18, 54. 

Dhuna'i = dhunoti, viii. 56. 

Dhutto — dhurtah, iii. 24. 

Dhura = dtiur, iv. 8. 

Dhuvvai, ') 

£ = dhuyate, viii. 57. 
Dhunijjai ',) 

Dhuda = duhita, iv. 33. 

p. (q) 

Paadam, paadam = prakatam, i. 2. 
Pakhalo, = prakhalah, ii, 27. 
Paiiam, pauam = prakritam, i. 10. 
Paiitti = pravrittih, i. 29. 

Paiimam = padmam, iii. 65. 

Paiiro = paurah, i. 42. 

Paiiriso = paurushah, i. 42. 

Paottho = prakoshthah, i. 40. 
Pachdiakkham (sic. leg.) = pratyak- 
sham, iii. 27. 

Pachchham = pathyam, iii. 27. 
Pachchhimam = paschimam, iii. 40. 
Pajjatto = paryaptah, iii. 1. 
Pajjunno = pradyumnah, iii. 44. 
Pattanam = pattanam, iii. 23. 

Padcia = pataka, ii. 8. 

Pada = pat (root), viii. 51. 

Padi = prati, cf. ii. 8, note, transl. 
Padinsudam — pratisrutam, iv. 15. 
Padivaa, padi- == pratipad, i. 2. iv. 7. 
Padivaddf = pratipattih, ii. 7 (cf. 
transl. note). 

Padisaro = pratisarah, ii. 8. 
Padisiddhf, padi- = pratisparddhin, 
i. 2. iii. 3,7; cf. note, p. 108. 
Padliamo = prathamah, ii. 28. 
Pannaralio = panchadasah, iii. 44. 
Pannasa = pinchasat, iii. 44. 

Panha, -ho m prasnah, iii. 33. iv. 20. 
Panhudam = prasnutam, iii. 33. 
Pattharo, -tharo = prastarah, i. 10. 
Pabhavai = prabhavati, viii. 3. 
Pamilla'i, -lla'i = pramflati, viii. 54. 
Pambo — paksbman, iii. 32. 

Parahuo = parabhritah, i. 29. 
Paribbava'i = paribhavati, viii. 3. 
Palanghano = pralanghanah, ii. 27. 
Palittam == pradiptam, ii. 12. 
Pallattham = paryastam, iii. 21. 
Pallanam = paryanam, iii. 21. 
Pavattho = prakosbtbah, i. 40. 
Pavanuddbaam, *) = pavanoddhatam, 
Pavanoddhaam, ) iv. 1, cf. note transl. 
Pasuttam, pa- = prasuptam, i. 2. 
Pasiddhf, pa- = prasiddhih, i. 2. 
Paharo, paharo = praharab, i. 10. 
Paho = patbin, i. 13. 

Pa, paa = gbra (root), viii. 20. 
Paavadanam = padapatanam, iv. 1 
(cf. note transl.) 

Pauam = prakritam, i. 10. 

Pauso = pravrish, iv. 11, 18. 
Paclisiddbi = pratisparddhin, i. 2. 
iii. 37. 



Panainto = prana vat, iv. 25. 

Paniam = paniyam, i. 18. 

Parao, paravao = paravatah, iv. 5. 
Palei = padyate, viii. 10. 
Pavadanam = padapatanam, iv. 1. 

(cf. note transl.) 

Pia, piaro = pita, v. 35. 

Piapiam, pfa- = pftapitam, iv. 1 (?) 
Pikkam = pakwam, i. 3. iii. 3. 
Pittham = pishtam, i. 12. 

Piva = iva, x. 4. (Pais.) 

Piam, pialam = pftam, -alam, iv. 26. 
Pinattanam, 1 

' ' [ = pinata, iv. 22. 

Pmada, ) 

Puttham ,) 

-n , r = prishtham, iv. 20. 
Putthi, ) * 

Pudo, puddo = putrah, xii. 5 (Saur.) 
Puppham — pushpam, iii. 35, 51. 
Purillam = paurastyam, iv. 25, com¬ 
ment. ; cf. App. P, and transl. 
Puriso = pumshah, i. 23. 

Pulaa'i — pasyati, viii. 69; cf. p. 173. 
Pulisaha = purushasya, xi. 12 (Mag.) 
Puvvanho = purvahnah, iii. 8. 

Puso, pusso = pushyah, iii. 58. 

[Query puso ; cf. App. D.] 

Puhavi = prithavf, i. 13, 29. 
Pekkha'i, pechchhai' = prekshate, v. 

14, var. lect., cf. xii. 18, and p. 173. 
Pettham = pishtam, i. 12. 

Pendam, pin- = pindam, i. 12. 
Peramam = preman, iii. 52. \_Qy. 

^pemmo’ ? cf. iv. 18, but in Ratn., 
p. 26, 12, pemmam.~] 

Perantam = paryantam, i. 5. iii. 18. 

Pokkharo == pushkarah, i. 20. iii. 29. 
Potthao = pustakam ( neut .), i. 20. 

Ph. ( Tfi ) 

Phanso = sparsah, iii. 36. iv. 15. 
Phanaso = panasah, ii. 37. 
Phandanam = spandanam, iii. 36. 
Phariso = sparsah, iii. 62. 
Pharuso = parushah, ii. 36. 
Phaliam == patitam (?), viii. 9. 
Phaliha = parikha, ii. 30, 36. 
Phaliho = parighah, ii. 30, 36. 
Phaliho = sphatikah, ii. 4, 22. 


= sphutati, viii. 53. 

Bh. (v) 

Bhaapphai — vrihaspatih, iv. 30. 
Bha'iravo = hhairavah, i. 36. 
Bhattam = bhaktam, iii. 1. 

Bhattaro = bharta, v. 31, 33. 
Bhaddam = bhadram, iv. 12. 
Bhamai = bhramati, viii. 71. 
Bhamiro = bhramanasflah, iv. 24. 
Bhara = smri (root), viii. 18 ; cf. p. 

Bharanijjam, , . 

L = bharamyam, n. 17. 
Bharaniam, ) 

Bharaho = bharatah, ii. 9. 

Bha = bhi (root), viii. 19. 

Bhaanam = bhajanam, iv. 4. 

Bhaa, bhaaro = bhrata, v. 35. 

Bhanam = bhajanam, iv. 4. 

Bharia = bharya, x. 8 (Pais.) 

1 Por words beginning with b, sec under v. 



Bhingaro = bhringarah, i. 28. 
Bhingo = bhringah, i. 28. 
Bhindivalo = bhindipalah, iii, 46. 
Bhindai == bhinatti, viii. 38. 

Bhisim = visini, ii. 38. 

Bhuttam = bhuktam, iii. 50. 
Bhumaa (?) = bhuh, iv. 33. 

Bhe — vah ( yushmakam), vi. 37. 
Bhottuna = bhuktwa, viii. 55. 

M - (to 


Maam = mritam, i. 27. 

Mai, mae = maya, mayi, vi. 46, 52. 
Ma'itto, etc. = mat, vi. 48. 

Mai'lam = malinam, iv. 31. 

Maiidam = mukutam, i. 22. ii. 1. 
Maiilam, -lo = mukulam, i. 22. ii. 2. 
Mauro = mayurah, i. 8. 

Mauho = mayukhah, i. 8. 

Mao == madah, ii. 2. 

Mansam = mansam, iv. 16. 

Mansu == smasru ( neut .), iv. 15. 
Maggo = margah, ii. 2. iii. 50. 
Macbchbia = makshika, iii. 30. 
Majjha = asmad (base) [asmad de¬ 
clined vi. 40—53.J 
Majjhanno = madhyahnah, iii. 7. 
Majjham = madhyam, iii. 28. 

Made = mritah, xi. 15. (Mag.) 
Madham = mathah (masc.), ii. 24. 
Manansim = manaswini, i. 2. iv. 15. 
Manduro = mandukah, iv. 33. 
Mantham = mastam, iv. 15. 

Mam, mamam = mam, vi. 42. 

Mara = mri (root), viii. 12. 

Marisa = mrish (root), viii. 11. 

Mala — mrid (root), viii. 50. 
Malinam = malinam, iv. 31. 
Masanam = smasanam, iii. 6. 

Massu = smasru (neut.) iii. 6; cf. 
iv. 15. 

Maba, majjha, etc. = mama, vi. 50. 
Mahaaddham,^ = mamarddham, iv. 
Mahaddham, ) 1 ; cf. note transl. 

Mahuam = madhukam, i. 24. 
Mahum = madhu, v. 25 — 27, 30. 
Maando = makandah, iv. 33. 

Maa = mata, v. 32. 

Mauo = matrikah, i. 29. 

Maindo = chutah (makandah), iv. 33. 
Manansim = manaswini, i. 2. iv. 15. 
Manuso = manushah, ii. 42. 

Mala = mala, v. 19—24. vi. 60. 
Malaillo = malavan, iv. 25. 

Masam = mansam, iv. 16. 

Mianko — mrigankah, i. 28. 

Mio = mitrah, iii, 58. 

Michchha == mithya, iii. 27. 

Mitto = mitrah, iii. 58. 

Milanam = mlanam, iii. 62. 

Miva = iva, ix. 16. 

Muingo = mridangah, i. 3. 
Mukkham = mushkah (masc.) iii. 29. 
Muggaro = mudgarah, iii. 1. 

Muggo = mudgah, iii. 1. 

Muchchha = murchha, iii. 51. 
Munjaano = maunjayanah, i. 44. 
Muna = jna (root), viii. 23. 

Munalo = mrinalah, i. 29. 

Mutti = murttih, iii. 24. 

Muddho = mugdhah, iii. 1. 

Muham = mukham, ii. 27. 

Muhalo = mukharah, ii. 30. 



Mudhattanam = mudhatwam, iv. 22. 
Mudhada — mudhata, iv. 22. 

Meliala = mekhala, ii. 27. 

Melio = megho, ii. 27. 

Mekho = megho, x. 3. (Paw.) 

Motta = niukta, i. 20. 

Moro = mayurah, i. 8. 

Moho = mayukhah, i. 8. 

Mmiva = iva, ix. 16. 

Mhi, mho, mhu, rnlia = asmi, small, 
vii. 7. 

R. ( x) 

Raanam = ratnam, iii. 60, 

Raadam = rajatam, ii. 2, 7. 
Rachchha = rathya, iii. 27. 

Rannam 1 == aranyam, i. 4. 

Ranno, -nna = rajnah, -na, v. 38, 42. 
Rattam (?) = raktam, viii. 62. 

Rattf = ratrih, iii. 58. 





Rasf, rassf = rasmih, iii. 2, 58. 
Raaiilam, raulam = rajakulam, iv. 1. 
Raa == raja, v. 36 (declined v. 36— 

Raino, -na = rajnah, -na, v. 38, 43. 
Rai = ratrih, iii. 58. 

Rachi = rajan, x. 12 {Paw.). 

Rasaho = rasabhah, ii. 27. 

Raha = radha, ii. 27. 

== ramamyam, ii. 17. 
ramyate, viii. 58. 

Richchho = rikshah, i. 30. iii. 30. 
Rinam = rinam, i. 30. 

Riddho = riddhah, i. 30. 

Rukkho = vrikshah, i 32. iii. 31. 
Runnam = ruditam, viii. 62. 

Ruddo, rudro, = rudrah, iii. 4. 
Rundha = rudli (root), viii. 49. 
Ruppam = rukmam, iii. 49. 

Ruppini = mkmini, iii. 49. 

Rumbha = rudh (root), viii. 49. 
Ruva = rud (root), viii. 42. 

Rusai = rushyati, viii. 46. 

Re, particle, ix. 15. 

Rochchham = rodishyami, vii. 16. 
Rottuna = ruditwa, viii. 55. 
Rosainto = roshavan, iv. 25. 

l. (^r) 

Lagga'i = lagati, viii 52. 

Lachchln = lakshmf, iii. 30. 

Latthi = yashtih, ii. 32 (cf. note 
transl., ii. 31). 

Laskase = rakshasah, xi. 8. (Mag.) 
Lahui = laghwi, iii. 65. 

Laa — raja, xi. 10. (Mag.) 

Lichchha = lipsa, iii. 40. 

Lijjha'i = lihyate, viii. 59. 

Luna = lu (root), viii. 56. 

Luvva'i, lunijjai' = luyate, viii. 57. 
Lubha'i = marshti ( mrij ), viii. 67. 
Lonam == lavanam, i. 7. 

Loddhao = lubdhakah, i. 20. iii. 3. 

1 This form continually occurs in the Prakrit songs in the 4th Act of 
the Yikramorvasi. 



v. (1) 

Vaa'i = saknoti, viii. 70. 

Yaanam = vacbanam, ii. 2, 42. 


Vaam = vayam, xii. 25. (Saur.) 

Va'ideso = vaidesali, i. 36. 

Va'ideho = vaidebah, i. 36. 

Yai'ram — vairam, i. 36. 

Vaisampaano — vaisampayanab, i.36. 

Ta'isaho = vaisakhah, i. 36. 

Va'isio = vaisikah, i. 36. 

Yakkalam = valkalam, iii. 3. 

Yaggi = vagmi, iii. 2. 

Vankam = vakram, iv. 15. 

Yacbchai = vrajati, yiii. 47. 

Yacbcbbaro = vatsarah, iii. 40. 

Yacbchho = vriksbab, i. 32. iii. 31. 

(declined v. 1 — 13, 27. vi. 63). 

„ , ,, (vatsab, iii. 40. 
Yachcbho = « 

(vakshas, iii. 30. iv. 18. 

Yajjai = trasati, viii. 66. 

Yajjhao = vahyakab, iii. 28. 

Yancbamam = vanchaniyam, iv. 14. 

Yadisam = vadisam, ii. 23. 

• • 

Yaddhai — vardhate, viii. 44. 

Yanam = vanam, iv. 12. 

Yanno = vamah, iv. 15. 

• • • 

Yanhi = vahnih, iii. 33. 
Yattamanam = vartamanam, iii. 24. 
Yatta = vartta, iii. 24. 

Yattia = vartika, iii. 24. 

Yaddho = vriddhah, i. 27. 

Yandam = vrindam, iv. 27. 

Yappho = vashpah (ushman) iii. 38. 
Yamchamam = vanchaniyam (?),iv.l4. 
Yammaho — manmathah, ii.39. iii.43 
Yammo = varma, iv. 18. 


Yamh anj a = brahmany ah, xii. 7 ( Saur ). 

Yamhabo=brahmanah, iii. 8 (<?/.vi.64) 
Yamha, vamhano = brahma, v. 47. 
Yarai' — vrinoti, viii. 12. 

Yalahf = vadabhih, ii. 23. 

Yaliam = vyalikam, i. 18. 

Yal q, particle, ix. 12. 

Yasahi = vasatih, ii. 9. 

Yasaho = vrisbabhah, i. 27. ii. 43. 
Yahiro = badhirah, ii. 27. 
Yahumuham,') == vadhumukham, 
Yahumuham,) iv. 1. 

Yahu = vadhuh, v. 19,21, 29. vi. 60. 
Ya, vaa = mlai (root) viii. 21. 

Yaa == vacb, iv. 7. 

Yaavadanam, see paa- 
Yau = vayub (declined v. 14—18, 
27. vi. 60, 61). 

Yaraha = dwadasa, ii. 14, 44. 
Yavado(r) = vyapritab, xii. 4 ( Saur.) 
Yahittam = vyahritam, iii. 52. 

Yaho = vashpah, iii. 38, 54. 

Yia = iva, ix. 3, 16. xii. 24. 

Yiaddi = vitardib, iii. 26. 

• • 

Yiana — vedana, i. 34. 

Yiano = vyajanam (neut.), i. 3. 
Yianam = vitanam, ii. 2. 

Yiarillo, viarullo == vikaravat, iv. 25. 

Yiinho = vitrisbnah, i. 28. 

• • • 

Yiudam = vivritam, i. 29. ii. 7. 

Yiulam = vipulam, ii. 2. 

Yinhiam — vrinhitam, i. 28. 

Yikkavo = viklavab, iii. 3. 

Yikkinai,*) ., , ,, ... 

y = vikrmite, vm. 31. 

Yikkei, j 

Yicbcbhaddi = vichcbbardih, iii. 26. 
Yijja = vidya, iii. 27. 

Yijjulf, vijju — vidyut, iv. 26. iv. 9. 



Yinchhuo = vriechikah, i. 15,28. iii.41. 
* / 

Yinjo = vijnah, xii. 7 (Saur.) 
Yinjato = vijnatah, x. 9 ( Pais.) 
Yinjlio = vindhyah, iv. 14. 

Yidavo = vitapah, ii. 20. 

Yinnanam = vijnanam, iii. 44. 
Yinhu = vishnuh, i. 12. iii. 33. 
Yipphariso = visparsah, iii. 51, 62. 
Yiwjho = vindhyah, iv. 14. 

Yimhao = vismayah, iii. 32. 

Yisa'i (?) = grasate, viii. 28. 

Yelli = vallih, i. 5. 

Yo = vah, vi. 29, 37. 

Yochehham = vakshyami, vii. 16. 
Yoram = badaram, i. 6. 

Yrandam = vrindam, iv. 27; cf. iii. 4. 

S. (it) 



Siala, etc. 

= sodhwa, xi. 16 {Mag.). 
= srigalah, xi. 17 (Mag. 


s. (^ )• 

Yisam — visam, ii. 38. 

Yisf = vrishi, i. 28. 

Yisura = khid (root), viii. 63. 
Yissaso = viswasah, iii. 58. 

Yihalo = vihwalah, iii. 47. 

Yfriara = vfryam, iii. 20. „ 

Yfsattho — viswastah, i. 17. 
Yisambho = visramhhah, i. 17 
Yfsaso = viswasah, iii. 58. 

Yiha — nibhi (root), viii. 19. 
Yujjha'i = budhyate, viii. 48. 

Yutta’i (?) = majjati, viii. 68. 
Yuttanto = vrittantah, i. 29. 
Yundavanam = vrindavanam, i. 29. 
Yea = eva, ix. 3. 

Yeana = vedana, i. 34; cf. iv. 1. 
Yechchham = vetsyami, vii. 16. 
Yejjam == vaidyam, iii. 27. 

Yediso = vetasah, i. 3. ii. 8. 
Yeddha'i = veshtate, viii. 40. 

Yenhu = vishnuh, i. 12. 

Yettuna — viditwa, viii. 55. 
Yebbhalo = vihwalah, iii. 47. 
Yeluriam = vaiduryam, iv. 33. 

Saadho = sakatah, ii. 21. 

Saahuttam = satakritwas, iv. 25 (cf. 

App. B.) 

Saa, sa'i = sada, i. 11. 

Sai'ram — swairam, i. 36. 

Samvattao = samvartakah, iii. 24. 

Samvudara = samvritam, i. 29. 

Samvudi = samvritih, ii. 7. 

Samvellai = samveshtate, viii. 41. 

Sankanto = sankrantah, iii. 56. 

Sanka — sanka, iv. 17. 

Sakka = sak (root), viii. 52. 

Sakko = sakrah, iii. 3. 

Sachavam = sachapam, ii. 2. 

Sajjo = shadjah, iii. 1. 

Sanjado = samyatah, ii. 7. 

Sanjado = samyatah, ii. 7. 

Sadha = sata, ii. 21. 

Sada = sad (root) viii. 51. 

Saneho = snehah, iii. 64. 

Santhaviam,") , 

• > = sansthapitam, i. 10. 


Sandho = shandhah, ii, 43. 

Sanna 1 = sanjna, iii. 55. 

Vinnatti = vijnaptih would he a better example; cf. note, transl. 




Sannam = slakshnam, iii. 33. 

Saddaha = srat + dha (root), yiii. 33. 

Saddalo = sabdavan, iv. 25. 

Sananam = snanam, x. 7. ( Pais .) 

Sappharn — sashpam, iii. 35. 

Sabhari = sapharf, ii. 26. 

Sabhalam = saphalam, ii. 26. 

Samattho = samastah, iii. 12. 

Samiddhf = samriddhih, i. 2. 

Sampattf = sampattih, iv. 17. 

Sampadi = samprati, ii. 7. 

Sambhava = sam + bhu(roo^), viii. 3 

Sammaddo = sammardab, iii. 26. 

• • ' 

Sara = sri {root), viii. 12. 

Sarado = sarad, iv. 10, 18. 


> = saroruhara, iv. i. 

Sana = sarit, iv. 7. 

Sarichchham = sadriksham, i. 2. 

iii. 30. {cf i. 31). 

Sariso = sadrisab, i. 31. 

Saro = saras, iv. 6, 18. 

Salaha = slagha, iii. 63. 

Savabo = sapathab, ii. 15, 27. 

Savomuo, -muo = (?), iv. 1 [cf. note 


Savvajjo = sarvajnah, iii. 5. 

Savvanjo = sarvajnab, x. 9. {Pais.) 


Savvanno = sarvajnab, xii. 8 {Saur.) 
Savvattha, etc. = sarvasmin, vi. 2. 
Sahamana, -m = sahamana, v. 24 
(for this Sut., cf. note transl.) 
Sahassahuttam = sahasrakritwas, iv. 

25 {cf. App. B.) 

Saba = sabba, ii. 27. 

Saaro = sagarah, ii. 2. 

Samiddhf = samriddhih, i. 2. 

Sarango = sarngah, iii. 60. 
Sarichchham = sadriksham, i. 2. 
Savo = sapah, ii. 15. 

Si = asi, vii. 6. 

Sialo = srigalah, i. 28. 

Siasiam — sitasitam, iv. 1. 

Singaro = sringarah, i. 28. 

Sitthf = srishtih, i. 28. 

Sidhilo = sithilah, ii. 28. 

Siniddho = snigdhah, iii. 1. 

Sinho == sisnah, iii. 33. 

Sitthao = sikthakam {neut.), iii. 1. 
Sinduram = sinduram, i. 12. 
Sindhavam = saindhavam, i. 38. 
Sibha = sipha, ii. 26. 

Sim = tesham, tasam, vi. 12. 

Siram = siras, iv, 19. 

Siraveana, siro- = sirovedana, iv. 1 
Sin = srf, iii. 62. 

Silittham = slishtam, iii. 60. 

Sivino = swapnah, i. 3. iii. 62. 
Sfasfam = sitasitam, iv. 1. 

Sfbharo = sfkarah, ii. 5. 

Sfho = sinho, i. 17. 

Snidf = sukritih, ii. 7. 

Suuriso = supurushah, ii. 2. 

Sujjo = suryah, iii. 19. 

Suna = sru {root), viii. 56. 

Sundo = saundah, i. 44. 

Sunderam = saundaryam,i. 5,44. iii. 18 . 
Sutto = suptah, iii. 1. vii. 6. 

Supa (?) = mrij {root), viii. 67. 
Suppanaha, -f = surpanakha, v. 24. 
Sumara = smri(rooQ, viii. 18. xii. 17 
Suvvai = sruyate, viii. 57; cf. vii. 9. 
Su , particle, ix. 14. 

Suf — suchf, ii. 2. 


Suro = suryah, iii. 19. 

Susai = sushyati, viii. 46. 

Se = tasya, tasyah, vi. 11. 

Sechcham = saityam, i. 35. 

Sejja = sayya, i. 5. iii. 17. 
Senduram = sinduram, i. 12. 
Sebhalia == sephalika, ii. 26. 

Seva, sevva = seva, iii. 58. 

Selo = sailah, i. 35. 

So = sah, yi. 22. 

Soamallam = saukumaryam, i. 22. 
iii. 21. 

Souna = srutwa, iy. 23. 

Sochchham = sroshyami, yii. 16. 
Sonha = snusha, ii. 47. 

Sottam — srotam, iii. 52. 

Somalo = sukumarah, ii. 30 {ef note 
transl., and Errata p. xxxii.) 
Sommo — saumyah, iii. 2. 

Soriam = sauryam, iii. 20. 

Sossam = sushma, iii. 2. (of. iii. 32 r) 

H. (^) 

Hanso = hraswah, iy. 15. 

Hake, hage = aliam, xi. 9 {Mag). 

Hadakke = hridayam, xi. 6 {Mag.) 

Hanumanto,') / 

/ V — hanuman, iv. 25. 
Hanuma, ) ' 

Hattho = hastali, iii. 12, 50. 

Hado = hatah, ii. 7. 

Ham. = aham {asmad decl. yi. 40 — 53. 

Hammai = hanti, yiii. 45. 

Harisa = hrish {root), yiii. 11. 

Hariso = harshah, iii. 62. 

Haladda,') = haridra, i. 13. y. 24. 
Haladdf, j (on the latter Sut. ef. note 

Halio == halikah, i. 10. 

Havim == havis, y. 25 {ef. iy. 6). 
Hasidu, -di, -de, -da — hasitah, xi. 
11 {Mag.). 

Hasai, hasanti = hasanti, vii. 11. 
Hasanto = hasan, vii. 10. 

Hasiro = hasanasilah, iy. 24. 


... [■ = hasyate, yii. 9. yiii. 58. 

Hasrjjai, ) 

Halio = halikah, i. 10. 

Hiaam = hridayam, i. 28. 

Hitaakam = hridayam, x. 14 {Pais.) 
Hittham = trastam, yiii. 62 {ef. App. 
A, 37). 1 

Hiri = hrih, iii. 62. 

Hire, particle, ix. 15. 

Hirai = hriyate, yiii. 60. 

Huam (huam ?) — bhutam, yiii. 2. 
Huna = hu {root), yiii. 56, 57. 

Huya = bhii {root), yiii. 1. 

Huvva'i, hunijjai = huyate, yiii. 57. 
Hnvia == abhavat, yii. 23; ef. note 

Hnvasu — bhava, ix. 2; ef yii. 18. 
Ho = bhu {root), viii. 1. 

Hojja, hojja = bhavati, bhavishyati, 
etc., vii. 20 (of. note, transl.) 
Ilossam, etc. = bhavishyami, yii. 14. 

bhavishyamah, vii. 15. 

Hohia = abhut, vii. 24 (r/.note trans.) 

Ilohissa ) 

1 Hemachandra gives three forms, hittham, taddham, and tattham.